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Wave Motion

CHAPTER OUTLINE

16.1

Propagation of a Disturbance

16.2

16.3

16.4

16.5

16.6

OQ16.1

(i)

Answer (a). As the wave passes from the massive string to the

less massive string, the wave speed will increase according to

T

v=

.

(ii)

which crests come up to the boundary is the same rate at which

they leave the boundary.

OQ16.2

OQ16.3

(i)

(ii)

Answer (b). Greater linear density makes the wave move more

slowly.

(i)

The ranking is (c) = (d) > (e) > (b) > (a). Look at the coefficients

of the sine and cosine functions: (a) 4, (b) 6, (c) 8, (d) 8, (e) 7.

(ii)

The ranking is (c) > (a) = (b) > (d) > (e). Look at the coefficients

of x. Each is the wave number, 2/, so the smallest k goes with

854

2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Chapter 16

855

(iii) The ranking is (e) > (d) > (a) = (b) = (c). Look at the coefficients

of t. The absolute value of each is the angular frequency = 2 f.

(iv) The ranking is (a) = (b) = (c) > (d) > (e). Period is the reciprocal

of frequency, so the ranking is the reverse of that in part (iii).

(v)

OQ16.4

The ranking is (c) > (a) = (b) = (d) > (e). From v = f = / k, we

compute the absolute value of the ratio of the coefficient of t to

the coefficient of x in each case: (a) 5, (b) 5, (c) 7.5, (d) 5, (e) 4.

T

, we must increase the tension by a factor

of 4 to make v double.

OQ16.5

of linear density.

OQ16.6

wave of a single frequency. In general, a wave can be a superposition

of many sinusoidal waves.

OQ16.7

(a) through (d): Yes to all. The maximum element speed and the

wave speed are related by vy ,max = A = 2 fA = 2 vA / . Thus the

amplitude or the wavelength of the wave can be adjusted to make

either vy, max or v larger.

OQ16.8

frequency, wave speed, and the square of its amplitude. If the

frequency does not change, the amplitude is increased by a factor of

2. The wave speed does not change.

OQ16.9

wavelength: = 2 m, and the frequency is 4 Hz. The frequency,

wavelength, and speed of a wave are related by the equation f = v.

CQ16.1

their propagation. Transverse waves require a restoring force in

response to shear strain. Fluids do not have the underlying structure

to supply such a force. A fluid cannot support static shear. A viscous

fluid can temporarily be put under shear, but the higher its viscosity

the more quickly it converts kinetic energy into internal energy. A

local vibration imposed on it is strongly damped, and not a source of

wave propagation.

2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

856

Wave Motion

CQ16.2

The type of wave you generate depends upon the direction of the

disturbance (vibration) you generate and the direction of its travel

(propagation).

(a)

few coils back and release.

(b)

CQ16.3

dense string, the reflected part of the wave will be right side up. A

wave inverts when it reflects off a medium in which the wave speed

is smaller.

CQ16.4

CQ16.5

Since the frequency is 3 cycles per second, the period is 1/3 second =

333 ms.

CQ16.6

(a) and (b) Each element of the rope must support the weight of the

rope below it. The tension increases with height. (It increases

T

linearly, if the rope does not stretch.) Then the wave speed v =

CQ16.7

As the pulse moves down the string, the elements of the string itself

move side to side. Since the mediumhere, the stringmoves

perpendicular to the direction of wave propagation, the wave is

transverse by definition.

CQ16.8

No. The vertical speed of an element will be the same on any string

because it depends only on frequency and amplitude:

vy ,max = A = 2 fA

The elements of strings with different wave speeds will have the

same maximum vertical speed.

CQ16.9

(a)

two waves at a station at distance d = vsts = vptp from the focus.

1

1

1

Then d = t .

vs v p

(b)

Knowing the distance from the first station places the focus on a

sphere around it. A measurement from a second station limits it

to another sphere, which intersects with the first in a circle. Data

from a third non-collinear station will generally limit the

possibilities to a point.

2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Chapter 16

857

Section 16.1

P16.1

Propagation of a Disturbance

(4.50 km/s)(t + 17.3 s), where t is the travel time for the faster wave.

Then,

or

t=

km s ) ( 17.3 s )

(7.80 4.50)

km s

P16.2

(a)

(b)

(c)

and wavelength as the graph in ANS. FIG. P16.2(a). It

differs just by being shifted toward larger x by 2.40 m.

(d)

858

P16.3

Wave Motion

We obtain a function of the same shape by writing

y ( x,t ) =

( x x 0 )2 + 3

y=

6

( x 4.50t )2 + 3

as it should to describe the wave moving at 4.50 m/s.

P16.4

(a)

moving faster, so it will arrive at point B first.

(b)

at a speed of 7 800 m/s.

Therefore, it takes tP =

6.37 106 m

817 s.

7800 m/s

The Rayleigh wave that travels along the Earths surface must

travel a distance of

3

Therefore, it takes tS =

6.67 106 m

1482 s.

4 500 m/s

Section 16.2

P16.5

y = (0.020 0 m) sin (2.11x 3.62t) = y = A sin (kx t + )

(a)

A = 2.00 cm

Chapter 16

P16.6

(b)

k = 2.11 rad m =

2

= 2.98 m

k

(c)

= 3.62 rad s f =

= 0.576 Hz

2

(d)

v = f =

(a)

859

2 3.62

=

= 1.72 m s

2 k

2.11

(b)

ANS. FIG. P16.6(b) shows the wave from part (a) one-quarter

period later

(c)

larger than the wave in part (a).

(d) ANS. FIG. P16.6(d) shows a wave with wavelength 1.5 times

larger than the wave in part (a).

860

Wave Motion

(e)

ANS. FIG. P16.6(e) shows a wave with frequency 1.5 times larger

than the wave in part (a): The wave appears the same as in ANS.

FIG. P16.6(a) because this is a snapshot of a given moment.

P16.7

f =

40.0 vibrations 4

= Hz

30.0 s

3

v=

425 cm

= 42.5 cm/s

10.0 s

=

P16.8

v 42.5 cm s

=

= 31.9 cm = 0.319 m

f

1.33 Hz

f =

=

=

Hz

12.0 s

12.0 s

12.0

8.00

Therefore, v = f = ( 1.20 m )

Hz = 0.800 m/s .

12.0

P16.9

(a)

function can be written as

Comparing, 10 t 3 x + /4 = kx t + . For constant phase, x

must increase as t increases, so the wave travels in the positive x

direction. Comparing the specific form to the general form, we

find that

10

v= =

=3.33m/s.

k

3

Chapter 16

(b)

861

4

= 5.48 cm

2

= 3 : = 0.667 m

(c)

k=

(d)

vy =

= 2 f = 10 : f = 5.00 Hz

= ( 0.350 ) ( 10 ) cos 10 t 3 x +

t

4

P16.10

P16.11

(a)

(b)

v 20.0 m/s

=

= 4.00 m

f

5.00 s 1

k=

2

2

=

= 1.57 rad/m

4.00 m

(c)

Then

in seconds

(d) The transverse velocity is

y

= A cos ( kx t ) .

t

(e)

ay =

vy

t

[ A cos ( kx t )] = A 2 sin ( kx t )

t

2

862

P16.12

Wave Motion

At time t, the motion at point A, where x = 0, is

At point B, the motion is

3

which implies

15.7xB = ( 15.7 m 1 ) xB =

xB = 0.066 7 m = 6.67 cm

or

P16.13

v ( 1.00 m s )

=

= 0.500 Hz

2.00 m

(a)

f =

(b)

(c)

k=

(d)

y = A sin ( kx t + ) becomes

2

2

=

= m = 3.14 rad m

2.00 m

y = 0.100 sin ( x t )

(e)

y = 0.100 sin ( t )

(f)

(g)

vy =

y

= 0.100 m ( 3.14 s ) cos ( 3.14x m 3.14t s )

t

vy = 0.314 m s .

P16.14

(a)

ANS. FIG. P16.14 shows the y vs. t plot of the given wave.

Chapter 16

(b)

T=

(c)

P16.15

863

2

2

=

= 0.125 s

50.3 s 1

This agrees with the period found in the example in the text.

y = ( 0.120 m ) sin x + 4 t

8

(a)

the velocity:

v=

: v = ( 0.120 ) ( 4 ) cos x + 4 t

8

(b)

a=

v

2

: a = ( 0.120 m ) ( 4 ) sin x + 4 t

8

a ( 0.200 s, 1.60 m ) = 0

P16.16

2

=

: = 16.0 m

8

(c)

k=

(d)

= 4 =

(e)

v=

(a)

2

: T = 0.500 s

T

16.0 m

=

= 32.0 m s

T 0.500 s

harmonic motion.

(b)

= 0.100cos(20.0t 1.00 + )

= 0.100cos ( 20.0t + 2.14 )

so

= 3.18 Hz

2

864

P16.17

Wave Motion

The wave function is: y = 0.25 sin (0.30x 40t) m

Compare this with the general expression y = A sin (kx t):

P16.18

(a)

A = 0.250 m

(b)

= 40.0 rad s

(c)

k = 0.300 rad m

(d)

(e)

40.0 rad s

v = f = =

( 20.9 m ) = 133 m s

2

(f)

(a)

2

2

=

= 20.9 m

k

0.300 rad m

(b)

k=

2

2

=

= 18.0 rad m

0.350 m

(c)

T=

1

1

=

= 0.0833 s

f 12.0/s

(d)

(e)

(f)

y = A sin ( kx + t + ) specializes to

y = ( 0.200 m ) sin ( 18.0 x m + 75.4t s + )

Chapter 16

(g)

865

At x = 0, t = 0 we require

so

y ( x, t ) = 0.200 sin ( 18.0x + 75.4t 0.151) , where x and y are in

meters and t is in seconds.

P16.19

Using the traveling wave model, we can put constants with the right

values into y = A sin ( kx + t + ) to have the mathematical

representation of the wave. We have the same (positive) signs for both

kx and t so that a point of constant phase will be at a decreasing value

of x as t increasesthat is, so that the wave will move to the left.

The amplitude is

k=

2

2

=

= 2.50 m 1

0.800 m

(a)

y(0, 0) = 0. Then the wave function becomes upon substitution of

the constant values for this wave

(b)

If y(x, 0) = 0 at x = 0.100 m, we require

so we must have the phase constant be = 0.250 rad.

Therefore, the wave function for all values of x and t is

y = 0.0800 sin ( 2.50 x + 6.00 t 0.250 ) , where x and y are in

meters and t is in seconds.

P16.20

(a)

We have y i = y ( 0, 0 ) = A sin = 0.0200 m

and vi = v ( 0, 0 ) =

y

t

0, 0

866

Wave Motion

Also, =

2

2

=

= 80.0 s 1 .

T

0.0250 s

Use the identity sin 2 + cos 2 = 1 and the expressions for yi and

vi:

( A sin )2 + ( A cos )2 = 1

A 2 2

A2

( A sin )

2

A cos )

(

+

= A2

2

v

2.00 m/s

A = y + i = ( 0.0200 m ) +

80.0 s 1

2

2

i

A = 0.0215 m

(b)

y i ( A sin )

80.0 ( 0.0200 )

=

= tan tan =

= 2.51

vi

A cos

2.00

Your calculators answer = tan1 (2.51) = 1.19 rad is an angle

in the fourth quadrant with a negative sine and positive cosine,

just the reverse of what is required. Recall on the unit circle, an

angle with a negative tangent can be in either the second or

fourth quadrant. The sine is positive and the cosine is negative in

the second quadrant. The angle in the second quadrant is

= A = ( 0.0215 m ) ( 80.0 s ) = 5.41 m/s

(c)

vy ,

(d)

k=

max

2

2

=

= 8.38 m 1 ,

0.750 m

= 80.0 s 1

Chapter 16

Section 16.3

P16.21

867

stress =

T

A

so

T = A ( stress )

v=

A ( Stress )

=

m/L

T

=

Stress

=

m / AL

Stress

=

m / Volume

Stress

where is the density. The maximum velocity occurs when the stress

is a maximum:

vmax =

P16.22

2.70 108 Pa

= 185 m s

7860 kg m 3

1 350 kg m s 2

= 520 m s

5.00 103 kg m

T

v=

=

P16.23

v1 = T1

Since is constant, =

and

v2 = T2

T2 T1

= , and

v22 v12

30.0 m s

v

T2 = 2 T1 =

(6.00 N ) = 13.5 N

v1

20.0 m s

P16.24

(a)

1

1

1

1

f = T = [T ]=

= 1 =T

T

f

[f] T

units are seconds

2

T

M L

ML

v=

T = v 2 [T ]= v 2 = = 2

L T

T

units are newtons

(b)

868

P16.25

Wave Motion

The down and back distance is 4.00 m + 4.00 m = 8.00 m.

The speed is then v =

P16.26

dtotal 4 ( 8.00 m )

T

=

= 40.0 m s =

.

t

0.800 s

0.200 kg

= 5.00 102 kg/m.

4.00 m

Now,

So

(a)

wave number:

k=

3 140

=

= 16.0 m 1

v

196

and t is in seconds.

(b)

P16.27

v = 196 m s =

T

T = 158 N

4.10 103 kg m

The total time interval is the sum of the two time intervals.

In each wire

t =

=L

v

T

Let A represent the cross-sectional area of one wire. The mass of one

wire can be written both as m = V = AL and also as m = L.

Then we have = A =

Thus,

d 2

t = L

4T

d 2

.

4

12

For copper,

t = ( 20.0 m )

4 ) ( 150 N )

(

12

= 0.137 s

Chapter 16

869

For steel,

t = ( 30.0 m )

4 ) ( 150 N )

(

12

= 0.192 s

P16.28

gravity on the Moon, about one-sixth that of Earth. From the data

given, what is the acceleration of gravity on the Moon?

The wave speed is

v=

T

Mg

=

=

m/L

MgL L

MgL L2

mL

=

= 2 g=

m

t

m

t

Mt 2

3

mL ( 4.00 10 kg ) ( 1.60 m )

g=

=

= 3.13 m/s 2

Mt 2 ( 3.00 kg ) ( 26.1 103 s )2

that of the accepted value.

P16.29

(a)

Then, from v =

=

(b)

F

, the mass per unit length is

F

29.4 N

=

= 0.0510 kg m

2

v

( 24.0 m s )2

and the speed of transverse waves in the string is

v=

F

=

19.6 N

= 19.6 m s

0.0510 kg m

870

P16.30

Wave Motion

From the free-body diagram mg = 2T sin

T=

mg

2 sin

cos =

3L/8 3

=

L/2 4

= 41.4

(a)

v=

=

or

(b)

P16.31

T

mg

=

2 sin

mg

9.80 m/s 2

=

m

2 sin 41.4 2 ( 8.00 103 kg/m ) sin 41.4

v = ( 30.4 ) m, where v is in meters per second and

m is in kilograms.

We use v =

m = 3.89 kg

T

to solve for the tension:

T = v 2 = Av 2 = r 2 v 2

T = ( 8920 kg m 3 ) ( ) ( 7.50 104 m ) ( 200 m s )

2

T = 631 N

Section 16.5

P16.32

(a)

Waves on Strings

As for a string wave, the rate of energy transfer is proportional to

the square of the amplitude and to the speed. The rate of energy

transfer stays constant because each wavefront carries constant

energy and the frequency stays constant. As the speed drops the

amplitude must increase.

Chapter 16

(b)

871

of energy,

2

2

Fvgranite Agranite

= Fvmudfill Amudfill

vgranite

vgranite

25.0vgranite

Amudfill

=

=

=

= 5.00

vgranite

Agranite

vmudfill

vgranite

25.0

The amplitude increases by 5.00 times.

P16.33

We are given T = constant; we use the equation for the speed of a wave

T

, and the power supplied to a vibrating string,

on a string, v =

1

P = 2 A 2 v.

2

(a)

P is constant: 1 .

(b)

(c)

A2

remains constant,

2

so 1 .

(d) If L and are halved, is still the same, and 2

1

is

2

P16.34

T

100 N

=

= 50.0 m/s

The wave speed is v =

From P =

1

2 A 2 v, we have

2

2 =

2P

2(300 N m/s)

=

2

2

A v ( 4.00 10 kg m ) ( 5.00 10 2 m )2 (50.0 m s)

Computing,

= 346 rad/s

and

f=

= 55.1 Hz

2

872

P16.35

P16.36

Wave Motion

Comparing the given wave function, y = (0.15) sin (0.80x 50t), with

the general wave function, y = A sin (kx t), we have k = 0.80 rad/m,

= 50 rad/s, and A = 0.15 m.

2 50.0

= =

m s = 62.5 m s

2 k

k 0.800

(a)

v = f =

(b)

2

2

=

m = 7.85 m

k

0.800

(c)

f=

50.0

= 7.96 Hz

2

(d)

1

1

2

2

P = 2 A 2 v = (12.0 103 ) ( 50.0) ( 0.150) (62.5) W = 21.1 W

2

2

f=

v 30.0 m/s

=

= 60.0 Hz and = 2 f = 120 rad s

0.500 s

1

2 A 2 v

2

1 0.180 kg

2

2

=

( 120 rad/s ) ( 0.100 m ) ( 30.0 m/s )

2 3.60 m

P=

= 1.07 kW

P16.37

= 1.50 m

f = 50.0 Hz:

= 2 f = 314 s 1

(a)

From y = A sin

x t ,

(b)

2 314

1

1

2

P = 2 A 2 v = ( 30.0 103 ) ( 314) (7.50 102 )

W

4.19

2

2

P = 625 W

2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Chapter 16

P16.38

873

Originally,

1

P0 = 2 A 2 v

2

1

T

P0 = 2 A 2

2

1

P0 = 2 A 2 T

2

The doubled string will have doubled mass per length. Presuming that

we hold tension constant, it can carry power larger by 2 times:

1

1

P= 2 A 2 T ( 2 ) = 2 2 A 2 T = 2P0

2

2

P16.39

Comparing

y = 0.350sin 10 t 3 x +

4

with

y = A sin ( kx t + ) = A sin ( t kx + )

we have

k = 3 m 1 , = 10 s 1 , and A = 0.350 m

Then,

1

10 s

v = f = ( 2 f )

=

=

= 3.33 m/s

2 k 3 m 1

(a)

1

2 A 2 v

2

2

1

2

= ( 75 103 kg/m ) ( 10 s 1 ) ( 0.350 m ) ( 3.33 m/s )

2

P=

= 15.1 W

(b)

E = P T =

=

1

2 A 2

2

2

1

2

2

75.0 103 kg m ) ( 10 s 1 ) ( 0.350 m )

(

3 m 1

2

= 3.02 J

2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

874

P16.40

Wave Motion

Suppose that no energy is absorbed or carried down into the water.

Then a fixed amount of power is spread thinner farther away from the

source. It is spread over the circumference 2 r of an expanding circle.

The power-per-width across the wave front

P

2 r

is proportional to amplitude squared, so amplitude is proportional to

P

2 r

Section 16.6

P16.41

treat all variables as constants, except the single variable of interest.

Keeping this in mind, we must apply two standard rules of differentiation

to the function y = ln[b(x vt)]:

1 [ f (x)]

ln f (x)] =

[

x

f (x) x

1

1

2 [ f (x)]

x f (x) x

x

1 [ f (x)]

=

2

[ f (x)] x

[1]

[2]

Applying [1],

y

1 (bx bvt) =

1

1

=

b(x vt) ( b ) = x vt

b(x

vt)

x

x

Applying [2],

2 y

1

2 =

x

(x vt)2

In a similar way,

y

v

=

t x vt

and

2 y

v2

=

t 2 ( x vt )2

Chapter 16

875

2 y 1 2 y

=

x 2 v 2 t 2

so the proposed function is one solution to the wave equation.

P16.42

(a)

(b)

In order for two vectors to be equal, they must have the same

magnitude and the same direction in three-dimensional space.

All of their components must be equal, so all coefficients of the

unit vectors must be equal.

(c)

A=0

(d)

E = 2.00 in rad.

Identify corresponding parts. In order for two functions to be

identically equal, corresponding parts must be identical. The

argument of the sine function must have no units, or be equivalent to units of radians.

(e)

P16.43

2 y 1 2 y

The linear wave equation is 2 = 2 2 .

x

v t

If

y = eb(xvt)

Then

y

b xvt

= bve ( )

t

and

y

b xvt

= be ( )

x

2 y

b xvt

= b2 v2e ( )

2

t

and

2 y

b xvt

= b2e ( )

2

x

Therefore,

P16.44

(a)

2

2 y

b(xvt)

2 y

is a solution.

=

v

, demonstrating that e

2

2

t

x

From y = x 2 + v 2t 2 ,

evaluate

y

= 2x

x

and

2 y

=2

x 2

Also,

y

= v 2 2t

t

and

2 y

= 2v 2

t 2

876

Wave Motion

2 y 1 2 y

?

=

t 2 v 2 t 2

Does

1

2v 2 ) and this is true, so the

2 (

v

wave function does satisfy the wave equation.

(b)

Note

1

1

1

1

1

1

( x + vt )2 + ( x vt )2 = x 2 + xvt + v 2t 2 + x 2 xvt + v 2t 2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2 2

=x +v t

as required. So

1

2

f ( x + vt ) = ( x + vt )

2

(c)

1

2

g ( x vt ) = ( x vt )

2

and

y

= cos x cos vt

x

2 y

= sin x cos vt

x 2

y

= v sin x sin vt

t

2 y

= v 2 sin x cos vt

t 2

1

2 y 1 2 y

= 2 2 becomes sin x cos vt = 2 v 2 sin x cos vt which

2

v

x

v t

is true, as required.

Then

Note

sin x cos vt = f ( x + vt ) + g ( x vt ) with

So

f ( x + vt ) =

1

sin ( x + vt )

2

and

g ( x vt ) =

1

sin ( x vt )

2

Additional Problems

P16.45

speed = (cycle length)(repetition rate)

Thus,

2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Chapter 16

P16.46

877

Then the wave speed is v =

x 1 m

~

~ 10 m/s.

t 0.1 s

Model the stadium as a circle with a radius of order 100 m. Then, the

time for one circuit around the stadium is

2

2 r 2 (10 )

T=

~

= 63 s ~ 1 min

v

10 m s

P16.47

therefore, m =

T

and in this case T = mg;

v2

.

g

Now v = f implies v =

so that

k

0.250 kg m 18 s 1

m= =

= 14.7 kg

g k

9.80 m s 2 0.750 m 1

*P16.48

v=

2d

gives

t

d=

P16.49

vt 1

= ( 6.50 103 m s ) ( 1.85 s ) = 6.01 km

2 2

block moves down distance x:

K + U = 0

( K +U

+U s )top = ( K +U g +U s ) bottom

1

0 + Mgx + 0 + 0 = 0 + 0 + kx 2

2

2Mg

x=

k

(a)

(b)

L = L0 + x = L0 +

L = 0.500 m +

2Mg

k

39.2 N

= 0.892 m

100 N m

878

Wave Motion

(c)

v=

T

TL

=

v=

39.2 N 0.892 m

5.0 103 kg

v = 83.6 m/s

P16.50

block moves down distance x:

K + U = 0

(K + U

+ Us

top

= K + U g + Us

0 + Mgx + 0 + 0 = 0 + 0 +

Mgx =

P16.51

bottom

1 2

kx

2

1 2

kx

2

(a)

T = kx = 2Mg

(b)

L = L0 + x = L0 +

(c)

v=

(a)

2Mg

k

2Mg

2Mg

L

+

0

m

k

T

TL

=

=

or

The smallest two angles for which the sine function is 0.500 are

30.0 and 150, i.e., 0.523 6 rad and 2.618 rad.

( 99.6 rad s ) t

(b)

99.6 rad s

= t =

21.0 103 s ) = 1.68 m

(

k

1.25 rad m

Chapter 16

P16.52

(a)

879

we compute

y/t = ( 0.150 m ) (50.0 s 1 ) cos(0.800x 50.0t)

Then amax = (0.150 m)(50.0 s 1 )2 = 375 m/s 2

(b)

12.0 103 kg

( 1.00 cm )( 375 m/s 2 ) = 0.045 0 N

F = ma =

100 cm

(c)

To find the tension in the string, we first compute the wave speed

v=f =

50.0 s 1

=

= 62.5 m/s

k 0.800 m 1

then,

v=

12.0 103 kg

T

2

gives T = v 2 =

( 62.5 m/s ) = 46.9 N

1.00 m

tension, more than a thousand times smaller.

P16.53

direction to be up the incline:

Fx = T Mg sin = 0

or the tension in the string is T = Mg sin .

The speed of transverse waves in the string is then

v=

T

=

Mg sin

=

m/L

MgL sin

m

t =

P16.54

(a)

L

m

=L

=

v

MgL sin

mL

Mg sin

absorption. Then the rate at which energy passes a stationary

point, which is the power of the wave, is constant.

880

Wave Motion

(b)

(c)

the wave speed. The speed decreases as the wave moves into

shallower water near shore, so the amplitude must increase.

For the wave described, with a single direction of energy

transport, the power is the same at the deep-water location and

at the place with depth 9.00 m. Because power is proportional

to the square of the amplitude and the wave speed, to express the

constant power we write,

= A22 ( 9.39 m s )

200 m s

A2 = 1.80 m

9.39 m s

1/2

= 8.31 m

(d)

As the water depth goes to zero, our model would predict zero

speed and infinite amplitude. In fact the amplitude must be finite

as the wave comes ashore. As the speed decreases the wavelength

also decreases. When it becomes comparable to the water depth,

or smaller, our formula

P16.55

mvb2

implies T =

= m 2 r. The speed of a wave on the string is then

r

v=

T

=

M 2 r

M

= r

m/r

m

t =

r 1

=

v

m

M

= t =

m

=

M

0.0032 kg

= 0.0843 rad

0.450 kg

Chapter 16

P16.56

881

T

,

where T is the tension in the cord, and is the mass per unit length of

the cord. The tension T is generated by the centripetal force holding

the mass and cord in uniform circular motion at the angular velocity ;

thus:

T = Fc = M

v2

= M 2 r

r

The mass density of the cord is =

m

; thus, the transverse wave

r

velocity is

vtrans

T

=

=

( M r ) = ( M r ) = r

2

2 2

( m)

m

r

M

m

Now the transverse wave travels a distance r (the length of the cord) at

a uniform velocity vtrans ; thus, distance = r = vtrans t, and therefore,

t=

r

vtrans

M

r

m

M

t=

m

1

0.003 20 kg

=

= 8.43 103 s

M ( 10.0 rad/s )

0.450 kg

P16.57

T

,

where T is the tension in the cord, and is the mass per unit length of

the cord. The tension T is generated by the centripetal force holding

the mass and cord in uniform circular motion at the angular velocity,

; thus

T = Fc = M

v2

= M 2 r

r

where we note that M is the mass of the block, and the mass density of

2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

882

Wave Motion

the cord is =

vtrans

m

. Thus transverse wave velocity is

r

T

=

=

( M r ) = ( M r ) = r

2

2 2

( m)

m

r

M

m

Now the transverse wave travels a distance r (the length of the cord) at

a uniform velocity vtrans ; thus, distance = r = vtranst, and therefore,

t=

r

vtrans

M

r

m

M

over the length of the cord to include the cords own mass as a

contribution to its own tension, and thus to a nonuniform tension

along the length of the cord (and thus also to a nonuniform wave

velocity along the cord), we must assume that the mass of the cord m

is very small compared to the mass of the block M. In such a case, the

mass of the cord does not contribute to the centripetal force, or as a

result, to the tension on the cord itself. The only role the cords mass

will then play is in generating the linear density in the transverse wave

velocity equation. To be forced to include mass of the cord in the

centripetal force calculation is a significantly more difficult problem

and is not attempted here.]

P16.58

(a)

1

2 A 2 v where v is the wave speed, the quantity A is

2

the maximum particle speed vy, max. We have = 0.500 103 kg/m

and

In P =

v=

T

20.0 N

=

= 200 m/s

P=

1

0.500 103 kg/m ) vy2 ,max ( 200 m/s )

(

2

Then

per second

Chapter 16

(b)

(c)

883

particle speed.

In time t = (3.00 m)/v = (3.00 m)/(200 m/s) = 1.50 102 s, all the

energy in a 3.00-m length of string goes past a point. Therefore,

the amount of this energy is

The mass of this section is

1

m3.00m = 7.50 104 kg

2

so

per second.

(d)

(e)

1 2

mvy ,max

2

2

E = 0.300 vy ,max where E is in joules and vy ,max is in meters

per second.

P16.59

(a)

=

v=

dm

dx

= A

= A

dL

dx

T

=

T

=

A

( ax + b )

10 x + 102 cm 2

v=

where x is in meter, T is in

1.00 10 x + 1.00 106

(b)

v(0) =

24.0

( 2700 ) 0 + 106

v(10.0 m) =

24.0

= 94.3 m s

= 9.38 m s

884

P16.60

Wave Motion

Imagine a short transverse pulse traveling from the bottom to the top

of the rope. When the pulse is at position x above the lower end of the

T

, where T = xg

rope, the wave speed of the pulse is given by v =

position x.

Therefore, v = gx.

But v =

dx

dx

, so that dt =

gx

dt

L

and t =

P16.61

gx

1

g

x

1

2

2

0

L

g

(a)

1

1

3 2 2bx

P ( x ) = 2 A 2 v = 2 A02 e 2bx =

A0 e

k

2

2

2k

(b)

P ( 0) =

(c)

P16.62

dx

P ( x)

P ( 0)

3 2

A0

2k

= e 2bx

4 450 103 m 1 h

v=

3 600 s = 210 m/s

5.88 h

v 2 ( 210 m/s )

=

=

= 4 500 m

g

9.80 m/s 2

2

davg

greater than the average ocean depth, about 4 280 m.

P16.63

T/A

, where T is

L/L

the tension maintained in the wire and L is the elongation produced

by this tension. Also, the mass density of the wire may be expressed as

Youngs modulus for the wire may be written as Y =

v=

Y ( L/L)

T

T/A

=

=

/A

Chapter 16

885

L v 2

.

=

L

Y

3

3

L ( 2.70 10 kg m ) (100 m s)

=

= 3.86 104

10

2

L

7.00 10 N m

2

Challenge Problems

P16.64

mxg

T=

+ Mg, so the wave speed is:

L

MgL dx

T

TL

=

= xg +

=

dt =

m

m dt

v=

(a)

MgL

xg +

m

Then

t

t=

dt =

0

MgL

xg + m

1 2

dx

1 xg + ( MgL m)

t=

1

g

2

gives

t=

MgL

2

Lg +

g

m

t=2

(b)

dx

L

mg

12

12

x=L

x=0

MgL

M+m M

12

When M = 0,

t=2

L m 0

L

= 2

g

g

m

886

Wave Motion

(c)

As m 0 we expand

m

M + m = M 1+

M

to obtain

1 m 1 m2

= M 1+

+

2 M 8 M2

12

t=2

L

1 m 1 2

M+

m M 3 2 + M

mg

2 M 8

t2

L1 m

=

g 2 M

mL

Mg

1 m2

and higher because terms with

8 M 3 2

P16.65

(a)

relationship between the position x of the pulse and the time

interval t required to reach that position from the bottom of the

rope:

dx

dx

dx

dx

x

v= dt= =

t=

t =2

dt

v

g

gx

gx

Evaluate this time interval for x =

L

L/2

L

1 L

= 2

=

2

= 0.707 2

g

2g

g

g

2

t=2

(b)

Solve the expression from part (a) for x and substitute the given

time interval:

x=

P16.66

(a)

L

:

2

g ( t )

L2

gL

L

=

4g

4

To have ( 0) = 0 we require b = 0 . Then ( L) = L = mL + 0

so m =

L 0

.

L

Then ( x ) =

(b)

( L 0 ) x +

L

end of the string to the other. Consider the pulse to be at position

Chapter 16

x. From v =

x + dx is

t =

dx

=

v

L

dx

1

=

T/

T

( x ) dx

( L 0 ) x

+ 0

12

L 0 L

dx

L L 0

1

t =

T

1

t =

T

L ( L 0 ) x

+ 0

L

L

0

t =

(a)

dx

, the time interval required to move from x to

dt

dx

. The time interval required to move from 0 to L is

v

L

P16.67

887

2L

L3 2 03 2

3 T ( L 0 )

32

( 23 ) 0

top of the loop. A free-body diagram is

shown. Its length is s = R ( 2 ) and its

mass is R2 . In the frame of reference

of the center of the loop, Newtons

second law is

Fy = may :

mv02

R2 v02

2T sin down =

down =

R

R

T

= v0

(b)

(c)

moves with equal speed clockwise and counterclockwise (ANS.

FIG. P16.67(c1)).

888

Wave Motion

In the frame of reference of the ground, once pulse moves

backward, clockwise, at speed v0 + v = 2v0 and the other forward,

counterclockwise, at v v = 0 (ANS. FIG. P16.67(c2))

0

While the loop makes one revolution, the one pulse traveling

clockwise makes two revolutions and the other pulse traveling

counterclockwise does not move around the loop. The counterclockwise pulse it is generated at the 6 oclock position, and it

will stay at the 6 oclock position.

Chapter 16

889

P16.2

(a) See ANS. FIG. P16.2(a); (b) See ANS. FIG. P16.2(b); (c) The graph in

ANS. FIG. P16.2(b) has the same amplitude and wavelength as the

graph in ANS. FIG. P16.2(a). It differs just by being shifted toward

larger x by 2.40 m; (d) The wave has traveled d = vt = 2.40 m to the

right.

P16.4

P16.6

(a) See ANS. FIG. P16.6(a); (b) See ANS. FIG. P16.6(b); (c) See ANS.

FIG. P16.6(c); (d) See ANS. FIG. P16.6(d); (e) See ANS. FIG. P16.6(e)

P16.8

0.800 m/s

P16.10

2.40 m/s

P16.12

6.67 cm

P16.14

(a) See ANS FIG P16.14; (b) 0.125 s; (c) This agrees with the period

found in the example in the text.

P16.16

P16.18

(a) See ANS FIG P13.12(a); (b) 18.0 rad/m; (c) 0.083 3 s; (d) 75.4 rad/s;

(e) 4.20 m/s; (f) y = ( 0.200m ) sin ( 18.0x / m + 75.4t / s + ) ; (g) y(x, t) =

0.200 sin (18.0x + 75.4t 0.151), where x and y are in meters and t is in

seconds.

P16.20

(d) y ( x, t ) = ( 0.0215 ) sin ( 8.38x + 80.0 t + 1.95 )

P16.22

520 m/s

P16.24

(a) units are seconds and newtons; (b) The first T is period of time; the

second is force of tension.

P16.26

(a) y = (2.00 104) sin (16.0x 3 140t), where y and x are in meters and

t is in seconds; (b) 158 N

P16.28

that of the accepted value.

P16.30

(b) m = 3.89 kg

P16.32

the square of the amplitude to the speed. The rate of energy transfer

stays constant because each wavefront carries constant energy, and the

frequency stays constant. As the speed drops, the amplitude must

increase; (b) The amplitude increases by 5.00 times

890

Wave Motion

P16.34

55.1 Hz

P16.36

1.07 kW

P16.38

2P0

P16.40

P16.42

(a) A = 40.0; (b) A = 7.00, B = 0, and C = 3.00; (c) In order for two

vectors to be equal, they must have the same magnitude and the same

direction in three-directional space. All of their components must be

equal, so all coefficients of the unit vectors must be equal; (d) A = 0,

B = 7.00, C = 3.00, D = 4.00, E = 2.00; (e) Identify corresponding parts.

In order for two functions to be identically equal, corresponding parts

must be identical. The argument of the sine function must have no

units or be equal to units of radians.

P16.44

1

2

( x + vt) and

2

1

1

2

( x vt) ; (c) f ( x + vt) = sin ( x + vt) and

2

2

1

g ( x vt ) = sin ( x vt )

2

g ( x vt ) =

P16.46

~1 min

P16.48

6.01 km

P16.50

P16.52

(a) 375 m/s2; (b) 0.045 0 N; (c) 46.9 N. The maximum transverse force is

very small compared to the tension, more than a thousand times

smaller.

P16.54

absorption. Then the rate at which energy passes a stationary point,

which is the power of the wave, is constant; (b) The power is

proportional to the square of the amplitude and to the wave speed.

The speed decreases as the wave moves into shallower water near

shore, so the amplitude must increase; (c) 8.31 m; (d) As the water

depth goes to zero, our model would predict zero speed and infinite

amplitude. In fact, the amplitude must be finite as the wave comes

ashore. As the speed decreases, the wavelength also decreases. When it

becomes comparable to the water depth, or smaller, our formula gd

for wave speed no longer applies.

P16.56

8.43 103 s

2 Mg

; (c)

k

2 Mg

2 Mg

L0 +

k

k

Chapter 16

P16.58

891

(a) P = 0.050 0 vy2 ,max where P is in watts and vy,max is in meters per

second; (b) The power is proportional to the square of the maximum

particle speed; (c) E = ( 7.50 104 ) vy2 ,max where E is in joules and vy,max is

1

mvy2 , max ; (e) E = 0.300vy2 , max where E is in

2

joules and vy,max is in meters per second

L

g

P16.60

P16.62

The given speed corresponds to an ocean depth that is greater than the

average ocean depth, about 4 280 m.

P16.64

(a) t = 2

L

g

P16.66

(a) (x) =

( L 0 ) x +

M + m M ; (b) 2

; (b) t =

L

; (c)

g

mL

Mg

2L

(L3/2 03/2 )

3 T ( L 0 )

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