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REFERENCIA

GRAMATICAL
4 E.S.O.
curso 2012 13

rea: Lengua Extranjera (Ingls)


Profesor: Jos del Campo

PASSIVE VOICE
La voz pasiva es una transformacin oracional en la que se enfoca la oracin de
una forma diferente. Existen, en ingls, tres tipos de transformacin pasiva:
1 tipo
Oraciones con 1 objeto (directo)
Activa:

Sujeto + Verbo + Obj. Directo + Complementos

Pasiva:

Sujeto + Verbo + Complementos + (by- complement)


(paciente)

(en voz pasiva)

(cuando es necesario)

2 tipo
Oraciones con 2 objetos (indirecto + directo)
1 forma:
Activa:

Sujeto + Verbo + Obj. indirecto + O. Directo + Comp

Pasiva:

Sujeto + Verbo + O. Directo + C. + (by- complement)


(paciente)

(en voz pasiva)

(cuando es necesario)

2 forma:
Activa:

Sujeto + Verbo + Obj. indirecto + O. Directo + Comp

Pasiva:

Sujeto + Verbo + to O. Ind. + C. + (by- complement)


(paciente)

(en voz pasiva)

(cuando es necesario)

3 Tipo
Oraciones de sujeto indefinido y construccin de infinitivo
1 forma:
Activa:

Suj. Indef. + verbo de con. o pens. + That clause

Pasiva:

It + verbo en pasiva + That clause

2 forma:
Activa:

Suj. Indef. + verbo de con. o pens. + That clause

Pasiva:

Sujeto de la that-clause + verbo en pasiva + Infinitivo del


verbo de la that clause + complem.

Transformacin del verbo en voz pasiva

To be + Participio
(en el mismo tiempo que
el verbo de la voz activa)

(del verbo de la voz activa)

Cuadro de verbos
Tiempos verbales

Voz Activa

Voz Pasiva

Pr. Simple

Paints

Is painted

Pr. Continuo

Am / is / are painting

Am / is / are being painted

Pr. Perfecto

Have / has painted

Have / has been painted

Pas. Simple

painted

Was / were painted

Pas. Continuo

Was / were painting

Was / were being painted

Pas. Perfecto

Had painted

Had been painted

Fut. Simple

Will paint

Fut. Inmediato

Am / is / are going to paint

Condicional

Would paint

Will be painted
Am / is / are going to be
painted
Would be painted

Ejemplos:
1 tipo
Activa: Someone switched the light on.
Pasiva: The light was switched on.
Activa: William the conqueror built this castle
Pasiva: This castle was built by William the conqueror
2 tipo
Activa: They gave her a present in the party
Pasiva: She was given a present in the party
Pasiva: A present was given to her in the party
Activa: John will buy me a watch tomorrow.
Pasiva: I will be bought a watch tomorrow by John.
Pasiva: A watch will be bought to me tomorrow by John.
3 tipo
Activa: People say that John lives in Britain
Pasiva: It is said that John lives in Britain
Pasiva: John is said to live in Britain

REPORTED SPEECH
El estilo indirecto se utiliza para expresar lo que alguien dijo literalmente de una
forma distinta, con nuestras propias palabras. Es muy utilizado en el lenguaje
coloquial.
En el estilo indirecto se producen una serie de transformaciones dentro de la
oracin que pasaremos a detallar seguidamente:
1 transformacin: verbal
Los verbos del estilo directo (que suele ir entre comillas), cambian a un tiempo
anterior al transformar la frase:
Estilo Directo

Estilo Indirecto

Pr. Simple

Pas. Simple

Pr. Continuo

Pas. Continuo

Pr. Perfecto

Pas. Perfecto

Pas. Simple

Pas. Perfecto

Pas. Perfecto

Pas. Perfecto

Futuro simple
Condicional

Condicional
Condicional perfecto

(would + infinitivo sin to)

(would have + participio)

2 transformacin: pronominal
Tanto los posesivos como los pronombres personales experimentan un cambio
en el estilo indirecto que est relacionado con la persona a la que se dirige la
oracin; por tanto, la transformacin va a depender del objeto o persona a
quien se dirija la oracin.
3 transformacin: adverbial
Los adverbios de lugar y tiempo en el estilo indirecto cambian del siguiente
modo:
ESTILO DIRECTO

ESTILO INDIRECTO

Here

There

This

That

Now

Then

Today

That day

Tomorrow

The following day

Yesterday

The previous day

Next day

The following day

Last day

The previous day

Statements (Oraciones Enunciativas)

Sujeto + said / told + that + oracin en est. indirecto


Ejemplo:
Est. Directo:
Est. Indirecto:

I am going home
She said that she was going home

Est. Directo:
Est. Indirecto:

My brother said I will see you tomorrow


My brother said that he would see me the following day.

Questions (oraciones interrogativas)

Sujeto + asked / wondered + if / wh- question + oracin en est. indirecto


En estas oraciones hay que distinguir entre las que llamamos interrogativas
polares (yes/no questions, aquellas en las que la respuesta es s o no) e
interrogativas informativas (wh- questions, las que el que pregunta solicita
informacin concreta. stas van introducidas por un pronombre o determinante
interrogativo, wh word).
En las polares, el verbo que introduce la oracin de estilo indirecto ser ask,
wonder, principalmente; tras el verbo introductorio, colocamos un if para
presentar la oracin indirecta. En las informativas, no se pone if sino que
introduce la frase el mismo pronombre interrogativo (wh- element) del estilo
directo.
Adems de los cambios que ya hemos visto (pronominal, verbal, adverbial),
en las questions se produce un cambio de orden en la frase: del orden
interrogativo de la oracin de estilo directo pasamos a un orden enunciativo en
el estilo indirecto.
Ejemplos:
Est. Directo:
Est. Indirecto:

John said do you want a drink?


John asked if I wanted a drink.

Est. Directo:
Est. Indirecto:

The policeman said what are you doing?


The policeman asked what they were doing.

Command & Request (oraciones imperativas)

Sujeto + verbo de orden y peticin + objeto indirecto + infinitivo + compl.


Pasamos en el estilo directo de una oracin imperativa a una construccin de
infinitivo en el estilo indirecto; si la D.S. fuera negativa (dont + base form),
negaremos la construccin de infinitivo con not.
Utilizamos como verbos de orden y peticin para introducir la RS los siguientes:
Ordered, commanded, asked, invited, warned, advised, begged, suggested, recommended
(ordenar)

(mandar)

(pedir) (invitar)

(advertir) (avisar)

(suplicar) (sugerir)

(recomendar)

Ejemplos:
Est. Directo:
Est. Indirecto:
Est. Directo:
Est. Indirecto:

Would you like to drink a coke, Peter?


John invited Peter to drink a coke.
The policeman said, Get out of the car!
The policeman ordered me to get out of the car.
CONDITIONAL SENTENCES
IF CLAUSE

MAIN CLAUSE

UNIVERSAL STATEMENT

Present

1ST TYPE

Present

2ND TYPE

Past

3RD TYPE

Past Perfect

Present
Will + infinitive
Can + infinitive
Imperative
Conditional
(would + infinitive)
Perfect conditional
(would have + participle)

PASSIVE VOICE
1. They are going to say that you havent been here.
2. Last year a profit of two million pounds was made in the first six months but it was
cancelled by a loss of seventeen million pounds.
3. Why did you buy so horrible jeans?
4. Somebody has given me many presents.
5. The ship was put into quarantine and passengers and crew were forbidden to land.
6. This rumour must have been started by our opponents.
7. Government is being said to spend too little money on roads.
8. I was invited to go to the party.
9. The rocket is said to have landed on the sea.
10. They showed her the easiest way to do it.
11. Your money could be put to good use instead of being left idle in the bank.
12. That boy is believed to have thrown the stones.
13. They told her the most important thing to do.
14. The lawyer gave him the details of his uncles will.
15. We will not admit children under sixteen.
16. Football can bring a lot of benefits here.
17. We will be given the things we need.
18. Nothing is known about the missing car.
19. They were rescued at 9.40 by a man in a fishing boat.
20. Someone is thought to have started the fire deliberately.
21. Nobody knows anything about Brendas family.
22. Most of the guests had left the hotel by midday.
23. Nobody had been sent an invitation when I realised.
24. They havent decided the exact time of the match yet.
25. Chris is said to have been in the army.
26. You were shown the different messages.
27. She will be given the most important present.
28. People say that the council will improve our town.
29. They are going to repair all the damage.
30. They sent Mr Smith eighty pounds in order to pay the fine.
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RELATIVE CLAUSES
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The person ________ fingerprints are on the gun was the person ________ killed Dr. Martin.
My bike, ________ I had left at the gate, had disappeared.
The shoes ________ I finally bought were the ones _______ I tried on first.
The bag in _______ the robbers put the money was found outside the bank.
The medicine ______ the doctor gave me had no effect at all.
Peter, ______ couldnt see the screen, decided to change his seat.
The present ______ you gave me yesterday was the one ________ I gave you last year!
I really liked that tea _______ you made me this morning.
What was the name of your friend _______ tent we borrowed?
The flight _______ Joe was leaving on was cancelled.
This is a photo of someone______________I met while I was on holiday.
Are you the person_____________called me late last night?
Id like to talk to someone____________has visited China.
Nobody knows__________left this parcel here this morning.
John is the only person in this office____________I can trust.
When I find out___________did this, there will be trouble.
She is the person____________owns that black dog.
The police officer__________I spoke to before isnt on duty today.
The job _______ he got wasnt very interesting.
A woman _______ my sister knows has bought our house.
Im sorry for people _______ havent got a sense of humour.
I saw a girl _______ beauty took my breath away.
Actually, there is a problem _______ worries me.
This is Peter Taylor, _______ works with my sister.
What do you think of the wine _______ we drank last night?
Ive got a friend _______ collect stamps.
A good builder is one _______ houses dont fall down.
This is the switch _______ isnt working.

CONDITIONAL SENTENCES
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Rachel would have passed the exam if she ________________ (study)


I would buy a Ferrari if I ______________ (have) money.
If he had seen the bank robbery he __________________ (advise) the police.
If we didnt invite Mick, he ________________ (feel) very bad.
Peter will not help you if you _________________ (not ask) him.
If I see him I (give) ___________________ him a surprise.
If we (have) _____________________ a map we would have been all right.
If I (know) ____________________ his address I would give it to you.
If he (work) ____________________ more slowly, he wouldnt make so many mistakes.
Well go out later if it (stop) _________________ raining
If I (have) __________________ more money, I would buy a new car.
Do you want to watch TV? I (switch) _________________ it on if you do.
If I (take) ____________________ my umbrella with me, I wouldnt have got wet.
If I hadnt gone out, I (not catch) ____________________ a cold.
I (need) ____________________ some money if we go out tonight.
If I (have) ____________________ the keys, I (show) ______________ you the cellar.
If I (not practise) ____________________, I wont pass my exam.
If we had gone earlier, we (have) ____________________ better weather.
If Matthew (phone) ____________________ her, Emma wouldnt have been so annoyed.
If Andrew (not work) ____________________ all the time, he wouldnt be so boring.
If you press this switch, the compute (come) ____________________ on.
Id get fat If I (eat) ____________________ cake.
If the children go near Nicks dog, it (bite) ____________________ them.
The team would have won if Jones ___________________ (play) better.
If Bell hadnt invented the telephone, somebody else ___________________ (do) it.
If she ___________________ (come) later again shell lose her job.
If we won the lottery, we ___________________ (give) you half the money.
Oil ___________________(float), if you pour it on water.
If you eat less you ___________________ (not get) fat.
If Jane practised more she___________________ (be) the best in the school.
If the storm becomes worse we ___________________ (have to go) home.
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REPORTED SPEECH

Statements
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The journalist told , A man threw a bomb at the Prime Minister yesterday
Sarah told me, I wont pass my exam tomorrow
I said, He hasnt got much sense of humour
I went to New York last summer
Im looking for a better job
My sister doesnt live in England
Ill come with you tomorrow, she replied.
We have a lift but very often it doesnt work, they said.
I dont like classical music
I will phone you later
Ill see you in the morning, Helen
I can resist everything except temptation (Oscar Wilde)

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I told the clerk, Can I pay by cheque?


Peter said to the collector, When does the last train leave?
The teacher told, How many books does he want?
My girlfriend said to me, Do they like me?
Where do you work?
Are you on holiday in England?
When did you arrive here?
Do you like English food?
Will you have time to play regularly?, he went on.
How long have you lived in London?
Did you have a good journey?
Does this car belong to you?
Who did you go to the cinema with?
Are you doing anything this weekend?
My parents asked me, What time did you get home last night?
Helen asked me, Did you see the film yesterday?

Questions

Commands & Requests


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She said, Peter, close the door, please


She said, Would you like to drink a coke, John?
He told me, You should show the doctor that knee
I could post this letter for you
Dont switch off the TV
You should take more exercise
Please fill up this form
I wont drive too fast
Stop your car immediately
Dont go with this bad-looking boy from England!
Dont forget to post my letter, Sue, please
Peter, you mustnt open that letter because it is not yours.