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IN THE NAME OF ALLAH THE MOST GREATEST THE MOST MERCIFUL

Microwave (Low-pass and Band-pass) Filters design using


Transmission lines
By

Md. Momenul Hoque (T-091018)


Email: momenete09@gmail.com

A Dissertation
Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for the
Bachelor of Science in Electronic and Telecommunications Engineering

Department of Electronic and Telecommunications Engineering


Faculty of Science and Engineering
International Islamic University Chittagong
Chittagong, Bangladesh.
I

A Dissertation on,

Microwave (Low-pass and Band-pass) Filters design using


Transmission lines
Submitted By

Md. Momenul Hoque

Approved By

________________________________________________

Engr. Razu Ahmed


Associate Professor & Head of the
Department of ETE, IIUC.

__________________________________________

Rasheduzzaman Al-Amin
Thesis Supervisor
Lecturer
Department of ETE, IIUC.
II

DEDICATED TO

We would like to dedicate this success especially to our parents; they are
committed to see us as an Engineer. We are in this position thanks to their striving
effort where they try to make our future a success.
THANK TO ALLAH, MAY ALLAH BE WITH US.

III

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The undergraduate thesis, Microwave (Low-pass and Band-pass) Filters design


using Transmission lines has been carried out for the completion of Bachelor of
Science degree at International Islamic University Chittagong, Bangladesh. This
thesis work and writing has been done during the year 2013 under the supervision
of Mr. Rasheduzzaman Al-Amin, Lecturer of the department of Electronic and
Telecommunications Engineering. We would like to express sincere gratitude to
our thesis supervisor Mr. Rasheduzzaman Al-Amin, for his patience, inspiration,
contribution of precious ideas, proposals, advise, support, committed,
encouragement and constant guidance has help us to successfully complete this
thesis.
We are also grateful to all of our will-wishers, who provided their perpetual
support towards accomplishing this task successfully.
Finally, we would like to thanks to all of you.
MAY ALLAH BLESS YOU ALL.

IV

ABSTRACT
This thesis paper presents the design, calculation, simulation and analysis of
microwave Low-Pass filter operating at microwave frequencies by using
Microstrip and Stripline layout or transmission lines which works at 2.5 GHz. The
Low-Pass filter has a minimum return loss of 20 dB over the frequency range of
0~3 GHz with minimum attenuation of 20dB at 4 GHz. We couldnt implement
low pass filters using shunt stubs due to the large variation of the values of the
characteristic impedances of the lines. The lumped element circuit gives the
sharpest attenuation at higher frequencies. Stripline filters have the least
attenuation at higher frequencies.
Microwave Band pass filter structure using Ansoft designer software simulation
tool are presented. The filter is operated at ideal transmission line and capacitively
coupled Stripline band pass filter for different microwave application. For the
proposed work we consider simulation using Roger R04003 substrate with
dielectric constant of 13, Conductor Thickness 3.36 mm. This filter is designed at a
center frequency of 2 GHz with 20% bandwidth. Simulation results show that the
filter operation is optimum & best in this range and results show good performance
and agree well with the high frequency EM full wave simulation. In this paper,
band pass filter development with the assistance of the Richards-Kuroda
Transformation method, is used. Moreover, measured S parameters denote the
center frequency is also strongly influenced by the variation of Rogers materials
dielectric constants. By analyzing the characteristics at center frequency of the
filter, both theoretical and simulated data are accumulated for broadening
application filed.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
APPROVAL ... I
DEDICATION.... III
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT. IV
ABSTRACT..V

Chapter 1: Introduction..... 1
1.1

Introduction... 2

1.2

A History of Microwave Filter Research, Design and Development... 2

1.3

Ideal Microwave Filters.... 4

Chapter 2: Microwave Filter Design....5


2.1

Introduction........6

2.2

Transmission Lines........7
2.2.1

Stripline.........8

2.2.2

Microstrip line.11

2.2.3

LOSS IN MICROSTRIP........16

2.2.4

2.2.5

2.2.3.1

Conductor Loss (c)..16

2.2.3.2

Dielectric Loss (

2.2.3.3

Radiation Loss (r) & Q....17

)...17

How to Designed Filters.....17


2.2.4.1

Image Parameter Method.......17

2.2.4.2

Insertion Loss Method...17

Practical Filter Response....18


2.2.5.1

Butterworth (Maximally flat) response.18

2.2.5.2

Chebyshev ( Equal-ripple) response.19

2.2.6

Ansoft Designer SV...20

2.2.7

S-Parameters...21
VI

Chapter 3: Microwave Low-pass filter design......22


3.1

Introduction......23

3.2

Practical Filter Designs........23

3.3

Low-Pass Filter Design Using Stubs.......24

3.4

Low-Pass Filters Using Stepped-Impedance...........24

3.5

Transmission Line filter design Steps.............25

3.6

Capacitively Coupled Bandpass Filters ..................26

3.7

MICROWAVE LOW-PASS FILTERS DESIGN PROCEDURE.....28


3.7.1

THE SIX ELEMENTS MAXIMALLY-FLAT (BUTTERWORTH)


LOW-PASS FILTER..............28

3.7.2

3.7.3

3.8

TRANSFORMATION LUMPED TO DISTRIBUTED ELEMENTS. 32


3.7.2.1

Capacitances..32

3.7.2.2

Inductances34

Results and Discussion...36


3.7.3.1

Low-pass Filter using Lumped Elements..36

3.7.3.2

Low-pass Filter using Stripline..37

3.7.3.3

Low-pass Filter using Microstrip line....38

Discussion....41

Chapter 4: Microwave Band-pass filter design....43


4.1

Introduction..........44

4.2

Coupled line bandpass filter........45

4.3

Ideal Transmission Lines.....46

4.4

Capacitively coupled BPF using Stripline.......48

4.5

Discussion............50

4.6

Conclusion.......51

References..52

VII

LIST OF FIGURES
1. Ideal Microwave Filters
Fig-1.1: Low-pass filter...4
Fig-1.2: High-pass filter...4
Fig-1.3: Band-pass filter..4
Fig-1.4: Band-stop filter...4

2. Fig 2.1 Filter prototype6


Fig-2.2: Section in a Stripline..8
Fig-2.3: Electric E and Magnetic H Fields...8

Fig-2.4: The parallel-plate mode.9


Fig-2.5: Microstrip transmission line.11
Fig-2.6: Electric E and Magnetic H field lines for fundamental Quasi-TEM in
Microstrip...12
Fig-2.7: Butterworth or maximally flat response..19
Fig-2.8: Chebychev or equal-ripple response..19
Fig- 2.9: A two port network.21
3. Fig-3.1: Transmission Lines filter design steps25
Fig-3.2: Capacitively coupled resonators..26
Fig-3.3: Development of an equivalence of a capacitive-gap coupled resonator
bandpass filter to the coupled line bandpass filter.27
Fig-3.4: Six-Element Prototype Butterworth low-pass filter.29
Fig-3.5: The lumped element circuit of Butterworth Low-pass filters..31
Fig- 3.6: Lumped elements low-pass filter....36
Fig- 3.7: Lumped elements low-pass filter response.....36
Fig- 3.8: Stepped impedance low-pass filter using stripline..37
Fig- 3.9: Stepped impedance low-pass filter response using stripline...38
Fig- 3.10: Stepped impedance low-pass filter using microstrip line.....39
Fig- 3.11: Stepped impedance low-pass filter response using microtrip line39
Fig- 3.12: Stepped impedance low-pass filter using microstrip line.40
VIII

Fig-3.13: Stepped impedance low-pass filter response using microstrip line...41

4. Fig 4-1: Coupled Line bandpass filter using ideal transmission line.46
Fig 4.2: Coupled Line bandpass filter response using ideal transmission line..47
Fig 4.3- : Coupled Line bandpass filter response using ideal transmission line47
Fig 4.4: Capacitively coupled bandpass filter using stripline48
Fig 4.5: Capacitively coupled bandpass filter response using stripline.49

LIST OF TABLES
Table-1: Design data in normalized form for Butterworth Low-pass Filters29
Table-2: Lumped prototype values....30
Table 3: Actual values of elements31
Table-4: Transmission lines width (W) and Length (P)35
Table-5: 0.5 equal ripple table...46

IX

XI

CHAPTER 1:
INTRODUCTION

XII

1.1

Introduction

Filters are amongst the most common RF and Microwave components. [1] A filter is designed to
remove something that is unwanted and pass on what is wanted. A microwave filter is a two-port
device that plays the important role of controlling the frequency response at certain point at cross
section in a microwave system, letting a band of frequencies pass through while rejecting
frequencies in another bands. The low frequencies may be rejected with a high-pass filter, the
high frequencies may be rejected with a low-pass filter, or all frequencies except a specific band
may be rejected with a band-pass filter.

Filters are widely used in communication and radar system, in field test units and in laboratory
measurement equipment [1]

Filters are also commonly used for separating frequencies in duplexers or multiplexers and as a
harmonics removal in oscillators or amplifiers. Other tasks that can be done by filters are to
reduce a noise and reject signals at particular frequencies in bandstop filter applications. The
application dictates whether the filter will have lowpass, highpass, bandpass or bandstop
characteristics.

1.2

A History of Microwave Filter Research, Design and Development

An account of the development of microwave filter is surveyed, commencing from 1937. Much
of the foundation of modern filter theory and practice took place during the period of World War
II and the years immediately following, especially by such pioneers as the late P.I. Richards,
whose subsequent career is briefly described. Filter topics discussed include low-pass, bandpass,
highpass and multiplexers constructed in a variety of media, such as waveguide, coaxial line,
microstrip, stripline, as well as dielectric resonators. All types of filter characteristics are
surveyed, such as Chebyshev, elliptic and pseudo-elliptic function, Achieser-Zolotarev, and a
variety of generalized designs, including linear phase.

XIII

WORLD WAR II AND EARLIER


Work on Microwave filters commenced prior to the war, a particularly significant early paper
being published in 1937 by W.P. Mason and R.A. Sykes. [2] They used A, B, C, D parameters,
although not in matrix form, to derive the image impedance and image phase and attenuation
functions of a rather large variety of useful filter sections.
[2] Major advances and applications mainly using image parameter were made at various
laboratories in the united states during the World war II years of 1941 to1945 (for example ,at
the M.I.T Radiation laboratory , the Harvard radio Research laboratory, Bell Laboratories, NRL,
etc.).At the Radiation Laboratory ,emphasis was on waveguide cavity filters, while at Radio
Research laboratory, works was concentrated on board-band low-pass, band-pass, and high-pass
coaxial filters for ECM applications and also on narrow-band tunable coaxial resonator filters for
search receivers. Much of this work is described in the M.I.T. Radiation laboratory series by
Fano and Lawson. Even though the work reported is about 40 years old, it still retains modern
character. The scientist and Engineers who worked in the rad. lab, and in associated microwave
laboratories both in the U.S.A. and in the U.K. Bethe, N. Marcuvitz E. M. Purcell, and J.
Schwinger. Some of their work at this time is still unsurpassed, particularly in the area of field
theory. [2] Network theory was probably the most advanced topic in engineering at that time, S.
Darlington having published his famous cascade synthesis as far back as 1939.fano and Lawson
succeeded in writing a very clear and concise summary of Darlingtons theory.
Microwave filters contain some surprisingly modern designs, e.g., describing filters with
finite frequency attenuation poles and dual-mode cavities. The section on the theory of directcoupled cavities gave the solution to the narrow-band case, but it is not easy to understand.
However, it can be said that much of the work of later authors was concerned with deciphering
some of the less clear aspects of Fano and lawson making their work comprehensible to the
specialist filter designer, and enabling designs to be produced.

XIV

1.3

Ideal Microwave Filters

The low-pass filters can be designed from the classical lumped element prototyped circuits and
may be either fabricated in lumped element form or transformed into equivalent transmission
line networks.

Fig-1.1: Low-pass filter.

Fig-1.2: High-pass filter.

Fig-1.3: Band-pass filter.

Fig-1.4: Band-stop filter.

The ideal high-pass filter prevents transmission below some cut-off frequencies and transmits all
signals above it.

The band-pass filter passes all signals at frequencies between two frequencies and reflects
signals at frequencies outside this band while the band-stop filter reflects all signals over a
frequency outside it.

XV

CHAPTER 2:
Microwave Filter Design

XVI

2.1

Introduction

Microwave filters are considered as one of the most important components in radars,
measurement and test systems, satellite communications, and telecommunication systems [3].
Microwave filters are used as frequency selectivity block in different wireless systems which
operate at frequency ranges above 300 MHz. Microwave filter is a two port network which has
desirable frequency selective behavior. When a filter is connected between the source and the
load, it permits substantial unattenuated transfer of power in the pass band from source towards
load, while it attenuates the power towards the load in the stop band.

An example specification for a microwave low pass filter response is shown in Fig. 1.1.
In this example, the passband insertion loss must be less than 1 dB from d.c. to 4 GHz. The
stopband attenuation must be greater than 50dB from 8 GHz to 18 GHz. Inaddition there is a
specification on the input return loss return loss of greater than 20 dB in the passband. This
means that any signal incident on the filter in the frequency range of its passband must be 99%
transmitted or absorbed; only 1% of incident power can be reflected. A high level of return loss,
typically 20 dB or greater, implies a flat low ripple insertion loss characteristics, which is very
desirable from the point of view of signal distortion.

XVII

Fig 2.1 Filter prototype


How do we design a device to produce this lowpass response, or any other filter
response? There is a vast amount of published literature on the design of microwave filters; some
of it is highly mathematical. Fortunately there are some relatively straight forward procedures
which enable us to design certain useful classes of microwave filters. These procedures follow
some basic steps.

Filters designed using the image parameter method consist of a cascade of simpler twoport filter sections to provide the desired cutoff frequencies and attenuation characteristics, but
do not allow the specification of a frequency response over the complete operating range. Thus,
although the procedure is relatively simple, the design of filters by the image parameter method
often must be iterated many times to achieve the desired results.

A more modern procedure, called the insertion loss method, uses network synthesis
techniques to design filter with a completely specified frequency response. The design is
simplified by beginning with low-pass filter prototypes that are normalized in terms of
impedance and frequency. Transformations are then applied to convert the prototype designs to
the desired frequency range and impedance level.

Both the image parameter and the insertion loss method of filter design provide lumped
element circuits. For microwave applications such designs usually must be modified to use
distributed elements consisting of transmission line sections. The Richard's transformation and
the Kuroda identities provide this step.

2.2

Transmission Lines
A conductor or conductors design to carry electricity or an electrical signal over large

distance with minimum losses and distortion.


In the design, two kinds of transmission lines were used: striplines and microstip lines. Below is
a brief description of each kind.
XVIII

2.2.1 Stripline
Stripline requires three layers of conductors where the internal conductor is commonly
called the hot conductor, while the other two, always connected at signal ground, are called
cold or ground conductors. The hot conductor is embedded in a homogeneous and isotropic
dielectric, of dielectric constant . So, unlike the case of Microstrip, the word substrate is
not appropriate since the dielectric completely surrounds the hot conductor [4].

Fig-2.2: Section in a Stripline.

Fig-2.3: Electric E and Magnetic H Fields.

The Electric-E and Magnetic-H field lines for the fundamental TEM mode in Stripline are
indicated above in a defined cross-section and a defined time.

Because the region between the two outer plates of Stripline contains only a single medium, the
phase velocity and the characteristic impedance of the dominant mode TEM do not vary with
frequency.

In the fundamental mode the hot conductor is equipotential (every point in it is at the same
potential).

XIX

Stripline is often required for multilayer circuit boards because it can be routed between the
layers, but grounding the Stripline requires some care. If the top and bottom ground planes are
not at the same potential, a parallel-plate mode can propagate between them [4].
If excited, this mode will not remain confined to the region near the strip, but will be able to
propagate wherever the two ground planes exist.

Stripline is more insensitive than Microstrip to lateral ground planes of a metallic enclosure,
since the electromagnetic field is strongly contained near the center conductor and the top
bottom ground planes.

As can be seen from the figure, in a Stripline the return current path for a high frequency signal
trace is located directly above and below the signal trace on the ground planes. The high
frequency signal is thus contained entirely inside the PCB, minimizing emissions, and providing
natural shielding against incoming spurious signals.

In the figure below, the parallel-plate mode is suppressed with metalized via holes connecting
the two ground planes. The vias should be placed closely; a spacing s of one-eighth of a
wavelength in the dielectric is recommended to prevent a potential difference from forming
between the ground planes. In addition, such vias form a cage around the strip, in essence
making it a basic coaxial line [4].

Fig-2.4: The parallel-plate mode

When the vias are placed too close to the edge of the strip, they can perturb its characteristic
impedance.

The vias separation w should be a minimum of 3 strip widths, and 5 are preferable.
XX

If the via separation is too great, a pseudo rectangular waveguide mode can be excited. This
mode has a cut-off frequency given by c/(2*w), where c is the speed of light in the dielectric.
Thus, at the highest frequency of operation, fmax, the via separation w should be less than
c/(2*fmax).

Any practical Stripline has three Sources of Attenuation, due to:


- Finite conductivity of its conductors.
- Finite resistivity and dumping phenomena of the dielectric.
- Magnetic resonances.

Total power losses per unit axial length are the sum of dielectric loss and the conductor ohmic
skin loss.

The dielectric loss is proportional to frequency, and it is the dominant loss factor at higher
frequencies.

The ohmic skin losses in the strip conductor and the ground plane, depend on the conductivity
of the metal conductors and on any surface roughness may be caused in fabrication of the
transmission line.
Conductor losses dominate over dielectric losses for loss tangent (tan) less than 0.001 (for f =
10 GHz) and less than 0.003 (for f = 1 GHz).

The Characteristic Impedance Z0 of the Stripline depends on the dielectric constant and on the
cross-sectional geometry of the strip center-conductor and ground planes.

Characteristic impedance is very sensitive to the ratio of center-conductor width to dielectric


thickness and relatively insensitive to the ratio of center-conductor thickness to dielectric
thickness.

Mechanical tolerances would be most critical for relatively thin dielectrics or relatively narrow
center conductors. Any vertical asymmetry in the Stripline structure could couple to waveguidetype modes bounded by the ground planes and the side walls.

The following is a simple equation that approximates Stripline impedance with 1% accuracy:

XXI

Where We is the effective width of the center strip conductor given by:

It is seen that the characteristic impedance of the Stripline decreases as the strip width W
increases.

The Propagation Delay for a given length in a Stripline is only function of the dielectric

2.2.2 Microstrip line


The Microstrip line it has become the best known and most widely used planar transmission line
for RF and Microwave circuits. This popularity and widespread use are due to its planar nature,
ease of fabrication using various processes, easy integration with solid-state devices, good heat
sinking, and good mechanical support [4].

Fig-2.5: Microstrip transmission line.

In simple terms, Microstrip is the printed circuit version of a wire over a ground plane, and thus
it tends to radiate as the spacing between the ground plane and the strip increases. A substrate
thickness of a few percent of a wavelength (or less) minimizes radiation without forcing the strip
width to be too narrow.

XXII

In contrast to Stripline, the two-media nature (substrate discontinuity) of Microstrip causes its
dominant mode to be hybrid (Quasi-TEM) not TEM, with the result that the phase velocity,
characteristic impedance, and field variation in the guide cross section all become mildly
frequency dependent.

The Microstrip line is dispersive. With increasing frequency, the effective dielectric constant
gradually climbs towards that of the substrate, so that the phase velocity gradually decreases.
This is true even with a non-dispersive substrate material (the substrate dielectric constant will
usually fall with increasing frequency).

In Microstrip development a new concept of Effective Dielectric Constant

was introduced,

which takes into account that most of the electric fields are constrained within the substrate,
but a fraction of the total energy exists within the air above the board.

The Effective Dielectric Constant eff varies with the free-space wavelength

.The dispersion

becomes more pronounced with the decreasing ratio of strip width to substrate thickness, W/h.
Dispersion is less pronounced as the strip width becomes relatively wider, and the Microstrip
line physically starts to approach an ideal parallel-plate capacitor. In this case we get:

The Effective Dielectric Constant

is expected to be greater than the dielectric constant of

air ( = 1) and less than that of the dielectric substrate.

In this expression shielding is assumed to be far enough from the Microstrip line.

Fig-2.6: Electric E and Magnetic H field lines for fundamental Quasi-TEM in Microstrip

Effective Dielectric

can be obtained by static capacitance measurements.

If the static capacitance per unit length is C with partial dielectric filing, and Co with dielectric
removed, we get

= C/Co.

XXIII

Guided Wavelength in Microstrips is given by:


Where 0 is the wavelength in free space

The same as in Stripline case, in Microstrip fundamental mode the hot conductor is
equipotential (every point in it is at the same potential).

A simple but accurate equation for Microstrip Characteristic Impedance is:

for
for

The characteristic impedance of the Microstrip line changes slightly with frequency(even with a
non-dispersive substrate material).
The characteristic impedance of non-TEM modes is not uniquely defined, and depending on the
precise definition used, the impedance of Microstrip either rises, falls, or falls then rises with
increasing frequency.
The low-frequency limit of the characteristic impedance is referred to as the Quasistatic
Characteristic Impedance, and is the same for all definitions of characteristic impedance.

Microstrip frequency limitation is given mainly by the lowest order transverse resonance, which
occurs when width of the line (plus fringing field component) approaches a half-wavelength in
the dielectric. Have to avoid using wide lines.

For very wide lines, the fields are almost all in the substrate, while narrower lines will have
proportionally more field energy in air.

Propagation Delay for a given length in a Microstrip line is only function of

Any practical Microstrip line has following Sources of Attenuation, due to:
Finite conductibility of the line conductors.
Finite resistivity of the substrate and its dumping phenomena.
Radiation effects.
Magnetic loss plays a role only for magnetic substrates, such as ferrites.

XXIV

Waveguides and Striplines have no radiation losses, while in Microstrip case (since the
Microstrip is an open transmission line) radiation effects are present at any discontinuity
section.

For Microstrip using high dielectric materials r and accurate conductor shape and matching,
conductor and dielectric losses are predominant in relation to the radiation losses.

In practice, it has been found that the Microstrip impedance with finite ground plane width (Zo)
is practically equal to the impedance value with infinite width ground plane (Zi), if the ground
width Wg is at least greater than 3*W.

Microstrips primary advantages of low cost and compact size are offset by its tendency to be
more lossy than Coaxial Line, Waveguide, and Stripline.

Radiation Losses depend on the dielectric constant, substrate thickness, and the circuit
geometry.

The lower the dielectric constant, the less the concentration of energy in the substrate region,
and, hence, the greater the radiation losses.

The real benefit in having a higher dielectric constant is not only reducing radiation losses but
also that the package size decreases by approximately the square root of the dielectric constant.

One way to lower the loss of Microstrip line is to suspend the substrate over the air:

XXV

The air between the bottom of the substrate and the ground plane contains the bulk of the
electromagnetic field. The insertion loss of the Microstrip is reduced because, air essentially has
no dielectric loss compared to standard circuit board substrates, and in addition, the width of the
Microstrip line increases because of the lower effective dielectric constant. Wider lines have
lower current density, and thus, lower ohmic loss.

Suspending Microstrip means that the separation between the signal and ground paths
increases, and so does the Microstrips tendency to radiate, particularly at discontinuities such
as corners. From this reason, suspended Microstrip mostly is used only up to a few GHz.

In a Microstrip line, conductor losses increase with increasing characteristic impedance due to
the greater resistance of narrow strips. Conductor losses follow a trend that is opposite to
radiation loss with respect to W/h.

Important to remember, a smaller strip width leads to higher losses.

Very simple method for measuring the Dielectric Attenuation constant is based on the
Comparison Technique.
o

Two Microstrip lines with identical electrical characteristics but different lengths are used.

Their insertion losses are measured.

The difference between two values of insertion loss is used to evaluate the dielectric
attenuation constant.

This procedure avoids the systematic errors caused by radiation and coaxial-to-microstrip
transitions.

The Power Handling capacity of a Microstrip is limited by heating caused because of ohmic and
dielectric losses and by dielectric breakdown.

An increase in temperature due to conductor and dielectric losses limits the


Average Power of the Microstrip line, while the breakdown between the strip conductor and
ground plane limits the Peak Power.

A metallic enclosure is normally required for most Microstrip circuit applications, such as
Microstrip Filters. The presence of conducting top and side walls will affect both, the
characteristic impedance Zc and the effective dielectric constant

XXVI

In practice, a rule of thumb may be applied in the Microstrip Filter design to reduce the effect of
metallic enclosure: the height up to the cover should be more than eight times the substrate
thickness, and the distance to walls more than five times the substrate thickness.

2.2.3 LOSS IN MICROSTRIP

There is a loss in microstrip that is commonly occurs under filter design [5]. Approximation
expressions are useful for designs and harder to quantify can be neglected for design purposes.

2.2.3.1

Conductor Loss (c)

The losses in microstrip circuits arise from conductor loss due to resistive losses in the strip.
It is a primary loss mechanism at low frequencies [5]. The skin depth is a layer that is conducting
a current. For a common metal such as Aluminium and Copper, the skin depth is about 0.8 m at
10 GHz. As the surface roughness increases, the current path increases and the conductor loss
increases. And the conclusions are smooth substrates are essential for long circuits at high
microwave and millimetre wave frequencies.
(eg.: Surface roughnesses < 0.25 m rms, on soft substrates should be usable to 18 GHz).

2.2.3.2

Dielectric Loss (

It is due to the polarisation heating by time-varying fields in the substrate and radiation due
to the antenna action of the microstrip [5]. It arises because of reversal polarisation losses in the
substrate. A measure of this loss mechanism is the loss tangent (tan ).

2.2.3.3 Radiation Loss (r) & Q


Open stub, bends and discontinuities on transmission line excite higher-order modes, which
is radiate energy [5]. Ratio of the reactive energy to radiated energy called the Q.
XXVII

The stub becomes a significant percentage of wavelength and experience as an antenna.

2.2.3 How to Design Filters


Filters are designed using two methods [6]:

Image Parameter Method

Insertion Loss Method

2.2.4.1 Image Parameter Method


This is consist of cascade of simpler two-port filter sections to provide the desired cutoff
frequencies and attenuation characteristic, but do not allow the specification of a frequency
response over the complete operating range. Sound like a simple, but this procedure often uses
much iteration to achieve the desired results.

4.2.4.2 Insertion Loss Method


The insertion loss method is based on network synthesis techniques, and can be used to
design filters having a specific type of frequency response [7]. A lossless filter can be described
in terms of either its power transmission coefficient () or its power reflection coefficient
() as the two values are completely dependent:
( ) 1 T( )

For a lossless filter Power loss ratio

PLR

1
1

1 ( ) T ( )

Therefore PLR (dB) is

PLR (dB) 10log10 PLR


XXVIII

10log10 T ( )
= Insertion Loss
The power loss ratio in dB is simply the insertion loss of a lossless filter, and thus filter design
using the power loss ratio is also called the Insertion Loss Method.

4.2.5

Practical Filter Response

2.2.5.1 Butterworth (Maximally flat) response


This characteristic is also called the binomial or Butterworth response, and it is optimum in
the sense that it provides the flattest possible passband response for a given filter [7].
The power loss ratio for a maximally flat low-pass filter is:

PLR 1 k 2 (

2N
)
c

Where the pass band is the region from

=0 to the cutoff value c , k2 is the pass band tolerance

and N is number of filter elements. For

> c the power loss ratio increases at a rate dependent

on the exponent 2N which is related to the number of filter elements. In addition, for sharpest
PLR characteristic over cutoff frequency larger number of filter elements is needed.

Fig-2.7: Butterworth or Maximally flat response [7].


XXIX

2.2.5.2 Chebyshev ( Equal-ripple) response


If a Chebyshev polynomial is used to specify the insertion loss of an N-order low pass filter,
then a sharper cutoff will result, also the passband response will have ripples [7].
For equal-ripple low-pass filter prototype (Chebyshev filter) power loss ratio is:

PLR 1 k 2TN2 (

)
c

Where TN(x) is a Chebyshev polynomial odd order N what will result with a sharper cutoff
characteristic, although the pass band response will have ripples (1+k2) of amplitude.

Fig-2.8: Chebychev or equal-ripple response [7].


2.2.6

Ansoft Designer SV
In this project, Ansoft Designer was used for the purpose of designing and simulating

different types of filters using different transmission lines. Ansoft Designer is a very powerful
microwave simulator. The availability of many components with built in models saved us the
effort of dealing with complicated mathematical equations.

Ansoft Designer's working environment is very friendly. The circuits are built using
block diagrams. Designer provides the ability to easily analyze the whole circuit by providing the
transmission line tool, ABCD parameters matrix, S parameters matrix, and the Z and Y matrices.
XXX

This project uses the Ansoft Designer to implement three different kinds of filters;
stepped impedance, coupled line and capacitively coupled filters. The designs contain ideal and
practical transmission lines such as stripline, microstrip line and coplanar waveguides. The
theory behind each kind of filters and transmission lines is introduced first, and then the results
of some practical filters are presented and discussed.

2.2.7 S-Parameters
The set of two-port parameters used for high frequency signals are known as the
scattering parameters, S-parameters. The input and output parameters are known as the incident
and reflected parameters respectively. S-parameters are normalised to the characteristic
impedance of the system. Fig-2.7 shows the S-parameters of a two port network.

XXXI

Fig- 2.9: A two port network.


S11 is the reflection coefficient seen at port 1.
S22 is the reflection coefficient seen at port 2.
S21 is the transmission coefficient from port 1 to port 2.
S12 is the transmission coefficient from port 2 to port 1.

XXXII

CHAPTER 3:
Microwave Low-pass Filter Design

3.1 Introduction
Microwave filter are two-port network, reciprocal, passive, linear device which attenuate
heavily the unwanted signal frequencies while permitting transmission of wanted frequencies.
The type of construction of this filter is a reflective filter which is consists of capacitive and
inductive elements producing ideally zero reflection loss in the pass band region and very high
XXXIII

attenuation in the stop band region. The practical filters have small non-zero attenuation in the
pass band a small signal output in the attenuation or stop band due to the presence of resistive
losses in reactive elements of propagating medium. The proposed Microstrip Stepped-Impedance
lowpass filter is designed for 2.5 GHz operating frequency which is suitable for ISM band
(Industry, Scientific and Medical) with attenuation at 3 GHz stop bandwidth

The stepped impedance distribution element filter is one of the most popular stripline and
microstrip filter configurations used in the lower microwave frequencies. It is easy to
manufacture because it has open-circuited ends and it is easy to design. Sripline and Microstrip
filters play an important role in many RF applications. As technologies advances, more stringent
requirements for filters are required. One of the requirements is compactness of filters.

3.2

Practical Filter Designs


The lumped-element filter design generally works at low frequencies, but two problems

arise at microwave frequencies. First, lumped elements such as inductors and capacitors are
generally available only for a limited range of values and are difficult to implement at
microwave frequencies, but must be approximated with distributed components. In addition, at
microwave frequencies the distances between filter components is not negligible. Richard's
transformation is used to convert lumped elements to transmission line sections, while Kuroda's
identities can be used to separate filter elements by using transmission line sections. Because
such additional transmission line sections do not affect the filter response, this type of design is
called redundant filter synthesis. It is possible to design microwave filters that take the
advantage of these sections to improve the filter response; such nonredundant synthesis does not
have a lumped element counterpart.

3.3

Low-Pass Filter Design Using Stubs.


First, the design of the lumped element circuit with the required response is performed

using the insertion loss method (maximally flat or equal ripple for example). The next step is to
use Richard's transformation to convert series inductors to series stubs, and shunt capacitors to
shunt tubs. The characteristic impedance of a series stub (inductor) is L, and the characteristic
XXXIV

impedance of a shunt stub (capacitor) is 1/C. For commensurate line synthesis, all stubs are /8
long at = c (cutoff frequency). It is more convenient to work with normalized quantities until
the last step in the design [6].

Because series stubs would be very difficult to implement in practice, one of the Kuroda
identities is used to convert these to shunt stubs. In order to do this, unit elements (/8 long at
c) are added at either end of the filter. These redundant elements do not affect filter
performance since they are matched to the source and load. Then we can apply Kuroda identity
to both ends of filter.

Finally, the circuit is impedance and frequency scaled. By doing that, the desired response is
obtained in the passband of the filter, but it will be repeated periodically because of the nature of
Richard's transformation.

3.4

Low-Pass Filters Using Stepped-Impedance


One way to implement low-pass filters is to use microstrip or stripline lines of alternating

high and low characteristic impedance. Such filters are called stepped impedance filters; they are
easy to design and take up less space compared to filters using stubs. Due to their nature, highest
and lowest feasible impedance transmission lines, their performance is lower than that of stub
filters. They are used when sharp cut-off is not required.

There are numerous equivalent circuits for a short section of a transmission line.
Tequivalent circuit is an example of an equivalent circuit for a short transmission line section.
For a transmission line section with electrical length much smaller than

radians, if it has

large characteristic impedance it represents an inductor; if it has small characteristic impedance it


represents a capacitor. Therefore series inductor of low-pass prototype filter can be replaced with
high impedance transmission line section, and shunt capacitor with low impedance section. The
ratio of the impedances should be as high as possible.

XXXV

3.5 Transmission Line filter design Steps

Specifications

Selection type of
filter

Design a Simulation

Filter Response

Final Layout
Fig-3.1: Transmission Lines filter design steps.
The filter design steps are as follows:
1. Determine the number of sections from the specification characteristics for Stripline and
microstrip parameters e.g. orders (n), Substrate Name (R04003), Relative permittivity of
substrate (

, Thickness of substrate, TAND etc.

2. This is for selecting step of low-pass filter. And determine the stripline and microstrip
Transmission lines Width (W) and Length (P) by TRL calculation.
3. Design a simulation of low pass filter by using that transmission lines Width and Length.
4. This step is for show the filter response by Maximally flat response.
5. Final layout is for comparing with the ideal response of Low-pass filter.

3.6 Capacitively Coupled Bandpass Filters:


Another type of bandpass Filter that can be conveniently fabricated in microstip or stripline
from is the capacitive-gap coupled resonator filler . An Nth order filter of his form will use

XXXVI

resonant sections of transmission line with N+ 1 capacitive gap between them. These gaps can be
approximated as series capacitors ; design data relating the capacitance to the gap size and
transmission line parameters is given in graphical form in reference . The filter can then be
modeled .The resonator are approximately /2 long at the center frequency

Next, we redraw

the equivalent circuit with negative-length transmission line sections on either side of the series
capacitors. The lines of length

will be /2 long at

. so the electrical length,

of the itch

section [6].

with

<0. The reason for doing this is that the combination of series capacitor and negative-

length transmission Iines forms the equivaient circuit of an admittance inverier. In order for this
equivalence to be valid, the following

Fig-3.2: Capacitively coupled resonators.

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Fig-3.3: Development of an equivalence of a capacitive-gap coupled resonator bandpass filter to


the coupled line bandpass filter.
Where,

XXXVIII

3.7

MICROWAVE LOW-PASS FILTERS DESIGN PROCEDURE

3.7.1 THE SIX ELEMENTS MAXIMALLY-FLAT (BUTTERWORTH) LOW-PASS FILTER.


The 6-elements maximally (Butterworth) flat low-pass filters with

Maximally flat Filter response

Cutoff frequency = 2.5GHz

20dB insertion loss at 4GHz

The values of Low Impedance and High Impedance

Implementation= Stepped Impedance

Order n= 6

= 10 &

= 150

Design data in normalised form of Butterworth Low-pass filters [8, 10].

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Table-1: Design data in normalized form for Butterworth Low-pass Filters.

By referring to the design data of Butterworth low-pass filter in Table 1, the Butterworth
prototype filter will be realized. The filter prototype shows in Fig-3.4

Fig-3.4: Six-Element Prototype Butterworth low-pass filter.

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The prototype values also called the normalized values, the normalized value then
changed into the actual value by denormalized the value of prototype.

Element

Normalize Element Value

(Capacitor 1)

0.5176

(Inductor 2)

1.4142

(Capacitor 3)

1.9318

(Inductor 4)

1.9318

(Capacitor 5)

1.4142

(Inductor 6)

0.5176

Table-2: Lumped prototype values.


And the values of denormalising should be multiply C elements by 1/(Zoc), and L elements by
Zo/c by taking Zo is 50 , and
c = 2(2.5 x
=5

Where,
Zo is value of source and load termination and fc the value of cut-off frequency (2.5 GHz).
And the actual values after denormalisation are;

= 6.5826 pF

= 2.4599 pF

= 1.8004 pF
XLI

= 4.5009 nH

= 6.1497 nH

)
= 1.6457 nH

Fig-3.5: The lumped element circuit of Butterworth Low-pass filters.

Element

Normalised Element

Actual Element Value

Value
(Capacitor 1)

0.5176

6.5826 pF

(Inductor 2)

1.4142

4.5009 nH

(Capacitor 3)

1.9318

2.4599 pF

(Inductor 4)

1.9318

6.1497 nH

(Capacitor 5)

1.4142

1.8004 pF

(Inductor 6)

0.5176

1.6457 nH

Table 3: Actual values of elements


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3.7.2 TRANSFORMATION LUMPED TO DISTRIBUTED ELEMENTS

The values of Low Impedance (ZL = 10 )

3.7.2.1

Capacitances

Where o is open air wavelength and c is a velocity of light (3 x


effective relative permittivity (re) of capacitances 2.09.
re = 2.1;

ZL = 10 ZH = 150

Capacitor 1 (C1 = 6.5826 pF)


Length (mm)

=1.348mm

Electrical length parameter (le)

Width (W) = 5.01718 mm


Length (P) = 1.35619 mm
XLIII

). The value of

Capacitor 3 (C3 = 2.4599 pF)


Length (mm)

= 5.036mm

Electrical length parameter (le)

Width (W) = 5.01718 mm


Length (P) = 5.07997 mm

Capacitor 5 (C5 = 0.9836 pF)


Length (mm)

= 3.686mm

Electrical length parameter (le)

Width (W) = 5.01718 mm


Length (P) = 3.72378 mm

XLIV

The Values of High Impedances (ZH = 90 )

3.7.2.2

Inductances

Inductor 2 (L2 = 6.4378 nH)


Length (mm)

= 6.145 mm

Electrical length parameter (le)

Width (W) = 0.0411856 mm


Length (P) = 6.20629 mm

Inductor 4 (L4 = 6.1497nH)


Length (mm)

= 8.396 mm

Electrical length parameter (le)

XLV

Width (W) = 0.0411856 mm


Length (P) = 8.40194 mm

Inductor 6 (L6 = 1.6457nH)


Length (mm)

= 2.277 mm

Electrical length parameter (le)

Width (W) = 0.0411856 mm


Length (P) = 2.27564 mm
Element

Normalised Element

Actual Element Value

Transmission lines Width

Value
(Capacitor 1)

& Length

0.5176

6.5826 pF

Width (W) =5.01718mm


Length (P) =1.35619mm

(Inductor 2)

1.4142

4.5009 nH

Width (W)=0.0411856mm
Length (P) =6.20629mm

(Capacitor 3)

1.9318

2.4599 pF

Width (W) =5.01718mm


Length (P) =5.07997mm

(Inductor 4)

1.9318

6.1497 nH

Width (W)=0.0411856mm
Length (P) =8.40194mm

(Capacitor 5)

1.4142

1.8004 pF

Width (W)=5.01718mm
Length (P) =3.72378mm

(Inductor 6)

0.5176

1.6457 nH

Width (W)=0.0411856mm
Length (P) =2.27564mm

Table-4: Transmission lines width (W) and Length (P).


XLVI

3.7.3 Results and Discussion


Stepped Impedance Low-Pass Filters
In this section, we need to design a filter that has a maximally flat response and a cutoff
frequency of 2.5 GHz. It is necessary to have more than 20 dB insertion loss at 4.0 GHz. The
filter impedance is 50 , with Zh=150 & Zl=10.

3.7.3.1 Low-pass Filter using Lumped Elements


Fig. 3.6 shows the filter realized using lumped elements. Fig. 3.7 shows the insertion loss
of this filter obtained using Ansoft Designer. It can be clearly seen that the filter satisfies all the
required specifications.

Fig- 3.6: Lumped elements low-pass filter

Fig- 3.7: Lumped elements low-pass filter response.


XLVII

3.7.3.2 Low-pass Filter using Stripline


Now, we need to implement the filter using stripline technology, with the following
specification:

Substrate:

Substrate Name = R04003

Substrate type = Stripline

Relative Permittivity of substrate

Thickness of substrate =1mm

TAND = 0.0027

= 2.1

Here n = 6

Metallization:

Copper

Resistivity = 1.724137931 .cm

Thickness = 0.675 mil

Roughness = 0.1 mil

Fig- 3.8 shows the realized low-pass filter as it is analyzed using Designer. Fig- 3.9
shows the insertion loss which still meets the required specifications.

Fig- 3.8: Stepped impedance low-pass filter using stripline


XLVIII

Fig- 3.9: Stepped impedance low-pass filter response using stripline.

3.7.3.3 Microstrip line


Now, we need to implement the filter using microstrip technology, with the following
specification:

Substrate:

Substrate Name = R04003

Substrate type = Microstrip line

Relative Permittivity of substrate

Thickness of substrate =1mm

TAND = 0.0027

= 9.8

Here n = 6

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Metallization:

Copper

Resistivity = 1.724137931 .cm

Thickness = 0.675 mil

Roughness = 0.1 mil

Fig- 3.10: Stepped impedance low-pass filter using microstrip line

Fig- 3.11: Stepped impedance low-pass filter response using microtrip line.

Figures 3.12 and 3.13 show the structure and response of another microstrip filter
realized using different type of substrate having:

Substrate:

Substrate Name = R04003

Substrate type = Microstrip line

Relative Permittivity of substrate

Thickness of substrate = 2mm

TAND = 0.0027

=2

Here n = 6

Metallization:

Copper

Resistivity = 1.724137931 .cm

Thickness = 0.675 mil

Roughness = 0.1 mil

Fig- 3.12: Stepped impedance low-pass filter using microstrip line.

LI

Fig-3.13: Stepped impedance low-pass filter response using microstrip line.

3.8

Discussion

Microwave filters can be divided into two main different types, lumped or distributed. Lumped
elements consist of discrete elements, such as inductors and capacitors, while distributed
elements use the lengths and widths of transmission lines to create their inductive or capacitive
values Lumped elements are very small compared to the wavelength, while distributed elements
usually are in the order of the wavelength. At high frequencies (GHz or higher) the wavelength is
so short that only distributed elements are possible to practically realize, while at low frequencies
lumped elements are used due to the fact that distributed elements become too large.

From the previous results, it can be seen that we were able to implement stepped impedance
low pass filters using both stripline and microstrip lines. We couldnt implement low pass filters
using shunt stubs due to the large variation of the values of the characteristic impedances of the
lines. From figures 3.7, 3.9, 3.11 it is clear that the passband characteristics of all types are very
LII

similar but the lumped element circuit gives the sharpest attenuation at higher frequencies.
Stripline filters have the least attenuation at higher frequencies. This is because stepped
impedance filter elements depart significantly from the lumped-element values at the higher
frequencies.

Fig-3.9 shows that when using the stripline filter, we couldn't obtain more than 20dB
insertion loss at 4 GHz. Unfortunately, we couldn't implement this kind of filter using CPW. It
was impossible to get practically high characteristic impedances. The stepped impedance filter
may have other passbands at higher frequencies, but the response will not be perfectly periodic
because the lines are not commensurate. Finally, it is worth mentioning that the discontinuity
effect of the step was not taken into account in our design.

LIII

CHAPTER 4:
Microwave Band-pass Filter Design

LIV

4.1

Introduction
In this paper design and simulation of an edge-coupled bandpass filter realized in

stripline technology is presented. The presented process includes the estimation of filter
parameters using analytical formulas, the simulation of ideal and stripline transmission line
models in a circuit simulator. Stripline circuit uses a flat strip of metal which is sandwiched
between two parallel ground planes. The insulating material of the substrate forms a dielectric
[11].

These transmission lines are compact capacitively-coupled stripline is used instead of


microstrip line as because stripline does not suffer from dispersion losses and its propagation
mode is TEM mode. Hence it is the preferred structured for coupled-line filters. Stripline is much
harder fabricate than microstrip, and because of the second ground plane, the strip widths are
much narrower for a given impedance and board thickness than for microstrip line. We describe
the design and simulation of a stripline bandpass filter with Chebyshev filter response. The
process of designing the filter includes the usage of formulations, Ansoft Designer v2.2 as the
circuit simulator. A bandpass filter is an important component must be found in the transmitter or
receiver.Bandpass filter is a passive component which is able to select signals inside a specific
bandwidth at a certain center frequency and reject signals in another frequency region, especially
in frequency regions, which have the potential to interfere the information signals. In designing
the bandpass filter, we are faced the questions, what is the maximal loss inside the pass region,
and the minimal attenuation in the reject/stop regions, and how the filter characteristics must
look like in transition regions.The development of the frequency bands in microwave filter, play
an important role in many microwave applications.

LV

4.2

Coupled line bandpass filter

EVEN AND ODD MODES IN A COUPLED TRANSMISSION LINE:


Calculation of Odd and Even Resistances to design the ideal transmission line bandpass filter, an
approximate calculation is made based on the design equations. The no of stages (n) = 3. The
characteristic impedance Z0 is typically 50 Ohms. The unitary bandwidth BW is given by

Where, FBW=

is the fractional

For j=1 to n-1

Where g0, g1 gn are the element of a ladder-type low-pass prototype with a Normalized cutoff
c = 1, and FBW is the fractional bandwidth of band-pass filter. J j, j+1 are the characteristic
admittances of J-inverters and

is the characteristic admittance of the terminating lines. The

equation above will be used in end-coupled line filter because the both types of filter can have
the same low-pass network representation.
To realize the J-inverters obtained above, the even- and odd-mode characteristic impedances of
the coupled strip line band pass filter are determined by

for j = 0 to n

for j = 0 to n
LVI

The filter to be designed has a 0.5 dB equal-ripple response with N=3. The center frequency is
2.0 GHz, the bandwidth is 20%, and Z0=50 .
Using 0.5 equal ripple table we get the following table:
N

gn

ZoJn

Zoe

Zo0

1.5963

0.3137

70.61

39.24

1.0967

0.1187

56.64

44.77

1.5963

0.1187

56.64

44.77

0.3137

70.61

39.24

Table-5: 0.5 equal ripple table.

4.3

Ideal Transmission Lines

In this section we discuss and compare the results obtained from Ansoft Designer SV2.2
Simulation Software.
In order to achieve the impedance pair (Zoe) = 70.61 , and (Zoo) = 39.24 , we built a table and
which match the values of the impedance pair.

Fig 4-1: Coupled Line bandpass filter using ideal transmission line.

LVII

Fig 4.2: Coupled Line bandpass filter response using ideal transmission line.

Fig 4.3- : Coupled Line bandpass filter response using ideal transmission line.
As predicted, the simulation in Ansoft Designer the pass band center frequency by about 2 GHz.
LVIII

The overall performance of edge-coupled strip line band-pass filter can often be judged by its
simulated insertion loss and return loss result response. All simulated results are nearly identical
with the calculated results and also they are good agreement to the design specifications. Design
a capacitively-coupled strip line band-pass filter centered at 2 GHz. with a 0.2 GHz bandwidth
based on Chebyshev approximation.

4.4

Capacitively coupled BPF using Stripline


Substrate:

Relative permittivity

= 13

Thickness = 3.6mm.

Metallization:
Copper
Resistivity = 1.724137931 .cm
Thickness = 0.675 mil

TX Line
W=0.417mm

Gap
G1=0.04155mm
G2=0.5925
G3=0.5925
G4=0.1mm

LIX

Fig 4.4: Capacitively coupled bandpass filter using stripline.

Fig 4.5: Capacitively coupled bandpass filter response using stripline.

The simulation in Ansoft Designer the pass band center frequency by about 2 GHz and signal
pass 1.75 to 2.15.

LX

4.5

Discussion
Bandpass filter can be implemented using stripline & microstrip line. The coupled line

bandpass filter used for narrow bandwidth. Wider bandwidth filters require very tightly coupled
lines which are difficult to fabricate.
The simulation in Ansoft Designer the pass band center frequency by about 2 GHz. The
overall performance of edge-coupled strip line band-pass filter can often be judged by its
simulated insertion loss and return loss result response. All simulated results are nearly identical
with the calculated results and also they are good agreement to the design specifications. Design
an edge-coupled strip line band-pass filter centered at 2 GHz. with a 0.2 GHz bandwidth based
on Chebyshev approximation.

Fig- 4.5, show that all the types of transmission lines used in the designs met the
attenuation requirements at 2.2 GHz. The stopbands were all similar. It appears that the
microstrip filter has the worst passband response where an attenuation of 5.4 dB, instead of 0 dB,
appeared at 1.87GHz. The stripline filter passband response was better.

LXI

4.6

Conclusion
The Insertion loss technique was implement for an efficient method to design microwave

filters with modern simulation software, using standard techniques of many microwave designed
has been reviewed. Two types of filters were studied and implemented using stripline, microstrip
line. Based on the results obtained, the designs using these transmission lines were discussed.
Ansoft Designer was used to accurately arrive at the final design of microwave Low-pass and
Band-pass filters.
The first type is the stepped impedance low-pass filter. Its components and simplicity of
design make it preferably over shunt stubs filters. Because of the approximation involved,
however, its electrical performance is not as good, so the use of such filters is usually limited to
applications where sharp cutoff is not required.
The coupled line filter is a bandpass filter used for narrow bandwidth. Wider bandwidth
filters require very tightly coupled lines which are difficult to fabricate. One advantage of this
type over the capacitively coupled is the smaller size; it uses quarter wave instead of half wave
resonators.

LXII

References

LXIII

[1]. Rahani Abdullah, CAD and Characterisation of Microstrip Low-Pass Filter,


Beng. (Hons.) thesis, ITM Shah Alam, Oct. 1997.
[2]. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. MTI -32, NO.
9, SEPTEMBER 1984.

[3]. M. Young, The Technical Writer's Handbook, Mill Valley, CA: University Science, 1989.

[4].http://www.qsl.net/va3iul/Microstrip_Stripline_CPW_Design/Microstrip_Stripline_and_CP
W_Design.pdf
[5]. zulsidi.tripod.com/ThesisLPFDraf.pdf
[6]. D. M. Pozar, Microwave Engineering, Second Edition, Wiley and Sons, 1998.

[7]. http://www.ittc.ku.edu/~jstiles/723/handouts/The%20Insertion%20Loss%20Method.pdf
[8]. D.M. Pozar, Microwave Engineering, Addison-Wesley, pp. 477-478, 1990.
[9]. Zaiki Awang, RF and Microwave Design, Monograph, Faculty of Electrical Engineering,
ITM, Shah Alam, 1997.
[10]. Meadow R.G., Problem in Electrical Circuit Theory,1983.
[11]. Kuo, J.-T., and Shih, E.: Microstrip stepped impedance resonator bandpass filter with an
extended optimal rejection bandwidth, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., 2003, 51,(15),
pp. 11541159.

LXIV