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# 16

Wave Motion
CHAPTER OUTLINE
16.1

Propagation of a Disturbance

16.2

16.3

16.4

16.5

16.6

## * An asterisk indicates a question or problem new to this edition.

OQ16.1

(i)

Answer (a). As the wave passes from the massive string to the
less massive string, the wave speed will increase according to
T
v=
.

(ii)

## Answer (c). The frequency will remain unchanged. The rate at

which crests come up to the boundary is the same rate at which
they leave the boundary.

OQ16.2

OQ16.3

(i)

## Answer (a). Higher tension makes wave speed higher.

(ii)

Answer (b). Greater linear density makes the wave move more
slowly.

(i)

The ranking is (c) = (d) > (e) > (b) > (a). Look at the coefficients
of the sine and cosine functions: (a) 4, (b) 6, (c) 8, (d) 8, (e) 7.

(ii)

The ranking is (c) > (a) = (b) > (d) > (e). Look at the coefficients
of x. Each is the wave number, 2/, so the smallest k goes with
854

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Chapter 16

855

## the largest wavelength.

(iii) The ranking is (e) > (d) > (a) = (b) = (c). Look at the coefficients
of t. The absolute value of each is the angular frequency = 2 f.
(iv) The ranking is (a) = (b) = (c) > (d) > (e). Period is the reciprocal
of frequency, so the ranking is the reverse of that in part (iii).
(v)

OQ16.4

The ranking is (c) > (a) = (b) = (d) > (e). From v = f = / k, we
compute the absolute value of the ratio of the coefficient of t to
the coefficient of x in each case: (a) 5, (b) 5, (c) 7.5, (d) 5, (e) 4.

## Answer (b). From v =

T
, we must increase the tension by a factor

of 4 to make v double.
OQ16.5

## Answer (b). Wave speed is inversely proportional to the square root

of linear density.

OQ16.6

## Answer (b). Not all waves are sinusoidal. A sinusoidal wave is a

wave of a single frequency. In general, a wave can be a superposition
of many sinusoidal waves.

OQ16.7

(a) through (d): Yes to all. The maximum element speed and the
wave speed are related by vy ,max = A = 2 fA = 2 vA / . Thus the
amplitude or the wavelength of the wave can be adjusted to make
either vy, max or v larger.

OQ16.8

## Answer (c). The power carried by a wave is proportional to its

frequency, wave speed, and the square of its amplitude. If the
frequency does not change, the amplitude is increased by a factor of
2. The wave speed does not change.

OQ16.9

## Answer (c). The distance between two successive peaks is the

wavelength: = 2 m, and the frequency is 4 Hz. The frequency,
wavelength, and speed of a wave are related by the equation f = v.

CQ16.1

## Longitudinal waves depend on the compressibility of the fluid for

their propagation. Transverse waves require a restoring force in
response to shear strain. Fluids do not have the underlying structure
to supply such a force. A fluid cannot support static shear. A viscous
fluid can temporarily be put under shear, but the higher its viscosity
the more quickly it converts kinetic energy into internal energy. A
local vibration imposed on it is strongly damped, and not a source of
wave propagation.

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856

Wave Motion

CQ16.2

The type of wave you generate depends upon the direction of the
disturbance (vibration) you generate and the direction of its travel
(propagation).
(a)

## To use a spring (or slinky) to create a longitudinal wave, pull a

few coils back and release.

(b)

CQ16.3

## It depends on from what the wave reflects. If reflecting from a less

dense string, the reflected part of the wave will be right side up. A
wave inverts when it reflects off a medium in which the wave speed
is smaller.

CQ16.4

## The speed of a wave on a massless string would be infinite!

CQ16.5

Since the frequency is 3 cycles per second, the period is 1/3 second =
333 ms.

CQ16.6

(a) and (b) Each element of the rope must support the weight of the
rope below it. The tension increases with height. (It increases
T
linearly, if the rope does not stretch.) Then the wave speed v =

## increases with height.

CQ16.7

As the pulse moves down the string, the elements of the string itself
move side to side. Since the mediumhere, the stringmoves
perpendicular to the direction of wave propagation, the wave is
transverse by definition.

CQ16.8

No. The vertical speed of an element will be the same on any string
because it depends only on frequency and amplitude:

vy ,max = A = 2 fA
The elements of strings with different wave speeds will have the
same maximum vertical speed.
CQ16.9

(a)

## Let t = ts tp represent the difference in arrival times of the

two waves at a station at distance d = vsts = vptp from the focus.
1

1
1
Then d = t .
vs v p

(b)

Knowing the distance from the first station places the focus on a
sphere around it. A measurement from a second station limits it
to another sphere, which intersects with the first in a circle. Data
from a third non-collinear station will generally limit the
possibilities to a point.

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Chapter 16

857

## SOLUTIONS TO END-OF-CHAPTER PROBLEMS

Section 16.1
P16.1

Propagation of a Disturbance

## The distance the waves have traveled is d = (7.80 km/s)t =

(4.50 km/s)(t + 17.3 s), where t is the travel time for the faster wave.
Then,

## (7.80 4.50) ( km s ) t = ( 4.50

or

t=

km s ) ( 17.3 s )

(7.80 4.50)

km s

P16.2

(a)

(b)

(c)

## The graph in ANS. FIG. P16.2(b) has the same amplitude

and wavelength as the graph in ANS. FIG. P16.2(a). It
differs just by being shifted toward larger x by 2.40 m.

(d)

## The wave has travelled d = vt = 2.40 m to the right.

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858
P16.3

Wave Motion
We obtain a function of the same shape by writing

y ( x,t ) =

( x x 0 )2 + 3

y=

6
( x 4.50t )2 + 3

## Note that for y to stay constant as t increases, x must increase by 4.50t,

as it should to describe the wave moving at 4.50 m/s.
P16.4

(a)

## The longitudinal P wave travels a shorter distance and is

moving faster, so it will arrive at point B first.

(b)

## a distance of 2R sin 30.0 = 2 6.37 106 m sin 30.0 = 6.37 106 m

at a speed of 7 800 m/s.
Therefore, it takes tP =

6.37 106 m
817 s.
7800 m/s

The Rayleigh wave that travels along the Earths surface must
travel a distance of

3

## at a speed of 4 500 m/s.

Therefore, it takes tS =

6.67 106 m
1482 s.
4 500 m/s

Section 16.2
P16.5

## Compare the specific equation to the general form:

y = (0.020 0 m) sin (2.11x 3.62t) = y = A sin (kx t + )
(a)

A = 2.00 cm

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Chapter 16

P16.6

(b)

k = 2.11 rad m =

2
= 2.98 m
k

(c)

= 3.62 rad s f =

= 0.576 Hz
2

(d)

v = f =

(a)

859

2 3.62
=
= 1.72 m s
2 k
2.11

## ANS. FIG. P16.6(a)

(b)

ANS. FIG. P16.6(b) shows the wave from part (a) one-quarter
period later

(c)

## ANS. FIG. P16.6(c) shows a wave with an amplitude 1.5 times

larger than the wave in part (a).

## ANS. FIG. P16.6(c)

(d) ANS. FIG. P16.6(d) shows a wave with wavelength 1.5 times
larger than the wave in part (a).

## ANS. FIG. P16.6 (d)

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860

Wave Motion
(e)

ANS. FIG. P16.6(e) shows a wave with frequency 1.5 times larger
than the wave in part (a): The wave appears the same as in ANS.
FIG. P16.6(a) because this is a snapshot of a given moment.

P16.7

## The frequency of the wave is

f =

40.0 vibrations 4
= Hz
30.0 s
3

v=

425 cm
= 42.5 cm/s
10.0 s

## and its wavelength is therefore

=
P16.8

v 42.5 cm s
=
= 31.9 cm = 0.319 m
f
1.33 Hz

f =

## 8.00 crests 8.00 cycles 8.00

=
=
Hz
12.0 s
12.0 s
12.0

8.00

Therefore, v = f = ( 1.20 m )
Hz = 0.800 m/s .
12.0

P16.9

(a)

## We note that sin = sin ( ) = sin ( + ) , so the given wave

function can be written as

## y ( x,t ) = ( 0.350 ) sin ( 10 t + 3 x + / 4 )

Comparing, 10 t 3 x + /4 = kx t + . For constant phase, x
must increase as t increases, so the wave travels in the positive x
direction. Comparing the specific form to the general form, we
find that

10
v= =
=3.33m/s.
k
3

## Therefore, the velocity is 3.33i m/s .

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Chapter 16
(b)

861

## y ( 0.1000 ) = ( 0.350 m ) sin 0.300 + = 0.0548 m

4
= 5.48 cm

2
= 3 : = 0.667 m

(c)

k=

(d)

vy =

= 2 f = 10 : f = 5.00 Hz

= ( 0.350 ) ( 10 ) cos 10 t 3 x +

t
4

P16.10

P16.11

(a)

(b)

v 20.0 m/s
=
= 4.00 m
f
5.00 s 1

k=

2
2
=

4.00 m

(c)

Then

## y = 0.120 sin (1.57x 31.4t), where x and y are in meters and t is

in seconds
(d) The transverse velocity is

y
= A cos ( kx t ) .
t

## A = ( 12.0 cm ) ( 31.4 rad s ) = 3.77 m s

(e)

ay =

vy
t

[ A cos ( kx t )] = A 2 sin ( kx t )
t

## The maximum value is A 2 = ( 0.120 m ) ( 31.4 s 1 ) = 118 m/s 2

2

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862
P16.12

Wave Motion
At time t, the motion at point A, where x = 0, is

## y A = ( 1.50 cm ) cos ( 50.3t )

At point B, the motion is

## y B = ( 15.0 cm ) cos ( 15.7xB 50.3t ) = ( 15.0 cm ) cos 50.3t

3
which implies
15.7xB = ( 15.7 m 1 ) xB =

xB = 0.066 7 m = 6.67 cm

or
P16.13

v ( 1.00 m s )
=
= 0.500 Hz

2.00 m

(a)

f =

(b)

## = 2 f = 2 ( 0.500 s ) = s = 3.14 rad s

(c)

k=

(d)

y = A sin ( kx t + ) becomes

2
2
=
= m = 3.14 rad m
2.00 m

y = 0.100 sin ( x t )
(e)

## For x = 0 the wave function requires

y = 0.100 sin ( t )
(f)
(g)

## y = 0.100 sin ( 4.71 t )

vy =

y
= 0.100 m ( 3.14 s ) cos ( 3.14x m 3.14t s )
t

## The cosine varies between +1 and 1, so maximum

vy = 0.314 m s .
P16.14

(a)

ANS. FIG. P16.14 shows the y vs. t plot of the given wave.

## ANS. FIG. P16.14

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Chapter 16
(b)

## The time from one peak to the next one is

T=

(c)
P16.15

863

2
2
=
= 0.125 s
50.3 s 1

This agrees with the period found in the example in the text.

## The wave function is given as

y = ( 0.120 m ) sin x + 4 t
8

(a)

## We differentiate the wave function with respect to time to obtain

the velocity:

v=

: v = ( 0.120 ) ( 4 ) cos x + 4 t
8

(b)

## Differentiating the velocity function gives the acceleration:

a=

v
2

: a = ( 0.120 m ) ( 4 ) sin x + 4 t
8

a ( 0.200 s, 1.60 m ) = 0

P16.16

2
=
: = 16.0 m
8

(c)

k=

(d)

= 4 =

(e)

v=

(a)

2
: T = 0.500 s
T

16.0 m
=
= 32.0 m s
T 0.500 s

harmonic motion.
(b)

## y = 0.100sin ( 1.00 20.0t ) = 0.100sin ( 20.0t 1.00 )

= 0.100cos(20.0t 1.00 + )
= 0.100cos ( 20.0t + 2.14 )
so

## = 20.0 rad s and f =

= 3.18 Hz
2

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864
P16.17

Wave Motion
The wave function is: y = 0.25 sin (0.30x 40t) m
Compare this with the general expression y = A sin (kx t):

P16.18

(a)

A = 0.250 m

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

v = f = =
( 20.9 m ) = 133 m s
2

(f)

(a)

2
2
=
= 20.9 m
k

(b)

k=

2
2
=

0.350 m

(c)

T=

1
1
=
= 0.0833 s
f 12.0/s

(d)

(e)

## v = f = ( 12.0 s ) ( 0.350 m ) = 4.20 m s

(f)

y = A sin ( kx + t + ) specializes to
y = ( 0.200 m ) sin ( 18.0 x m + 75.4t s + )

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Chapter 16
(g)

865

At x = 0, t = 0 we require

## = 8.63 = 0.151 rad

so
y ( x, t ) = 0.200 sin ( 18.0x + 75.4t 0.151) , where x and y are in
meters and t is in seconds.

P16.19

Using the traveling wave model, we can put constants with the right
values into y = A sin ( kx + t + ) to have the mathematical
representation of the wave. We have the same (positive) signs for both
kx and t so that a point of constant phase will be at a decreasing value
of x as t increasesthat is, so that the wave will move to the left.
The amplitude is

k=

2
2
=
= 2.50 m 1
0.800 m

(a)

## In y = A sin ( kx + t + ) , choosing = 0 will make it true that

y(0, 0) = 0. Then the wave function becomes upon substitution of
the constant values for this wave

(b)

## In general, y = ( 0.080 0 ) sin ( 2.50 x + 6.00 t + )

If y(x, 0) = 0 at x = 0.100 m, we require

## 0 = ( 0.080 0 ) sin ( 2.50 + )

so we must have the phase constant be = 0.250 rad.
Therefore, the wave function for all values of x and t is
y = 0.0800 sin ( 2.50 x + 6.00 t 0.250 ) , where x and y are in
meters and t is in seconds.

P16.20

(a)

## Let us write the wave function as y ( x,t ) = A sin ( kx + t + ) .

We have y i = y ( 0, 0 ) = A sin = 0.0200 m
and vi = v ( 0, 0 ) =

y
t

## = A cos = 2.00 m/s.

0, 0

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866

Wave Motion
Also, =

2
2
=
= 80.0 s 1 .
T
0.0250 s

Use the identity sin 2 + cos 2 = 1 and the expressions for yi and
vi:

( A sin )2 + ( A cos )2 = 1
A 2 2

A2

( A sin )

2
A cos )
(
+
= A2

2
v
2.00 m/s
A = y + i = ( 0.0200 m ) +

80.0 s 1
2

2
i

A = 0.0215 m
(b)

y i ( A sin )
80.0 ( 0.0200 )
=
= tan tan =
= 2.51
vi
A cos
2.00
in the fourth quadrant with a negative sine and positive cosine,
just the reverse of what is required. Recall on the unit circle, an
angle with a negative tangent can be in either the second or
fourth quadrant. The sine is positive and the cosine is negative in

= A = ( 0.0215 m ) ( 80.0 s ) = 5.41 m/s

(c)

vy ,

(d)

k=

max

2
2
=
= 8.38 m 1 ,

0.750 m

= 80.0 s 1

## y ( x, t ) = ( 0.0215 ) sin ( 8.38x + 80.0 t + 1.95 )

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Chapter 16

Section 16.3
P16.21

867

stress =

T
A

so

T = A ( stress )

## The speed of transverse waves in the wire is

v=

A ( Stress )
=
m/L

T
=

Stress
=
m / AL

Stress
=
m / Volume

Stress

where is the density. The maximum velocity occurs when the stress
is a maximum:

vmax =
P16.22

2.70 108 Pa
= 185 m s
7860 kg m 3

1 350 kg m s 2
= 520 m s
5.00 103 kg m

T
v=
=

P16.23

## The two wave speeds can be written as

v1 = T1
Since is constant, =

and

v2 = T2

T2 T1
= , and
v22 v12

30.0 m s
v
T2 = 2 T1 =
(6.00 N ) = 13.5 N
v1
20.0 m s
P16.24

(a)

## For the first equation,

1
1
1
1
f = T = [T ]=
= 1 =T
T
f
[f] T
units are seconds
2

T
M L
ML
v=
T = v 2 [T ]= v 2 = = 2

L T
T
units are newtons

(b)

## The first T is period of time; the second is force of tension.

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868
P16.25

Wave Motion
The down and back distance is 4.00 m + 4.00 m = 8.00 m.
The speed is then v =

P16.26

dtotal 4 ( 8.00 m )
T
=
= 40.0 m s =
.
t
0.800 s

0.200 kg
= 5.00 102 kg/m.
4.00 m

Now,

So

(a)

wave number:

k=

3 140
=
= 16.0 m 1
v
196

## y = ( 2.00 104 ) sin ( 16.0x 3 140t ) , where y and x are in meters

and t is in seconds.
(b)
P16.27

v = 196 m s =

T
T = 158 N
4.10 103 kg m

The total time interval is the sum of the two time intervals.
In each wire

t =

=L
v
T

Let A represent the cross-sectional area of one wire. The mass of one
wire can be written both as m = V = AL and also as m = L.
Then we have = A =
Thus,

d 2
t = L
4T

d 2
.
4
12

For copper,

## ( ) ( 8920 kg/m 3 ) ( 1.00 103 m )2

t = ( 20.0 m )
4 ) ( 150 N )
(

12

= 0.137 s

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Chapter 16

869

For steel,

t = ( 30.0 m )
4 ) ( 150 N )
(

12

= 0.192 s

P16.28

## The tension in the string is T = mg, where g is the acceleration of

gravity on the Moon, about one-sixth that of Earth. From the data
given, what is the acceleration of gravity on the Moon?
The wave speed is

v=

T
Mg
=
=

m/L

MgL L
MgL L2
mL
=
= 2 g=
m
t
m
t
Mt 2

3
mL ( 4.00 10 kg ) ( 1.60 m )
g=
=
= 3.13 m/s 2
Mt 2 ( 3.00 kg ) ( 26.1 103 s )2

## The calculated gravitational acceleration of the Moon is almost twice

that of the accepted value.
P16.29

(a)

## F = mg = ( 3.00 kg ) ( 9.80 m s 2 ) = 29.4 N

Then, from v =

=
(b)

F
, the mass per unit length is

F
29.4 N
=
= 0.0510 kg m
2
v
( 24.0 m s )2

## F = mg = ( 2.00 kg ) ( 9.80 m s 2 ) = 19.6 N

and the speed of transverse waves in the string is
v=

F
=

19.6 N
= 19.6 m s
0.0510 kg m

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870
P16.30

Wave Motion
From the free-body diagram mg = 2T sin

T=

mg
2 sin

cos =

3L/8 3
=
L/2 4

## ANS. FIG. P16.30

= 41.4

(a)

v=
=
or

(b)
P16.31

T
mg
=

2 sin

mg
9.80 m/s 2
=
m
2 sin 41.4 2 ( 8.00 103 kg/m ) sin 41.4
v = ( 30.4 ) m, where v is in meters per second and
m is in kilograms.

## v = 60.0 = 30.4 m and

We use v =

m = 3.89 kg

T
to solve for the tension:

T = v 2 = Av 2 = r 2 v 2
T = ( 8920 kg m 3 ) ( ) ( 7.50 104 m ) ( 200 m s )
2

T = 631 N

Section 16.5
P16.32

(a)

## Rate of Energy Transfer by Sinusoidal

Waves on Strings
As for a string wave, the rate of energy transfer is proportional to
the square of the amplitude and to the speed. The rate of energy
transfer stays constant because each wavefront carries constant
energy and the frequency stays constant. As the speed drops the
amplitude must increase.

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Chapter 16
(b)

871

## We write P = FvA2, where F is some constant. With no absorption

of energy,
2
2
Fvgranite Agranite
= Fvmudfill Amudfill

vgranite
vgranite
25.0vgranite
Amudfill
=
=
=
= 5.00
vgranite
Agranite
vmudfill
vgranite
25.0
The amplitude increases by 5.00 times.
P16.33

We are given T = constant; we use the equation for the speed of a wave
T
, and the power supplied to a vibrating string,
on a string, v =

1
P = 2 A 2 v.
2
(a)

## If L is doubled, is still the same, so v remains constant: therefore

P is constant: 1 .

(b)

(c)

## If and A are doubled, the product 2 A 2

A2
remains constant,
2

so 1 .
(d) If L and are halved, is still the same, and 2

1
is
2

P16.34

## We will use the expression for power carried by a wave on a string.

T
100 N
=
= 50.0 m/s
The wave speed is v =

## 4.00 102 kg/m

From P =

1
2 A 2 v, we have
2

2 =

2P
2(300 N m/s)
=
2
2
A v ( 4.00 10 kg m ) ( 5.00 10 2 m )2 (50.0 m s)

Computing,

and

f=

= 55.1 Hz
2

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872
P16.35

P16.36

Wave Motion
Comparing the given wave function, y = (0.15) sin (0.80x 50t), with
the general wave function, y = A sin (kx t), we have k = 0.80 rad/m,
= 50 rad/s, and A = 0.15 m.

2 50.0
= =
m s = 62.5 m s
2 k
k 0.800

(a)

v = f =

(b)

2
2
=
m = 7.85 m
k
0.800

(c)

f=

50.0
= 7.96 Hz
2

(d)

1
1
2
2
P = 2 A 2 v = (12.0 103 ) ( 50.0) ( 0.150) (62.5) W = 21.1 W
2
2

## The frequency and angular frequency of the wave are

f=

v 30.0 m/s
=
= 60.0 Hz and = 2 f = 120 rad s

0.500 s

## The power that is required is then

1
2 A 2 v
2
1 0.180 kg
2
2
=
( 120 rad/s ) ( 0.100 m ) ( 30.0 m/s )

2 3.60 m

P=

= 1.07 kW
P16.37

= 1.50 m
f = 50.0 Hz:

= 2 f = 314 s 1

## 2A = 0.150 m: A = 7.50 102 m

(a)

From y = A sin
x t ,

(b)

2 314
1
1
2
P = 2 A 2 v = ( 30.0 103 ) ( 314) (7.50 102 )
W
4.19
2
2

P = 625 W

## ANS. FIG. P16.37

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Chapter 16
P16.38

873

Originally,

1
P0 = 2 A 2 v
2
1
T
P0 = 2 A 2
2

1
P0 = 2 A 2 T
2
The doubled string will have doubled mass per length. Presuming that
we hold tension constant, it can carry power larger by 2 times:

1
1

P= 2 A 2 T ( 2 ) = 2 2 A 2 T = 2P0
2

2
P16.39

Comparing

y = 0.350sin 10 t 3 x +

4
with
y = A sin ( kx t + ) = A sin ( t kx + )

we have

k = 3 m 1 , = 10 s 1 , and A = 0.350 m
Then,
1
10 s
v = f = ( 2 f )
=
=
= 3.33 m/s
2 k 3 m 1

(a)

## The rate of energy transport is

1
2 A 2 v
2
2
1
2
= ( 75 103 kg/m ) ( 10 s 1 ) ( 0.350 m ) ( 3.33 m/s )
2

P=

= 15.1 W
(b)

## Recall that vT = . The energy per cycle is

E = P T =
=

1
2 A 2
2

2
1
2
2
75.0 103 kg m ) ( 10 s 1 ) ( 0.350 m )
(
3 m 1
2

= 3.02 J
2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

874
P16.40

Wave Motion
Suppose that no energy is absorbed or carried down into the water.
Then a fixed amount of power is spread thinner farther away from the
source. It is spread over the circumference 2 r of an expanding circle.
The power-per-width across the wave front

P
2 r
is proportional to amplitude squared, so amplitude is proportional to
P
2 r

Section 16.6
P16.41

## The important thing to remember with partial derivatives is that you

treat all variables as constants, except the single variable of interest.
Keeping this in mind, we must apply two standard rules of differentiation
to the function y = ln[b(x vt)]:

1 [ f (x)]
ln f (x)] =
[
x
f (x) x

1
1
2 [ f (x)]

## = [ f (x)] = (1)[ f (x)]

x f (x) x
x
1 [ f (x)]
=
2
[ f (x)] x

[1]

[2]

Applying [1],

y
1 (bx bvt) =
1
1
=

b(x vt) ( b ) = x vt
b(x
vt)
x

x
Applying [2],

2 y
1
2 =
x
(x vt)2
In a similar way,

y
v
=
t x vt

and

2 y
v2
=
t 2 ( x vt )2

2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Chapter 16

875

## From the second-order partial derivatives, we see that it is true that

2 y 1 2 y
=
x 2 v 2 t 2
so the proposed function is one solution to the wave equation.
P16.42

(a)

## A = 7.00, B = 0, and C = 3.00

(b)

In order for two vectors to be equal, they must have the same
magnitude and the same direction in three-dimensional space.
All of their components must be equal, so all coefficients of the
unit vectors must be equal.

(c)

A=0

(d)

## B = 7.00 in meters, C = 3.00 in m1, D = 4.00 in s1,

Identify corresponding parts. In order for two functions to be
identically equal, corresponding parts must be identical. The
argument of the sine function must have no units, or be equivalent to units of radians.

(e)

P16.43

2 y 1 2 y
The linear wave equation is 2 = 2 2 .
x
v t
If

y = eb(xvt)

Then

y
b xvt
= bve ( )
t

and

y
b xvt
= be ( )
x

2 y
b xvt
= b2 v2e ( )
2
t

and

2 y
b xvt
= b2e ( )
2
x

Therefore,
P16.44

(a)

2
2 y
b(xvt)
2 y
is a solution.
=
v
, demonstrating that e
2
2
t
x

From y = x 2 + v 2t 2 ,
evaluate

y
= 2x
x

and

2 y
=2
x 2

Also,

y
= v 2 2t
t

and

2 y
= 2v 2
t 2

2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

876

Wave Motion
2 y 1 2 y
?
=
t 2 v 2 t 2

Does

1
2v 2 ) and this is true, so the
2 (
v
wave function does satisfy the wave equation.

## By substitution, we must test 2 =

(b)

Note

1
1
1
1
1
1
( x + vt )2 + ( x vt )2 = x 2 + xvt + v 2t 2 + x 2 xvt + v 2t 2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2 2
=x +v t
as required. So
1
2
f ( x + vt ) = ( x + vt )
2

(c)

1
2
g ( x vt ) = ( x vt )
2

and

## y = sin x cos vt makes

y
= cos x cos vt
x

2 y
= sin x cos vt
x 2

y
= v sin x sin vt
t

2 y
= v 2 sin x cos vt
t 2

1
2 y 1 2 y
= 2 2 becomes sin x cos vt = 2 v 2 sin x cos vt which
2
v
x
v t
is true, as required.

Then

Note

## sin ( x vt ) = sin x cos vt cos x sin vt

sin x cos vt = f ( x + vt ) + g ( x vt ) with

So

f ( x + vt ) =

1
sin ( x + vt )
2

and

g ( x vt ) =

1
sin ( x vt )
2

P16.45

## The equation v = f is a special case of

speed = (cycle length)(repetition rate)
Thus,

## v = (19.0 103 m frame) ( 24.0 frames s) = 0.456 m s

2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Chapter 16
P16.46

877

## Assume a typical distance between adjacent people 1 m.

Then the wave speed is v =

x 1 m
~
~ 10 m/s.
t 0.1 s

Model the stadium as a circle with a radius of order 100 m. Then, the
time for one circuit around the stadium is
2
2 r 2 (10 )
T=
~
= 63 s ~ 1 min
v
10 m s

P16.47

## The speed of the wave on the rope is v =

therefore, m =

T
and in this case T = mg;

v2
.
g

Now v = f implies v =

so that
k

0.250 kg m 18 s 1

m= =

= 14.7 kg
g k
9.80 m s 2 0.750 m 1
*P16.48

v=

2d
gives
t

d=
P16.49

vt 1
= ( 6.50 103 m s ) ( 1.85 s ) = 6.01 km
2 2

## The block-cord-Earth system is isolated, so energy is conserved as the

block moves down distance x:

K + U = 0

( K +U

+U s )top = ( K +U g +U s ) bottom

1
0 + Mgx + 0 + 0 = 0 + 0 + kx 2
2
2Mg
x=
k
(a)

## T = kx = 2Mg = 2 ( 2.00 kg ) ( 9.80 m s 2 ) = 39.2 N

(b)

L = L0 + x = L0 +

L = 0.500 m +

2Mg
k

39.2 N
= 0.892 m
100 N m

2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

878

Wave Motion

(c)

v=

T
TL
=

v=

39.2 N 0.892 m
5.0 103 kg

v = 83.6 m/s

P16.50

## The block-cord-Earth system is isolated, so energy is conserved as the

block moves down distance x:

K + U = 0

(K + U

+ Us

top

= K + U g + Us

0 + Mgx + 0 + 0 = 0 + 0 +
Mgx =

P16.51

bottom

1 2
kx
2

1 2
kx
2

(a)

T = kx = 2Mg

(b)

L = L0 + x = L0 +

(c)

v=

(a)

2Mg
k

2Mg
2Mg
L
+
0
m
k

T
TL
=
=

or

## sin ( 99.6 rad s ) t = 0.500

The smallest two angles for which the sine function is 0.500 are

( 99.6 rad s ) t

(b)

## Distance traveled by the wave

= t =
21.0 103 s ) = 1.68 m
(

k

2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Chapter 16
P16.52

(a)

879

## From y = (0.150 m) sin (0.800x 50.0t) = A sin(kx t)

we compute
y/t = ( 0.150 m ) (50.0 s 1 ) cos(0.800x 50.0t)

## and a = 2 y/t 2 = ( 0.150 m ) (50.0 s 1 )2 sin(0.800x 50.0t)

Then amax = (0.150 m)(50.0 s 1 )2 = 375 m/s 2
(b)

## For the 1.00-cm segment with maximum force acting on it,

12.0 103 kg
( 1.00 cm )( 375 m/s 2 ) = 0.045 0 N
F = ma =

100 cm
(c)

To find the tension in the string, we first compute the wave speed

v=f =

50.0 s 1
=
= 62.5 m/s
k 0.800 m 1

then,

v=

12.0 103 kg
T
2
gives T = v 2 =
( 62.5 m/s ) = 46.9 N

1.00 m

## The maximum transverse force is very small compared to the

tension, more than a thousand times smaller.
P16.53

## Assuming the incline to be frictionless and taking the positive x

direction to be up the incline:

Fx = T Mg sin = 0
or the tension in the string is T = Mg sin .
The speed of transverse waves in the string is then
v=

T
=

Mg sin
=
m/L

MgL sin
m

t =
P16.54

(a)

L
m
=L
=
v
MgL sin

mL
Mg sin

## The energy a wave crest carries is constant in the absence of

absorption. Then the rate at which energy passes a stationary
point, which is the power of the wave, is constant.

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880

Wave Motion
(b)

(c)

## The power is proportional to the square of the amplitude and to

the wave speed. The speed decreases as the wave moves into
shallower water near shore, so the amplitude must increase.
For the wave described, with a single direction of energy
transport, the power is the same at the deep-water location and
at the place with depth 9.00 m. Because power is proportional
to the square of the amplitude and the wave speed, to express the
constant power we write,

## ( 1.80 m )2 ( 200 m/s ) = A22 ( 9.80 m s 2 )( 9.00 m )

= A22 ( 9.39 m s )

200 m s
A2 = 1.80 m
9.39 m s

1/2

= 8.31 m
(d)

As the water depth goes to zero, our model would predict zero
speed and infinite amplitude. In fact the amplitude must be finite
as the wave comes ashore. As the speed decreases the wavelength
also decreases. When it becomes comparable to the water depth,
or smaller, our formula

P16.55

## Let M = mass of block, m = mass of string. For the block, F = ma

mvb2
implies T =
= m 2 r. The speed of a wave on the string is then
r

v=

T
=

M 2 r
M
= r
m/r
m

t =

r 1
=
v

m
M

## and the angle through which the block rotates is

= t =

m
=
M

0.0032 kg
0.450 kg

2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Chapter 16

P16.56

## The transverse wave velocity in the string is vtrans =

881

T
,

where T is the tension in the cord, and is the mass per unit length of
the cord. The tension T is generated by the centripetal force holding
the mass and cord in uniform circular motion at the angular velocity ;
thus:
T = Fc = M

v2
= M 2 r
r

## where we note that M is the mass of the block.

The mass density of the cord is =

m
; thus, the transverse wave
r

velocity is
vtrans

T
=
=

( M r ) = ( M r ) = r
2

2 2

( m)

m
r

M
m

Now the transverse wave travels a distance r (the length of the cord) at
a uniform velocity vtrans ; thus, distance = r = vtrans t, and therefore,

t=

r
vtrans

M
r

m
M

t=

m
1
0.003 20 kg
=
= 8.43 103 s
0.450 kg

P16.57

## The transverse wave velocity in the string is vtrans =

T
,

where T is the tension in the cord, and is the mass per unit length of
the cord. The tension T is generated by the centripetal force holding
the mass and cord in uniform circular motion at the angular velocity,
; thus
T = Fc = M

v2
= M 2 r
r

where we note that M is the mass of the block, and the mass density of
2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

882

Wave Motion
the cord is =

vtrans

m
. Thus transverse wave velocity is
r

T
=
=

( M r ) = ( M r ) = r
2

2 2

( m)

m
r

M
m

Now the transverse wave travels a distance r (the length of the cord) at
a uniform velocity vtrans ; thus, distance = r = vtranst, and therefore,

t=

r
vtrans

M
r

m
M

## [Note: To solve this problem without integration of the mass density

over the length of the cord to include the cords own mass as a
contribution to its own tension, and thus to a nonuniform tension
along the length of the cord (and thus also to a nonuniform wave
velocity along the cord), we must assume that the mass of the cord m
is very small compared to the mass of the block M. In such a case, the
mass of the cord does not contribute to the centripetal force, or as a
result, to the tension on the cord itself. The only role the cords mass
will then play is in generating the linear density in the transverse wave
velocity equation. To be forced to include mass of the cord in the
centripetal force calculation is a significantly more difficult problem
and is not attempted here.]
P16.58

(a)

1
2 A 2 v where v is the wave speed, the quantity A is
2
the maximum particle speed vy, max. We have = 0.500 103 kg/m
and

In P =

v=

T
20.0 N
=
= 200 m/s

## 0.500 103 kg/m

P=

1
0.500 103 kg/m ) vy2 ,max ( 200 m/s )
(
2

Then

## P = 0.050 0vy2 ,max , where P is in watts and vy ,max is in meters

per second

2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Chapter 16
(b)

(c)

883

## The power is proportional to the square of the maximum

particle speed.
In time t = (3.00 m)/v = (3.00 m)/(200 m/s) = 1.50 102 s, all the
energy in a 3.00-m length of string goes past a point. Therefore,
the amount of this energy is

## E = Pt = ( 0.050 0 kg/s ) vy2 ,max (0.015 s) = ( 7.50 104 kg ) vy2 ,max

The mass of this section is

## m3.00m = ( 0.500 103 kg/m )( 3.00 m ) = 1.50 103 kg

1
m3.00m = 7.50 104 kg
2

so

per second.

(d)
(e)

1 2
mvy ,max
2

## E = Pt = (0.050 0 kg/s) vy2 , max (6.00 s)

2
E = 0.300 vy ,max where E is in joules and vy ,max is in meters

per second.

P16.59

(a)

=
v=

dm
dx
= A
= A
dL
dx

T
=

T
=
A

( ax + b )

10 x + 102 cm 2

## With all SI units,

v=

where x is in meter, T is in
1.00 10 x + 1.00 106

(b)

v(0) =

24.0

( 2700 ) 0 + 106

v(10.0 m) =

24.0

= 94.3 m s

## ( 2700 ) 104 + 106

= 9.38 m s

2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

884
P16.60

Wave Motion
Imagine a short transverse pulse traveling from the bottom to the top
of the rope. When the pulse is at position x above the lower end of the
T
, where T = xg
rope, the wave speed of the pulse is given by v =

## is the tension required to support the weight of the rope below

position x.
Therefore, v = gx.
But v =

dx
dx
, so that dt =
gx
dt
L

and t =

P16.61

gx

1
g

x
1
2

2
0

L
g

(a)

1
1
3 2 2bx
P ( x ) = 2 A 2 v = 2 A02 e 2bx =
A0 e
k
2
2
2k

(b)

P ( 0) =

(c)

P16.62

dx

P ( x)
P ( 0)

3 2
A0
2k

= e 2bx

4 450 103 m 1 h
v=
3 600 s = 210 m/s

5.88 h
v 2 ( 210 m/s )
=
=
= 4 500 m
g
9.80 m/s 2
2

davg

## The given speed corresponds to an ocean depth that is

greater than the average ocean depth, about 4 280 m.
P16.63

T/A
, where T is
L/L
the tension maintained in the wire and L is the elongation produced
by this tension. Also, the mass density of the wire may be expressed as
Youngs modulus for the wire may be written as Y =

## The speed of transverse waves in the wire is then

v=

Y ( L/L)
T
T/A
=
=

/A

2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Chapter 16

885

L v 2
.
=
L
Y

## If the wire is made of aluminum and v = 100 m/s, the strain is

3
3
L ( 2.70 10 kg m ) (100 m s)
=
= 3.86 104
10
2
L
7.00 10 N m
2

Challenge Problems
P16.64

## Refer to Problem 60. At distance x from the bottom, the tension is

mxg
T=
+ Mg, so the wave speed is:
L
MgL dx
T
TL
=
= xg +
=
dt =

m
m dt

v=

(a)

MgL
xg +
m

Then
t

t=

dt =
0

MgL
xg + m

1 2

dx

1 xg + ( MgL m)
t=
1
g
2

gives

t=

MgL
2
Lg +

g
m

t=2

(b)

dx

L
mg

12

12

x=L

x=0

MgL

M+m M

12

When M = 0,
t=2

L m 0
L

= 2
g
g
m

2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

886

Wave Motion
(c)

As m 0 we expand

m
M + m = M 1+
M

to obtain

1 m 1 m2
= M 1+

+
2 M 8 M2

12

t=2

L
1 m 1 2
M+
m M 3 2 + M

mg
2 M 8

t2

L1 m
=
g 2 M

## where we neglect terms

mL
Mg

1 m2
and higher because terms with
8 M 3 2

P16.65

(a)

## Refer to Problem 60. From the definition of velocity, find the

relationship between the position x of the pulse and the time
interval t required to reach that position from the bottom of the
rope:
dx
dx
dx
dx
x
v= dt= =
t=
t =2
dt
v
g
gx
gx
Evaluate this time interval for x =

L
L/2
L
1 L
= 2
=
2
= 0.707 2

g
2g
g
g
2

t=2
(b)

Solve the expression from part (a) for x and substitute the given
time interval:

x=
P16.66

(a)

L
:
2

g ( t )

L2

gL
L
=
4g
4

## ( x ) is a linear function, so it is of the form ( x ) = mx + b.

To have ( 0) = 0 we require b = 0 . Then ( L) = L = mL + 0
so m =

L 0
.
L

Then ( x ) =
(b)

( L 0 ) x +
L

## Imagine the crest of a short transverse pulse traveling from one

end of the string to the other. Consider the pulse to be at position

2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Chapter 16
x. From v =
x + dx is

t =

dx
=
v
L

dx
1
=
T/
T

( x ) dx

( L 0 ) x

+ 0

12

L 0 L

dx
L L 0

1
t =
T

1
t =
T

L ( L 0 ) x
+ 0

L

L
0

t =
(a)

dx
, the time interval required to move from x to
dt

dx
. The time interval required to move from 0 to L is
v
L

P16.67

887

2L
L3 2 03 2
3 T ( L 0 )

32

( 23 ) 0

## Consider a short section of chain at the

top of the loop. A free-body diagram is
shown. Its length is s = R ( 2 ) and its
mass is R2 . In the frame of reference
of the center of the loop, Newtons
second law is

Fy = may :

mv02
R2 v02
2T sin down =
down =
R
R

T
= v0

(b)

(c)

## In the frame of reference of the center of the loop, each pulse

moves with equal speed clockwise and counterclockwise (ANS.
FIG. P16.67(c1)).

## ANS. FIG. P16.67(c1)

2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

888

Wave Motion
In the frame of reference of the ground, once pulse moves
backward, clockwise, at speed v0 + v = 2v0 and the other forward,
counterclockwise, at v v = 0 (ANS. FIG. P16.67(c2))
0

## ANS. FIG. P16.67(c2)

While the loop makes one revolution, the one pulse traveling
clockwise makes two revolutions and the other pulse traveling
counterclockwise does not move around the loop. The counterclockwise pulse it is generated at the 6 oclock position, and it
will stay at the 6 oclock position.

2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Chapter 16

889

P16.2

(a) See ANS. FIG. P16.2(a); (b) See ANS. FIG. P16.2(b); (c) The graph in
ANS. FIG. P16.2(b) has the same amplitude and wavelength as the
graph in ANS. FIG. P16.2(a). It differs just by being shifted toward
larger x by 2.40 m; (d) The wave has traveled d = vt = 2.40 m to the
right.

P16.4

## (a) longitudinal P wave; (b) 666 s

P16.6

(a) See ANS. FIG. P16.6(a); (b) See ANS. FIG. P16.6(b); (c) See ANS.
FIG. P16.6(c); (d) See ANS. FIG. P16.6(d); (e) See ANS. FIG. P16.6(e)

P16.8

0.800 m/s

P16.10

2.40 m/s

P16.12

6.67 cm

P16.14

(a) See ANS FIG P16.14; (b) 0.125 s; (c) This agrees with the period
found in the example in the text.

P16.16

## (a) 0.100 sin (1.00220.0t); (b) 3.18 Hz

P16.18

(a) See ANS FIG P13.12(a); (b) 18.0 rad/m; (c) 0.083 3 s; (d) 75.4 rad/s;
(e) 4.20 m/s; (f) y = ( 0.200m ) sin ( 18.0x / m + 75.4t / s + ) ; (g) y(x, t) =
0.200 sin (18.0x + 75.4t 0.151), where x and y are in meters and t is in
seconds.

P16.20

## (a) 0.021 5 m; (b) 1.95 rad; (c) 5.41 m/s;

(d) y ( x, t ) = ( 0.0215 ) sin ( 8.38x + 80.0 t + 1.95 )

P16.22

520 m/s

P16.24

(a) units are seconds and newtons; (b) The first T is period of time; the
second is force of tension.

P16.26

(a) y = (2.00 104) sin (16.0x 3 140t), where y and x are in meters and
t is in seconds; (b) 158 N

P16.28

## The calculated gravitational acceleration of the Moon is almost twice

that of the accepted value.

P16.30

(b) m = 3.89 kg

P16.32

## (a) As for a string wave, the rate of energy transfer is proportional to

the square of the amplitude to the speed. The rate of energy transfer
stays constant because each wavefront carries constant energy, and the
frequency stays constant. As the speed drops, the amplitude must
increase; (b) The amplitude increases by 5.00 times

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890

Wave Motion

P16.34

55.1 Hz

P16.36

1.07 kW

P16.38

2P0

P16.40

## See P16.40 for the full explanation.

P16.42

(a) A = 40.0; (b) A = 7.00, B = 0, and C = 3.00; (c) In order for two
vectors to be equal, they must have the same magnitude and the same
direction in three-directional space. All of their components must be
equal, so all coefficients of the unit vectors must be equal; (d) A = 0,
B = 7.00, C = 3.00, D = 4.00, E = 2.00; (e) Identify corresponding parts.
In order for two functions to be identically equal, corresponding parts
must be identical. The argument of the sine function must have no
units or be equal to units of radians.

P16.44

## (a) See P16.44(a) for full explanation; (b) f ( x + vt ) =

1
2
( x + vt) and
2

1
1
2
( x vt) ; (c) f ( x + vt) = sin ( x + vt) and
2
2
1
g ( x vt ) = sin ( x vt )
2

g ( x vt ) =

P16.46

~1 min

P16.48

6.01 km

P16.50

## (a) 2 Mg; (b) L0 +

P16.52

(a) 375 m/s2; (b) 0.045 0 N; (c) 46.9 N. The maximum transverse force is
very small compared to the tension, more than a thousand times
smaller.

P16.54

## (a) The energy a wave crest carries is constant in the absence of

absorption. Then the rate at which energy passes a stationary point,
which is the power of the wave, is constant; (b) The power is
proportional to the square of the amplitude and to the wave speed.
The speed decreases as the wave moves into shallower water near
shore, so the amplitude must increase; (c) 8.31 m; (d) As the water
depth goes to zero, our model would predict zero speed and infinite
amplitude. In fact, the amplitude must be finite as the wave comes
ashore. As the speed decreases, the wavelength also decreases. When it
becomes comparable to the water depth, or smaller, our formula gd
for wave speed no longer applies.

P16.56

8.43 103 s

2 Mg
; (c)
k

2 Mg
2 Mg
L0 +

k
k

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Chapter 16
P16.58

891

(a) P = 0.050 0 vy2 ,max where P is in watts and vy,max is in meters per
second; (b) The power is proportional to the square of the maximum
particle speed; (c) E = ( 7.50 104 ) vy2 ,max where E is in joules and vy,max is
1
mvy2 , max ; (e) E = 0.300vy2 , max where E is in
2
joules and vy,max is in meters per second

## in meters per second; (d)

L
g

P16.60

P16.62

The given speed corresponds to an ocean depth that is greater than the
average ocean depth, about 4 280 m.

P16.64

(a) t = 2

L
g

P16.66

(a) (x) =

( L 0 ) x +

M + m M ; (b) 2

; (b) t =

L
; (c)
g

mL
Mg

2L
(L3/2 03/2 )
3 T ( L 0 )

2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.