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Nouns (number, gender, case)

- Abstract nouns
(love, freedom)
- Common/concrete nouns (book, table)
- Collective nouns (family, group)
- Proper nouns (London, Greg)

Masculine: man, boy
Feminine: woman, girl, ship, country
Neuter : baby, animal, thing
Barman barmaid, bachelor- spinster, bridegroom bride, duke duchess, heir
heiress, hero - heroine, policeman policewoman, steward stewardess, widower
Animal gender: bull cow, drake duck, dog bitch, cock hen, gander goose,
lion lioness, tiger tigress, stag doe, stallion mare.
Baby an animals are refer to male or female when we know their sex

2. Number
Plural can be obtain by adding:

s (pencil pencils)
es to nouns ending in o, -s, -x, -z, -ch, -sh, -ss (buss busses)
ies to nouns ending in consonant +y (lady ladies)
ve to some nouns ending in f/fe (leaf leaves)

Irregular plural (child children, foot feet, goose geese, louse lice, mouse mice, man
men, ox oxen, person people, tooth teeth, woman women)
Nouns remaining the same in plural (craft, cod, deer, fish, Japanese, means, plaice, salmon,
sheep, squid, species, series, trout, etc)
Collective nouns can either take a singular or plural verb, according to the meaning.
The staff were not in agreement with the new rules (referring to the individual members)
The staff the school consists of fifty people. (we refer to the group as an unit)
Uncountable nouns are
- Nouns of substance and quantity (mass nouns) oil, water, juice, rice
- Nouns ending in ics (politics, physics, statistics)
- Some abstract nouns (courage, information)
- Games ending in s (billiards, darts, bowls)
- Diseases ending in s (mumps, rickets)

Adjectives/Adverbs (comparison of adjectives, order in a sentence, standard

prepositions used with adjectives)
1. Adjectives describe places, things, ideas, having only one form in all genders,
singular and plural, and can be placed before nouns or after verbs such as appear,
keep, make, feel, sound, smell , look, taste.

Common endings:
-able (fashionable)
-al (classical)

-ean (cerulean)
-ous (courageous)

-ious (hilarious)
-ish (reddish)

- some (quarrelsome)
-y (lucky)

-ant (luxuriant)
-ar (angular)
-ary (imaginary)
-ate (fortunate)
-en (wooden)
-ent (dependent)

-esque (picturesque)
- ful (careful)
-ian (Canadian)
-ible (possible)
-ic (historic)
-ical (historical)

-ist (racist)
-less (careless)
-like (businesslike)
-ly (friendly)
-ory (introductory)
-ous (famous)

Common prefixes
Ab- (abnormal)
Anti- (antisocial)
Dis- (dishonest)
Extra- (extracurricular)
Hyper- (hypersensitive)
Il- (illegal)
Im- (impossible)


In- (intolerant)
Ir- (irregular)
Mal- (malnourished)
Non- (non-stop)
Over- (overgrown)
Post- (post-mortem)
Pre- (premature)
Pro- (pro-American)

Sub- (subtropical)
Super- (superhuman)
Un- (untrue)

compound adjectives are formed with: present participles (long-standing debt),

past participles (self-employed carpenter), cardinal numbers + nouns (one-year-old
girl), prefixes and suffixes (waterproof watch), well/badly/ill +participles (ill-fitting
some adjectives ending in ly (friendly, motherly, etc) look like adverbs. In order to
transform them in adverbs we add way after them. She spoke in a friendly manner.
Some adjectives used with the can be used to represent a group (the unemployed,
the homeless, the blind)
Present and past participles can be used as adjectives (an annoying manner, an
annoyed teacher)
Nouns describing materials, substances, etc can be used as adjectives but without
comparison forms (cotton shirt, silver brooch, gold necklace)
Adverbs such as above, upstairs, downstairs, inside can be used as adjectives (the
downstairs bathroom, the above rule)

2. Adverbs usually describe a verb, but they can also modify adjectives, nouns,
sentences or other adverbs.
adverbs of manner are usually formed by adding ly (cleverly, badly)
She entered the room slowly
adverbs of time
She left yesterday
adverbs of place
The people next door are very unfriendly.
adverbs of frequency
She usually goes shopping on Fridays.
adverbs of degree
He was absolutely right in what he said.
Relative adverbs (when/that, where, why)
The day when he first met Jane was the happiest day of his life.
His laziness was the reason he was dismissed.
3. Comparisons of adjectives and adverbs.

More than two


More intelligent

The smallest
The saddest
The happiest
The most intelligent


More quickly

The fastest
The earliest
The most quickly

More than two
Irregular comparisons



Examples of comparisons:
Hes as stubborn as a mule.
The older he gets, the more forgetful he becomes.
The lecture was getting more and more boring.
Ive never seen such a nice baby as theirs.
She has the same blouse as the one you gave me.
Pam is less helpful than John.
She was the least interested of all.
He is more tired than he looks.
I prefer dancing to singing.
I prefer walking to school than to take the bus.
Id rather be a doctor than a teacher.
She looks as if shes in pain.
She can hide her feelings whereas shes like an open book.
This is a very difficult task.
This is a much more difficult task.
This task is not any more difficult.
This is by far the most difficult task.

Pronouns (types of pronouns)
1. Relative pronouns
Subject of the
following verb

Object of the
following verb (can

Possession (cannot
be omitted



(cannot be omitted)
Who/that (He is the
actor who/that was
awarded with an
Which/that (I bought a
camera which/that
doesnt work properly)

be omitted)
(Hes the man
whom/who/that we
met yesterday.)
Which/that (Heres the
dog which/that I found
in the street.)

Whose (Thats mr
Brown, whose wife
died last week.)
Whose/of which
Thats the camera
whose lens is broken.




1. The definite article the used before a noun which is defined.
The man standing over there is my friend.
- Names of objects considered unique (the Eiffel tower, the equator)
- Names of places (hotels, theaters, restaurants), ships (The Titanic), historical
events, collective plural nouns, etc)
- Names of seas, rivers, group of islands, mountain ranges, states, gulfs, etc. (The
Black Sea, the Pacific ocean)
- Name of tribes, ethnical groups, nationalities in plural (The Americans, the Zulus)
- Adjectives used as nouns to describe groups of individuals (the poor, the blind)
- Adjectives denoting an abstract quality in singular (the mystical, the supernatural)
- Titles without names (the queen)
- Musical instruments (the piano)
- Inventions (the wheel)
- The superlative degree (the fastest)
- Only, last, first (the only person)

2. The indefinite article a/an (used when the noun is not defined) can be used with
money , fractions, measurements, weight, whole numbers, price, frequency,
distance, speed, illnesses (a headache)


Verbs (tenses, tense correspondence, modal verbs, passive voice, moods of the
verbs: personal indicative, subjunctive, imperative; impersonal infinitive,
gerund, present participle, past participle, verbs with particles/prepositions)


Indicative (personal mood)

1. Present tense
a. Present simple
- habitual actions or permanent states (She works in a bank).
- Arranged future actions (timetables) The match starts at 9 oclock;
- Laws of nature, scientific facts and instructions Ice melts when heated.
- Dramatic narration The lights go out and a figure emerges from the villa.

Time expressions: usually, often, always, every day, in the morning, on Mondays,
b. Present continuous
- Repeated actions used often with always, constantly to show annoyance Youre
always leaving the door open!
- Actions in progress/temporary actions Hes sleeping at the moment.
- Fixed arrangements for the near future They are going on a trip tomorrow.
- Current trends and developments The oil prices are rising.
Time expressions: now, at present, at the moment, these days, still, today,
tonight, nowadays, etc.
c. Present perfect
- Recently completed actions She has just painted her room.
- Actions beginning in the past and continuing up to the present, focusing on the
result He has written three books.
- Indefinite past actions or experiences Ive been to Berlin twice.
- Repeated actions still continuing He has worked as a teacher for years.
Time expressions: since, yet, for, already, just, ever, so far, recently, lately, how
long, etc.
d. Present perfect continuous
- Past actions producing visible results in the present She has been painting her
- Actions beginning in the past and continuing up to the present, focusing on the
action She has been waiting for three hours but theres still no sign of him.
- Actions showing annoyance, irritation, surprise What have you been doing here?
Time expressions: for, since, how long, lately, recently, etc.
2. Future forms
a. Will/shall
- Predictions, offers, promises, requests, suggestions Will you help me with my
- On-the-spot decisions Ill wash my clothes now since theyre dirty.
- Opinions, fears, hopes, especially with expect, suppose, imagine, fear, ect. I hope
hell pass the test.
- When its not certain something is going to happen Perhaps itll rain today
Time expressions: tomorrow, the day after tomorrow, tonight, soon, next week,
month/year, in a week/month/year, etc.
b. Be going to
- Intentions Im going to wash my clothes tomorrow since I know theyre dirty.
- Planned actions Shes going to play violin at a concert tonight.
- Possible actions seen in the future as a result of something else Hes going to burn
himself if he keeps doing that.
- When there is evidence that something will definitely happen Shes going to have
a baby.
c. Future continuous
- Actions in progress at a certain time in the future Ill be flying to Paris this time
- Logical assumptions about somebodys actions in the present - He will be sleeping
- Previously planned actions Ill be seeing Sam tonight.

d. Future perfect
- Actions finished before a certain future time, usually with before (positive sentences
She will have cleaned the house by ten.) , by, by then, by the time, until (negative
sentence She wont have cleaned the house until ten.) By the end of July he will
have been in Athens for two months.
- Logical assumptions about somebodys actions He will have gone to sleep by now.
e. Future perfect continuous
- An action up to a certain time in the future, emphasizing the continuity. By next
Sunday, they will have been married for 30 years.
f. Be + to infinitive (future plans, instructions) The meeting is to take place tomorrow.
g. Be about + to infinitive/be on the point of + gerund (immediate future) They
are about to leave. They are on the point of leaving.
3. Past tense
a. Past simple
- Actions completed in the past when there is direct or indirect time reference He
left an hour ago.
- Habitual past actions He travelled a lot when he was young.
- Past actions happening one after another He stood up picked the phone and
phoned her.
- Past actions which wont be repeated Marilyn Monroe committed suicide.
Time expressions: yesterday, then, when, ago, last night, etc.
b. Past continuous
- Past actions in progress at a given point in time She was still working at eight
oclock yesterday evening.
- Past action in progress interrupted by another action She was eating when the
phone rang.
- Simultaneous past actions While John was getting dressed, Mary was listening to
the music.
- Polite inquires I was wondering if you could lend me some money.
Time expressions: while, when, as, all morning/evening/day/night.
c. Past perfect
- Past action which happened before another past action She had already typed the
entire letter when her boss arrived.
- Past equivalent of present perfect Bob has always dreamed of becoming an actor,
but he gave up on the way.
Time expressions: before, after, already, just, for, since, until, by the time, never,
d. Past perfect continuous
- A longer past action which continued up to another past action She had been
cooking all day long when Tom arrived home from work.
- Actions producing visible results in the past She was covered in paint because she
had been painting her room the entire day.
Time expressions: for, since, how long, before, until, etc.
e. Used to + infinitive (past habitual action/state) He used to read a lot of books as a

f. Get/be used to + gerund/noun (habitual action) She isnt used to driving on the
g. Would (repeated past action or routine) We would always go hunting with our father.


Infinitive (impersonal mood)

Active voice

Passive voice


(to) cook

(to) be cooked


(to) be cooking


(to) have cooked


(to) have been


(to) have been


1. Full infinitive
a. Is used after certain verbs as: advise, afford, agree, allow sb, appear, be allowed,
compel, decide, encourage, hope, intend, invite, manage, pretend, proceed, promise,
refuse, seem, tell, tend, ect. (some of them can also be used with gerund, with no
change in meaning, only if theyre not followed by an object)
He advised me to take a sit. He advised me sitting down.
He allowed us to eat in the classroom. He allowed eating in the classroom.
b. After certain adjectives as: amazed, angry, delighted, difficult, disgusted, easy, first,
glad, happy, likely, obliged, sad, sorry, supposed, surprised, unable, ect.
Im glad to hear that you had been promoted.
c. Impersonal construction + adjective
It was nice of him to send you flowers.
d. Used with only and just to show dissatisfaction.
He phoned only to say that needed something bought.
e. In fixed expressions: to tell you the truth, to cut a long story short, to be honest.
To be honest I dont like the new interpreter too much.
f. After certain nouns: pleasure, nuisance, nightmare
Its a pleasure to talk again to you.
g. With question words such as who, where, what.
I dont know what to do.
h. with too and enough.
Hes too old to be playing games. Hes old enough to drive a car.
2. Bare infinitive
a. With modals (can, could, may, might, shall, should, must, will, would)
He can go if he want to.
b. With need, dare (as auxiliary verbs) dare can also be used with full infinitive
depending on the case
You neednt work today. I darent talk to him.
c. With had better/ would rather/ would sooner
Youd better go to bed.
d. With make, let, see, hear, smell, feel, watch, notice

He let me watch TV.

e. After why (not) to make suggestions
Why not speak to him about the wedding?


Gerund (impersonal) ing form

Active voice

Passive voice



being cut


Having cut

Having been cut

a. Used after prepositions

b. Detest, dislike, enjoy, fancy, hate, like, loathe, love, prefer, resent (when used in the
conditional, theyre followed by full infinitive)
c. Begin, cease, commence, finish, start, stop, omit (they can also be followed by an
infinitive with a change in meaning) He continued listening to the radio. He continued
to listen to the radio.
d. Its no use/good, its (not) worth, theres no point in, feel like, cant stand, cant help,
be/get used to, be/get accustomed to, have difficulty in, in favour of.
e. Admit, anticipate, appreciate, avoid, consider, defer, delay, deny, endure, entail ,
escape, envisage, evade, forgive, imagine, incur, involve, keep, look forward to,
mention, mind, miss, pardon, postpone, practice, prevent, recall, recollect, report, risk,
save, shrink, suggest, understand, etc.

Verbs taking both infinitive and gerund moods with a change in

1. Forget + to infinitive not to remember to do something when intended to (I
forgot to buy toilet paper)
Forget + ing not to recall (Ill never forget visiting Japan.)
2. Go on + to infinitive stop one action and start another (They first discussed the
items and then went on to discuss the budget.)
Go on + ing continue doing something (He went on playing the piano the entire
3. Like + to inf find something good to do (I like to go to the market very early in
the morning so that I can select the best vegetables)
Like + ing enjoy (I like swimming.)
4. Mean + to inf intend to (She means to discuss the matter with the headmaster.)
Mean + ing involve, entail (This means changing the original plan.)
5. Propose + to inf - intend (I propose to build three more buildings)
Propose + ing - suggest (I propose trying the new Chinese restaurant.)
6. Regret + to inf be sorry to have to do something (I regret to inform you that
your application has been rejected.)
Regret + ing feel sorry about a past action (I regret buying this phone.)

7. Remember + to inf - not forget to do something when intending to do it

(Remember to lock the door when leaving the house.)
Remember + ing recall (She remembers locking the door before leaving the
8. Try + to inf attempt (We tried to persuade him not to go, but he wouldnt listen.)
Try + ing do as an experiment (We tried advertising our business on facebook.)
9. Stop + to inf stop sth temporarily in order to do sth else (She stopped to talk to
her neighbors as she was taking her dog for a walk.)
Stop + ing finish, stop permanently (They stopped talking when the teacher
entered the class.)
Be understood + to inf give the impression (He is understood to agree
that negotiations are necessary.)
Be understood + ing to understand sbs feelings or actions (I can understand
his feeling angry about his decision.)
Want + to inf wish ( I want to extend my visa.)
Want + ing need sth done (The battery wants recharging.)
Dread + to inf be afraid (I dread to think how much he will suffer.)
Dread + ing to fear greatly (I dread going to the doctor.)
Hate + to inf hate what one is about to do (I hate to interrupt you but I
need some help.)
Hate + ing - feel sorry for what one is doing (I have causing you trouble.)
Be sorry + to inf regret something (I am sorry to hear of his illness.)
Be sorry + ing apologize (I am sorry for shouting at you.)
Be afraid + to inf the subject is too frightened to do something (She was
afraid to drive the car.)
Be afraid + ing the subject fears that the action expressed by the gerund might
happen. (She was afraid of causing an accident, thats why shes never got a
Be ashamed to + inf subsequent action (She was ashamed to admit that
she had lied.)
Be ashamed to + ing refers to a present or previous action (Shes ashamed of
lying and swears shell never do it again.)
Would prefer + to inf specific action (I would prefer to be left alone at
the moment.)
Would prefer + ing I prefer swimming to running.
Cant/Couldnt bear + inf specific (I cant bear to tell him the bad news.)
Cant/Couldnt bear +ing general (I cant bear telling people bad news.


1. Modal verbs: can, could, may, might, must (obligation imposed by the speaker), ought
to, will, would, shall, should, have to (external obligation), need, dare, be able to.
2. Functions of modal verbs:
a. Ability/inability (I can see smoke in the distance. When I was at school I could play
piano. He was able to escape through a window. I cant see anything behind her. )
b. Possibility/impossibility (Reckless driving can result in accidents. He might be lucky this
time. You cant be serious! She should be here any moment.)
c. Permission/concession (Can I ask you a question? Might I borrow your pen? May I join
d. Obligation/duty (She must pay the rent by Friday. I have to meet my boss at noon.)
e. Necessity (I need to improve my Japanese. He has to see a dentist soon. Need he sign
the form?)
f. Prohibition (You mustnt eat in this room. You may not make personal phone calls
during work hours. You are not to eat in this room. You cant park here.)
g. Absence of obligation or necessity (You neednt worry, everything is under control. I
dont have to leave until 3 pm. You neednt have waited for me. She didnt need to do
any cleaning.)
h. Logical assumptions (He must be nervous about the test. You must be feeling very sad
about the loss of your father. He must have been lying all along. He cant have broken
the kitchen sink as he has been in Greece for a week. )
i. Advice (You should take a holiday. You ought to try harder. You ought to not complain so
j. Criticism (You could have helped me instead of sitting all day in front of the computer
and playing games.)
k. Requests, offers, suggestions (Can you hurry up, please? Could you pass me the salt?
Shall I make tea?)


Passive voice

its formed by putting the verb to be into the same tense as the active verb, and
then adding the past participle of the active verb. The object of the verb becomes
the subject of the passive verb. The subject of the active verb becomes the agent
and the passive verb is preceded by by. The agent may be omitted when its a
pronoun, words like one, someone, people, or when its easily understood. Most
transitive verbs can be used in the passive.
Simple present

Active voice
The assistant types
The assistant typed

Passive voice
The reports are typed by the
The reports were typed.

Past continuous

The assistant is typing

The assistant was typing

The reports are being typed.

Present perfect

The assistant has typed


The reports have been typed.

Simple past

The reports were being typed.

Past perfect

The assistant had typed


The reports had been typed.

Simple future

The assistant will type

She will have typed the

The reports will be typed by the

The reports will have been typed by


She would type reports.

She would have typed

The reports would be typed.

The reports would have been typed.


She ought to type reports.

Reports ought to be typed.

She ought to have typed


Reports ought to have been typed.


She hates people asking

her to type reports.
She remembers her boss
having asked her to type

She hates being asked to type

She remembers having been asked
to type reports by her boss.

Future perfect

Perfect Gerund

a. when the person who performs the action is unknown or easily understood. (He has been
b. When its necessary to express sth more formally. (It is thought that the minister was
involved in the conspiracy)
c. When we are interested in the action itself rather than the one who performs it. (The new
hospital will be opened tomorrow.)
d. When we mean to be tactful by not naming the agent. (All my shampoo has been used.)


Conditionals (page 138)

Wishes unreal past (page 158)
Causative form (page 230)
Indirect speech, reported speech (page 90)
Conjunctions/punctuation (page 290)

XIII. Sentence syntax (types of subordinate sentences and introductory elements)

1. Defining relative clause refers to the preceding noun, it gives essential information
about it and therefore cannot be omitted.
People who paint are artists.
2. Non-Defining relative clause refers to the preceding noun and it gives extra
information about it and therefore it can be omitted.
My brother, who is studying medicine, will be 24 next week.
3. Noun clauses
He told me that the film was interesting.

4. Adverbial clauses (time clauses , clauses of

manner/place/reason/purpose/result/comparison/ concession)
He is taller than his sister.
a. Time clauses (introduced with after, as, as soon as, before, by, by the time,
hardly when, immediately, no sooner than, now that, once, ever since, the
minute that, the moment that, then, the sooner the sooner, until, on/upon, when,
whenever, while.)
He waited for an hour before he was interviewed by the manager.
- Follow the sequence of tenses, when the verb of the main clause is in a present of
future tense, the verb in the subordinate clause must be in the present or future
tense too, same for the past tense)
She left before he came. Ill watch TV after I have finished doing my homework.
b. Clauses of purpose (the full infinitive can also be used with in order to and so as
to, and follows the sequence of tenses)
He left early in order to avoid the heavy traffic.
They can be introduced the following way.
So that + will/can/present tense (reference to the present) + common
In order that + would/could/past tense (reference to the past) + common
Wake him up early so that he catches the first bus.
We bought more food so that we would have enough for the extra guests.
So that + may/might + infinitive
In order that + should/shall + infinitive
The president left early so that he should not be late for his next meeting.
so as not to + infinitive (same subject)
We are staying in this weekend so as not to spend any money.
so that + wont/cant/present tense (present reference)
so that + wouldnt/couldnt (past reference)
Theyve locked the gate so that we dont get in.
He left an hour ago so that he wouldnt be caught in the traffic.
for fear that +
might /should/would
for fear of sth/doing sth
lest +(might/should)+ infinitive
They asked their neighbors to keep an eye on the house for the fear that burglars
might break in.
She didnt make a noise for the fear of waking her parents.
She banned smoking lest the house should catch fire.
for + noun
for + gerund
We went out for some fresh air.
A saw is a tool for cutting wood.
in case + present simple/should
in case + past simple/should
Take an umbrella in case it rains.
They left early in case the traffic was heavy.

c. Clauses of result (introduced with such a that, so that, so as to, and

follows the rule of the sequence of tenses.)
It was such a thrilling novel that I couldnt put it down.
He played such moving music that many people in the audience felt close to tears.
There was such a lot of noise that the children couldnt hear what the teacher was
We were so pleased with their present that we rang them immediately.
We had so little time that we didnt manage to visit all our friends.
So beautiful a girl was she that the prince felt in love with her at first sight.
d. Clauses of concession (introduced by: as, although, though, even though, even
so, even if, while, whereas, much as, in spite of, despite, nevertheless, but,
however, yet, still, for all, and its used with verbs such as dislike, admire, enjoy,
etc. and it follows the rule of the sequence of tenses.)
Much as I like her I disapprove of her teaching methods.
Even though he studied, he failed his test.
Despite her ill health, she still takes care of her children.
No matter how hard I try I can never seem to learn the English grammar.
No matter what the time is, ring me when you arrive at the station.
Even if it should rain, Im still going swimming.
Late though he stayed, he didnt finish his homework.
Fast as he can run, he didnt catch the bus.
For all their poverty they managed to live happily.
Try as you may, you wont solve the problem.
e. Clauses of reason (introduced by as, since, because, for and follow the rule of the
sequence of tenses.)
He failed his test because he wasnt well prepared.
The match was cancelled due to the rain.
The scheme was abandoned in view of the fact that it was proving unpopular.)
I had a look just out of curiosity.
Lots of the fans were at the airport, hoping to see Ricky Martin arrive.
Considering shes sixty, Margret is remarkably fit.

Clauses of place (introduced by where, whenever, as far as, as low as, as near as,
as high as)
No matter where I go I always bump into someone I know.
The dog when whenever I did.

5. Exclamatory sentences. (introduced by how and what, and its used to express the
speakers feelings and attitude.)
What an interesting lecture!
How beautiful she is!
She is such a beautiful girl.
Isnt she sweet!
Doesnt he eat a lot!
Off went the boys!


Vocabulary (polysemy, synonyms, antonyms, word roots etc)