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Solubility

Introduction

The solubility of KNO3 will be measured at various temperatures. From the molal

solubility, s = moles of solute per kilogram of solvent, a value of the solubility product

constant, Ksp, can be calculated at various temperatures for the following reaction:

KNO3(s) K+(aq) + NO3-(aq)

Ksp = [K+][NO3-] = s2

The solubility of a solid is exponential with respect with temperature. A plot of the

solubility product constant, Ksp, vs temperature (K) will give an exponential curve.

300

250

200

Ksp 150

100

50

0

290

300

310

320

330

340

350

360

Temp. (K)

The relationship between Ho and the Ksp comes from the free energy equations

(1)

and T = absolute temperature in degrees Kelvin.

(2)

and So is the standard entropy change.

(3)

- RT ln K = Ho - TSo,

Both the molal heat of solution Ho and the entropy So values can be obtained for the

reaction by solving the equation relating the slope of the graph with Ho and the y1

intercept with So. The plot of ln K vs 1/T in K-1 will give the following equation of a

straight line:

y = mx

3

y = -2762.5x + 10.291

ln Ksp

2.5

2

1.5

1

0.5

0

0.0028

0.003

0.0032

0.0034

0.0036

1/T (K-1)

Each group will be assigned a different composition of solution to measure. The data

from each group will be combined and plotted.

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS

KNO3 is flammable and strong oxidizing agent. Therefore, dispose of all wastes

by flushing them down the sink with plenty of running water.

Avoid any contact between the KNO3 and paper.

Procedure

Part 1 - (Day 1 Data Collection)

1. In a 20ml glass beaker, weigh a sample of KNO3 to the nearest 0.01g. The

instructor will assign a sample weight to each pair. Sample sizes will range from 3

to 15 grams in 2 gram increments.

2. Depending on Sample size, transfer the crystals to a larger beaker, if necessary, so

that the crystals take up one-third to one-half the volume of the beaker.

3. Pipet 10 mL of distilled water into the beaker. Suspend a thermometer so that the

bulb is immersed in the liquid. Stir the mixture with a glass rod.

4. Gently warm the mixture until the crystals dissolve. From the larger sample sizes,

an evaporating dish can be used as a water bath to transfer heat more evenly. Try

to note the temperature at which the last crystals go into solution. Then allow the

solution to cool until crystals reappear and again note the temperature. Reheat

just enough to cause the crystals to re-dissolve trying to narrow the discrepancy

between the temperature readings. The smallest samples may dissolve completely

at room temperature. In that case, use an ice bath to cool the solution until

2

crystals appear, then allow the solution to warm up until the crystals re-dissolve.

As with the larger samples, try to narrow the discrepancy between the

temperatures at which the crystals disappear and reappear.

5. Record the saturation temperature you have just determined and enter your values

in the class data table on the chalkboard. Reproduce the data table in your

notebook with all the values filled in.

KNO3 solubility Calculations

Part 2 (Day 2 Calculations) Need computer with Excel.

A. Ksp values.

1. Write the equation for the equilibrium between solid KNO3 and its ions in

solution and the expression for the Ksp of KNO3.

2. From the weight-volume data, calculate the molal concentration of KNO3 for each

composition. This is the molal solubility at the saturation temperature measured.

3. Calculate the solubility product of KNO3 for each trial. Use the concentrations

found in step 1, molality in place of molarity.

4. Tabulate the resulting values of solubility, Ksp, and temperature in your lab

notebook.

5. Using Excel, graph temperature (Kelvin) on the horizontal axis (x-axis) versus Ksp

on the vertical axis (y-axis).

B. Molal heat of solution of KNO3.

1. Using excel calculate values of 1/T, the reciprocal of the absolute temperature,

and ln Ksp for each of the points graphed in part A.

2. Make a new graph with ln Ksp on the vertical axis and 1/T (K-1) on the horizontal

axis. Use the linear curve fit option in excel to obtain the best fit linear fit.

3. From the slope of your graph calculate Ho, the heat of solution for KNO3. Also

determine So from the y-intercept.

Tabulate data for the written report and include the curve fit equation with the plot of

lnKsp vs 1/T.

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