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Fourth edition ate Advanced Student’s Book ai Liz and John Soars . 7-10] Mm telalaorea a ~ P. Sa Fourth edition Headway Advanced Student’s Book Liz and John Soars Paul Hancock SS we ~ OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS CONTENTS LANGUAGE INPUT ls Deters Md SPOKEN ENGLISH we 1 What makes us Tenserevew Synonyms ‘xpresios with efieives human? Sinple andor contowous characterises tat p& ‘Dot put yourself down - Tve checked my emails. “The stages of life He really fancies yr Te been checking my emails. p10 Swotingfor an exam hime pt) ferfect and non prec. setlingdon Te come fom Scotland sting mortgage pl2 Teome from Scotland. 10 Ate and passive ll spoken hee. pt -eflenve pronouns talk to himself buen myself pL fe 2 Insomany words — Aéverbsand asectivs Phrasal verbs xpresons with word ‘verb cllcatons oor Test for words pis iter disappointed, gaze longingly pi Jor down eat your words ‘Adverbs with two fos tome to pl? treat a word 920 ‘wea tae easy pI Just say the word! Adjective order get word egenuye ‘reat nen, strc novel p19 word for word {main offer word p20 3 Enough is enough? Ver pattems Describing tends ep and down Init og “al dramatialy ighten up p23 continue to increase, keep improving p25 rrise sharply run down ‘Verbs that can take both infinitive and ing slight decrease p28 Cheer up! p29 ‘art to happen, tart happening p25 Phrasal verbs with yp and down “peed up oesup Stand down p29 fe 4 Notallitseems — Motalamiian verbs Check the meaning Modal ausaries Modal verbs for speciation present ‘centric handcuffs p87 You realy shouldsit pat ‘ould, may mst p32 \domatic colocation have ‘Mol vers for speciation past Teel playing ld Teed have bothered! ‘nightimust should have aeved p33 wake-up cal 1 shoul think so! 3 Modal vers other meanings Forgone conclusion p38 -Abity, permission olgaton hab refusal advice Syonyes would believe, wouldr't accept, to deceive, to detude p38 musi ask 4 5 Culture clashes Waystoaveidrepetiion Vocabulary fom context Finding things in commen ising words out BUmbis frson pA So have pal 1A present for me? You shouldn't have. p44 Nationalities and stereotypes neither do I Aeduedininves inland, Finish a Pm have, though, pas ‘Can you come for dinner?” "Yes, Td love the Finnish, Finnish pa? fe pt syne "Were they worried about going? "Wel hey were abit anions pd 6 Fruits of war Way of adding emphasis Nouns formed rom phrasal Pronunciation: using stress Serctes ih adempbass ves toemphasze pas What Fhate about ‘tp-up, toa, Peer has tld Something the war did ws... p52 nfl p53 auybods He told Negative inversion ime! p53 ‘Never have [sen Rarely does oe fd. p33 Emphatic do. does did Finally the war did end, p53 SKILLS DEVELOPMENT READING LISTENING Ba CaSO ‘What makes ushuman? The reunion Inyour own words ‘Weal get emotional! Introducing yourself Ten things that make us Two people discuss a school “alking about what makes us completely blown” A’personal human reunion p?7 human p8 ‘oray profile pl07 “Anarticle about The Seven Agesof Mon What do you think? bing to know ten key human "aspeccl from As You Like Human versus thyilled tobts pl characteristics iy Wiliam Shakespeare p12 intelligence that make us What age are they? “Talking about distin from other People of diferent ages describe ages pl2 species pS themselves pl2 ‘famous play ‘Georg Berard Shaw What do you think? Breaking the rules Narrative writing Pygmalion "Ashort biogeaphy of the Speculating about how of English Diflerent ‘AGtITScene 1 of playwright pis Pygmalion ends p17 English grammar genres p08 theplay by George famous play Inyour own words rules p32 Berard Shaw pl Pygmalion ‘Creating ahorrr story p21 ‘AGIIIScene 2 and Act II Seene tof the play p17 Thebillonaie who wasnt Limits to growth Discusion ‘Workplace jargon Report writing “heseeebilionaie Arado programme about ‘Global problems quiz p23 going forward Using profile of Chuck economic growth p24 Inyour own words ‘tvin-win situation graphs pl10 Feeney.a philanthropist Deserbing trends Discussing economic Think ouside the ‘whohas gen away” “Short presentations describing growth pot bos p30 billions of dolar diferent trends p28 What do you think? anonymously p26 Burrword bingo Talking about personal “Atbuniness presentation finance po containing workplace jargon p30 ‘The mysticand the ceptic Inthe Jewelers ‘est your memory Softening the message Writing formal ‘Sir Arthur Conan Doyle Ashop asistant gives an account Askingand answering witness Would you mind. email Harry Houdini ‘ofan incident atthe shop p32 statement questions 33, Do you think T "An apology pl12 “biographical article Prefessr Eiabeth Loftus workon The Unbelievable Truth could about two ofthe most eyewitness statements Givinga shor lecture based Tvs thinking 1 famous celebrities of Research into eyewitness fon the radio show p39 might. pad the 20th century p36 evidence p34 What do you thik? Annie friendship “The relationship between "Arad programme about the Conan Doyleand relationship between Conan Houdini p37 Doyle and Houdini p38 Inyour own words The Unbelievable Truth Explaining idiomatic "Aclipfroma radio show p39 ___collocations p39 World of eference Found in translation Inyour own words British and American Describing “The ultimate culture ‘Arado programme about Summarizing an article p42 English Similarities and lash therelationship between an What do you think? ‘Did they bing the ‘Amarticle by a “American man and a Russian Talking about an article p2 chek yr? journalist about the ‘woman who met online p46 Sharing opinions naire Have they brought counties pI13 sitby members ofa ving in another eounty story pie the bil yer? pas tribe fom Papua New "People talk about their experience Talking about stereotypes Guinea made to the ofliving in another country p47 “Nationality stereotypes p47 UK pie cuir How good a language learner are you? pas ‘When good comes from bad Quotations about war Inyour own words ping the peace Writing for talking Lasting legacies Perspectives on war and confit" Givingan overview of key Lef¥just agree fo.‘ Researching, Anartileaboutthe _fromthroughout history p49 information ina text psd dlsagre. period in lasting impact of Peace and goodwill Surnmariging a listening Haveityourown ‘history pli World War p30 “An exact fom the play Oh, text pd vay. p36 What a Lovely War and an" What do you thik? interview with two World War Talking about the impact of veterans p54 World Warl Discussing reactions to a listening text p54 CONTENTS LANGUAGE INPUT ls ie Ee Beets (Malone Maslwnehalel on D7 Ughten upt we everhad money as children, wespent it logoff “si wna Fassia Fi Br eat 52 _Relatives and participles Homonyms, homophones, ee Gender matters? Defining and non-defining clauses and homographs. ‘That’ just what I wanted! P65 ‘Tt was the passengers who exhibited “fort, fought Twas just terrified! Tenamaaan Baicin iswten Discourse markers ‘Verb phrases Rhyming expressions ‘nent ma " cei oe soos cre cae fcighecanfn a a ates Teast at prt: Bodyand mind Passive constructions ‘nostril, palm, knuckle p87 I was quite comfortable. psi ‘tis said that psychosomatic ilmesses are ‘all Verbs to do with the body ‘That’ quite it creas ae an Boot Rr pris pine cabal tt ved et Snags we bm Ouhghiedh Im, = wor ‘The plane willbe landing about now. ancient, up-to-date p94 of strong stuf. Fue inthe past Twas going to attend the meeting but it was ‘canceled ‘She was to give usa if tothe airport. pS nightmares. p90 ir ir Linking devices ‘Metaphorical language Emphatic expressions with be 12 Turing points ‘hus fuel the imagination dofdoes/did 2? JSurihermore Shining example Tid wr you! imeanve hot tapi 999 Wel id wonder: reverts: p00 heck the mening Tio wishhe peak fess wou, pd teed with running through treacle ple Tapescripts pi22 Grammar Reference ps Phrasal verbs pict Word list poo SKILLS DEVELOPMENT fn How tobe happier ‘Seven ways 0 make yourself happier ‘An article giving advice ‘on how to make yourself happier p58 TaN A The history ofthe smile In your own words “An extract froma radio ‘Summarizing an article p38 documentary about the role Summarizing sections ofa tnd social evolution ofthe listening text p62 smile p62 What do you tink? “Talking about things that make people happy p58 “The smile ps2 oor Look onthe bright side Cheer up! lang on in there! You ean win all. pt Co Informal writing ‘letter to my younger self pli6 Desperate husbands ‘A slow take-of for female pilots ‘Two articles about people who have taken ‘on roles rationally carried out by the ‘opposite sex p66 ‘Are youa typical male or female? In your own words ‘A couple discuss thet Exchanging information answers toa quiz p65 about two articles p66 GGender-neutal parenting What do you think? ‘Aconversation between a Sharing opinions about couple discussing gender- gender roles p66 neutral parenting p70 Talking about gender neutral Dr Eugene Beresin parenting p70 ‘A paychiatrsts view on gender-neutral parenting p70 Talking in clichés Boys wil be boys Better safe than sorry. takes all sorts. p72 Helene Grimaud Youare the music Inyour own words The musicof English and Giving aninformal ‘Alifeof music and wolves Two guess on a radio Summarizing the key topics intonation pinion ‘he remarkable ie programme discuss imalistening text p74 ‘Mum makes cakes, “"A poston ‘ofthe work-famous Fak about the role of What do you thnk? (Our mum makes ‘comment classical pianist and aking about the music that cakes thread plis conservationist, Helene would bethe soundtrack to Our mum makes the Grimaud p78 yourlite p74 cakes ps ‘he Night Heard Caruso Sharing reactions toa Sing by Everything But The song pv Gitl p77 Discussing reactions toa reading text p78. ‘The power of placebo How well do you know your body? What do you think? He does, doeshe?-tags Debating anise “he placebo elect acts about thehumanbody Talking about the rdationship and replies “Anapinion Anattile about the andhealth pst ‘between the mind and ‘Sou were with Lisa pice pl19 effect the mind can Down to earth with abump physical health p82 lastnight were you? hhaveon physial “hn interview with a Reporting the news ‘Mmm Thats proper recovery p82 ‘who survived Preparingand presenting a cup off that Erashin the wilderness p86 news bulletin p85 is pss Inyour own words ‘Aradio interview based on listening text p86 “Too much science? ‘Me and my tech Discussing a questionnaire Tenreally bad predictions Describing and “Are our household Pete talks ahout‘histech’ p89 A questionnaire about Rock rollvill be evaluating fpplances geting too ‘The teret of Things ‘our relationship with gone by une. ‘An onfine product complicated? “aradio programme about technology p89 Democracy wil be review p120 “Anarticl exploring the interconnection of What do you tink? dead by 1980. p96 the function inflation’ devices othe Internet and its ‘The Internet of Things p90 ‘ofmoder household effects p90 ‘Talking about the function appliances p32 Margie’ diary 2157 inflation of househokd The past seen from the appliances p92 faure p96 Lifechanging experiences The all ofthe twin towers What do you think? Word linking the potato Connecting ideas Running marathon "An eyewitness account p57 Talking about space dloct ‘Writing a near killed me ‘When man frst sow the arth exploration poe “This icanevening biography p121 Our plane was jacked An extract rom radio ‘Talking about life-changing featcpation sande “Two frst person Programme discussing the _eventsand their effects p102__ excitement pl08 accounts oflie-changing legacy ofthe Apollo space Inyour own words Intrusive sounds experiences pl03, misions 98 Exchanging information bueceyes aboutareading ext pl02 ——_fwacomnges soaay pO Extra materials piss Irregular verbs 175 Phonetic symbols p17 VIDEOS | Avideo to accompany each unit an be found on the MEI DvD-ROM. > 1 What makes us human? “The similarities and disferences between Nits & 7 Grafiti life Acollective of human and primate through graffi intelligence. > 2 Behind the scenes Ruth Shackleton — ‘look at the role ofthe allife less ordinary backstage team at one of the most prestigious regional theatres in the UK. Ruth Shackleton, team manager of the world’s most famous aerobatic display team, the Red Arrows. & 3 Information is beautiful visit tothe Information is Beautiful Studio, shoveasing the current trend for data visualization, Silent film music World-renowned silent film accompanist, John Sweeney, talks about film music in theera of the sient film, & 4 Eyewitness Eyewitness behaviour and the impact of forensic psychology on procedures ® 10 The science of sport Allookat the importance of well- funded scientific research in creating today’s sporting elite 5 Across cultures Reflections on migration from those who have returned home, and those who never return to their homeland, Survival skills The life-changing experience of wilderness survival training ina technology-driven world. 6 Bletchley Park ‘The work of Bletchley Parks Government Code and Cypher School during World War Il and its lasting legacy. 12 The Human Genome Project ‘The completion of the Haman Genome Project and its impact , What makes us human? Tense review * Reflexive pronouns * The ages of man * Getting emotional CRED What makes us human? poorer 1 These questions cover some very common human 2. Canyou think of more such situations? Share ideas with the cass. situations. Which have you experienced? Discuss with EAEB Listen to Bridget and Mark. Where has Bridget been? ‘a partner. Give examples from your life if you can. cB: heakis antes ibcenuiooatl ee 1 felt dismayed when somebody, n response to, ‘hi how are you?’ 7 asked someone in a supermarket where something i, only doesn't answer, ‘Fine, thanks, but actualy stat to tellyou about to leam that the person is another customer like yoursel?” their health? (Or worse, have you had the reverse happen to you? 2 had a tricky conversation with someone wiose name you've forgotten | § wished that you'd bought some of the things in te trolley when they clearly know who you are? Should you ask their name? ofthe person ahead of you inthe supermarket queue? 3 iscovered to your embarrassment that you've been walking along, | @ worried that you've been too rude to acold caller when talking to yourself because your friend stopped awhile 290 to lookin you've sid, ‘No, thank you’ and slammed the phone down? a shop window? 10 found it dificult to keep your smile and patience, ater 4 said that you'e pleased with your hai ina hairdresser’, despite a third failed attempt wien someone is taking a group knowing you hate it and can't wait to leave the shop and comb it out? | photograph? 55 spent a meal debating with yourself whether to tll the person you're | 4 felt awkward because after saying along and affectionate eating with that there is some food on their face? goodbye to someone you both set off in the same direction? 6 felt cistressed when someone who came afteryou in a queue got | 4. said, We really must meet up again sometime’, when you served before you? really meant, ‘Not a chancel”? READING AND SPEAKING What makes us human? 1 Look at the photographs. Read the introduction to he text and the ten headings. What information do you expect to find under each one? Which do you think are most important? Why? Discuss as a class 2 Read the full article. The last line in each section is missing. Which line below completes them? 8 acapacity for music evolved eary in our history b they are among the oldest visual images discovered so far from telephones to toothbrushes: rom cars to computers 4. each new generation would be forced to reinvent the wheel developed rules for inking them into sentences £ wedohavetoleam such things a5 reading, writing, and sharing with others 8 It gaveus the works of Einstein, Mozart, and many other geniuses fh thus contrfouting to biger brains and a reduction in tooth and gut ize i long after they themselves can have children | A century ago, childbirth was a leading cause of death for women PP itiyour own words 3. Read the article again, then work with a partner and use the prompts below to tell each other what makes us human in your own words. 1 Our brains ~ it sets us apart / other animals and birds / amazing achievements Walking upright ~ other primates / hands / tools / childbirth Long childhoods - puzzling paradox / helpless infants / long time to grow and learn 4 Language ~ special form of communication because ... / clues as to how developed / chimpanzees / rules 5. Music ~ not known when / functions / everywhere 6 Art why art? / when? / cave paintings first stone tools /2.5 million 7 Tools and technology years ago / amazing variety 8 Learning from each other ~ importance of culture / sharing ideas / past, present, future / the wheel 9 Life after children role of grandparents 10 Clothing and fire ~ not really naked / colder parts of the world / cooking humans and animals different 8 Unit + What makes us human? TTT LIPUATLE) Cen human All species on Earth, including humans, are unique. Yet our intelligence and creativity go well beyond those of any other animal. Humans have long communicated through language, created and appreciated art and music, and invented ever more complex tools that have enabled our species to survive and Sit. enemies See ee EE capacity to use symbols to recreate the world mentally. This symbolic thought has also opened our minds to spirituality eta nes Vocabulary 4. Match the words below with their synonyms highlighted in the text. characteristic little evidence ses forebears tive in main flourish perplexing ties desire achievements with What do you think? + ‘Ourinteligence and creativity go well beyond those of any other animal’ In what ways? Why has this happened? + Which animals have abilities closest to us? What can/cant they do? + Give examples of instinctive and learned activities for both humans and animals + What is meant by ‘symbolic thought’ Give examples. + Workin small groups. What else would you like to add to thelist of tent Discus as a class. 0 our brains Without doubt, the human trait that sets us apart the most from the animal kingdom is our extraordinary brain. Humans don't have the largest brains in the world - those belong to sperm whales. We don't even have the largest brains relative to body size. many birds have brains that make up more than 8% of their body weight, compared to only 2.5% for humans. Yet the. human brain, which weighs about three pounds when fully grown, gives us the ability to reason and think on our feet beyond the capabilities of the rest of the animal kingdom. (1) o Walking upright Humans are unique among the primates in how walking fully upright is our chief ‘mode of locomotion. This frees our hands up for using tools. Unfortunately, it also results in changes to the pelvis which, in combination with the large brains of aur babies, makes human childbirth unusually dangerous compared with the rest of the animal kingdom. (2)_. EX Long childhoods It seems a puzzling paradox that forall our briliance, human bbabies come into the world so useless and helpless. However, our large heads plus our upright posture mean that a later birth would bbe even more difficult. Therefore, humans remain in the care of their parents for much longer than other living primates because we require a long time to grow and learn. We have more learned behaviour and skills. Flies don't have to ‘learn’ how to fy, we don't have to ‘learn’ how to walk and talk, but (3)__. oO Language Many species communicate with vocal sounds, But language is special form of communication Fall language, with rules for ‘combining sounds into words, ‘and words into sentences, probably originated at some point about 50,000 years ago. But we will probably never know precisely when and where language criginated. Fossils, DNA evidence, comparisons with other animals, ‘and studies of how languages change over time all provide clues, but spoken language itself leaves few tvaces. It most likely evolved from a simpler form of communication. Chimpanzees use both gestures and vocal calls to communicate status and other complex social information. itis possible that our ancestors also expressed themselves first with gestures or simple words, then (4) No one knows if musie was invented before language, after language, or atthe same time Music might have served many functions for early humans. It could have been used for courtship, territorial claims, and uniting social groups ‘much as calls and songs are used by whales, birds, and apes. Whatever its original uses, * music is now present in every human culture, iyi implying that 5) We create art to ‘communicate, depict the material world, and stir emotions Where di this urge to create ‘come from and when di it strike : for the first time? European cave paintings of astonishing beauty date back as far as 38,000 years, and (6) {i Tools and technology Life is hard to imagine without tools. We use them every day, and we have for a very long time. ‘Our ancestors made the first stone tools at least 255 million years ago ~ long before modern humans evolved. Since then, our ability o invent has E\ Learning from each other ‘Our unique brains and the dexterity of our hands make amazing feats of tool use possible, but we also rely on the cultural transmission of ideas. Culture is at the heart of being human. We put our heads together, we share ideas, and learn from each other, recognizing a past, a present, and a future. We learn from the past, build on this in the present, and anticipate the future, Without culture, (8). DD Life after children Most animals reproduce until they die, but human females survive long after ceasing reproduction. This might be due to the social bonds seen in humans ~ grandparents can help ensure the success of their families (9) t ) Clothing and fire Humans are sometimes called ‘naked apes’ because ‘we look naked compared to our hairier ape cousins. Surprisingly, however, a square inch of human skin on average possesses as many hair-producing follicles as other primates. We just have thinner, shorter, lighter hairs, and we use clothing and fre to keep warm. The development of clothing and our ability to control fire enabled humans to inhabit colder parts of the world Fire also gave us cooking, which some scientists suggest influenced human evolution because cooked foods are easier to chew and digest, (10) _ LANGUAGE FOCUS Tense review 1 Work with a partner, What tenses are the verb forms in italics? Write them in the correct place in the charts. Fill ACTIVE | Simple | Continuous any gaps with examples of your own. Present Simple Present Continuous 1 The family of great apes is made up of gorillas, belong are blushing ‘orang-utans, chimpanzees, bonobos, and of course, NON: | Past Simple Past Continuous humans, PERFECT) 2. The largest brains belong to sperm whales Future Simple Future Continuous 3. Youre blushing. Have you been embarrassed by something? “Present Perfect Simple | resent Perfect Continuous 4 Noone knows when music was invented, but cave paintings were being created as long as 35,000 years ago. 5 This room is being used for a conference. The anthropologist Alice Roberts will be giving a talk. penrecr | PestPerfectSimple | Past Perfect Continuous Future Perfect Simple | Future Perfect Continuous 6 Thaven't seen you for ages. What have you been doing? 7 Lwish Id realized that sheid been lying to me all along. PASSIVE | Simple Continuous 8 He didn’t recognize his hometown. It had been rebuilt = Perce since his childhood aes 9 We'll have been living here three years this November: NONE. [ecsiale Parcsaneis PERFECT ‘Simple and/or continuous “Future Simple 2 Where possible, change the verb forms in these sentences from simple to continuous and vice versa Present Perfect Simple What is the change in meaning? Why isa change — sometimes not possible? penrecr | Pst erfect Simple What do you do? see him every Everyone's b Piltake a taxi to the airport. ve cut my finger. It’ really hurting, 1 2 Future Perfect Simple | PeD> Grammar 3 4 5 6 Dave always gives Pam expensive presents, 7 8 9 0 1 Reference p45 sdnesday. ng very nice to me. I dort know why. When I popped round to see her, she baked a cake. Tve been checking my emails. I've received loads. ‘The train leaves in five minutes. She said they been staying at the Ritz, ‘The winner is interviewed by Sky News. Tve hada perfectly Perfect and non-perfect ‘wonderful evening, but this wasn'tit. 3 Compare the use of tenses in these pairs of sentences. 1 Did you ever meet my grandfather? Have you ever met my grandfather? 2. Icome from Scotland, ve come from Scotland. 3 When I've talked to him, I'l tell you. When I talk to him, I'll tll you. 4 The arrangements will be finalized on Friday. ‘The arrangements will have been finalized by Friday, 5 Iwish I knew the way. Td known the way. Twi 10 Unit + What makes us human? Active and passive 4 Correct these sentences, 1 The lecture cant give in the main hall, its decorating. A large number of tickets have bought, 1 was thrilled to introduce to Professor Roberts. ‘The children enjoyed taking to the zoo. ‘They had warned not to frighten the animals. English speaks itself here. Reflexive pronouns 1 2 Look at these examples of reflexive pronouns. Why are they used? He was walking along, talking to himself ‘he spent the meal debating with herself whether totell him the truth, ‘The person | asked was another customer like myself ‘We lear from each other. Grandmothers help ther families long after they themselves can have children, >> Grammar Reference pl46 Compare the use or absence of reflexives in these sentences. 1 My wife was talking to her. My wife was talking to herself She got dressed quickly and went to work. She's growing up fast. She can now get herself dressed. 3 [burned my finger quite badly. I burned myself quite badly. 4 I spoke to the prime minister. I spoke to the prime minister himself. I spoke to the prime minister myself. 5 They hurt themselves playing rugby. ‘They hurt each other fencing. 6 Mummy, I painted it all by myself. I choose to live by myself. 3. Why is this cartoon funny? Correct the sentence. When the bell rang, the boxers started hitting themselves. Ea reflexives on ‘There are many expressions with refleives used in everyday English. 11 Work with a partner. Match an expression in A with linen B a 8 1 He really fancies «You never stop moaning! himself b You've been looking abit peaky 2 Honesty ust listen | recently toyourselt « Believe in yourself 3 Dontput yourself | d He thnks all women fal for down. his cham. 4 Lookafter yourself, | & I didnt get her phone number. 5 tcouldkickmmyselt | f Youdon'thave to agree with everythinghe ss. Thinkfor yourself 1 5 vou didnt win because youte the 7 Please yourself! bes. Your opponent wa rubbish! 1 pt beyourel fh Youneversten to my advice 9 Think of yourself aey Toyo i Youre alvays putting others firs: ' {Dont try to appear tobe 10 Dont fateryoustn | | Por PP Pe 2 ERED uisten and check. with your partner, think ofa suitable response to each one. Compare ideas asa class, 3 GEER Listen to the conversations. Identify the situations and note all the expressions with eflexives. D> WRITING Introducing yourself A personal profile p107 Unit + What makes us human? 11 VOCABULARY AND LISTENING AAAYE 1 Are you happy with the age you are? What is your perfect age? Why? 2 Work witha partner With which stage of life do you asociate these things? srazing your knee aches and pains ing clubbing playdates getting a mortgage colouring in teetering on high heels sleepovers. | riding na bugay having tein taking anaftemoon nap memory loss Internet dating getting divorced watchingyour weight nappies getting promoted having a tantrum going ona cruise caalng ‘wearing sensibleshoes_havingapotbelly insomnia settling down, needing reading glasses going grey/bald asatchel playing truant ‘working out swotting for an exam 3 This isa famous speech from the play As You Like Itby William Shakespeare. I's. known as The Seven Ages of Man. Read the first part and answer the questions. 1 What metaphor is used to describe the world? p 2 Explain the words players exits and entrances, and parts. 3 What do you think the seven ages are? Use the pictures to help. 4 Read and listen to the whole extract. The glossary should help ‘ith unfamiliar words. What are Shakespeare’ seven ages? Find one thing that goes with each age. 5. Read again, Each of the seven people is described negatively. - Who ..? 1 would die just to be famous and likes to swear and pick fights? 2 writes rather ridiculous and mournful poetry? 3 is rather portly and full ofboring advice? 4 is sulky and complaining? 5 6 7 has lost weight and needs to get new clothes? is loud and smelly? isnt aware of anything very much? What do you think? + Inwhat ways are Shakespeare descriptions of people true today? ‘Give some modern examples of negative behaviour for each age. + What could you say to describe each age more positively? Listening 6 EHEB Listen to some people. What age do you think they are? Are they positive or negative about their lives? In what ways? 12 Unit) + What makes us human? The Seven Ages of Man by William Shakespeare . All the world’s a stage, ‘And all the men and women merely playerss ‘They have their exits and their entrances, And one man in his time plays many parts, His acts being seven ages. Ac first, the infane, Mewling and puking in the nurse’s arms; (crying and being sick) ‘Then the whining schoolboy, with his satchel (complaining miserably) ‘And shining morning face, ereping like snail (crawling) Unwillingly to school. ‘And then the lover, Sighing like furnace, with a woefil ballad (sad) / Made to his mistress eyebrow. ‘Then a soldier, Full of srange oaths and bearded like the pard, (swearing contiualy) (priest) Jealous in honour, sudden and quick in quarrel, Sceking the bubble reputation Even in the cannon’s mouth. {when fighting a war) And then the justice (indge) In fair round belly, with good capon lined, (stomach) (chicken) With eyes severe, and beard of formal cut, (sayings (examples) ‘The sixth age shifis (moves) Into the lean and slippered pantaloon, (oyiamas and slippers) With spectacles on nose, and pouch on side; His youthful hose, well saved, a world 100 wide (trousers fromis youth) For his shrunk shank, and his big manly voice, (shrunk body) Turning again coward childish treble, pipes ‘And whistles in his sound. Last scene of all, “That ends this strange eventful history, Is second childishness and mere oblivion, (nothingness) Sans teeth, sans eyes, sans taste, sans everything. (without) THE LAST WORD We all get emotional! 1 Read and listen to the lines. Discuss with a partner. Who could be speaking? What might the situation be? Share ideas as a class. 1 T'm absolutely gutted. They were winning 2-0 at half-time and then they went on to lose 3-2! 2 You mean the world to me, More than words could ever say. 3 Wow! I'm completely blown away! I've never had such an expensive present. 4 Tllhave to consult my diary. Life’ just so hectic at the moment - I'm always so much in demand. 5 Come on, you can tell me. I'm dying to know. I won't breathe a word to anyone. 6 Could you not keep getting at me in front of our friends? It looks so awful Oh yeah!? So you run the company now after just a week in the job!? Pull the other one! 8 Thank God you're here! When we couldn't get through to you, we thought youd had an accident. 9 He came in the top 2% in the country, so his father and I are thrilled to bits. 10 It was nothing, really nothing. Anybody would have done the same. 11 Well, I think you did very well to come third. Keep up the good work and you'll win next time. 12. Oh, come on now, don't make such a fuss. You'll be fine, Its only a graze. Hardly bleeding at all. 13 I'm out of here right now! I dont like the look of that lot on the corner 14 What d’you mean I'm a couch potato?! I go to the ‘gym twice a week, 15 totally lostit with that poor guy, but it was the sixth call today. How do they get our numbers? 2 Try to work out the meaning of the highlighted words and phrases from the contexts. 3 Which of these emotions are expressed by the lines in exercise 1? Sometimes more than one is suitable. adoration anxiety pride boastfulness curiosity disappointment encouragement fear fury gratitude indignation sarcasm irritation. relief modesty astonishment reassurance delight 4 Say the lines to your partner according to the emotion. Lis again and compare the stress and intonation. 5 Listen to people saying the line ‘Oh, look at that!” in several diferent ways ‘Try to identify the emotion. What could the contexts be? 14 Unit + What makes us human? In so many words ‘Adverbs and adjectives * Expressions with word * Breaking the rules of English (CRDD Behind the scenes 1 Work witha partner. What have you read recently? What is your favourite type of book? 2. Read the opening lines of seven diferent books, Match them to thei literary genres and their covers. What helped you identify them? ahorror story| a childrens book biography modern romance vi istori (abo eno eck = ere aclasicromantic novel a psychological thiler ahistorical novel then Nc = esti 3 Choose two ofthe extracts. What could the next line be? Share ideas with the class. 4 Which if any ofthese books would you lke to continue reading? Have you read any books in English? What? Discuss reasons for doing this. & Opening lines > she was born with a sense of theatre, of carefully choreographed exits and entrances, an eagerly awaited baby, who arrived an improbable six weeks late in Southampton Hospital, Long Island, on 28 July 1929. Quon eee ie, He ved peacefully with his mother and father ina arr ies bed sa REE ag fie ee ee fers ag ne windowpane, 4 eer G) Ieisa truth universally acknowledged thar single man in Bea possession ofa good fortune must be in wane of a wife. ¥ . " © woe Ba SSR lng ae eal we ae (he ge TT Et fen ie the Troe a irene tween SARAH BRADFORD @ AMERICA'S QUEEN [e eer tame Creasy ane Cal bes nodhng ee aA tases et a ste diag fron of me, Docking y view of the scaffold, Ce aaa cote any man I want. You probably think I'm crazy, Imean here am. Brie ncncaer jie jeremy sas eT need ene READING AND LISTENING Pygmalion 1 Read a short biography of George Bernard Shaw, a famous 20th-century playwright. Listen and correct the nine mistakes in it, George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950) was an English playwright. He won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 935. Shaw’ instincts were to refuse this honour, but his etor persuaded him to accept it asa tribute to his publisher. He also won a Holywood Oscar in 139 forthe film version of hisplay The Apple Cart Hei one of only two writers to win both awards He wrote over 60 plays, but Pygmalion is probably his most famous work because, in 946, he adapted it into the highly successful musical for stage and screen, My Far Lady. He died, aged 94 aftr fling down stairs. 2 Read about the setting and characters for Act II of Pygmalion. What job does each character have? Why would Higgins want to transcribe the speech of a flower-girl? What is a ‘Cockney’? ‘ACTIN SETTING ‘CHARACTERS Higgins house in London. in| Professor Higgins ‘Act thenight before, hehad | _ Aprofessor of phonology been trenserbing the speech | Colonel Pickering ‘of a Cockney lower gil that Higgins’ frend, a language expert hheand Pickering had heard in| Mrs Pearce Covent Garden. Now they are in| Higgins’ housekeeper Higgins laboratory taking about | Eliza Doolittle phonetics. ‘A Cockney lower girl 3 Read and listen to the opening scene from Act IL Answer the questions. 1 Why was Pickering so impressed by Professor Higgins? Why didn’t Mrs Pearce send the young girl away? What does she describe as ‘something dreadful’? Why does Higgins agree to see the girl? Why is Bliza confident that she’ not asking for a favour? How has she worked out how much to pay him? 1 shall make a duchess of this draggletailed guttersnipe? What is Higgins planning to do? 8 Which of these adjectives do you think describe Professor Higgins? Which Eliza? Which both/neither? arrogant condescending apprehensive haughty underprivileged articulate cocky straightforward naive humble self-confident compassionate self-satisfied bullying heartless insensitive 4 GHRB Listen only to a later scene in Act I. Eliza is having a lesson. What is the difference between Higgins’ and Colonel Pickering’s approaches to teaching Eliza? You can draw on the adjectives in exercise 3 16 Unit2 * In so many words Higgins Well, think that’s the whole show. ing I’ really amazing. I haven't taken haf of it in, you know. is Would you like to go over any oft again? ring No, thank you; not now. 3s Tired oflisteningto sounds? Pickering Yes, tsa fearful strain, I rather fancied myself because I can pronounce 24 distinct vowel sounds; but your 130 beat me. Ican’theara bit of difference between most ofthem. Higgins Oh that comes with practic. [rs Pearce enters] ‘Whats the matter? Mrs Pearce A young woman wants to see you, sr. Higgins A young woman! What does she want? Mrs Pearce Well, sir, she says you'll be glad to see her ‘when you know what she's come about, She's quitea ‘common git, sir. Very common indeed. Ishould have sent her away, only I thought perhaps you wanted her to talk into your machines Higgins Oh, that'll right, Mrs Pearce, Has she an interesting accent? MrsPearce Oh, something dreadful, st, really, }don't ‘know how you can take an interest init. Higgins Let’shave her up. Show her up, Mis Pearce Mrs Pearce Very well, sit. It's not forme to say. Higgins Thisis rather abit ofluck,(tPckerng show ‘you how I make records. Well set her talking and then well get her onto the phonograph so that you ‘can turn her on as often as you like withthe written transcript before you. MrsPearce Thisis the young woman, sr. Higgins Why, tisis the girl I jotted down lastnight. She's no use. Be off with you. I don’t want you. Liza Don'tyou be so saucy! You ain't heard what I come for yt. Oh, weare proud! He ain't above giving lessons, nothim: I heard him say so. Well, lain’tcome hereto ask forany compliment; and if my money's not good enough, I can go elsewhere. 'm come to have lessons, Tam. And to pay for‘em, too: make no mistake. Higgins WELL! Pickering What sit you want, my gic? Liza Iwant tobe lady ina flower shop, but they won't take me unless can talk more genteel. He said he could teach me, Well, here Iam ready to pay him - notasking any favour~and he treats me asifl was dit. Higgins What’ yourname? Liza Bliza Doolitle. Higgins How much do you propose to pay me for the lessons? Liza Oh, Iknow what’ ight. A lady fiend of mine gets French lessons for 18 pence an hour from a eal French gentleman. Well, you wouldn't have the face toask me the same for teaching me my own language as you would for French; 0 I won't give more than a shilling, ‘Take itor leave it. Higgins I’ almostiresstible. She's so deliciously low ~ so horribly dirty. Liza Ah-ah-ab-ah-ow-ow-o0o! [ain't dirty: I washed my face and hands afore I come, Idi. Pickering You're certainly not going to tu with flattery, Higgins Higgins I shall make a duchess ofthis draggletaled guttersnipe Liza Ab-ah-ah-ah-ow-ow-o00! ‘Higgins Yes, n six months — in thee if she has a good ear and a quick tongue - I'll take her anywhere and pass her offas anything, We'll tat today: now! This ‘moment! Take her away and clean her, Mis Pearce. herhead 5 Read the introduction and list of characters in Act IIL What do you think happens? ‘ACTIIL INTRODUCTION ‘CHARACTERS | In Act Il, Higgins decides (Mrs Higgins Professor Higgins’ ‘that Elza is ready to make a kind and wise mother fist entry into society. She is] MrsEynsford-Hill a high-society ressed beautifully and taken | friend of Mrs Higgins toatea party at hismothers | Freddy her impressionable, house, Unfortunatly Eizahas | handsome son in his early 20s only practised pronunciation | Clara her daughter and has no idea what Professor Higgins constitutes polite conversation. | Colonel Pickering Eliza Doolittle 6 ERB Listen toa scene from Act IIL, Answer the questions 1 Who is impressed with Eliza? 2. What are her topics of conversation? 3 Why does her final comment shock everyone? Work with a partner. Read what Eliza says about her aunt’s health, Reword it in standard English My aunt died of influenza: so they said. Bu it’s my belief they done the od woman in. Lord love you! Why should she die of influenza? She come through diphtheria right enough the year before, Fairly blue with it, she was. They all thought she was dead; but my father, he kept ladling gin down her throat ti she came to so sudden that she bit the bow off the spoon. ‘What cll would a woman with that strength in her have to die of influenza? What become of her new straw hat that should have come to me? Somebody pinched it; and what Isay i, them aspinched itdone her in. Them she lived with would have killed her fora hatin, let alone a hat. Here! What are you sniggering at? What do you think? In Greek mythology Pygmalion was aking vho fel in ove with a statue he had sculpted and brought to if with his prayers. Explain the connection wth Shaw pay How does the play end? Tur to pI72 and se if you were right. VOCABULARY Phrasal verbs How are the lines below expressed in the play? Which phrasal verbs are used? 1 3 4 zi 6 haven't understood the half of it. Would you like to examine any of it again? This isthe girl I made a note of last night. She survived diphtheria easily enough. She regained consciousness 50 suddenly. Its my belief they killed her. Unit2 + Insomany words 17 LANGUAGE FOCUS Adverbs and adjectives Adverb collocations Adverbs with two forms Adverbs often go with certain vers and adjectives. ‘Some adverbs have two forms, one with Look at these examples. and one without -y. verb + adverb adverb + adjective aiming high highly successful speak clearly ot rarecaa doing fine finely chopped onions move slowly ity ‘en Reilly iy: >> Grammar Reference pla7 3 Complete the gaps with the correct form of the adverb. 1 Complete the gaps with an adverb in the box. 1 a a severely sorely blindingly eagerly bitterly desperately ‘We all worked extremely highly virtually distinctly shabbily perfectly fatally Some countries can feed their own people. 1 Poor Eliza was dressed in a tatty old coat and hat. pee 2 The return of the actor Daniel Craig to the London stage is, 2 easy easily awaited Chelsea won the match 3 She was. disappointed when she didn't get the part. Relax! Take it ____ 4 Tworkwith a -motivated sales team. We all work hard. ERA 5 Its impossible to get seats for the match with Chelsea. Tate is wiskn paola eave, 61 need a holiday. I haven't had a break for three years. ‘What have you been doing 7 Bad weather has affected the roads this weekend. nscoutiowaeeaaie re sy . 8 Dont you get it? Its obvious that he’S in love with you. at OE Ene RSE EOEY 9. Thate this cold climate. Tm tempted to emigrate. — ; , 101 ‘remember telling you not to phone me after ten o'clock. yO cal iace nat YOUR pan Pate 11 Two people survived the crash with serious injuries, but, neculaitenore? unfortunately one man was injured. “wrong wrongly. 12 Tve made my views on the subject of politicians lear. He was ___accused of being a spy. I don't trust any of them. At first everything was great, but then Listen and check. ‘tall went 2. Match the verbs and adverbs, then “most mostly make sentences using the collocations. ‘What do you like She worked wherever she could, as a waitress, She has travelled. the Far East. When I got to their house, the door about him? in Europe and open. conscientiously longingly deliberately 18 Unit2 + Insomany words Adjective order 4 When several adjectives go before a noun, there is usually a more natural-sounding order. ‘Work with a partner. Write the adjectives in the 1 He was an artogant, middle-aged English professor. 2. He ivedin an imposing four storey, Victorian terraced house. sentences into the chart, 3. He wore a beautiful antique, Swis, gold watch, 4 ttwasa huge, white, Lshaped living room. | Subjective evaluation | Size | Ae | Colour | Shape | Origin | Material | Compound | Noun professor | house | watch room 5. Put the adjectives in brackets into a natural-sounding order. 1 Thad some bread for breakfast. (brown, wholemeal, delicous) 5. We went ona walk (coastal six-mil, exhausting) 2. Thieves stole a panting. empresionist, priceless, 8th-century) 6 He smokes cigars. (at, Havana, revlting smelh) 3. She was wearing some jeans. (white, cropped, divine, designer) She’ written a novel. (new, great, historical) 4 lke my Mini. (second-hand, ol, little) 8. They/ve just bought a TV. (HD, massive, amazing) (GEBB Listen and compare. What are the contexts for the short conversations? - | eSep “Chick lit” 6 Read the opening of a modern romantic novel. Which adverbs or adjectives in bold are possible? é o ol W/L Coy tanecreen) God. wish were thin. wish I were thin, gorgeous and could sgetany man I want. You probably think Tm crazy, mean here Tram, siting at work on my own witha massive double-decker ‘lub sandwich in frontof me, but !mallowedto dream, aren't I? Halfan hour to go of my lunch break. finish my sandwich and, look ‘cautiously/furtively/privately around the office to see ‘whether anyone is looking. I's okay, the coast is*clear/fai, so can pull open my top drawer and sneak out the slab of chocolate. Another day in my humdrum/docile/dreary life, but it shouldn't be *humdrum/docile/dreary. ma journals, for God's sake Surely that'sa(n)‘stunning/slamorous/exciting ‘existence Tove the English language playing with words but ‘alas/miserably/sadly my talents are wasted here atthe Kilbum Herald Thate tis job. When I meet new people and thheyask what 1dofor living hold my head up”tall/high/ highly and saya journalist: Ithen try to change the subject. for the inevitable/necessary question after thats Who do 7 ERB Listen and compare. What is it about this extract that signifies itis ‘chick lit? What | is your opinion of this type of book? you work for” Thang my head ‘lowly/low, mumble the Kilburn Herald, and confess that Ido the Top Tips column. Every week Im flooded with mall from sed and alone/lonely/derelict people in Kilburn with nothing better to do than write in with questions like, “What's the best way to bleach a white marbled lino floor? and‘T have a pairof silver candlesticks. The silver is now “tarnished/ faded, any suggestions?’ And every week [sitfor hourson the phone, ringing lino manufacturers slver-makers, and ask them for the answers This is my form of journalism Ben Willams ts the deputy news editor. “Tal/High and handsome. he salso the office Lothar Ben Wiliams "secretly/styly fancied by every woman at the Kilburn Herald. not tomention the woman in the sandwich bar who follows his stride “thoughtfully/ Tongingly ashe walks past every nchtime. Ben Willamsis gorgeous His “fairight brown hair's “carelessly/casually/ awkwardly hanging over his left eye, his eyebrows ”perfectly/ utterly arched, his dimples, when he smiles. in “exactly/ accurately the right place. He isthe perfect combination of handsome hunk nd "vulnerable/weedy/helpless litle boy Unit2 + Insomany words 19 VOCABULARY AND DICTIONARIES Just say the word! Read the dictionary entry giving information about the word word. Answer the questions about it with a partner. word © /wsd; ame wa:rd/ «noun ‘UNIT OF LANGUAGE 1 [cj ean be spoken oF written: Do not write more han 200 words, © Tell me what happened it your cum ends, © Words al me {= cannot express how {eel}. SEE ALSO BUZZWORD, FOURLETTER WORD, HOUSEHOLD WORD, SWEAR WORD 1 STH voU say 26[C a thing that you say: Could have a quick word with you? © Ste ft without a word (= without saying anything).© Nota word (= don't tel) Pete abou any ofthis ‘= Paomise 3 F[sp2|a promise give you my word har this won happen agin “to keep your word (~ do what you promised) © cant prove yout have ‘o ke my word for i= believe me). “IR PIECE OF INFORMATION NEWS @ [sh] © She sent word that she would be late, © Word has Ue that she's leaving. © He les t0 spread the word fot the importance of heathy eating. g ELD by word of mouth because people tll each other and nor because they ead about i: The news spread by word of mouth. right! from the word go (norma trom the very beginning not get a word in edgeways Ge (ame [not get a word in edgewise (ot tobe able to say anything because sb else |S speaking too much: When Mary starts tallang: no oe else can get a word fn edgeuays. in other words Vused to introduce an explanation of sth: They ‘asked him wo leven other words he wus fied. thelestfinal word on sth, the ist comment or deiston about sth He alwys has to have te last word {nary argument, not to have a good word to ‘say for sbsth ifomal never to say anything good about sbsth: Nobody had a good wont say about ut in good) word for sb to praise sb o shelve inorder to help them get Job, et say'give the word w give an onder; to make a request: Just say the ‘word and Ia too funny, sil, ridiculous te for words extremely funny, ‘ridiculous, ete. word for word € in exaciy the same words or (when ) exactly equivalent words: Se rpeated heir conversation word for ord fo mea word Yorword tanstaion 1 What does (BrE) and (NAmE) mean? Read aloud /wa:d/ and /wa:rd/, 2 What do the expressions in 1 after ‘9 See AtsO . How can you find out? 3. Which is more casual and informal? Can|talktoyou? Cant have aword with you? 4 Why do 3 and 4 have ‘sng! after them? What does it mean? 5. Which use of the word word, 1, 2,3 or 4, are these sentences? a We only have his word that he didn't do it. 'b What’ the Spanish word for ‘table? ¢ Hes aman of few words. If word gets out about the affair, hell have to resign. 6 What does 1229" mean? Reword the sentences below with, ‘an expression from the dictionary. 4 I knew I loved him from the very beginning, 'b I think the best way for a book to become successful is when people tell each other about it. © Your ideas are always extremely stupid. She doesn't like her boss. She never says anything nice about her. € Just tell me and I'll be there to help you. f Ireally fancy your sister. Can you tell her Pm a ‘g00d bloke? 20 Unit2 + Inso many words He had to eat his words. E Eire) ‘There are many expressions using the word word. Complete ‘these examples with a word from the box. Some of them are inthe dictionary entry breathe last few buzz edgeways meaning lost funny eat 1 We couldnt help laughing it was too for words 2. Hemay bea man of. he’ worth listening to. 3. Pam just pratties on and on usually about herself. You cant get a word in “4. What?! Trust you again? Youre kidding. You don't know the ‘of the word, 5 Ive got the latest Apple fad Air It's the word in tables. ove. words but | think 6 That’ so kind of you. 'm for words. I cant thank you enough. 7 Well Not to ‘my words, | dont think you stand a chance of getting that job. 8 Yousaid had no chance. Well youl have to ‘your words! | got the job! 9 reckon selfi'is the latest word. It even inthe Oxford Dictionary now. 10 This isjust between you and me. Dont. a word to anyone else Listen and check. What are the extralines inthe conversations? Practise them with your partner. SPEAKING Creating a horror story 1 Work in small groups. Have you ever seen any horror Inlyour own words movies or read any horror stories? Tell the others about them, Do you like or hate them? 3 Tell your story to the class. Whose is the most interesting and scary? 2. Using your own ideas and any of the ‘ingredients’ below devise a horror story. Work out a plot and appoint someone to take notes of your ideas. Aim for a dramatic end 4 Using the same headings, change the ‘ingredients’ to create a romantic novel. Share your ideas. Period Characters + when theres anew moon + psychic child + the Middle Ages + amad scientist + the 9th century + ghostly figures A + the year 2099 + hitchhiker + now + giant rats, spiders, birds, bats * whenthe clockstruck'3 ——_» identical twins Location Events + amediera castie + aliens vist the Earth + an old manor house + computers take over the world + adark forest + amonsteris created + agraveyard + strange babies are born + acistant planet + avirus escapes the laboratory + an uninhabited island + people can ive forever WRITING Narrative writing - Different genres pI08 Unit2 + Insomany words 21 THE LAST WORD Breaking the rules of English Pree Cne Ae song Pea ce RS 1 Read the two quotations on the subject of English grammar rules. What point is being made by both writers? Winston Churchill ‘There is a busybody on your staff wl b yho devotes Jot of his time to chasing split infinitives. Every: 800d literary craftsman splits his infinitives when, the sense demands it. I call for the immediate dismissal of this pedant. It ere ay is of no consequence ‘to go quickly’ or ‘quickly to go’ or ‘to quickly go’. The important thi i should go at once, ng a be 2. Work with a partner. There are some ‘rules’ in English ‘which linguistic pedants insist should be taught to children. Read these tips and say how the ‘rule’ in each ‘one is broken, Correct them pedantically where possible. 20 tips for ' proper English -» 1 A preposition is a terrible word to end a sentence with. Never do it George Bernard Shaw ina leter to The Times newspaper. 2 Remember to never split an infinitive. 3 Don't use no double negative 4 Don’t ever use contractions, 5 And never start a sentence with ac 6 Write “i before ‘e’ except after ‘c’. I'm relieved to receive this anciently weird rule, 7 Foreign words and phrases are not chic: 8 The passive voice is to be avoided wherever possible. 9 Who needs rhetori I questions? 10 Reserve the apostrophe for it’s proper use and omit it when its not necessary. 11 Use ‘fewer’ with number and ‘less’ with quantity. Less and less people do. 12 Proofread 13 Me and John are careful to use subject pronouns correctly. refully to see if you any words out, 14 Verbs has to agree 15 You've done good to use adverbs correctly. 16 Ifany word is incorrect at the end of a sentence, an 17 Steer 18 Take the bull by the hand and avoid mixing your idioms, auxiliary verb is. Jear of incorrect verb forms that have smuck into the language. 19 Tell the rule about ‘whom’ to who you like. 20 At the end of the day, avoid clichés like the plague. 3. Which rules above do you think are ‘good rules? Why? 4 Are there any other rules in the English language which you 'm sorry, but shouldn't there think are unnecessary or silly? How about in your own language? be an apostrophe in that? 22 Unit? + Inso many words . Enough is enough? Verb pattems * Describing trends Phrasal verbs with up and down * Workplace jargon Information is beautifull 11 Which global problem does the picture illustrate? 4 Discuss these questions. + Do you think the media paint an excessively negative picture of the world? Ifso, why? + Why don't people feel happier despite increased wealth? 2 Do the quiz in pairs. You may need to guess the answers. Discuss them asa class. 3 ERED Listen to the answers. Which ones surprised you + Has progress been made in your country onthe issues in most? What other facts did you learn? the quiz? In 2000 there were two billion children (0-14) in ‘the world, What number is estimated for 2100? a ‘billion b 2billion ¢ 3billion d 4 billion 50 years'ago, 1 in 5 children died by the age of five, Now it's atin10. b1in15. c1in20. d 1in25, What is life expectancy in the world as a whole? a 5Oyears b 6Dyears c 70 years d 80 years What is the global adult literacy rate? 20% b 40% 60% d 80% In the last 30 years, the proportion of the world's population living in extreme poverty has fa increased significantly. remained the same. b increased slightly. d_ decreased. ‘Americans’ median family Incomes have increased by 85% since 1957. Their assessment of their own happiness has increased by 20%. _¢ remained the same. b increased by 50%. decreased by 5%, Between 2000 and 2012, the global average amount of debt per adult increased by a 25%, b 35%, 45%. od 55%, ‘The richest 10% in the world own ... of lobal wealth, 258% 69% 78% d 86% va i LISTENING AND SPEAKING Limits to growth 1 Work in pairs. Discuss the questions. 1 What is economic growth? Does any of the global progress featured in the quiz on p23 depend on it? 2. Do you know the rate of economic growth in your ‘country at the moment Is it good news? 3 When economies grow, its said that a rising tide lifts all boats, due to the trickle-down effect. What do these phrases mean? 4 Iseconomic growth necessary? Can it continue ‘when global resources are limited? 2 Listen to Part 1 ofa radio discussion between ‘Tony Adams and Helen Armitage. Which statements are true? Correct the false ones. Economic growth .... ‘occurs automatically as the population grows helps to mask inequality in society leaves everyone better off has reduced the wealth gap between countries makes everyone more content with life 6 is something humans naturally aspire to 3. Who do you think will say these things in Part 2 of the discussion, Tony (T) or Helen (H)? 1 |_| The idea of economic growth isa delusion. 2 |_| We keep finding ways to use resources more efficiently. 3 |_| The last year that the global economy was at a level the planet could support was 1983. 4 |_| Nogrowth means more unemployment, and less social spending because of lower tax revenues, 5 |_| Thealternative isthe ‘steady state economy’ 6 | Whyare we hooked on producing and buying so much needless stuff? Listen and check, Who do you agree with? Why? 24 Unit3 + Enough is enough? Meepe 00s woes 4 Work with a partner and use the prompts to talk about the points in ‘your own words. 1 Population growth ~ increase / ‘economy / grow / speed / jobs 2 Wealth gap — between and within countries / redistribution / trickle-down 3 Income and happiness - rise / level / connection 4 Economic growth ~ 2.5% / modest / double in 30 years 5 Technology - developments / efficiency / resources 6 Resources - limited / growth / planet / capacity 7 Steady state economy ~ standard of living / work less / non-economic activities 8 Consumption ~ reduce / debt / repair e What do you think? ‘At what level of income do you think having more ‘money wouldnt make you significantly happier? ‘+ Doyou mind paying tax? Is it acceptable to find ways to pay as litle tax as possible? + Isit OK to get into debt? s your atitude to debt differen from your parents’ or grandparents? + With ess income, what could you do without easly? What would be difficult to give up? + Ifyou had more free time, how could you enjoy it ‘without spending money? LANGUAGE FOCUS Verb patterns Infi ive or -ing 4. Complete the sentences with one of the verbs in exercise 3 and the correct form of the verb in 1 Complete the lines with the verbs in the box. brackets. b Try watching a sunset one day this week. 2 a If we stop to think about what makes us happiest, Adam Smith thought that our economies would stop growing. 3a Wenever meant to create such a stressful way of life b Itmeans getting things repaired more, ... 4a We need to give everyone the chance to be better off. b Ifthe environment needs protecting, .. 5 a Weve seen our economies grow 24 times bigger. b You see lots of well-off people doing the lottery. —————————_— 1 Tdorit think Anna (be) rude ~ she i ol Le just speaks before thinking sometimes, Inequality has continued me 2 He's such a good actor ~ him Respite kniyrg oro staf make (play) Hamlet in Stratford last year. without to ‘them ____happier. 3. You should (walk) to work - I bet verb +-ing | Wewant to keep. ving you'd get there earlier when the traffic’ bad! Standards a | 4 These windows really (dlean). I ean Fee "vi or sey eong ue hardly see through this one! = = 5 Ididnt (chat) with Kirsty because adjective People atthe top arekeen 1 was late for my lecture amp) come redistribution 5. Choose the verb which completes each sentence preposition | No growth means ess money to spend correctly. Change the verb patterns to make the ing on ‘the environment sentences correct with the other verbs. Find oth 4 a ee 1 ete Recute Grammar Reference pl i oe meeting in New York. fa faif prada ‘expected you Verbs that can take both infinitive and -ing Py ti fececees el eer 2 Start, begin, and continue can take either infinitive or -ing didnt mean with no change in meaning. eanind Itstarts, oe at a surprisingly modest evel of income. 3 Jack ee work outdoors. ‘Why was one particular pattern used in these examples? ‘made me a We have to start looking at the issue of income 4 Alex started tolaugh. redistribution, couldn't help b Were beginning to realize that earning more doesn't RTE always make us happier. 5 We ——arethinkingof —_seling ou fat. ‘Some verbs change meaning with the infinitive or -ing. had better Discuss the different meanings of the verbs in these pairs in of sentences from ‘Limits to growth’ a Roe geet rere! rl oes cc 1 a... 80 they keep trying to make the cake bigger. remember eee 6 Complete the sentences in your own words, using a verb in the correct pattern. Compare with a partner. 1 I'm thinking of .. 6 find it difficult 2 Sometimes I cantt help... 7 I'm going to start. 3 Idon't mind people..., 8 I've never tried ... unless . 9 never meant . 4... always makes me... 10 Td rather 5 People are always encouraging me ... Unit3 + Enough is enough? 25 READING AND SPEAKING The billionaire who wasn't 1 Discuss the questions. 1 What are the pros and cons of being very rich? 2 What are the positive and negative effects on children when their parents are very wealthy? 3. What is philanthropy? How many famous philanthropists can you name? 2 Work in pairs. Look at the section headings in the text about a philanthropist called Chuck Feeney. What do you think each section is about? 3 Read the text. Are the statements true (7), false (X), ‘or not given (NG)? Correct the false ones. 1 People wouldn't guess that Chuck Feeney was anyone special. He went straight from school to college. He has never shown off his wealth. He has three children, Some of his children are grateful that he was strict with them, He doesnt think money is at all important in life. He doesn like attending public functions. 8 His family will get the rest of his fortune when he dies. 4 Explain what Chuck meant by ... ‘Get out the door, do things yourself? ‘I set out to work hard, not to get rich.’ ‘Ifelt there was an element of payback’ ‘people need it today, not tomorrow.’ “You can only wear one pair of shoes at a time? 5. Look at the highlighted words and phrases in the text. Write them under the heading they are associated with. Wealth Poverty (make) a fortune careful with money What do you think? ‘+ What do you think of Chuck Feeney attitude to money and possessions? + Inwhat ways would and wouldn't you support your children if you ‘were abilonaire? + fyouhad billions to give away, who/what would you give it to? 26 Unit3 + Enough is enough? hi ee Everyone knows about the philanthropic Soe S oa MER VO TG Cerca CRON’ Pea cee satay eee Rae y ‘there was anything remarkable about him, His clothes are eee leary carefal Arp enya th ir e-wo ahoca a Tae fy stat hi ows ch ie ec righ imagine tet this elderly American hes ‘Wel Oat este cnet would have ben ail, IB Cre wor lees dele tnteresonceene FY tratthiesemen on the plane So perhaps thsis wage sry BI ond bck eect Making it big Feeney’ pres cecal weco II le was born io Sot he Gee BRB as singed ge feedistete atereertr eee ie ee ‘Chuck did jobs for neighbours and sold Christmas cards door- todoot He gota fee college eduction ster serving inte US ‘Paes he pene ce a Oy A setinganawicheson campus. Buster mating hundreds still eat ata bil Seance the 196, Peeneys acer return tos IR wes his cu ce as ual conta gre bebe ate coafrebe wit he GBEBAELGoplae expected of the fend worried especially about ihe barafa effect t tude aa been I f you saw Chuck Feeney in the street, you wouldn't think Keeping it real His daughter Garoleen remembers the wonderful house partes when she was a teenager, though she wasnt spoilt Once she was 14, she says the message was ‘Get out the door, do things yourself, igure it out, More than anything, he wanted us to have goals and passions, and he thought, well, how could they they're born with everything already? People have to fight and strive So he made sure we di! He ‘made all hs children take summer jobs as teenagers. When Caroleen’s sister Leslie was a teenager, her father saw she was running up huge phone bills witha friend, calling boys in Europe. He disconnected the phone and put up maps showing all the pay phones in the area, along with a supply of coins, He then sent half of the phone bill tothe other girls father.'Now that was embarrassing’ Leslie recalls. he admits, but he sheltered us from people tweating us differently because ofthe money. It made us normal people’ is eccente Giving it all away Chuck clearly sees the danger of losing touch with normality (try to live a normal life, the way I grew up’), and says he never intended to make a fortune -"I set out to work hard, not to get rich’ Eventually he saw the obvious solution -to give his money away, It seems dramatic, yet to Chuck, it was very straightforward: ‘I simply decided t had enough money! Enough makes you comfortable, he says, but after that, ‘money doesn’t add anything meaningful to your lif.‘ithad a value if you wanted to buy something, but if you didn't want tobuy something, you didn't need it Feeney had seen real hardship outside the prosperous areas he visited on business trips around the world. "ve always empathized with people who have it tough in life he says. So he set up a charitable foundation, The Atlant Philanthropes, inthe 1980s, giving away an amount that averages $1m every day. Keeping it quiet ‘So why is Chuck Feeney not as well known a philanthropist as someone like Bll Gates? That's because Feeney chose to remain completely anonymous while giving his billions away. Education is his favourite Denefciary" had benefited from education and felt there was an clement of payback’ He has helped to transform the higher education system in Ireland, has built a university, schools, and hospitals in Vietnam, and donated $500m to fund medical research in Australia There ae no plaques showing his name inthe establishments he has funded. Some institutions that received funding began to make up names to put on plaques, ‘Golden Heart’ being a popular one, but even these were later taken down when the foundation saw them, Feeney still prefers not tobe recognized, in case he attracts people who are only interested in him for his money, His friend Hugh Lunn tells the story of ‘when a photographer ata function went up to Chuck and asked, ‘Are you Chuck Feeney?"'He sald, "No, that’ him over there and pointed to tne. The photographer came up and shook my hand, and thanked me for everything | had done fr science in Brisbane, It was very embarrassing I didn’t know what to say. Giving while living Feeney has only talked about his donations recently, and authorized a biography, because he ‘wants to encourage other wealthy individuals to discover the joy of ‘Giving While Living. He can't understand why people wait til they die to leave money to good causes. People need it today, not tomortaw! He also thinks the trade-offs in his life have been an easy choice. "You didn't wind ‘pwitha new boat but you wound up beping someone and thats a great feling? ‘Chuck says he'll remain busy until he’s given all his money away (You'll never run out of people you can help’), having already given his family enough to live very ‘comfortably. He has no plans to increase his own modest budget. "You can only wear one pair of shoes ata time. And ifI can get watch for $15 that keeps perfect time, what am I doing messing around with a Rolex? Dee ae VOCABULARY AND SPEAKING Describing trends 1 Look at the news headlines describing trends. Which trends go up? Which go down? Inflation soars to 11% | ‘Share prices plummet Growth rate picks up agai Interest rates to fluctuate but remain broadly stable House prices set to rocket again | “Household debt shoots up by 45% Consumer spending collapses Applications to UK universities plunge 2 Describe the trends using the words in the boxes. Inflation went up sharply to I'f. There wasa dramatic rise in... Verb | Adverb ‘Adjective | Noun godown slightly a slight | fall fall gradually gradual a op steadily steady | Coens decree Soy shape g0Up dramatic rise dramatically substantial | increase increase | substatialy | |__| 3 Look at the graph showing spending on new cars by age ‘group. Discuss the trends and try to explain them. . 0 Boo 5 | wo 7. — . 5 ai ima es * * * 8 6 Wo ‘Spending on new cars rises sharply when people ae in theit 20s, and presumably starting work. There's then a slight fall until... Listen and compare. 28 Unit3 * Enough is enough? 4 Workin pairs. Tell each other about these life trends. ‘A When are we happiest? @) 6 NU Happiness scale (1to7) re eee ee) Age (years) Tse ‘Age group (years) 5 EEEB Listen to someone describing the popularity of the name Maria in the USA since 1880. Draw the line on the graph, What might explain the changes? THB) 1890 1900 1910 0 190 10 150 TD TAD 16D HHO IHD 20 Year 6 Work in pairs. Student A Choose a name from p168 Student B Choose a name from p170. Give presentations to each other on the changes in the name’ popularity and draw each other's graphs. DP WRITING Report writing | graphs pli VOCABULARY Phrasal verbs with up and down Particles in phrasal verbs sometimes help with understanding the meaning. 1 Movement is clear with literal uses of up ‘P and down W. ‘What’ the situation before the movement in these examples? 1 Arsenal moved up to 4th place, 2 He looked down at the flor. 3 ‘Situp stright” 4 Please, do sit down, 5 Her lip curled up in disgust. 6 I need tole down for abit. 2. Increase/decrease involve things going up or down. data Seno Payment due: deve Gasprices continue togoup. I'm sogladits cooled down. What is increasing and decreasing here? 1 Turmitup-lcan'thearit! Kids, queten down! 3 Ineed to save upfor acar. 4 They've cut down my hours. 5 Speed up-it'sa7Omph zone! 6 Slow down ~my legs are tired! EEXD Listen and check. What are the situations? 3. Better/worse are ‘higher up’ and ‘lower down’ on the value scale, Weve just finished doing His colleagues’ apathy gradually up the house wore him down. Discuss the questions 1 What would you trade up 2 IsTV getting more and more your mobile phone for? dumbed down? 3 When do people ress up? 4 When might you dress down? 4 Start/end as, for example, of the day, when the sun comes up 7H: and goes down, °S—~. Why might these things happen? 1 llset up my own business! 2 The president stood down, 3 Let fire up the barbecue! 4 My marriage broke down, 5 My laptop so slow to boot up. 6 The chemists shut down, Listen to the dialogues and compare. What caused the events? 5 Completion comes when up/down reach a limit {ve fled up two bins with all The police managed to track your rubbish! the robber down. ‘What has reached its limit in these examples? 1 You! wind up in hospital. 2 I finally pinned Harry down. 3. Who bought up al the tickets? 4 Ive decided to settle down. 5 Ive used up all my leave. 6 Ill never lve this down! TTT erro ‘Complete the lines with up or down, Which ofthe meanings. 145 do they have? 1 Oh, grow ___and stop acting lke a child! 2 Youneed to wake _and smell the coffee! 3 Youdolook abit run 4 Speak _! We cant ear atthe bacld 5 Ohlighten __ wll you! ts just a game! 6 Calm _11t pay for the repair! It too difficult. give __! What’ the answer? 8 Iimsorry Ivelet you__ ‘9 Man__, Tim, and stop being a wimp 10 The management’ playing it__, buts bad news Listen and check. What lines prompt the responses? Unit’3 + Enough is enough? 29 THE LAST WORD Workplace jargon 1 Jargon and buzzwords have become increasingly ‘common in workplaces. Why is that? Why do many people hate them? 2 EEBB Listen to these examples of workplace jargon being used. How else could you express their meaning? 1 a going forward 3 € mission-critical b grow the business £ best practice 2 c totasksb (withsth) 4 g toimpact sth d to action 1h awin-win situation 3 Match the following expressions with their meanings. EE 1 dell down «have original and radical ideas about sth 2 gothe extra mile b continually inform sb ofall developments 3 sive people a heads-up make contact with sb briefly to check that things are OK 4 keepsbintheloop —_d be aware of sth that will need attention in future 5 bring th to the table look sth in more depth and detail, 6 hit the ground running contribute sth of value to a projector discussion 7 think outside the box g work harder than most people would to get ajob done 8 touch base h start work on sth succesfully and enthusiastically 9 bring sb up to speed i warm of a future development people need tobe aware of 10 beonsbs radar j inform sb ofthe latest developments ona project Buzzword Bingo! 4 Inmeetings and presentations, workers have been known I need an interpreter. ‘Send in someone who speaks jargon. to play Buzzword Bingo. Try it Buzzword fa Hing card with some of the expressions in B I N G oO Listen to a presentation and cross the expressions on your card as you hear them. The first person to get three in a line shouts, Heads-up! 5 Areany ofthe expressions in exercises 2 and 3 used in your language? 6 Which expressions in 3 do you think were the most hated in a survey of British workers? Put a X. Which do you think people thought were actually OK and useful? Put a 7. Listen to Sara and Danny talking about workplace jargon and compare your ideas. Which expressions do they mention? What do they say about them? What do they think are the problems with using these expressions a lot? 7 Plan and give a short presentation using just a few of the expressions you think are useful. Remember, enough is enough! 30 Unit3 + Enough is enough? Not all it seems ‘Modal auxiliaries, present, future, and past Idiomatic adjective + noun collocations * Softening the message GADD svewitness 1 Look at the photos Discuss which you think are real/ photoshopped /real but staged. Check on pI72. ‘Number ight be photoshopped, but... reckon Zisreal. I've seen... Scan'tbereal,it's... 2 What are the different reasons for photoshopping photos? Which ones do you think are justified? [eRe LANGUAGE FOCUS 1 Modal auxiliary verbs ‘Modal verbs for speculation ~ present and future Al modal verbs can be used to express varying degrees of likelihood or probability. Which ofthe modalsin the box can be used in sentences 1-6 to express the meanings in italics? 1 ts possible but Fm not at all sure. We get tckets if were lucky, but 'm not hopeful. 2 Its possible, ut m not completely sue. 1 be late home. The traffic doesnt look promising. 3 It's generally possible. it get very cold in Greece in winter D> Grammar Reference pM should must may can could cant will might 4. Vexpect ths. They rive by 7.00 ifthe traffcis OK. 5. know ths. Its only415~Carla_stillbe at work. 6 Theres evidence of this, Jack’ car isnt there -he stillbe at work Jack be at work-—his offic is closed today. 1 Its 10.30 a.m, Look at the picture of a scene in a jeweller’s. Who do you think the people are? What do you think they're doing? Use modal verbs to speculate. “The woman inthe fur coat must be a customer. She could be looking fora present. The man outside might be 32 Unit 4 + Notallitseems 2 (ook atthe pictures on p33 and listen to Karen telling a friend what happened in the jewellers. Who were the two men? Why are they returning later? In the Jeweller’: 3 Its 3.30 pm. The policemen haven't returned to the shop. What do you think has happened? The policemen might have been called out to deal with another crime. They must have... ‘Modal verbs for speculation - past Modals expressing probability all form their past inthe same way Verb + perfect infinitive She will It might have arrived by now. They shoul, etc. >> Grammar Reference pl49 4 The policemen never returned. When the assistants rang the police station, they knew nothing about the incident. What do you think must have happened? 5 isten to Karen giving her friend an update on the story and check. ‘+ Where dd the police badges come from? + Do you think the asistants behaved stupidly? + Why do the police need detailed witness statements? SPEAKING Test your memory! 6 Work in pairs. You were in the jeweller's at the time of the incident and have been asked to give a witness statement. Student A Turn to pl68. Student B_ Turn to p70. 7 Complete the sentences with a modal verb and the correct form of the verb in brackets, 1 Anyone ____ (fool) by scams and hoaxes if they're done cleverly enough. 2 Luckily I realized it was a fake website and logged off. Someone ___ (try) to get all my bank details. 3. I suppose it (be) your brother in that car I didnt get a very close look. 4 Alastair and Maria are in Barcelona. T'm sure they (have) a ‘wonderful time 5. Colin would never ignore you deliberately — he ___ (see) you. 6 There's no point going to the chemists now = it (close). Unit 4 + Notall it seems 33 LANGUAGE FOCUS 2 Modal verbs: other meanings 1 Can people be convicted of crimes purely on the basis of eyewitness statements? Do you think they should be? Why/Why not? 2 Listen to an account of Professor Elizabeth, Loftus’ work on the reliability of eyewitness statements, Answer the questions. 1 What was the courts attitude to eyewitnesses in. the past? 2 How do we typically think our memory works? How isit different in reality? 3 What are leading questions? What examples are given? 4 What effect has Professor Loftus’ work had on the criminal justice system? 11 Which ofthese meanings do the models in sentences 1-7 hhave? Write them in the table. “Ability Permision Obligation Habit would Refusal Advice 1 Inthe pas, juries would usually believe eyewitnesses. 2 Witnesses wouldn't accept they might be mistaken 3 We shouldnt think of memory as an accurate record. 4 We mill often change our memories by adding new details 5 Professor Loftus was abe fo show how memories can be influenced by leading questions. 6 Suspects have the right to ask f they can speak to a lawyer before being interviewee 7 Police interviewers have to follow strict guidlines and mustn't ask leading questions. 21 Which of the meanings can these models be used for? ‘Write them in the table and give examples. must may neednit could won't ight dontthaveto canit ought to D> Grammar Reference p49 Can we trust our memory? r & e 3. Discuss why different modals are used in these pairs of examples. 1 He could swim when he was six. When the boat sank, he was able to swint to shore. I must buy a new suit. This one’s looking scruffy. Thave to buy a suit for my new job. 3 You should say thank you. You could at least say thank you! 4 My dad would often make up stories for us. My dad used to be slim when he was young, 5 We didn't need to take our own towels. ‘We needn't have taken our own towels. 6 There could/may be a train strike tomorrow. ‘There may not be a train strike tomorrow now. 7 She may be in her 90s. She may be 92, but she’s very sharp. 8 bet that app will be expensive. This app won't open. el We needn't make a decision now. We can wait til we've got even more unnecessary information. 34 Unit4 + Notall it seems 4. Complete the second sentences using the past forms of the phrases in italics in the first sentences. 1 I must lose some weight. | had to lose some weiaht because my clothes didn't fit me! 2 Walcott should score here — he’ only got the goalkeeper to beat. Rooney crosses to Mata, who hits it, and ... Ooh! 3 Isthat your phone ringing? It'll be Paul, Did he have a deep voice? It Paul 4 You needit give me a lift, bt if i’s not out of your way ... ‘Anne Ken , but she wanted to see where I lived. because Suzanne took me home. 5 David's phone is engaged ~ he might be talking to Anneke. David to Anneke when you rang. 6 Chris wont help met He says I need to work it out myself, Heli because she had her own work to do, 5. Which modal can complete both sentences in each pair? Which sentences express probability? What are the uses in the other sentences? laHe b You dal b They Balt b You 4aWe No, you 5a You b You 6a jim b Sara have avery demanding ob. He's alvays stressed. come sailing with us next time — yout love it. say how likely itis at the moment; it too early to tell. be coming, Theyd have been here by now. snow here in May. borrow the car if you like. don't need it. possibly stay over at Clare’ ifthe party finishes late. ‘not use my photographs on your website have no trouble passing your driving test. be practising the piano for your concert next week. spend hours playing computer games. know the answershe good at these kinds of quizes. D> WRITING Writing a formal email -An apology pl? Cone 1 Lookat the lines. What do you think the situation ‘might be in each one? 1 Of, thanks, thats very thoughtful of you, but ‘you relly shouldn't have! 2. could have swom | eft the car here! 3-1 got all dressed up, but | neednit have bothered! 4 Jenny will keep going on about my age! 5 Er you might want to check your shir’s buttoned up properly. {6 A ‘Oh, you can beso insensitive sometimes! B ‘Me, insensitive! You can talk” 7 Must you whistle ll the time?! {8 And who might you be? 9 | should think so, too! 10 Well he would say that, wouldn't he? GERD ister and compare your ideas 2. Inpairs, take it in turs to say lines 1-10 with the correct stress andchythm, and giv the reply HYPocHoNDRIACS | ANONYMOUS: First step is the hardest. You have fo admit that you don't have a problem. Unit 4 + Notallit seems 35 READING AND SPEAKING The mystic and the sceptic Arthur Conan Doyle and Harry Houdini were two of the most famous celebrities of the 20th century. What were they famous for? Look at the pictures, Which person do you think must have been ...? + very rational and questioning + convinced of the existence of supernatural powers 2. Read about the two men in groups and answer the questions. Group A’ Read about Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. Group B Read about Harry Houdini 1 What changes did he make to his name? 2 What was problematic about his father? 3 Who was a formative influence on him in his youth? How? 4. What brought career success after a difficult start? 5 How good a sportsman was he? 6 Why did he take an interest in mediums? Did he believe in them? 7 Was he ever taken in by people faking supernatural phenomena? 8 Why shouldnt he have continued with his final tour? 9 When did he die? What were his last words? 10. What attempts were made to communicate with him after his death? 3 Work with a partner from the other group. Compare your answers to the questions in exercise 2 and discu the two men. What is paradoxical about both of them? Look at the quote from Sherlock Holmes: 6 When you have eliminated the impossible, whatever remains, no matter how improbable, must be the truth. > How would this apply to Conan Doyle and Houdini? 36 Unit4 + Notall it seems Sir Arthur Conan Doylé was born on May 22, 1859, in Edinburgh, as Arthur Doyle (he later used his middle name, Conan, as part of his surname). His father, a civil servant and frustrated artist, became an alcoholic, and Arthur was sent to boarding school in Tingland to escape the chaos at home. He went on to study medicine at Edinburgh University, where one teacher, Dr Joseph Bell, made a big impression on him, An eccentric character in his long coat and. deerstalker hat, Bell had an uncanny ability to diagnose patients purely bby making logical deductions from their appearance. | cee Ee 11674, in Budapest. Hungary, as Erik Weisz. His family moved ‘to Wisconsin in America when he was four, and for some ‘unknown reason Houdini later claimed he'd been born there ‘on Aptil6, It's said this may have been because his father hhad to escape Budapest after killing a prince in a duel and Harry wanted to disguise his roots. Houdini became fascinated by magic as a young boy, ‘and when he read the autobiography of the great French magician, Robert Houdin, he was hooked, At 17, he began performing tricks, using Houdin’s name to create his own stage name. Harry had little success as a magician at firs, and was ready to give it up, but his career took off when he made escapology the focus of his act. He had long been a keen amateur athlete, boxer, swimmer, and cyclist (he was even, considered for the US Olympic team). Combining his Conan Doyle's first medical practice was slow to tae off, and while waiting for patients, he wrote fiction. It was many years hofore his frst novel was published, introducing the detective Slierlock Holmes, who was clearly based on Dr Bel. 4 series, tf Sherlock Holmes stories followed. Doyle grew tired of writing them, but when he killed Sherlock off In one story, thore was a huge public outcry (paople wore black armbands!), and Doyle had to bring him back to life. Dofile combined writing with a keen interest in sport; he played first class cricket and was goalkeeper for Portsmouth AFC. More surprising, given the ultra-rational charactor of Sherlock Holmes, was Doyle's fascination with the supernatural. In 1893, Doyle’s father died in a psychiatric hospital, and hhis wife Louisa was given months to live. His resulting depression led Doyle to investigate spiritualism and, ‘communication with the dead. Later, during World War I, ho lost several family members, and he became especially desperate to make contact with his dead son. Doyle remarried after Louisa's death, His sdcond wife, Jean, became a medium, and Doyle devoted all his time ta giving loctutos and writing about supernatural phenomena. In his book, The Coming of the Fairies, he insisted that the photographs of the ‘Cottingley fairies’, taken by two young girls, could not have been faked. athleticism with an extraordinary ability to contort hhis body, he was able to escape from handcuffs in ‘seemingly impossible situations, including locked crates which had been dropped into rivers. Adverts for ‘Houdini’ shows claimed he could escape through solid barriers by dematerializing, but Houdini himself always denied he had any supernatural powers. After the death of his beloved mother in 1913, Houdini investigated the popular interest in mediums who ‘laimed to contact the dead. He said he never dismissed ‘the possibility of communicating with spirits, but had never found anyone who could actually do it for real. 1t ‘may seem paradoxical that a magician and illusionist should beso sceptical about the supernatural, but magicians know ‘what fakery is, and Harry spent much of his life exposing the ‘tricks that so-called mediums used in their séances, In 1926, despite having broken his ankle, Houdini wouldn't cancel aUS tour. After one of the shows, an enthusiastic fan decided to test Harry's famous ability to withstand any punch to the stomach, but without first warning him. Harry ‘was clearly injured by the blow, and performed with severe stomach pains for two days, When he finally saw a doctor, hhe was diagnosed with acute appendicitis. He tied to go on with his next show with a fever of 40°C. He collapsed on. stage, and died in hospital on the somewhat inauspicious date of October 31 (Halloween). His last words were, \\ Vocabulary ‘The women finally admitted their hoax in 1988; “He had lost his son recently in the war, explained 81-year-old Elsie Wright, ‘and I thipk the poor man was trying t8 comfort himself in these things. Despite heart problems, Conan Doyle Went on a lecture tour of Europe in 1929, He returned in pain and was bedridden until his death on july 7, 1990 (though shortly before he died he was found lying in the garden, clutching his heart with ‘one hand and holding a flower in the other), His last words to his wife were, ‘You are wonderful.” = Six days after his death, a séance was hold at the Royal Albert Hall, attended by 6,000 people, Jean was alone in claiming that she had heard a message from Arthur. HOUDINI savers HAND "Pianta, 4 Check the meanings of the highlighted words in your text and then explain them to someone who read the other text. What do you think? + Which of the two men would you most like to have met? Why? + What’ the best magical trick you've seen performed? Have you any idea how it was done? + Might there be some form of continued existence after death? Have you, o has anyone you know, had any experience of such things as ‘spirits? Unit 4 + Notallit seems 37 LISTENING AND SPEAKING When Arthur met Harry: an unlikely friendship 1 Sir Arthur Conan Doyle and Harry Houdini did in fact meet ‘on several occasions and were friends for a while, Why do you think...” + they became friends? + Houdini performed a long and elaborate trick for Doyle in private? *+ Doyle held a séance for Houdini? + they fell out? 2 GEEB Listen to an extract from a radio programme about unexpected friendships. Check your answers in exercise | + What happened in Houdinis trick? + What was Conan Doyle’ reaction? + What happened in the séance? + What nas Houdinis reaction? 3 Answer the questions with CD (Conan Doyle), ni), or B (Both). Who 1 wanted to spend time with other writers? 2 was interested in finding a true medium? 3 tried to embrace the other person’ attitude to spiritualism? 4 tried to convince the other that their beliefs were wrong? thought the other was being dishonest in his arguments about the supernatural? wasn't able to be open about his work? made public his anger with the other? —_ Listen again and check. 4 Match the words in A with words with similar meanings in B. A 8 | sham tooffend keen tohurt —_todelude eager todeceive fake torevealtomeet ‘to encounter to expose ‘Who was being the most honest in their relationship, Doyle or Houdini? ‘Why couldn't Doyle take Houdin’s advice about supernatural phenomena? ‘What did Doyle mean when he talked about what he knew tobe true? ‘Are fake mediums harmless entertainers? Why/Why not? Unit 4 + Not allit seems VOCABULARY Idiomatic collocations 1 Look at the lines. What do the collocations in italics mean? What word class are the two words? Houdini tried to convince Doyle that mediums used tricks, butt was a lost cause When Doyle wrote newspaper articles about the séance, it was the final straw for Houdini 2 There are many common idiomatic collocations with an adjective + noun, Work in groups, A and B. Match the adjectives and nouns for your group to make idiomatic collocations. GROUP A. GROUPB Adjective Noun Adjective Noun grey line sore thoughts level shot wishful blessing slippery feet foregone grace wakeup slope last point fine area second feet itchy deal saving resort long all mixed conclusion raw playingfield | cold. thinking 3 Group A Turn to p169. Group B Turn to p171. Read the dictionary extracts to check the meanings of your collocations and make notes. Write an example sentence of your own. {ost cause: something that will never succeed 6.g. ve iven up tring to get him to do more exercise ~ it'salost cause J J On second thoughts, you should stay together. Why make two other people unhappy? Pivyour own words 4 Work with a partner from the other group. Explain the collocations to your partner in ‘your own words, and tell them your example sentence. 5 Complete the sentences with one of the collocations from exercise 2 1 Scientists have discovered there really is a between genius and insanity, as the same gene is involved in both. 2 cant believe Clive called the wedding off. 1 guess he got ! 3 Wee not asking for special advantages in bidding for this contract, we just want a 4 Steve realized that the diagnosis of heart problems wasa____and decided to get fit 5 The hotel was a bit dirty, and the view ‘was disappointing, but the food was the ~ it was delicious. 6 tsa that Sylvia Jones will win this marathon; she’ won every race she’ been in this year. Itsa . but you might find the document with the work you've lost in your ‘temporary folder. 8 Itwasa getting to know another hypochondriac. It’s nice to discuss our problems, but I have lots of new ones now! 6 EEEB Listen to the lines. Which of the collocations could you use to respond? Think of a response, then listen and compare. | don't think she lft him just because he forgot their anniversary. ‘No, but I think it might have been the final str SPEAKING AND LISTENING 1. Read the description of a radio programme. What do the contestants need to do to make their talk successful? The\ Unbelievable Tru: ‘The Unbelievable Truth is a radio panel show on BBC Radio 4, in which contestans take It in turns to give a shore tlk ona tpi. Most of what the speaker says is completely, and often amusing untrue, However, ve statements in the talk ore, unbelievably, rue and the other contestant have to spot them. “The speaker gets a point for every truth they manage to ‘smuggle past the other contestants. 2 Listen to the clip. In which order are the things in the pictures mentioned? What is said about them? ‘EE hand grenade [~] specimen beaker [~] bishop [ J = | j- & —’ 2 es Re straitjacket [“] hospital trolley [—] own 3 In this extract, the contestants spotted two of the truths. ‘What do you think the other truth was? 4 Play The Unbelievable Truth ‘Work in pairs. Each student prepares a short (2~3-minute) talk. Student A Look at the topic on p169 and follow the instructions. Student B Look at the topic on p171 and follow the instructions. Unit4 + Notallit seems 39 THE LAST WORD Softening the message 1 Look atthe picture. What do you think it is? Where might it be? 2 Read the conversation between Ted and Margaret. Where are they? Choose the correct words. T_ That one’ incredible, isnt it, Margaret? She looks so real! M_ Yes. Iwas wondering if it ‘could / might be possible to take a photo oft. Do you think it would be right alright? Er, you ?might want / will want to ask that attendant first. T M_ Oh; I thought he was one of the exhibits! ... Excuse me, ‘could / can I possibly take a photo of that statue? A. Oh, we don't allow flash photography. M [think thought I might take it without flash, SWould / Could that be OK? A. Yes, that’ fine. M Thank you, Ted, you 7wouldn't / couldn't take one of me next to it, could you? T_ Yes, of course ... Just move a bit to the left, Swould / may you? Listen and check, caNueck Scted Woman, 9 fer 3 Look at the polite ways of speaking, Find more examples in exercise 2. Which category do they belong to? Which are the mast polite expressions? Why isa past tense used in some of them? Polite asking someone to do something Wwaysof... Could you [possiby).? wonder if you could (possibly)? Would you ming ing? I don't suppose you could. could you? 4 You are in a café. You want to look at someone's iPad. In pairs, use the instructions and prompts to act out the conversation {A Ask to look at someone’ iPad, Suggest you might buy one excuse / chance / iPod /? 8 say yesand ee your thinking / buy / those cpnanatie a of couse / ney | ae typing on it. thank / think / have /go/? ae sure / ahead DSsyyoulkeieAdkthem to 1S! tell youhow much cost. nice / mind / paid ? r “yee een 7 ist whereto get one. £340 / PC World / sale on ‘A Thank them, thank / might / that Listen and compare. Act out the conversation again, using different ways of being polite 40 Unit 4 + Notall it seems asking permission Do you think could/might...2 Would it be/isit alright if |.? Would you mind if Isthere any chance I could..? suggesting something 1 as thinking might | thought you could 2 It might be an idea to. | was wondering whether 5. How polite are these expressions? Would youmind not 2 Dome a favour and Doyouthink you could? Do youmind .? HAD Listen and repeat some examples ‘What makes the polite forms not all they seem? 6 Say these lines to a partner, politely or rudely. ‘The partner should then say them in the opposite way. 1 Excuse me, would you mind speaking more quietly? 2. Pethaps you would like to explain this? 3 I'mafraid this isn't good enough, 4 Close the door, will you? 5 Could you possibly move your car? 6 Would you mind not making that noise? Listen and repeat the lines. What do you think the situations might be? 7 Write two conversations, one polite, and one rude, Read them to the class Culture clashes ‘Avoiding repetition * Nationalities and stereotypes British vs American English RED Across cultures STARTER 1 Signs in other countries can seem strange and surprising, What do you think these signs mean? Have you any ideas which countries they could be from? TOLL BY o a= v oO Cy a caution SLEEPING POLICEMEN 2. Work with a partner. Which signs do you think go with the descriptions in and countries in B? Turn to pI72 and find out. Do any surprise you? A B 7) Beware: avalanches Australia No swearing \ Poland Riding whales not allowed \ a Speeding endangers cassowaries Street food sellers not permitted era Watch out for car thieves Japan Caution: old people crossing Papua New Guinea Steep hil ends in crocodie river South Aftica 2 Sk tft instruction Speed bumps on road ahead Conad Road tll paid by licence number recognition _ United Kingdom Chewing betelnut is forbidden United states 12 3, ERB Listen to sicshort conversations. After each, discuss which sign is being referred to, Practise some of the conversations with your partner. READING AND SPEAKING Worlds of difference 1 Look at the map of Papua New Guinea, Where is it? Do you know anything about it? Discuss as a class which facts you think are true. Papua Now Guir 1 thas @ population of over 1 lion 4 milion 7 m 2 There are about 100/ 200/ 700 different tribes. 3 More than 20/ 200/ 800 languages are spoken inthe country. 4 Only 635/ 1835 / 23% of the population live and workin urban areas. 5 Cannibal videly practised until the 19205 / 1950s / 1990s 6 Its curency isthe ‘kina’, but seashells/ coconuts cocoa beans are still used in some transaction, 7 [twas administered by Australia until 1945 / 1975 / 2006, 8 The head of state is a tbal chief an elected president / the Queen FACTFILE Listen and check. What extra information do you learn? 2 Read the introduction to the article by the investigative journalist Donal Macintyre. Where are the people? Who are they? Who spluttered? Who almost choked? Why? How does the situation fit the title? Meiaiyour ovn words 3. Read Part 1 of the article, Use the prompts to talk toa partner about it in your own words. Donal Macintyre was traveling the world in order to . when he He admired many things about the tribes way of life for example They were abe to speak English because ‘They were particularly interested to hear about. And despite never having travelled far before Donal described the group of travellers as 4 Before you read Part 2, work as a class to make a list of six questions youd most like answered about the Swagup Six’ trip to London. Then read and see which of your questions are answered, 5. Are these statements true (V) or false (X)? Correct the false ones. After some initial misgivings, the Swagup Six became bold. Their visit to Britain was in September. Samuel and Christina disapproved of Ameera wearing trousers, They were surprised at how small St Paul’ Cathedral was. James came up with his own theory about the construction of the Underground. Donal didn't ask for an audience with the Queen. He knew it would be futile. 1 3 4 They embraced new experie 5 6 8 The visit would undoubtedly lead to the tribespeople modifying their lifestyles. Vocabulary from context 6 Work out the meaning of the BigHIghEd words from their contexts. 42 Unit + Culture clashes 's with enthusiasm and open minds, ee aS CULTURE CLASH... Pepin veS cnr i oT oat Seen hee) Parco) eee ena) Cee ae eee ea ee nae. ae Cos On erin lite London soirée acy one of his ‘members ofthe 250-strong Insect tribe — hunter Peace ere 3] ero NaS ray ae eC ay re coe What do you think? + Which ofthe Swagup Six experiences do you think were most surprising or dificult for them? + What can we leam about life from the lives and attitudes of these tribespeople? + What does Samuel mean when he says ‘We all come from the same pot”? + Doyou believe that the tribe really wll hang on to its own culture? PART 1 [first met them last year as I travelled the world to waging with the ever-encroachiiig modern world, I lived in their remote village, Swagup, ate their food, shared their shelters, and mined theie intimate family secrets ‘The tribe had everything they wanted. The Village's witch doctor serviced all medieal and spiritual requirements. Everything else ~ fish, boar, fruit, building, and hunting materials ~ was gathered from the jungle. The tribespeople thought of their home asa land of plenty ~ a paradise that has provided their livelihood for thousands of years. They had FOBURE defended their culture against all-comers concession was allowing missionaries to school them in basic English, The village school still teaches them the language today The tribespeople revealed themselves to be as curious about my world as I was about theirs. They BOmbaeaded ‘me with questions about Britain and our ‘chief” — or the Queen, as we call her. The tribe's own chief, a rather colourful character called Joseph, is elected by majority every five years and carries supreme authority Sitting in his wooden, three-storey palace, the chief and I got to talking and, to return the overwhelming, hospitality thar they had shown me, I invited him and his Kin to undertake the 12,000-mile journey to my home in Wimbledon, south-west London, The tribespeople have never before travelled beyond their local stamping grouind. Making the journey were Joseph, Samucl, Christina, Steven and one of his three wives, Delma, and James. Together they made up the Swagup Six, a party of Stone Age travellers coming to a microchip world. “I don't know what magic they have in Britain, but Fm about to find out? the chief declared, observe how ancient cultures and tribes were PART 2 At Heathrow airport, every escalator was met with terror and every life with suspicion until one oF them, usually Steven, an expert crocodile hunter, GRU FORE, followed by the rest ofthe tribe, From Terminal 4, with spears on their backs and bows over their shoulders, the Swagup Six bravely ventured into our word. My guests were faseinated by everyday scenes and situations. They believed the barren winter trees were dead. The battery-powered cries of | sy daughter's doll drew shrieks from the women, Samuel and Christina crested in how Amecra and I related to each other. They seemed fa who wore the trousers ~ unthinkable in their imuel and Christina secretly thought, they to suspect it was Ame: world, But whateve ‘maintained a public front of broad-mindedness. The chit’ guiding principle was: “When in London Nonetheless, some ofthe capital's tourist spots proved a challenge At the London Eye, the tribe held congress in the shadow of the hhuge wheel. ‘Tt not meant for humans? was the consensus. Eventually th London. When their capsule reached the summit, the chief asked for our “spirit house’ to be pointed out. He found the great dome of St Paul's Cathedral remarkable ~ not for its grandeur but or its diminutive tare “In our village, no building can be bigger than the spirit house he si However, the London Underground inspired awe. Astounded by the enormity of the network, James was eonvinced the Underground was built rst, with the rest of London built on top later. also raised by the prospect ofa vist to Buckingham Palace, Asa tribal leader in a Commonwealth country, Joseph regards himselfas the Queen's representative. We dutifilly put ina request fora meeting, but unfortunately it was declined. In his part of the world, he is a king. Here, sadly he is just another tours. After our trip to London, we spent some time in Wales, where the group encountered snow for the frst time. “This is strange sand that falls from the sky the chief std, ‘When will it stop?” However, they were soon throwing snowballs with iipOiRRESUY Theie attitude and enthusiasm highlighted for me how Fad we have become, and how indifferent we are to ‘wonderful sights on our own doorstep. The Swagup Six embraced our culture but without fenotinging an ounce of theie own, The goodbyes at Heathrow were emotional Grammar Reference p150 44 Unit S + Culture clashes 1 Fill the gaps in the sentences with an auxiliary ora modal verb, Sometimes you will need to make the verb form negative. 1 [tried to repair my car, but I couldn't . It needs a mechanic. 2. ‘You look awful. Why donit you see a doctor?" ‘I He just gave me some pills and told me to take things easy’ 3 ‘Have you read this report?” ‘No, I but I. 4. My car's being serviced at the moment, If it Ta give you lift. Sorry. 5. T'mso glad you told Sue exactly what you thought of her, because if you , Tecertainly ! 6 ‘think I'll give Rob a ring’ ‘You You haven't been in touch with him for ages? 7 Iwent toa party last night, but I wish I lt was awful 8 My boyfriend insists on doing all the cooking, but I wish he ~ its inedible! 9 “Aren't you going to Portugal for your holidays?” ‘Well, we , but we're still not sure? 10 ‘Andy got drunk at Anne's party and started insulting everyone! ‘He That’ so typical of him? Listen and check. 2 EERB Listen to five more short conversations. Complete each response with an auxiliary verb, ‘A Yourmet my sister ast night! B Yes did. She thought wed met before, but we 3 Work with a partner. Take turns to read A’s remarks and respond as B, using the verbs in brackets and a reduced infinitive. 1 A Can you come round for a meal tonight? B Thanks very much, 'd love tol (love) 2A. Did you post my letter? BO forget) 3 A Icanttake youto the airport after all. Sorry. B ~ (agree) 4A Was John surprised when he won? B (not expect) 5A Why did you slam the door in my face? Bs (not mean) 6 A You'll be able to enjoy yourself when the exams finish Bo intend) FEED Listen and compare. Practise again. iP 8 Synonyms ‘Sometimes, from time fo time, now and again, occasionally, af times I wish {fd never been given this Thesaurus Fill the gaps with a word that has a similar meaning to the word in italics. Sometimes the word class changes, e.g from noun to verb, as in question I. 1 10 1 dont trust this government. I have no faith. in them whatsoever. She is not only a skilled painter, she is also a(n) piano player. Advertisements are not allowed to lie, but they. us in many subtle ways. Chess is a game of tactics, You have to plan your well in advance. ‘The doctor looked at my notes carefully, hen gave me a examination, He has an annoying habit of always being late. It really me. Its very important that you dont tell anyone. In fact, its Skiing can be dangerous, but 1 like take a few She wasn't scared at all by the dog, but Iwas You've managed to persuade me. Your argument is most 5 Read the thesaurus explanations of these four near synonyms for leader. leader - chief, head, captain, boss Ache = eer or rtp A psn igen ary, poi ‘hehend-theenmn nares eal rer ono, eo ae feast he poe chung fap ase oa pe tee A oat te ton in chm esa werner mag Find synonyms or near synonyms for these words. Put them into sentences to illustrate their differences in meaning. beautiful laugh hate argument enemy Brenan tant taka 1 GERD Listen and read the sentences. Notice al the ways of expressing things that are or are not in common. Things in common Things different ‘Mark’ been to America, and so have || He tried windsurfing, but | havent. || Helikes traveling, and do,too, | He comes from abig family, but I dont He doesnt speak Russian, and either | He didi ee the football match, (| dot but did | He isn't married, and nor am I He hasn't been to Australia. Ihave, |_| Hecant ean ant ether though. 2. Work with a partner. Ask questions and make notes of things that you do or don't have in common. social media sites Did you see ... (film) ? ? | 3. Report back to the class about each other. (Mia has never been to Peru, and neither have I. Unit + Culture clashes 45 LISTENING AND SPEAKING Found in translation 1 Read about Alan Dein, How does he get the real-life stories for his programme? Why do you think it is called Don't Log Off? Who features in this programme? How did they meet? Don’t Log Off Alan Dein is an oral historian and broadcaster. In his BBC Radio 4 programme Don't Log Off, he discovers the real life stories behind online profiles on Facebook. Starting with nothing but the profile, he contacts the people on the Internet. The results are intriguing, funny, and often very moving. In this programme, Alan hears the story of Bryan from Boise, Idaho, in the USA and Anna from Russia, who met online. Anna decides to move to the USA with her children — will things work out? 2 Listen to Part 1 ofthe programme. When Alan talks to Bryan, he makes comments aside to his radio audience, Read some of his asides and answer the questions. 1 But this was more than a typical online romance. Why is it not typical? How do Bryan and Anna solve their particular problem? 2 The next time held been to visit Anna in Russi How does Bryan describe the visit? Six months later. Bryan had some big news for me. ‘What was the news? What is the deadline connected with this news? 4 [spoke to Bryan at the airport. Why is Bryan at the airport? What are his emotions? Why do they stop the phone call? 5 It was then Thad an idea, What was Alan's idea? 6 Then I received a rather worrying message. Really big news. What do you think the news is? Give reasons for your ideas and how it might affect Alan's plan, 3 GEBB Listen to Part 2, What has happened? Were your ideas correct? ‘What reasons does Bryan give for the ‘big news? “The clock is ticking, Bryan’ What does Alan mean by this? What does Alan decide to do? What does he learn from Bryan about Annai life in the USA? 46 Unit S + Culture clashes What do you think? ‘+ What was Annals daly life in America like? Why did she go out much? ‘+ How did Bryan treat her? + Willan and Anna marry? ‘+ Will Anna and her children return to Russia? 4 GERD isten to Part 3 Say what happens. What is Alan's surprise? Tell it in your own words, Discussion + Bolan the ttle Found in translation. + Are you optimistic or pessimistic about Bryan and Annas futures? What about Anna’ children? + What are the pros and cons of marrying someone witha differen anguage and culture? Aquiz 5 Turn to p72 and do the quiz. How good a are you VOCABULARY AND LISTENING Nationalities and stereotypes 1 Complete the chart of nationality words. Use your dictionary if necessary. COUNTRY ADJECTIVE | PERSON NATION LANGUAGE(S) Britain British ‘Briton’, aBrit** | the British English, Welsh, Gael Scotland Switzerland The Netherlands Belgium Sweden Denmark Poland Finland Ieeland Spain Turkey New Zealand Afghanistan Argentina Peru Used mainly about ancient Britons and in newspaper reports, eg. “Two Britons injured ~ Informal and can sound negative stening 2 Listen to four people talking about their experiences of living in another country. ‘What nationality are they? | Where are they? | What cultural differences do they mention? Talking about stereotypes 3 Work in small groups. Choose a few nationalities that you know. First describe them in stereotypical fashion, and then discuss how much your experience of them fits the stereotype. (The English have a reputation) (Actualy, most of my English for boing coldandreserved. | | friends are very outgoing, they ‘And English weather is awful it's That's a myth The last major ‘pea-souper’ “alvays foggy, andthe food is disgusting | | oF ‘smog’ wasin1452 . 4 What is your nationality jereotype? Are you like that? DD WRITING Describing similarities and differences ~ Comparing two countries pI]. THE LAST WORD British and American English 1. Read two conversations. Which is British English? Which is American English? Work with a partner, Note all the differences you can find. > Who's the package for? Nancy it’ her birthday on the weekend. ‘Yeah, I know. What did you get her? A beautiful, brown, leather purse. Awesome! She'll love it.I got her a gorgeous cashmere sweater. She's a lucky girl. I want to mail it to her. Do you have her address? Ido, but I dont have the zip code. pero o A ‘Who’ the parcel for? ‘Nancy — it her birthday at the weekend, Yeah, [know. What have you got her? A beautiful, brown, leather handbag. Fabulous! Shell love it. Ive got her a lovely cashmere jumper. She’ a lucky girl. want to post it to her. Have you got her address? ‘A. Thave, but I haven't got the postcode. 2 Listen and check. Compare the differences in pronunciation. 3 Listen and read the following conversations in American English. ‘Try to convert them into British English 4 1A Doyou have the time? 5A Didyou see Mery Streep new movie yet? B Yeah, it five after four B Sure thing She was awesome init. She 1k Did yousay five til? played this homely, old woman who drifted B No, five aftr four around inher bathrobe all day. Ak Yeah, shea great ator a 2A What are you gonna do onthe weekend? B The sual stuff Pay soccer with my kids 6 A. Did they bring the check yet? and ake the yard B Yeah They jst dd. But cant ead ting \ Ito badly lit in her. You need a flashlight. 3A Did you havea good vacation? Yeah, teal good Deen ee 'k How long were you away? B Sure do! Anyways, need to use the Fie days nll. Monday thru Friday bathroom 4A Where do youtve? DE eenes 8 Wehavea small partment onthe fist B Yeah ft was get but we had to stdin ‘ floor of an apartment building downtown. line for half an hour to get tickets ‘A Do you have ayard? B No, we doit, just a parking lat around the back f gc 4 GERD Listen and compare your ideas. 5. What is the British English for these words? Use your dictionary to help. 3 DA freeway garbage cookie drugstore closet potato chips SJ Ss pants faucet sidewalk windshield elevator _fll(o) Do you know any more American English words or expressions? 48 Unit S + Culture clashes Fruits of war Ways of adding emphasis © Tense review Nouns from phrasal verbs * Keeping the peace Bletchley Park 1 Look back in V eeeeeeccemcwaw How many wars can you name? Who was fighting who? 2. Work in groups. Read the quotations and discuss what you think they mean. f Try to match them with their sources. Compare ideas asa class. ‘Aeschylus, ee apprncse er inet wetay ono driving them in front of oneself, in taking their property, in savouring their despair, in outraging their wives and daughters.’ © “ou shall show no mercy: lfe for life, Te eye for eye, tooth for tooth. @© ‘Resist not evil: but whosoever shall strike thee on thy right cheek, turn to him the other. © ‘War does not determine who is ight, only who i ft 4 © (the tragedy of modern war is that the young, men die fighting each other, instead of their real enemies back home in the capitals. @ ‘No one is born hating another person because ofthe colour of his skin, or his background, or his religion. People must learn to hate, and if they can learn to hate, they can be taught to love. penne 1 know not with what weapons World War III will be fought, but World War IV will be fought with sticks and stones. © ‘in war, truth is the first casualty. 'Mankind must put an eni 3 EEE Listen and check your answers. What extra information do you hear foreach one? 4. What do you know of any conflicts in the world at the moment? Why do you think human beings continue to wage wars against each other? Can violence ever solve conflicts? Unit 6 + Fruits of war 49 READING AND SPEAKING When good comes from bad Ki War may be violent and destructive, but it can also generate some things that are worthwhile. Work in groups. Look at the four headings below, Technology Medicine Politics Society Use them to list some possible good things that have come out of war. Discuss ideas with the class. Read through the texts quickly. Did you think of any of the things mentioned? Make a note of one important or interesting fact from each topic. Compare your ideas with your group. Read the texts again. Look at the words below. Which heading do they go with and what is said about them? refrigerators conscription thehorse grafts twitches dress codes Answer the questions. 1 What did Adam Hochschild get right and Douglas Haig get wrong? 2 What differences are there between the ‘medical understanding of ‘shell shock’ then and now? 3 Which two breakthroughs led to blood. banks? Why was the death rate still high? 4. What were the two main things that impacted on the lives of the upper classes? 5 How did women's lives change after World War I? Why is there still debate about this? 6 What part did the trenches in World War I play in the development of plastic surgery? your own words 5 What do these numbers refer to? 650,000 —30.and 1944 1,000s 801 800001880 What do you think? 50 Which of the sx tasting legacies’ do you believe are most important? Why? ‘Which would have come about without war? What difference di the war make? Why does war often lead to rapid progress? Unit 6 + Fruits of war World War | (1914-1918) was, supposed to be the war to end all wars, but it was in fact the beginning of all modern conflicts. The new technology that reached the battlefields forever - ‘changed the way that armies fought. It could ‘be argued that technology had always played an important part in war, but previously it had not been so sophisticated, ‘and above all, so destructive. However, it wasnt only armoured tanks, high-powered machine guns, and aerial bombardment; as Adam Hochschild describes in his essay, To End All Wars, the most important innovation ofall was the barbed wire fences, the most unassuming ‘weapon used. ‘What barbed wire did was prevent direct charges on the men in the trenches, Hochschild got i right, unlike Douglas Haig, the ‘commander ofthe British forces in France. Haig sad, ' believe that the value ofthe horse and the opportunity forthe horse in the future are likely to be as great as ever. Aeroplanes and tanks are only accessories to the men and the horse” As on so many other occasions, ne could not have been more mistaken, RECOGNITION OF PTSD eee Psychological victims of war are as old as war itself The Bible, the Greeks, and Shakespeare all tll us this: But it wasn't until World War | that science began to ‘understand this properly and give the kind of diagnoses that are familiar to us today. During the ‘war; medics stil thought that ‘shell sock’, as it \was Known, was down to the physical impact of military explosions. ut gradually anather theory began to form: that 2what caused the peculiar symptoms exhibited by huge numbers of soldiers (80,000 in the British army alone) were emotional, not physical, stress factors — in particular, the [proximity to death and the hideous sight of watching 4 friend - or enemy ~ meet a gruesome end. ‘Traumatized soldiers shared many common symptoms, such as speech difficulties, twitches, anxiety and digestive disorders, °The thing doctors = found baffling was that these symptoms persisted long after the war was finished: t wasn't until over {60 years later, in 1980, in the aftermath of the ‘Vietnam War, that this affliction would be formally recognized as Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. The first blood banks, called “blood depots’ were set up by Oswald Hope Robertson, a ‘medical scientist and US Army Officer, while serving in France in 41917. lust before the war, in 1914, ithad been discovered that transfused blood could be prevented from clotting if mixed with sodium citrate. inthe same year it was established that blood Could be stored in refrigerators. These two huge breakthroughs ‘paved the way for Robertson's ‘blood depots’ Prior to this, blood. transfusions had had to be made vein to vein, dectly from donor to patient, Medics used the ‘preserved’ blood at casualty stations for wounded soldiers. However, survival rates were not good because fone vital thing they had overlooked was the importance (of blood groupings (three blood groups, A,B, and 0, had been identified in vienna in 1901 by an Austrian, Karl Landsteiner), Nevertheless, the wartime advances led to a blood-donor service being established in London in 1922, Here all volunteers were tested for blood group and screened for diseases. ZA Minis OF ARISTOCRACY World War had a devastating impact on the British upper classes, The sons of the aristocracy fortunate enough to survive the war retumed to find their place in society no longer automatically ‘assured. Their numbers were severely reduced - even the prime minister's son was kiled. This meant that in the immediate [post-war period, those wha had been expected to become leaders particulary in politics and business - were no longer there, There was also a fallin the number of those willing to work as their servants, History professor Joanna Bourke says, in the past, the servant class in upper-midcl-class homes were those people whose family tradition was to work there, When someone left, the ‘cook would recommend her niece —and that no longer happened. The Introduction of conscription had turned a professional army into a civilan one. New officers could now come from humble backgrounds and, ike the many thousands of emancipated women, they were not prepared to abandon the possibilty of social advancement that the war had brought them and go back to being shopkeepers and servants. ‘Something that historians stil wrangle over is how much ‘World Wer | liberated women, In reality, women’s work was already on the rise before 1914, ne ‘and once the war was over many, ‘ ‘women went back to their ol jobs However, without doubt women successfully carried out a huge number of tracitionally masculine roles during the war. And without doubt, some ofthe post-war fashions, such as the flapper garconne (ttle ‘boy) look, flew inthe face of pre-war feminine dress codes. Also, crucially it was after the war that women in certain countries achieved the most important political right: the right to vote. in Great Britain they Could vote from the age of 30 in 1918; in Germany they could vote in 1918; in the USA women could vote in all states from 1920; butin France, not unt 1944, towards the end of World War I a) Xo) 4a ee Bit aS e Ce) SURGERY "Modern surgery was born in World War |. civil and military hospitals acted as theatres of experimental ‘medical intervention and the outbreak cof war changed the course of plastic surgery forever. Trench warfare meant that the hhead and the face were especialy exposed to enemy fre and received extensive trauima wounds, Countless veterans survived the war, but paid the price by ending up maimed, mutilated, and disfigured, These were the so-called ‘broken faces’, named after an expression coined in France by Colonel ‘Yves Picot, president of the Union des blessés de la face et de la tete, which was founded in 1921, By the end of hostilities, there were about 6.5 milion war invalids in France. Surgeons from the warring countries faced a considerable flood of these ‘broken faces’, and were charged with giving them human features again, to ease the plight of their reintegration into civil life, Missing flesh and bone were Covered up with grafts, an innovation that came about by using skin from other parts of the body. LANGUAGE FOCUS Ways of adding emphasis 1 These sentences are similar to lines found in Lasting legacies on pp50-51. Check them with the lines in the texts. How exactly do they differ? What is the effect of the differences? ‘+ "Barbed wire prevented direct charges on the men in the trenches +? Emotional, not physical, stress factors caused the peculiar symptoms exhibited by huge numbers of soldiers + "Doctors found it baffling that these symptoms persisted long aftr the war was finished, “They overlooked the importance of blood groupings. + Sistorians still wrangle over how much World War | liberated women, 2 GERD Listen and identify the ways in which the speakers add emphasis to these sentences. Work with a partner. Can you think of any other ways of emphasizing each sentence? 1 Lcantt stand Bruce, He’ so full of himself His lack of self-awareness amazes me, You dont appreciate how exhausting travelling is. ‘The number of security checks drive me mad. ‘The customs officer behaved so rudely. This upset me. Al the nurses were very sympathetic. I appreciated this. You are always late. This really annoys me. You should talk to Peter 3. Read the question and answer below. Rephrase the answer to make it sound more emphatic using the expressions below. Q What kindof holiday do you ike? A [ike touring historic sites. 1 One thing 2 What I 3. Touring historic sites 4 Its 5... something I 6 Theres nothing ... more than Listen and check. What are the lines that stimulate the different responses? Practise them with your partner, paying particular attention to the stress and intonation. 4 Complete the sentences to make them more emphé Talking about you 5 Complete the remarks about you using an emphatic structure, Share ideas with the class. 1 ERB isten and compare your ideas. ‘Structures which add emphasis (2) 1 Negative inversion Certain negative expressions canbe put at the beginning of a sentence for emphasis. This happens more often in written or formal English Ive never seen Never have I seen meee Creare finds |_| such dearexplanations then | emanate thet 2 Emphatic do, does, did Finally the war ended. Finally, the war did end (GEE Listen and repeat the sentences so they sound emphatic >> Grammar Reference ppI50-151 You don't often hear any good news in news bulletins. Rarely Churchill was a strong wartime leader and a brilliant orator, Not onl I didn't know what he'd been up to. dite You wor't get that job with an attitude like that. : Inno way Fighting broke out as soon as the demonstration started. No sooner Now I understand why you were so worried. “Only now If | hadn't seen it with my own eyes, I wouldn't have believed it. Hag ‘You wor't find a better heart specialist anywhere. Nowhere. Something I've never told you is What I cant stand about ... ‘What always surprises me is. ‘The thing that annoys me most It’s not me who ‘What the government should. Never in my life have I. ‘What I did after class yesterday ... naar er) Sa eo ele HUMAN CONFLICT WAS SO MUCH OWED BY SO. IPN Dm ceRSOR ia. 4 Pronunciation: using stress to emphasize ‘Work witha partner. What do you think is the main stressed word in each of BS replies? Peter hasnt told anybody. He told me, Uhope you didn tel Clara, I didnt tll anyone, Hinvited Anna, but she isnt coming I told you she wouldnt ‘Who told Tim about it? Ie no idea. | didn tll anyone. John wont like it when you tell him, IFitell him. Its the worst fim Ive ever seen Tell me about it! He dumped me. I told you he would! Have you heard the joke about the old man and his dog? Itold yout! Listen and check, Practise with a partner. Unit 6 + Fruits of war 53 LISTENING AND SPEAKING Peace and goodwill 1 What do you know about the First World War? How do people generally view it today? 2 GERD Listen to Part 1. tts an extract from a musical play called Oh, What a Lovely War! 1 Who is fighting who? What nicknames do the two sides have for each other? 2 Where are they standing? What two things do they hear? 3 What is surprising about the interaction between these enemy soldiers? 4 The scene depicts the beginning of the so-called. “Christmas truce, which took place on Christmas Eve in the first year of the war. ‘What do you think happened next? 3. GEED Graham Williams and Harold Startin fought in WWI and were on sentry duty on that Christmas Eve. Many years later they recorded their experiences that night. Listen to Part 2. How is their account similar to the scene in the play? What is no-man’s land? Meaiou on words 4. Use the prompts to tell the story to a partner. 1 On the stroke of eleven o'clock lights ..., and people started .. 2 Graham thought this was .., so he woke 3 Eventually both sides started communicating by 4. Next morning everyone .. 5 Harold says that he made friends with .. despite .. 6 They helped each other in many ways, for ‘example, they .. 5 How long do you think the truce lasted? Listen to Part 3 and find out. Answer the questions, 1 Who was John French? 2 What was the significance of the rifle shots? 3 Who was Otto? + Doyou find the story depressing or uplifting? Or both? Why? + Do you think that commanding officers could become friends in the same way? + Could such an incident happen in modem conflicts? IF not, why not? 54 Unit 6 + Fruits of war Tense review Complete the summary of the story with a verb from below in the correct tense and form, active or passive. be) believe borrow bury conduct make goon happen help joinin last’ meet sing (x2) strengthen take place visit wake The Christmas Truce The war * had been ging on for only afew months when on Christmas Eve 1914, an extraordinary event ? ‘At midnight, the sleeping British soldiers > sound of carols * inthe German trenches. They immediately > with English carols and Soon both sf ‘together. The next morning they all 1 inno-mar’s land, and in a very short time, many friendships * Not only? they to bury each other's dead, but often German and British soldiers, » together in the same grave. Tools # also from each other, and defences *2 There was no fear or suspicion on either side. there *® fear, such a truce never: by the a lifetime. dead for many years now, 1g his life by his friend Otto, Incredibly, some friendships * Harold startin, who 7, regularly d from Stuttgart. Nowadays, it?® generally that sucha truce 19___ impossible. Most modern warfare 2 ___ fromthe air. DD WRITING Writing for talking — Researching a period in history pI VOCABULARY Nouns formed from phrasal verbs 1 There are many compound nouns formed with a verb + preposition or preposition + verb combination At the outbreak of war was just three years old. ‘These breakthroughs paved the way forthe blood depots, Here isan update on the news. The health system is suferng from cutbacks in its budget, Which syllable is stressed in these words? 2 Some of these nouns operate as phrasal verbs, and some dont. He joined the army the year war broke out. Funds allocated to research and development have been severely cut back. ‘There isno verb ‘to date up but there isto update: ‘llupdate you on the situation. 1 Complete the sentences with a compound noun formed from up atthe end of the words in the box below. back shake hold 1 something used for support ifthe main one fails At the end of a day's writing, I make a copy of my work asa 2 accareless mistake that spoils a plan ‘There was an administrative emails weren't sent in time. and the 3 a situation in which a lot of changes are made ‘Theres been a big. at work. They've fired six managers and restructured the whole company. 4 adelay Sorry for the — were having a few technical hitches with our software today. | Why do Lalways have \ | “to be the lookout? 2. Complete the sentences with a compound noun using the word in bold as the first word. Use the definitions to help. out 1 the final result of an election, or negotiations We are all waiting for the ofthe meeting. 2 a set of clothes worn together She bought a new. for the wedding, 3. what is expected to happen in the future The for tomorrow's weather is bleak. 4a shop or company through which products are sold Starbucks has retail ill the major cities throughout the world. take 5 a meal you buy in a restaurant to eat at home Shall we eat out or get a a 6 getting control ofa company by buying most of its shares Business sections of newspapers are full of company mergers and. down 7 information obtained from the Internet For free, click here. 8 failure or ruin following success She had a great career, but alcohol was her 9 alot of rain that falls fast and heavily 1 got soaked in yesterday's break 10. new and dramatic development ‘There have been great in the last 20 years. 11a serious mental illness After his mother died, Paul suffered a complete nervous 12 end of a relationship Sarah was very depressed after the marriage to ‘Tony. in organ transplants of her 3. Choose some of the words in the box. Use a dictionary if, necessary and write a definition and an example sentence with a gap. Test other students. setback upkeep ‘lookout’ comeback showdown uptum write-off drawback outburst knockout __ offshoot Unit 6 + Fruits of war 55 THE LAST WORD Keeping the peace 1 Weall have arguments. Look quickly through the four conversations. What are the people arguing about? ‘We should have turned left there. Look’! Who driving this car? The satnay said ‘ight. {now these streets better than any stn. ‘The satnay is never wrong Hull You dont believe that any more than | do. ‘Well, |am not turing round. 0K, 0K 4 But don't blame me if were ate pore> @) A Thaventt a clue who to vote for in the next lection. They are all load of w.. Bu youve got to vote, We cate the tert in 5 They all as bad as each other ‘ Letthe other lot in and taxes will rocket and prices will. ‘8 Come on! That happens wth of them. shall we? You and | mustn't fall ee ‘out over tis. Put that thing down! un? ‘You spend your life in front ofa screen Hey! Hang on aminute -® You never go anywhere without your iPad and iPhone. Yeah, buttim not always checking them. Youve lost the art of conversation. B Ihave not? ‘A Well ve been telling you about my day and you haven't heard a word. Uh? Sorry—what did you say? ero> > 56 Unit 6 + Fruits of war 2 We use many expressions in arguments to agree, disagree, and sometimes to compromise and make peace. Which of these expressions disagree? Which seek to make peace? | couldnt disagree more. Have it your own way. That’ not how I see You do not! Lets ust agree to disagree. | suppose... {really take offence at that. look who’ talking! ‘Ym sure we can find a happy medium, 3. Work with a partner. Complete the conversations with the expressions from exercise 2. Read them aloud to each other. Listen and check. Act out some of the 4 With your partner, create an argument about one of these topics. Try to reach a compromise or make peace at the end. ‘choosing aholiday hat to cook for friends the others boy/gtfriend whichis best -book or e-reader? nich film to see aniter in the news Lighten up! Real and unreal tense usage * Phrasal verbs with on and off ‘Look on the bright side EDD cach life 1 Graffiti can sometimes lighten up everyday life. Workin pars. 2 Lookat the examples of works by the graffiti artist ‘Where in public might you read the signs in 112 Match them with Banksy. What point do you think heS trying to make the graffiti written on them in a-L Which did you find the funniest? _with them? Which do you find most amusing? Why? 1 Keep death off the roads! a unless you're on fie 2 2B Please don't startle any further 3 eee oe (¢ The cat's not terribly trustworthy either: am eet ail eare dateananed im London d takes hours to untangle them afterwards, Lunch in New York. : p Sigh a partition! 5 Don't drink and drive! peat 6 Have you seen the Tower of London? a ne: zits 50 lake nothing instead. 7 This dor is alarmed, hom 3 8 No smoking oto 26 9 Beware of the dog! j Luggage in Nairobi 10 Passengers are requested not to cross the lines. Il Headache? Nothing acts faster than Anadin. ‘2 SAY NO TO GRAFFITI Pease return to Lost and Found. |. Please do as much as you can today. eo READING AND SPEAKING How to be happier 1 What changes would you most like to make in your life in order to be happier? What do you think are the most ‘common causes of unhappiness? 2. Read the captions in the pictures. What do you think sections 1-7 are about? Read the text quickly and check. 3 Read the text again, Which sections talk about ...? 1 having a negative view of your own performance 2. concentrating on the good things in your life right now benefitting from difficult experiences speaking going on in your mind making your body feel better imagining the future Be kind to yourself. Peay vor verts Seige pee ena ie 1 stn cl cet an ues pee eae ia meee 7 ene es Teen EES tater te oe pera Be kinder to others oo. t's easier to forge if you remember that 4 meaning to / nagging / doit /ife changes /regret/leamn general people ‘know not what thay do’ We fn judg people 5 past /look forward / present / mindfulness / chatter harshly to make ourselves feel bette, but it actualy sucks all the joy 6 moan / problems / accept / difficult / natural / opportunities ‘ut of our relationships. 4. Use the prompts to summarize each section of the text. 5. Find words or phrases in the text which mean .. 1 keep talking about your weaknesses or faults (section 1) 2 admit that you recognize something is true (1) view behaviour in a hard and unforgiving way (1) not what they seem to be (2) give a high opinion of you enthusiastically (2) constantly demanding that you do something (4) a responsibility that weighs heavily on you (4) worrying about a decision for a long time (4) PMT En MLN feel better after a bad experience (4) with other people’s outsides, complain about things in an annoying way (6) isten to ei vhic This is often one ofthe main reasons we'e so hard on ourselves; ne ee Peas aie oe deere ier aceon then we ae, But you never know what's realy going on behind the sone that other people projet, and you've probably seen the What do you think? Shock cers cen eho you reed ther how you realy fal ‘+ Which advice in the text do you agree or disagree with? Why? inelde. Appeerencee can be eo deceptivl *+ What other advice would you give to people to make ther Wor night kel hoes coettias peopl tha ree teeth lives happier? ‘woulda be singing your praises now if they'd known how arsous + [there someone you know or have met who's made you fel you were feeling a the tne, alter aslepless right wonying about it ‘more positive about life? How? all, Well, what if those other people were feeling exacly the same — ‘+ When were the times you felt happiest in life (so far}? Why? ‘would you have known?! D> WRITING Informal writing ~A letter tomy younger self plé 1 58 Unit7 + Lighten up! VARs ees runtirmet ca to share their favourite insights into what makes us unhappy, and how we can bring more joy into our lives. _ > EN ye CME USP Ue ee RUE RUS mE Consumer capitalism encourages us to focus on what we don't have. It can be good to have our expectations raised, but there is a formula that states that happiness = realty minus expectations. If constant advertising makes us wish we had things that we have no realistic chance of getting, the end result is unhappiness. They say you don't miss what you don’t know. If only you hadi’ seen that sold-out pasta dish onthe restaurant's ‘Specials board! I wouldn't have occurred to you then to feel dissatisfied withthe dish you ordered! Adverts keto tellus what we're missing and the satisfaction it would bring usif only we had it.I might, but then again, it mght not. Remember, its all imaginary; don't et it distract you from the pleasures ofthe real tings you do ave. 8B Rt ee ER rE) NF How many things are thee n the back of your mind that you need to How long have you been meaning to fix that broken door, or reply to that email? Notice what a nagging burden these 'must-do's' ae at some level. No time to do them? But how long would some of them realy take?! Been too tired? Well, fee! how tring tis to have them hanging over you, and remember the energy lit you get when you finally cross something of your dost list. Just do it! Ara there big changes in life you've been puting off? Maybe you're aad you'd regret them, but we reget fain to do things more than we regret having done them: atleast we then leam from things going ‘wrong, which Is better than agonizing over what might have happened if we fad done something, And anyway, our worries about negativ ‘outcomes are usually exaggerated, Let yourself be pessimistic, and s do, but haven't do imagine the worst that could happen. Woulda't you get over i? How much ofthe time is our mind focused on the past or future, rather than the here and now? Even looking forward to something alot, w! seams p rial happiness ofthe present moment. As the musician Hélene Grimaud puts i, ‘Waiting for anything to happen, worrying that something may, or wishing that something ad not happened, or wil not happen, steals from every precious moment we are ving in now ike us away from the po and now ... and now .. forever, Try @ simple mindfulness exercise for becoming present. Sit upright and relax your body, from your feet to your head, Then, listen tothe sounds ‘around you. You'l find yourself ether listening to the constant chatter in your head instead, busy with the past and future, or realy listening to the sounds and becoming stil, and present. Life isn’t meant to be easy. People often complain about ther problems as if they shouldh't exit a8 ifhaving a problem is reason tobe unhappy. The Road Less Traveled, byM. Scot Pec, begin with hele, Life is clit sounds gloomy, but Peck explains that once we try accopt the fact that fais ifcu, it stop being so, because we see prloms as natural and actualy as ‘opportunites fr growth. I's the people who won't accept this that make ther ves miserable, As Peck says:’Most donot uly se this ruth thet ifs dificult. Instead, they moan more o es incessantly, noisy or cub, about the enomity oftheir problems, thir burdens, and their dfcultes, asf fe were generally easy, asf life shouldbe easy Vi BUGS I GP YESS Rees. LANGUAGE FOCUS Real and unreal tense usage 7 Which sentences descibeposblesituatonsin ) 2, Discuss whether the sentences are correct. Correct the wrong ones Bretesl vari Which describe unreal ones? 1 Lwish you would have asked me before buying that picture. a If goto the gym straight from the ofc, 2 He looks as if he’ French. ate Velewie tink others, 5 If we were warned about the flood, we would have moved b Ifyou decide you want to join a gym, take everything upstairs, ROB Ver rhe 4 Td rather you wouldn't have put that photo on Facebook. lire foes signi nenr my hotne, john. 5 Ifonly she could have got tickets for the final! di woud have gone tothe pyr today if 6 I wish you didnt interrupt when I'm talking! hadn't been so tired. 7 If we didn't have to work at the weekend, we would often go sailing. 8 Its time you get a haircut. ‘Whats the real situation inthe unreal ‘examples? How do the tenses in those examples reflect the unealty? Mixed conditionals 2 Look at other examples of unreal situations {in Zero First, Second, and Third Conditional sentences, both clauses are often ‘Whats the realty? What tenses are used? inaset pattem of present, pat, or future. However, mixed conditional can | wish I didnt ive here. f ony | hadn't moved. contain various combinations of time periods, | wish you'd speak more slowly. If you'd read the instructions, you wouldn't be finding it o hard to use. ‘Suppose you got il? It's time you got some (past) (present) health insurance. I'd take you to the airport tomorrow if my car hadn't broken down. He talks as if he knew everything, (future) (past) {rather Harry didn't come to my party. eee Which two ofthese uses of wish are correct? Correct the wrong ones | wish you would be taller. 3 What are the time periods in the clauses in these examples? | wish had blonde hai. 1 Youd have more appetite if you hadn't eaten that chocolate. | wish | would find a better job! 2. If my exams weren't coming soon, I'd have come out with you all. | wish you would stop talking so much! 3. Td have applied for that job in Florence if I spoke Italian. D> Grammar Reference ppI5I-152 4 L wouldn't be going to Bali if hadn't won that money. 5 If'we hadn't called off the wedding, well be celebrating our anniversary next Monday 1 These sentences all have verbs in the Past " " Simpler Dust Perfo Whichreter torent 4 Complete the sentences as mixed conditional, using the correct, tense or verb form of the verbs in brackets. past time? 1 Suppose I decided to live in Brazil? 1 (give) Dave a lift again tomorrow if he 2 Ifwe ever had money as children, we spent (not make) fun of my car this morning. it on sweets, 2 Ifyou (not sit) in that café when T walked in, we 3. Te rather youtd not told everyone my news. (not live) together now. 4 Isnitittime we had a break? 3 IfKarl (be) born a week earlier, he 5. Everyone agreed that shed just got lost and (start) school next week! ‘would arrive before long. 4 We (buy) that house right now if the previous owner 6 Iwish you didnt have to go. 7 He behaves as if he owned the place. 8 Had he known the truth, he would never hhave signed the contract. (not paint) it pink! 5 Ifl (not have) bad eyesight, I (train) as a pilot after [left college. oe ne eee, 6 1___(post) Gilly’s birthday present yesterday if ‘our birthdays. (not visit) her next week. 10 She looked at me as if Pd gone mad. GHBB Listen and check. {60 Unit7 + Lighten up! 5 Will and Zoe are having a row in a hotel. Put the verbs in would brackets in the correct verb form. Where there is no verb given, use an auxiliary. Would appears in real as well as unreal tense usage. Look at these examples. ‘Sam won the lottery in 20M. Little did he realizehe woul be bankrupt two year later 'b My parents would often take us camping as kids. € Itried to persuade her not to marry Ethan, but she wouldn't listen, Which sentences a,b, orc express..? + apast habit + refusal on a past occasion + the future in the past >> Grammar Reference pIS3 STOUT 6 Which of these sentences describe real situations? Which use of would is expressed in them? 1 My car wouldnt start, so I got the bus. 2. I wouldn't use that milk if I were you -it smells a bit funny. 3. When I was a student, 'd often get up at 12.00. (pot come) 4 In Paris, Charles met Penny, who he would Zoe Ugh! Tis hotels horblel wish we! here. ve never seen such a dirty place in my life! marry five years later. It?___ (not be) so bad if the bathroom 5 I'm glad he didn't ask me to lend him the , (be) clean butt * (be) fit. ‘money. I would have refused. 1, {not even wash) my socks in it. 6 We'd go windsurfing every weekend in Will I know, but weld been driving for hours and I * Cyprus. Those were the days! (want) to stop. fe” there mightet have been 7 Soe took the job, did he? [knew he would! another hotel for miles, and we! (sil drive) 8 Ideally I would go to the gym more often, but I on wish ve {set of eater, so we just dont have time. (get) to Comwall today We (not get) there til tomorrow lunchtime now. | told you wed need to leave in the ‘morning but you (listen! eT Gite Will had to finish some important work this morning. If 7 7 | 8 we" (can leave) ealer.Then | we®____{sit)in anice hotel on the coast instead of 1 There isn't very much, | a if ever saw one. | this dump in the middle of nowhere, 2 Werarely, basift | Si 3 Hesabornloser | c if ot exactly enthusiastic ee an ee ee 4 Youshould find my | d ifs, youshould definitely | | iit {not be) so late, (suggest) | looking fora pub that does food, but | haws.eed el olde lb sadhenaad cae 5 Joseemed interested |e ifany chickenin this | | er ee inthe idea, sandwich ~ ital salad (be od fansite 6 Seeifthatdres fits | f ifever, watch realty TV | | Will Oh, | wish you™ {stop} moaning! you. shows. | . 7 Creepy Colinasked | g Hfnot, give me a ring and Zoe OK, im sorry. | guess were both tired. Come on let’ start | ! nL Gee ime fora date! Maveyeudrectons | | GRBB Listen and check, Practise the conversation with a partner. Pay attention to short forms and contractions. (ERED Listen and check. What did people say in the replies? Unit 7 + Lighten up! 61 LISTENING AND SPEAKING The history of the smile 1 Which smiles in the pictures do you like most? Why? 2 Read the text. Which pictures do the highlighted words describe? Why is it easy for a smile to go wrong? Why WE) Abroad, beaming smile isa wonderful {\@ thing, but not something we can produce Smil to order. When we force smile fora photo, itcan looklike an anxious grimace, and with good reason. It’s thought the smile evolved from the ‘fear face’ seen in primates today, with the corners ofthe ‘mouth pulled back. This shows submission toa hostile fellow primate signalling I'm afraid of you -I'm nota threat In humans this evolved into the smile, making others feel at ease. Achieving a good fake smile isn't easy; we can control the muscles around the mouth, but not those around the eyes, which give asmileits warmth, This fake, tight-lipped smile can easily become a grin or smirk, sending the wrong message entirely. 3 Listen to Part 1 of a radio programme on the smile, Answer the questions. 1 What did W.C. Fields say about starting the day? 2. How important is the smile to communication today? Was this always the case? 3 What do you learn about pictures ¢ and e? Why might the ‘Laughing Cavalier’ in e not be laughing? 4. What role did sugar play in posing for portraits? 5 What did Madame Vigeé-Lebrun in g have that the ‘Laughing Cavalier’ didn't? What was the reaction to her portrait? 62 Unit 7 + Lighten up! 4 How easy do you find it to smile for photos? What's the best way to get a natural smile when posing? Listen to Part 2. Answer the questions. 1 What revolutionized the way we smile? 2 Why were smiles so important when Hollywood shots became fashionable? 3 What do you think crow’ feet aret 4 How does Olivia Mann get natural smiles? 5 Listen to Part 3. What effect is dentistry having ‘on smiles? What might this lead to in future? Pinyour own words 6 In pairs, use the prompts to summarize different sections of the programme, Student A Student B Smiles in early paintings Smiles in photographs closed / control / teeth / instant photography / Hollywood / sugar / serious informal shots / natural smile Smiles in later portraits Modern smiles 1786/ Madame Vigeé- dentistry / new atitudes / Lebrun / open / dentist / acceptable / perfect / toothpastes irregularities / bigger What do you think? + Inwhich obs is smiling important? Why? + Cansmiles be annoying? What emotions can they express? + Take real or pretend photos of each other as Olivia Mann suggests. Say what you were thinking of VOCABULARY Phrasal verbs with on and off (On and off bring different meanings to phrasal verbs. What do they mean in these lines from p62? ‘can't put it off any longer, 'm having my photo taken! (Since you have a complete record | | want you to hold onto those feelings. ‘of my lif, could you tell me if NE cemebece to tar the cooker of? 1 Starting/stopping 7 ‘What might people be talking about in these examples? | ‘Try turning it off and on again. __Switch them off before take-off. Itsuddenly came on in the night! It went off after | burnt the toast! ‘Complete the sentences with the verbs and on or aff [ put bring catch pay finish log 1 Do you think smart watches will 24 before leaving your desk. 2 We. the mea with a coffee sr the kettle fortea 3. Barcelona inthe semi-final? it__! 6 Weve finally all our debts 2 Continuing/not continuing I looks worse, You‘ beter carry on ing t.| Why would someone What ow .? 1 carry on reading abook til 20am. 1 canbe rained off 2 finda lecture dragging: 2 wears off after afew hours 3 go.on and on about theirnew phone 3. canbe laid offina company restructure 4 cheer somebody on during race 4 might be broken of after a change of heart 5 tell youto ‘dream on’ 5 canbe called off aftr industrial negotiations 6 say it time to erack on with work 6 might you go off after visting a factory farm GHBB Listen and compare. GHBB Listen and compare. 3. Closer to/further away a — Complete the sentences with on or off: Parke VRVE 1 Wewent tothe airport to see Dan. 5. Youre too close, just back ait 2 Aman just grabbed my bag andran__! 6 The police advanced __ the protesters. 3 Hesneaked up___me and startled me. 7 Ssh! Quiet! Don't scare the birds _! en s gaining on Leo.| He drove off without me! 4 Herhai’s dark brown, verging black. 8 Can we put this_ until tomorrow? 4 Connected/separated Choose the correct particle 1 Asemi-detached house is joined on / off to another house with the gardens fenced on / off 2. Our house has a conservatory built on / off, and the garden borders on / off field. 3. The police have cordoned on / off the gunman’ house and sealed on / off the entire area 4 The gym has added on / offa women’s weights room, which is partitioned on /off from the men's. 5 jsten to the questions and reply with a verb from the box + on or off. Then listen and compare/repeat. BD so there isnt going to bea train strike now? drag come see lay al rain Unit 7 + Lighten up! 63 THE LAST WORD {never Mind! Look on the bright side 1 |When we tell people our bad news, they often try to cheer Us up and reassure us. Listen and complete B's reply. A. [got soaked when that huge wave came int B Never mind, it . Atleast you can dry offin the sun. 2 Use the highlighted words to complete the replies. 1 end cheer work A The bank won't lend me any more money, I wish Td never started my own business! B ‘up! Fn sure iI all 2 (giined ventured tried A If only Td never asked Lucy out, She said ‘no’, and it really awkward working with her now. out alright in the. B You'll soon get over it. And at least you ~ you know, nothing __, nothing _. 3° stay hang A I don't think I'm ever going to make it as an actor. I failed another audition this morning, B Itsnot the end of the world. __om in there and_ positive. 4 done forgotten A I cant believe what I've done! I sent an email moaning about my boss to her by mistake! B Don't dwell on it. Whats done is__. And it'llall be __in a few days, 5 look keep A Ta just had the plaster taken off my leg, and now T've broken one of my fingers! B_____your chin up! Some day you'll __ back on all this and laugh! 6 ood easy ‘A Welll have to be more careful ~ we've spent most of that lottery money already. B Oh well, easy come, __go. It was _ while it lasted. 7 ‘eould) win beat AT'm so disappointed I didn't get the contract for that stadium. They've given it to another firm of architects. B Youcan't___emall. And you you cant ‘em, join em! ‘8 best disguise gloom A It was horrific going out of the European Cup on a goal scored in the last few seconds! B It notall doom and ____, though ~ there’ still the league title. And perhaps its for the ___. Ifthey focus on that now — it might turn out to Bea blessing in__. always get a job with the other firm. GHBBB Listen and check. Which expressions are most similar to ones in your language? 3. Prepare some notes to talk about three bad things that have happened to you recently. ‘Tella partner what happened, Reply using expressions from exercise 1 ind, Better luck next t 4 Work in pairs and write a dialogue that ends with Still, better late than never! Never: ‘one ofthese expressions, Read your dialogue to the lass. | Ohwellyoulveandleam, st (64 Unit7 + Lighten up! CRD Ruth shackleton: A life less ordinary 1 Look at the pictues. What is the message about gender roles in each one? 7 Gender matters? ~~ 8 = 29 2. Read the statements in the quiz. Do you agree (/) or disagree (X)? Compare answers with partner. Can you identify which gender-typcal traits are being referred to in each one? 3, EERB Listen toa boyfriend and girfriend checking their answers and check yours How typical are they? How typical are you? Do you agree with the answers? g Are you a typical Male or I have lots of friends of my own sex [sun myst with tings rather than pope | usually remember people’ birthdays, | often forget people's names. 1d rather communicate with fiends via texts than call direct. im good at working out how much to tip ina restaurant. tim good at multitasking | spend a lot of time talking about sport. | find it easier to read maps by turning them in the direction | am going. OPTI) iki oso et mse eter peopled shows a ene I aT abe etani 12 When | have a problem, | tend to keep it to myself ''m good at learning foreign languages, | prefer to read non-fiction such a biographies and travel books EEL) rather than fiction 4 What other statements could you add to the quiz to test gender traits? ‘Make a list and share your ideas with the class Unit 8 + Gender matters? 65 READING AND SPEAKING Jobs for the boys... or girls? Which are typically done by both? Share ideas as a class ‘Iv a dirty job, warns Hugo Carey. When people talk about having an anno horribilis, they are not normally referring to the year in which they had their first children and ‘got married. But for me that year was also the year in which [lost my job and became just one of the rowing league of stay-at SS home husband: 2 Look at the titles of the two texts. What do you think they mean? Read the introductions. Which text(s) do you think these phrases come from? light deck turbulent weather ar traffic controller domesticissues steep earning curve career path had to pull my weight lost in admiration _tank-lke buggy slightly taken aback swap the boardroom exhibited prejudice household chores the breadwinner hostile tothe idea Work in two groups. Group A. Read about house husband Hugo Carey. Group B Read about Cliodhna /kli:ana/ and Aoife /isfo/ Duggan, the female pilots. Which words from exercise 2 are in your article? Were your ideas correct? What is their context? 4 Read your article again, Answer the questions about Hugo or the pilots, Cliodhna and Aoife. 1 In.what ways is what they do not typical of their sex? What are the statistics concerning this? 2 What is the background to their current jobs or situation? Was it their choice? Did they approach their roles confidently? rN slow take-off Ne Wotheteticamedcsrrenestcometece MCALIL CaM ] OL) What evidence is there of changing attitudes? Which of these people are mentioned in your article? What do you learn about them? six-year-old gil Susie Yvonne Sintes a technician Aoife Duggan Dave Thomas job centre officials their mother or father W Tiiyour own words 5. Work with someone from the other group. Ask each other the questions in exercise 4 to find out about the people in the other article. Explain any new vocabulary. What do you think? + How would you feel f the pilot on your light was a woman? + Whose ifestyle the sisters’ or HugoS, do you think is most ‘enviable? Why? + Are there any jobs that you feel are best done by one of the sexes? Which? Why? + Inwhat waysis your lifestyle typical for your sex In what ways not? ‘+ Hoow much have attitudes changed to gender oles over the years? 66 Unit 8 + Gender matters? According to figures from the Office of National Statis Hugo is one of over 220,000 house husbands ~a figure that hhas leapt from fewer than 120,000 16 years ago. Although ‘one of many, i still eame as a shock for him to swap the boardroom for the baby-changing mat. But he was used to bombshells — he'd faced one just two years earlier when he and his wife Susie went for thie first baby s “Is this your first scan?’, asked the ultrasound technician Hugo and Susie answered eagerly, Yes, it is “Well i's ewo, ‘wins? Stony silence was followed by convulsive laughter. They all started to giggle. Poppy and Thomas ~ now 18 months old = probably did, too. It was the start of a journey of discovery for Hugo. He was made redundant when the twins were ten months old, and with Susie, a fashion consultant, now the breadwinner, there wasn’t much choice. I was just going to have to pull my weight and become a hands-on, full-time dad. He was unfazed, convinced he had a way with children. He now says, ‘Perhaps I wouldn't have been so confident if I had known just how steep the learning curve was going to be.’ For a star, their two-bedroom flat, which has no garden, felt terribly poky. His daily routine was exhausting at fist. The twins woke each other up, so he had to be up and out of bed at 6 a.m. to let Susie sleep. And of course, the housework fell to Hugo, He had always been the chef in the family, so cooking ‘wasn’t a problem, but other household chores ~ cleaning, ironing, and shopping ~ and looking after ewo small children, proved something of a challenge. He's now convinced that ‘men don’t have the same patience as women, but he’s managed to raise his own level of patience. At first, when out with the Four decades after the first female pilot started work fora commercial airline, there ae still relatively few women sitting in Duggan's seat. Of the 3,500 pilots employed by British Airways, ust 200 are women, yet the aitine still employs the hhighest proportion of female pilots of any Ukairine, Globally, around 4,000 of the 130,000 airline pilots are women, How much has changed since Yvonne Pope Sines became Britains fist commercial airline captain in 1972? ‘She says,"Women are just as good as men, but they seem to have ‘more domestic issues. actually met someone, just afew months ago, who sald he didn't know that there were any women pilots. I couldn't believe it! ‘When Sintes, now 83, started her career airlines actively barred women. Inspired by watching the planes while growing up near Croydon airport, she tried to join the RAF after school but they wouldn't take women. So she became a fight attendant and gained her private pilot licence with the Airways Aero Club. Then she became an air traffic controller and eventually in 1965, pilot. She says her male colleagues didn like me at all: Around half of them were hostile tothe idea ofa female pilot, Someone actually said theyd resign ifa woman joined. Unfortunately he didn't Later, it was the passengers who exhibited prejudice. The men always looked slightly taken aback! ‘According to Aoife Duggan and her older sister Cliodhna, who is. also a pilot, reactions to their gender are more likely to come from twins in their large, tanklike bugey, he would march them everywhere at an angey pace, but nov he has leant to stop and give way to other pavement users. ‘The humiliation of going down to the job centre has also been somewhat diminished by the hilarity of signing on accompanied by a couple of loud, hysterical children. Officials now hurzy him through what is normally a long and tedious procedure. ‘After the ewins’ frst birthday, he decided it was time to locate the nearest playgroup. I think the mums were quite excited to see a man ancl I was asked if | wanted to attend their pub session on the fist Thursday of the month — they were probably just as bored as I was I politely declined.” As the twins now approach their second birthday, Hugo ‘ean look back and admit that his role as a house husband took quite a bit of adjustment. At frst, he yearned for office life, but now the rewards fo his efforts have become much clearer. He says, "Infact, am just grateful to have spent these crucial months with my children. T've seen them grow up, take thei first steps, discover, © ana and learn. I see lots of dads who obviously don’ get ro 3 spend much time with their kids and they don’t seem tw have a stcong bond. feel sorry for them? E ‘One problem that's emerged is that because Hugo is now used to doing things for the kids, his methods don't always coincide with Susie's. However, his relationship with his mother has improved immeasurably ~ she had five children, and Hugo is lost in admiration for her. passengers than colleagues. Only a couple of years ago, at her previous job for an ailine in Asia, says Aoife, one man took one look ather and her female co-pilot and got off the plane. Cliodhna says she still sees some passengers surprise. ‘We've had pretty awful weather recently My last landing was in Gatwick and it was particularly turbulent of the passengers said, “Oh my goodness, you look so small, | can't believe you just landed this giant plane!" Forboth women, fying was. part of their childhood ~ their mother was fight attendant, and ther father an ailine plot. They ‘grew up around a fying club,’There were some women at the cluby says Cliodhna.'l was aware that there were women fying and | didn't see my gender as a bar Aoife, seven years younger, grew tp seeing her older sister’ career path and decided to follow. ‘Why do they think so few women go into flying?’A lot ofthe time its a matter of younger girls not being made aware that it’s a career ‘option open to them; says Aoife. "t's not the kind of thing people talk about in schools. You get young boys who say they want to be a pilot orn astronaut, whereas girls are not encouraged that way” For the past couple of years, British Airways has been trying to Increase its recruitment of women. What were after isthe best person forthe job says Captain Dave Thomas, BAS chief pilot and. hhead of training. They are having some success ~ the number of female candidates forjobs has gone from 5% to 15%. Thomas thinks ‘the lack of women is mainly a cultural problem which needs to be tackled at an early age. We did a lite bit of research, surveying children between the ages of six and 12, and | think it came out as number two on the boys list of top jobs, but | don‘ think girs think ofitasan option Unit 8 + Gender matters? 67 LANGUAGE FOCUS Relatives and participles Defining and non-defining relative clauses 1 Underline the relative clauses in these sentences from the texts 1a It was the passengers who exhibited prejudice. b According to Aoife and her sister, who i also a plot, reactions are more likely to come from passengers. «Ita cultural problem which needs tobe tacked at an early age. 4 Theirtwo-bedroom flat, which has no garden elt teribly poky. «The mum who he was talking to invited him tothe pub. Officials hurried him through what is normally a long and tedious procedure. 2 Answer the questions about sentences a-f 1 Which sentences still make complete sense ifthe relative clauses are removed? Which are defining relative causes? Which non-defining? 2 Inwhich sentences can who and which be replaced by that? Why? 3 Inwhich sentence can the relative pronoun be omitted? Why? 4 Inwhich sentence can whom replace who? Transform this sentence, What effect does this have? Read the sentences in exercise 1 aloud. What s the role ofthe ‘commas? Listen and check, What are the short responses? Practise the sentences with the response D> Grammar Reference ppi53-154 iscussing grammar 1 Discuss with a partner any differences in meaning and/or form between these sentences. 1 My sister, who’ a flight attendant, is actually scared of flying My sister who’sa flight attendant is actually scared of flying. 2 The sailors whose cabins were below deck all drowned. ‘The sailors, whose cabins were below deck, all drowned. 3. The girl who I shared a room with at university came from Malaya, ‘The girl with whom I shared a room at university came from Malaya. 4A few of the mothers who I met greeted me sus A few of the mothers that I met greeted me suspic ‘A few of the mothers I met greeted me suspiciously. ish 5. That's my cousin with the son who works in the White House, ‘That’s my cousin whose son works in the White House ‘That's my cousin who has a son who works in the White House. 6 People who are made redundant often become depressed. People made redundant often become depressed. ‘A. There are still a lot of countries where women don't have the vote. B That's where you are wrong, There are only two. 68 Unit 8 + Gender matters? 2 Read these incomplete sentences and discuss whether they should be completed with a defining or non-defining relative clause, or whether both are possible. 1 [don't like children .. 2 The journey from work to home ... took over three hours yesterday. 3 Politicians ... aren't worth listening to. 4 The Taj Mahal ... is built from exquisitely carved white marble, 5 These are the photographs 6 We docked at the small port on the coast of East Africa 7 My cousin weekend, 8 We went on a cycling holiday in Wales Complete them with your ideas, then listen and compare. ‘went paragliding at the 5. There is something odd about the rene os nas es form) ‘meaning of these sentences. Rewrite Present and past participles can be used in many different ways. them to make them less ambiguous. 1 Asreduced relative clauses aftr nouns, Compare these examples fromthe texts: There are stil relatively few women sitting in Duggon’s seat (women who st) 1 Aged five his Of the 3500 pilots employed by British Airways, just 200 are women ‘mother remarried (plots whe ae employed) 2 Asadjectives: a surprised Duggan an interesting statistic 3 Toexpress these ideas: at the sametime because if after Inspired by watching the planes while growing up near Croydon airport, she tried to join the RAF. >> Grammar Reference ps4 2 Coming out of the market, the bananas 3. What ideas do the participles in these sentences express? fell onthe pavement. 1 Having read the minutes of the meeting, I wrote a report. 2 Having read the minutes of the meeting, I understood what the problem was, I cut myself opening atin. ‘That portrait, believed to be by Rembrandt, sold for $26 m. Cooked in a red wine sauce, ostrich meat can be delicious. Knowing my love of chocolate, she hid it away in her drawer. ‘Taken from his mother as.a child, he’s always had difficulty establishing relationships. 8 Browsing in our local bookshop, I was delighted to find a book called Statistics for Dummies. 4 Complete the pairs of sentences with the same verb, once as a present participle and once asa past participle. 1a Flights booked one month in advance have a 10% discount. 'b Booking. your flight in advance gives you a better deal. ‘The new uniforms by the pilots looked very smart. a = b Visitors sleeveless tops will be denied entry. 4 Skiing down the mountain, my hat flew off in the wind. 3a Wetooka shortcut, b With the money buying a bike. ‘an hour on our journey time, from giving up smoking, Tim a all things into account, I've decided to resign. 4 b __ three times a day, these tablets will help your allergy. fell on the ice, my wrist. ‘The boy in the car accident is in hospital. promises leads to lack of trust. promises lead to lack of trust. 5 Having eaten our main courses, the waitress showed us the dessert menu 7a away secrets wor't win you any friends b the chance, 1d love to work in New York. 8a up in the countryside is healthy for young kids. b Strawberries under polythene ripen more quickly. sn and check. a) D> WRITING Adding style and cohesion — A folktale pi7 Unit 8 + Gender matters? 69 LISTENING AND SPEAKING Gender-neutral parenting 1 Discuss in groups. What did you like/not like about your upbringing? Did your parents have set ideas? 2 Look at the beginning of an article about ‘gender- neutral parenting. What do you think this is? 3 Listen to Aliiand ‘Luke discussing the article, Who is most scathing about it? Who are Sam and Emma? Who is Storm? 4 GERD Listen again. Are these statements true (V) or false (X)? Correct the false ones, 1 Both Max and Sam have sister. 2. Luke used to worry about Sam wearing Emma's clothes. 3. Ali accuses Luke of criticizing Sam. 4 Sam isa difficult teenager. 5 Max's parents wont allow him to play with boys’ toys. 6 Luke and Ali guessed that Max would be home-schooled. 7 Max’s and Storms parents are following exactly the same technique. 8 Ali believes the worst thing about Storm is the name. What do you think? + Doyou agree with Als disapproving approach to ‘gender-neutral parenting of Lukes more considered one? ‘+ How many pluses (+) and minuss () can you think ‘fin elation to bringing up a child ths way? + Is gender identity more about nurture or nature? 5. Turn to p173. Read how Storms mother reacted to criticism of their ideas. 70 Unit + Gender matters? Parents raise son according to a technique known as gender-neutral parenting. 6 Listen to and complete what Dr Eugene Beresin, a child psychiatrist, says about baby Storm. Which of his views do you agree with? Why? 66 Toraise a child not as a boy or ag gn some sense, 2 The Canadian couple's approach is a terrible idea because identity formation i teally*____forevery human being and part, ofthatis gender There are maryland socal forces at py. Since the sexual ‘___ of the1970s, child development experts have embraced a more flexible view of gender. Before that, the stereotypes of boys were that they were self-sufficient, non-empathetic, 5 . ‘and good at war. Girls were trained to be empathetic and © ‘more nurturing. But ince then, women have become more? aggressive, and independent, and by the same token, men ae allowed tory. We often see hulking football players who are 9 11 What does just mean in these examples? Hesjusta toddler. Itsjust as! thought 2 Just can have many different meanings. What does it mean in sentences -8? exactly recently rightniow simply only equally almost absolutely 1 Don't wory. He ust as rude to me as you. 2 Apairof red socs! That’ just what | wanted! 3. Wee ust about out of coffe. 4m just leaving now. See you soon. 5. Just listen to me for once! 6 ‘Iwas ust terrified! 7 ejust heard the news. 8 Tom couldn't come, soit just me. Think ofa context for each line. GEIB listen and compare VOCABULARY AND PRONUNCIATION Homonyms, homophones, and homographs 1 The word bow is both a homonym (same sound, same spelling. ‘but different meanings) anda homograph (two pronunciations with different meanings). bow _/bau/ bow _/bau/ Verb Noun 1 Toddlers are too young to | 1 Sam wanted a bow in bbow to peer pressure. his hai lke his sister. 2 TheJapanese bow when they | 2 Robin Hood used greet each other. bow and arrow ea toch. 1 The cast took their bows | 3 You pay the violin. after the performance, with a bow. 2 The front ofa ships called the bow. Read the sentences aloud to illustrate bow as ahomonym ‘and homograph. 2 Bow /bav/ is also a homophone. ‘Bough /au/ has the same sound, but a different speling and ‘meaning. What s the meaning? 33-How many ofthe examples in| and 2 can you find inthe picture? oo" Homonyms 1 Work with a partner. These sentences contain words which have homonyms in the text about pilots on pp66-67. Find them. What are the two meanings? 1 This deck of cards has all the jokers missing, 2. You have to order your drinks at the bar. 2 Identify all the homonyms in these sentences. Make sentences for the other meanings. 1 Our company has branches all over the world. 2 We spotted a really rare bird in the forest. 3 Don't go making any rash promises that you can't keep! 4 I think we should scrap that idea. Its rubbish. 5. Stop rambling and get to the point! Homophones 3. Read these words aloud. Think of another word with the same pronunciation but a different spelling and meaning. wall whirled fort heir site hire caught soar 4 Choose the correct homophone. 1 Public speaking makes my voice go horse / hoarse. 2. His coarse / course remarks upset all those present, 3. They tied their boat to the buoy / boy in the harbour. 4 They say it was a loan / lone gunman that shot the president, ‘The thieves got away with a large hall / haul of old banknotes. 6 Squirrels berry / bury nuts in woods and gardens. 7 She lifted her vale / veil and smiled at her new husband. 8 This is only a draft/ draught contract. You don't have to sign it. Homographs 5 GERD Listen and write down the homograph you hear in each pair of sentences. What are the different pronunciations? @ Were sitting atthe back, inrow 12. /°3U/ Weve had another rw about our finances. /'2.U/ 6 Divide into two groups. Use your dictionaries to find the two pronunciations and meanings of the words in your box. Make sentences to illustrate the meanings to the other group. wind refuse defect wound live minute Unit 8 + Gender matters? 71 THE LAST WORD Talking in clichés 1 A cliché is a phrase which has been used so often that it has lost much ofits force. Read and listen to the conversations. Identify the clichés. What do they mean? A. T'm thinking of having another tattoo. A scorpion maybe, just above where it ‘A. Mum! Tommy’ fighting A. Bye, Gran! Jamie and I are says ‘1 Mum’? What do you think? swith Ryan again! off out for the evening. B_ En its not for me to say, At the end of B Oh dear! But I suppose boys B Have a great time! Dorit do the day, its your decision, You'll have will be boys. anything I wouldn't do. to live with it. 2 Read the lines in A. Match them with a response in B. Underline the clichés in B. What do they mean? 1 jst came across my very fist gtfriend on Facebook a Poor you! Youl be damned if you do, and darned if 2 Larry failed his exams, Amys got the chicken pox. Whatever next? -youden't, 3 Dad, ve been picked forthe school football team, first eleven! bb Ibet that was a blast from the past. 4 If offer to pay, shell say 'm old-fashioned. if dont, shell ay rm mean, © Well,you know what they say,'No pain, no gain 5 | gota card from Jerry one week after my birthday. ee 6 Were having a complete break. A fortnight in the Caribbean, St Lucia. Ger eat ae cide) ee Ie mesa tees 7 Ittook me ten years to build up my busines. nearly killed me. That’ my boy! Lie Father like son. 8 ljust need to go backin the house and make sureve tured ofthe oven. & takes ll sorts, 9 They've got ten kids! Goodness knows what their house slike. fh Themind boggles. It doesn't bear thinking about. 10 Bobs weird bloke. HeS going to live alone on aremote Scottish island | Ohwell Better late than never fora year. j, Sounds ike just what the doctor ordered. Listen and check. What is the next line in the conversation? 3 What do you think the following clichés mean? Try to put them into short conversation accidents will happen aman (or woman) after my own heart actions speak louder than words itsallina days work afate worse thandeath you canithave your cake and eat it _behind every great man there’ great woman clear as mud 4 Do you have any similar clichés in your language? ive examples. TL Unit8 + Gender matters? 9 poorer 1 Look at the details of six scenes from upcoming movie. Your job sto choose soundtrack ‘music for them. What genre and mood of music would you suggest for each one? Stylish spy tlle set in Prague. Opening Scene with spy in dark subway, walking to ‘meeting with hs contact. mantic drama set in New York Scene at end of day in Central Parkon couple’ fist ‘outing afte fling in love. 2 EEDB isten to nine short clips decide which six you want to use 3 ERMB Listen again and share ideas asa class. Which The sound of music Discourse markers * Rhyming words ‘The music of English ADD silent fim music Science fiction hot. Scene where gil put in trance by images beamed on V walks Ito lake and is devoured by allen. Quirky indie comedy about two sisters fon road trip around UKin rch uncles car Music for closing credits, ‘of music and in pairs for the film scenes A-F choices were the easiest ones to agree on? Why? ‘Action movie. Helicopter chase scene where government agents hunted by secret service after uncovering conspiracy. Romantic drama, Final scene where relationship has to end as man is unable ta get visa to stay in country. 4, ERED Listen to one more piece of music. Close your eyes and see what kind of film scene comes to mind, Describe your scene to the class Vote forthe best suggestion. Unit + The sound of music 73 LISTENING AND SPEAKING | You are the music | 1 Onarradio programme called Recommended Reads, guests choose a book and say why they enjoyed it. Look at the book chosen by the guest, Rosie Garnett. What do the pictures tell you | about the topics it contains? 2 Listen to Part 1 ofthe programme and How Music Reveals What answer the questions, | “WeMeans To Be Human Vitra Wtson 1 Why was Rosie’ book not an obvious choice forher? | 2 What is an amusic? What percentage of the population think they are amusical? What is the actual percentage? 3. When was music played to the babies in the experiment? 4 How did the researchers know that the babies recognized the music? 5 What is the everyday term for Infant Directed Speech (IDS)? What is it? Can you give examples of it? 6 Why do tone-deaf people struggle with language learning? 3 Listen to Part 2 and make notes. What does Rosie say about ...? Life memories ‘Music and identity in adolescence Montreal YouTube ‘The amygdala Film music ‘Musical instruments PMinyour own words 4 In pairs, use your notes to talk about the different topics in exercise 3, Vocabulary 5 Listen again to A 8 Part 2 and match the verbs imAwith the phrases in, kesbback your attitude to msc Whatdotheyreerto in BY eo eae the programme? hang around from dementia hit toaperiod of theirlfe suffer arole come haywire change ‘upon a solution feel ‘oleae What do you think? ‘+ How good do you think you are at singing? Is it necessary Ww ‘to be musical to enjoy singing? wr + Choose three songs or pieces of music that would be the top three onthe soundtrack to your life so ar. Talkin _gr0ups about the memories you associate with them 4 74 Unit 9 + The sound of music LANGUAGE FOCUS Discourse markers 1 Read this version of an extract from the programme on p74. Rosie ! This book is an unexpected choice for me, 71 don't consider myselfa very musical person, Clive *Its not for music speci then? Rosie No, it 4aimed at the general public, and ®she makes the point that were all far more musical than ‘we might realize. I'm °one of those people she talks about who claim to be tone-deaf. Nearly a fifth of the population believe that. lists, Listen to the actual extract and note the words that are used at points 1-7, What do they mean? How do they help to structure the discourse between the speakers? Attitude adverbs ‘There are many adverbs and expressions which show the speakers attitude to what they are saying Quite honesty, think you should leave your job and try to make it as 4 professional singer. (OF course its a risk, and youll probably earn less But surely jb satisfaction is ‘more important than money? Connectors Connectors make the connection between independent clauses clear. Growing your own vegetables saves ‘money, and keeps you fit. Above all, its fun! You must pay that parking fine within 2 days. Otherwise, you'l have to pay double. Explain the meaning ofthe connectors inbold. >> Grammar Reference ppls4-155, 2 Choose the correct attitude adverbs to complete the conversation about a TV talent show. [A Have you been watching Star Voices? B Well funnily enough / as you'd expect, Ive ust got into it I caught last week’ show and, "seriously / predictably, m hooked. ‘A. So did you see the semi-final lastnight? B No, inevitably / unfortunately | was out, but lve recorded it Was it good? ‘A. Wel ‘actually / naturally | was abit disappointed Seizarrely / Frankly, Anna, the blonde gi didn’. get through tothe final, even though she was ‘apparently / obviously the best by far./Surprisingly / Conveniently, she seemed fin about it, though. B Oh, she was my favourite, too! Well, no doubt / admittedly shell get a recording contract anyway. ’Alarmingly / “Amazingly, her performance from last week has had over a million YouTube hits. Listen and check. 3. Which phrase follows the discourse markers in bold? 1 Ta thoroughly recommend that new pizzeria - the pizzas are amazing! Mind you, it5 cheap / it8 expensive. 2 Tear't go skiing so soon after my accident - it's too much of a risk. Besides, [cart really afford it. | Icould come and enjoy the hotel spa! 3 Why are you worried about asking ‘Tom to lend you the money? Surely, he wouldnt say no to you ~ it would be very unlike him. / he never ever does. 4A Tina must be upset about not getting promoted. B Actually, she was disappointed, /she doesn't seem to care that much. 5 The builders have done the job pretty quickly, given that the work is poor quality / the weather’ been poor. 6 think you expect too much of Amy ~ you need to be realistic about her behaviour. After all, she’ still a teenager. / she could behave better. 7 Guess what? Simon’ finally got a new girlfriend! Apparently, he fold ‘me they met on holiday / he met her at a conference. 8 So, I reckon that’s why Petra’ looking so happy these days. Anyway, I guess Fd better be going. / I think she’ enjoying her new job. 9. It would be great if you got into drama school. By the way, when will they let you know? / have you heard about Robins plan to move abroad? 10. We didn’t see a single whale or dolphin on our whale-watching cruise! Still, at least the trip was very disappointing. / the weather was good. Listen and check. Unit 9 + The sound of music 75 4 Complete the conversation with either a discourse marker, or a suitable phrase. ( (Havepyou heard? ‘Anna’ Pave you heard that Janis thinking of marrying Simon? Ben Surely not? She’ only known him three months! And ‘quite honestly, 'm not sure what she sees in him | know what you mean. the money must help — afterall, he ‘Where did he get his ‘money from? 5 he made a fortune from an app he created ~ that’s what I heard. {Tm surprised he wants to get married, ® he’s been married three times before. 7 | think it's just twice. ‘Well, you'd think that was enough. © theyll have a huge wedding. Of course ® Still, good luck to them. *, _ did you hear that Sara and Jeff had a car accident? Ch nol What happened? tt asi to serious They skied ito a tee, but a ‘they weren't going fast. The car's a write- off, but at least Thank goodness for that. | should get in touch with Sara, but | havent got her new email adress. {can giv it to you. Asa matter of fact, let me have alook. Yes here it i. Il forward it to you. Thanks." to you Ben And you. Bye, | must be going. Nice to talk GERD Listen and compare your answers. Then practise the conversation in pairs $5, GEE Work in groups, Listen to lines 1-10 and agree on suitable ways to complete them, Then listen and compare. Hello. Your face looks familiar. Have we met before? Aenall.— don't think we have, D> WRITING Giving an informal opinion —A post ona comment thread pls 1 Unit 9 + The sound of music VOCABULARY AND PRONUNCIATION Song, rhyme, and rhythm 1 Look at the photo on p77. It depicts a scene that inspired the song The Night I Heard Caruso Sing by Everything But The Girl. What is incongruous about it? Where do you think it is? 2 Read the FACT FILES and answer the questions. Rn eeu Lead singer/guitar: Tracy Thon Guitar/keyboards/ singer: Ben Watt Formed: 1982 in Hull, UK Active: 1982-2000 ‘Nationality Italian (born in Naples) First work: apprentice ‘mechanic and street singer First music lesson: age 18 Professional debut: age 22 ‘Most appearances: New York ‘Metropolitan Opera (863) 1 How long were Everything But The Girl together? 2. Who sang most of their songs? 3. What was Enrico Caruso's profession? 4 What kind of background was he from? 3 Close your books and listen to The Night I Heard Caruso Sing. What is its message? 4 Read the lyrics and discuss in pairs which words you think are best to complete them. Think about thyme and rhythm, Compare with others in the class. 5 GERID Listen to the song again and check. + Which part of Britain did Ben Watt father come from? + What stage of life was Ben at when he wrote the song? + What does it mean that ‘the chain are loose’? + How does the song reflect its perio, the 1980s? + Do you think its message is stil true today? Iso, how? 6 Read the background tothe song on p173 THE NIGHT | HEARD CARUSO SING ‘The highlands and the lowlands are the routes my father__ The holidays at Oban and the towns around Montrose Buteven ashe sleeps, they’re loading bombs into the ‘And the waters n the lochs can run deep, but never stil ve thought of having children, but've gone and changed my It’s hard enough o watch the news, let alone explain it toa child. To cast your eye ‘cross nature, over fields of rape and, i ‘And tell him without flinching not to fear where he's been born. Then someone sat me down lastnight and Theard Caruso sing. He's almost as good as Presley and if only do one z Tsing songs to my father, IU sing songs to my child, It's time to hold your loved ones while the chains are loose, ‘And the world uns ; But even as we speak, they're loading bombs onto a white. How can we afford to ever sleep so sound again? Rhyming words 7 Which word in each group of three doesnt rhyme with the other two? 1 knows / rose / lose 7 flood / stood / blood 2 tough/cough/ rough 8 pour / roar / sour 3 foul / soul / poll 9 word / sword / board 4. suit / route / foot 10 tow / dough / vow 5. goss/cross/ gross card / ward / guard 6 goose/ choose /truce 12 rush/ bush / push Check using a dictionary (check any meanings you don't know at the same time). 8 GEMB Listen to lines 1-12, and complete them using one of the words from that number in exercise 7. Pay attention to your pronunciation! Then listen and compare, @ team are playing tonight. Theyre rubbish at the moment, 0 (Cosa they re going to lose. \— takes /knows / goes hills / mountains / valleys ‘ideas / mind / view wheat / barley /com ‘Match words and phrases from A and B to make rhyming expressions. Think of ways to use them, We spent five hours on Oxford Street. We really shopped ‘tl we dropped! A B shop nearest | thetalk and square horses useit | and greet for courses meet chock- | tozero and shame fair walk | “hyoudrop and dearest hero name | orloseit —— a-block GEDEB Listen and check/compare Unit 9 + The sound of music 7 READING AND VOCABULARY Helene Grimaud 1 Look at the pictures of Héléne Grimaud and the headings in the text, + What do you think she does for alvin? + What can you deduce about her life? 2 Read the text and check your ide: 3. Statements 1-10 about Hélene Grimaud are all true. Find evidence in the text to support them. 1 Héléne felt she should have been born a boy. Her parents worried about her behaviour. She didn't look forward to going to school. She is sensitive to the suffering of animals. She had disagreements with some of her professors at the Paris Conservatory. Musical success didn't always bring ful Hel She doesn't let fear dominate her approach to life, and feels we have to take risks sometimes, 9 Héléne found it easy to identify with wolves She feels the quality of the instrument music s played on isn't so important, believes in fate. Vocabulary 4 Read the highlighted words in the text and try to guess roughly what they might mean. 5 Match the words with their meanings. A 8 1 compulsive a too shocked to speak 2 scrawled ——_b stomach 3 smashed _€ difficult to stop or control 4 tactile d from prehistoric times 5 stunned drawn or written hurriedly 6 primeval Fusing the sense of touch 7 belly 8 broken into many pieces + Why do you think wolves ae ‘misunderstood? How are they usually portrayed? What do you know about their real nature? ‘+ Why do you think Héléne has a kinship with wolves? Which animal do you feel most kinship with? Why? + Do you think someone needs to ave suffered in life in ‘order tobe a great artist? Why/ Why not? ‘+ Have you discovered an activity that makes you feel ‘more complete? 78 Unit9 + The sound of music ment, . ae A= i on Sh ye a ea People also described her as ‘unmar vable’, ‘unsatisfied’, ‘undisciplined’, and ‘unpredictable’. much energy, and judo, tennis, and ballet were the prescription. While ES ea Es my Sa en Se ee eG ten dlrs and nce ent Bee alae ean ba etait Pee tee euro a someones ene nets rything in her room Salvation in music Finally, when she was seven, the energy trapped inside her found its outlet, Wondering if his daughter suffered from an excess of mental rather than physical energy, Hélene’s father suggested music lessons. As Hélene listened to her teacher playing the piano, she felt something stir deep inside her: ‘had the physical sensation of an opening, the impression that a path opened in front of me, as if a door had opened in the wall When she started the piano, her intensity found its home, “The tactile pleasure of playing, of seeking inside myself the emotion that I never, ever, in any way had been able to express or bring toa peak, this delicious pleasure completely satisfied me. Hélene recognizes just how important music was for her: It saved me Arising star She completed an eight-year piano curriculum in four years, and was accepted by the Paris Conservatory at 13, the youngest student by far. However, she eventually became bored with the piano studies she was given to play, and with the impetuosity of youth, returned to Aix to perform her first piano concerto in public; had the feeling that I was finally living, living in broad daylight, publicly ~the thing. Thad been silently waiting forall my life’ Her talent was recognized, and she recorded Rachmaninov’s Piano Concerto no, 2when she was 15, She returned to the Conservatory, but left early, wanting to find her own style of playing. despite warnings that she wouldn't make it in the classical world without her professors’ support. Life in America She had great success and there were more recordings, and yet she began to feel again that nagging sense of something missing in her life, and retreated into herself once more, ‘When she received an invitation to play inthe US, she jumped at it, She loved the experience and wanted to play ‘more concerts there. Not speaking English was a problem, though, so she spent days watching rented videos in E from war films and historical epics to love stories and ‘westerns living on sandwiches, Six months later she was able to hold all the conversations necessary to organize and perform a US tout. She felt at home with Americans—no-one found her strange ‘and accepted an invitation to go and live in Tallahassee, Florida, Even though it wasn’t her ideal city: she felt destiny hhad drawn her there, and that something important awaited her. At night, she walked her friend’s dog in the rural outskirts ofthe city. Neighbours warned her that it was risky, especially in the area where a Vietnam veteran lived alone, a ‘man they considered to be crazy and dangerous. A fateful encounter This only made Héléne curious. Out walking the dog at 2 a.m. she saw something that sent a shiver down her spine, It was the silhouette of a dog, yet it was unlike any dog she'd ever seen When its owner appeared, he explained that it wasin fact a she-woll This was Dennis, the Vietnam veteran, who turned ‘out to bea classical music lover. They talked about musi, but Dennis fellslent when the she-wolf approached Helene, who remained sill asthe wolt slipped its head under her palm. Héléne felt a spark radiate through her, thecal of an unknown, primeval force and then the wolf lay down, and offered Helene its belly. Dennis explained his stunned silence, ‘t's incredible for a wolf to do that, t's sign of recognition and trust, even a sign of submission. Wolves have areal phobia of humans. They never lay themselves open like that If they don't ee safe. Even with me, she's never acted lke that, Twin passions Hléne had found her other passion and vocation centre fr the study and reabiitation ofthis mach misunderstood animal, with which sheet a strong kinship. for three years, she lvedin the cheapest rooms she could ind in the poorest areas of New York content to rent whatever piano she could ind fora couple of hous’ practice, so she could save the money rom her concerts to pay for her dream of protecting wolves. And sothe Wolf Conserition Center was founded in 1999, in New York State, with Hlne playing a key role nts operation She began to reything she could about wolves, and decided to create a Tt continues with ts educational mission today, though Helene herself has since returned to her fulltime profession as one of the world’s top concert pianists. She describes the howling of wolves as ‘form of music, social glue for the wolf pack, which ‘sends alot of positive interactive feling lying around.’ Her own performances clearly have a similar effect in the concert halls of the word ene ae) THE LAST WORD The music of English ‘The elements of music that lend themselves to language are stress (rhythm) and intonation. Stress 1 EBB Listen to these lines. Does the last line take much longer to say than the first line? Mum makes cakes. Ourmum makes cakes. Ourmum makes the cakes. Ourmmumil make the cakes. urmumlbe making the cakes. urmmumlbe making allthe cakes. Englshis astres-timed language. This means the stressed syllables in a phrase have a regular rhythm. Any unstressed syllables between them are said quickly enough to fit into that hythm. 2 Listen and repeat. Notice that the main stress comes on the words considered to give key information. 3 Read the phone call to a concert hall box office. Underline the key words init. ‘The minimum number of key words in each line is given (in brackets) (Queen's Hallow can |help? (3) Could book some tickets forthe flamenco concert on Saturday? (4) \'m afraid the Saturday concert i sold out, (3) (Oh, ell How disappointing! So ae there tickets for other dates? (5) Yes, WeVve got four tickets left for Sunday. Would you be interested in those? (4) Yes that would be great. only need two tickets. (4) Would you ke seats in the stalls or the circle? 2) How much are the seas inthe cle? (3) Theyire £20. The ones inthe stall are £40, but they'e fantastic seats, very near the stage. (8) take the seas inthe stalls, then. Can | pay by debit card? (4) (OF course. Could | take your card detal's? What’ the number onthe front? (6) 1s 560 5910 81018250, And the security number on the back? (3) 7B. ‘Thank you. Could you make sur you bring that card when you collect the tickets? (6) Certainly. Thanks for your help (3) Youire welcome. ) —~ 4 Practise the dialogue in pairs, using only your underlined key words. Use LOTS of intonation. Listen and repeat. 5. Now practise the full conversation, making sure you keep the main stress ‘on the key words, and using plenty of intonation Listen and compare 6 In pairs, write a short conversation in a shop. Reduce it to the minimum number of key-word prompts and give it to another pair. Have the full conversation, using the prompts that you've been given, paying attention to stress and intonation, 80 Unit 9 + The sound of music Body and mind Distancing the facts Words to do with the body * Tags and replies CRED Tre science of sport > 11 Workin groups. Choose the correct fats in bold about the body and health. Fingernails grow slower Every day the average person loses than / slightly faster than / 25-50 / 50100 / 175-200 hairs, twice as fast as toenails Blondes / Brunettes / Redheads The fastest growing nail have the most hair. is on the index / middle / litte finger. The average adult heart Is about the size of one /two / three fists. The main artery from the heart, the aorta, eg is about the diameter of See) 2 drinking straw / ballpoint twice / four times / pen / garden hose, Rea Children have twice / three times / four times as many taste budsas adults. By the age of 60, most people wil have lost about a quarter / ahalf three quarters of their taste buds Nerve impulses to and from the brain travel as fast as 100 /150 / 250 miles per hour. Humans use 10% / 50% / 100% of their brains in a normal day. areaboutt/2/3emtaler 2sorethvet ent pete / eli 2 GEEMB Listen and check. What extra information do you learn about each topic? Unit 10 + Body and mind 81 READING AND VOCABULARY The power of placebo 1 Discuss the questions in groups ‘+ What do you think are the best remedies for these ailments? ‘cold flu insomnia ‘+ How do we know these remedies actually help? What other factors might be involved? What do you know about the placebo effect? 2 Read the frst part ofthe text. Why was the cyclists training, session unusual? How many cyclists received a genuine supplement? 3 Read the rest of the text quickly. Find three things you didn’t know about the placebo effect. 4 Look at the text again and say who, 1 received a placebo after being told it was likely to have a positive effect on them. 2. didnt perform any better after taking a placebo. 3. gave people placebos expecting them to have no effect. whatsoever, 4 felt better as a result of medical malpractice. 5. developed the earliest theories on how major physical problems could have psychological causes. 6 has the opposite reaction to most people when given some placebo pills. 7 was keen to be given a supply of sugar pills. 8 can produce a similar effect to a placebo, using only words. Vocabulary 5. Match the words from the text in A and B to make compound nouns associated with health. drug trial A B dug brain benefits anaesthetic pain local scan suggestion self health relief back broken substance trial performance-enhancing 6 Find words in the text which mean 1 fascinated (para, 1) 5 gain access to (7) 2 limited (4) 6 ask strongly for (8) 3. notices (v) (5) 7 making use of (9) 4 example (5) 8 disadvantage (9) What do you think? + Do you thnk some forms of alternative medicine rly purely on the placebo effect? Which ones? Why? + Would you ever take part in drug trials? Why/ Why not? ‘+ Have you eve felt unwell and suspected it was for psychological, rather than physical reasons? What was the situation? 82 Unit 10 » Body and mind igen me aGae) Od Jessica Glanville reports on the strange Ret edgar ee a Rees Manchester Velodrome, England: 9.20 a.m. Se eee ee ees Pe ere legal energy-boosting supplement. Unusually, the cyclists Piero time tials around the velodrome. ee eee ie aes eet ee nd time tra, half receive afeine capsules. The other half are given the new supplement - apparently a special formu let ther athlete Sa aon eet achieving a per Sem eee ais ret eee ee ee ere) ee an eer es ee ee ee ea een en Us The term placebo comes from the Latin, | shal please. It was used in the 19th century to describe medical treatments whose aim was to please the patient, rather than provide any significant health benefit While patients might feel better emotionally for having received some form of treatment, it was believed that placebos obviously had no real effect on the illness. However, doctors soon realized that placebos often led to significant improvements in patients’ symptoms, and they were introduced into modern drug trials in corder to show whether the drug being trialled brought greater benefits than those expected to occur from the placebo effect. ‘The effec isnt ust restricted to drugs. For many years, patients with broken backs had surgical cement injacted into their joints, and these operations appeared to have had amazing results. Eventually, ‘one surgeon became suspicious when patients who'd had the wrong ppart ofthe spine treated by mistake still experienced significant benefits from the operation. He then experimented by giving some of his patients a fake operation; they were given local anaesthetic and the surgeon talked them through the operation while doing absolutely nothing to the problem joint. None of the patiants knaw who'd had the real operation, but they all experienced equal ‘amounts of pain relief and improved movement afterwards. It would seem that the milion plus operations that had been carried out, le may have been a very expensive piece of theatre. worldwid (SE Eau En tec edibeeecocecas @ feces terse reine aes aerate erm everec Pee a eer acetal eee ee peer ace (etree Ea oer eae ae ae eet Pee e ape ee eet treating pain, while blue ones are ideal for anxiety - unless are breathing in extra oxygen, but have in fact been given y — g you're an Italian football fan, in which case blue, being the colour of the national football team, will act as a stimulant rather than a sedative! It seems unfortunate that placebo drugs can't be used ‘more widely by doctors, but of course, medical ethics forbid deception, and surely a placebo can't have its effect ifthe patient is told the truth about it? Well, never assume anything concerning the bizarre power of mind over body! Participants in a Harvard University experiment found it absurd to take pills prescribed by a doctor, knowing that they were placebos. 'He wants me to take sugar pills said one, “This isn't gonna work’ Nevertheless, they experienced twice as much improvement with ther digestive problems as those who took nothing during the same period, Some participants found that all their symptoms disappeared, and begged for more placebos when the symptoms returned at the end of the experiment. Unfortunately the doctors weren't allowed to prescribe them, Pethaps the solution lies in other ways of hamessing the power of self suggestion, whichis the foundation ofthe hypnotist’ ar, also sometimes used to alleviate health problems The snag there is that not everyone is responsive to hypnotic. suggestion. One thing we should certainly pay more attention toisthe significance ofthe doctor patient relationship. It seems f that a caring and supportive doctor talking encouragingly about thelkelinood of improvement, is often likly to have as rmueh effect on a patient’ conelition as the deugs or treatment being prescribed. We should also remember that many ofthe expensive drugs we buy have only slightly better results than those of placebos in trials. Then again, perhaps the “more expensive they are, the more effective we will imagine “them tobe! 3 Unit 10 + Body and mind 83 LANGUAGE FOCUS Distancing the facts Look at these sentences based on the 1 Passive constructions article on pp82-8. Look at these sentences. Note the diferent forms ofthe passive constructions. Its expected that the cyclists will go People say that psychosomatic illnesses are ‘all nthe head. (active) slower on ther second trial Itis said that psychosomatic illnesses are ‘all nthe head: (passive) ineornpar tie ep Psychosomatic ilnsses are said tobe ‘all inthe head: (passive) Improved athletes performances Use pasive constructions to distance these fats. significantly. They say that traditional medicine works best. Farts seat ecpecr thre People assume that the placebo effect is imaginary found the second ride easier. Everyone believed that placebos had no effect on illness. They ll give information without 2 seem and appear nee eederalytoc ey There seem to be few limits to the symptoms the mind can produce. are ways of puting distance between It appears that colour plays arole in how placebos work Golnscifend te fice The operations appeared to have had amazing results >> Grammar Reference piSS Passive constructions 1. Rewrite these sentences from a news report about Dr Martin Crispin, 2 Change these sentences, beginning beginning with the words in italics. with the words in italics. 1 Itis reported that a leading private surgeon is under investigation 1 Itseems this road is taking us for fraud. nowhere. 2. People believe that Dr Martin Crispin owns three private clinics 2 It appears that we have taken a in London. wrong turn, 3. Patients say that Dr Crispin and his colleagues charged up to 3. Simon appeared to have taken the £1,000 for a consultation. wrong medicine. (It) STU rag ee raoees Cee Grevmitad quilicelimsautt A rice 4. He seemed to have felt better People now know that he never trained as a surgeon. nevertheless. (If) Everyone now assumes that his medical certificates are fakes. 7 People considered that hie was a specialist in cosmetic surgery. 8 We understand that Dr Crispin has been sued recently by five different patients. 9 It is alleged that two of his colleagues performed surgery while drunk. 10 People presume that the doctor and his ‘wife went into hiding this morning. GHB Listen and check, eu OCCU CL 5 It would seem that the government has changed its policy. 6 Itappears they are seriously worried about losing the next election, 84 Unit 10 + Body and mind Reporting the news 3. What's in the news today? 4 Work in pairs. Read the headlines and openings of the six articles below. ‘+ What are they about? + Underline examples of distancing the facts + Complete the last line ofeach ofthe openings. Share your ideas with the cas, 5. Choose one of the articles and complete it with your own ideas, including some constructions for distancing the facts (80-100 words). ‘Antteiottes are reported to Fork found ieee ae pistes eect faerie dies report frm the World Health Organization WHO). situation could have devastating ‘consequences for public health, and the fork ten years ago, when Athlete fails drugs test and loses medal Heptathlete Ni a drugs test after winning a gold the National Athletics Championships on Saturday, Jenkins (23) achieved a personal best in the event, but is alleged Jenkins has failed Some of the world’s greatest The fre 6 Work as a class. man’s stomach ‘A 40-year-old man who was thought to be suffering from stomach cramps was found to have a nine-inch plastic fork inside his sfomach when doctors operated on him. lee Gardner appears to have swallowed PRICELESS PAINTINGS LOST IN FIRE TRAGEDY artworks are believed to have been destroyed Inthe fire that swept through the National Gallery in the early hours of the morning. r 6 Decide ona running order for your stories on tonight’ TV or radio news. + Choose a news anchor and correspondents to read each item, The anchor will present the news and introduce each item, now over to ur sports /me ‘correspondent, Martin PM to call election after no-confidence vote The Prime Minister is on the brink of calling a new election, after the government failed to win a vote of, no confidence tabled by the opposition last night. Although the government had been ‘expected to win the vote comfortably, the news of Se ty SET TO WREAK HAVOC aaa ail) Hurricane foree winds are expected to reach southern areas of the country on Saturday morning, and spread northwards over the following 24 hours. It's thought modern Unit10 + Body and mind 85 LISTENING AND SPEAKING Down to earth with a bump 1 Guy Anderson is a paraglider. Read a post from his Facebook page, written after a paragliding race in a remote area of the Rocky Mountains in the United States. What do you think happened to Guy during the race? Guy Anderson is world champion hide and seek winner!t Huge thanks to all those that came to my rescue ... Words don't express how humbled I fee! by putting you all through the wringer {or 48 hours. | certainly was pretty frightened out there, but knowing you were coming for me gave me the strength to wobble along. Big op on shoulder tomorrow, wil lt you know how i's going Friday. 2 GERD Listen to Part 1 of an interview with answer the questions. Suy and 1 Why was Guy alone when the accident happened? 2 What role did the wind play in his crash? 3. Complete the table with details of his injuries. Physical condition Ribs Pelvis Arms Nose Fyesight lungs as Cates ac = 3 GMD Listen to Part 2 and number the events in the order that they happened. ¥ he took photos | hecrashed he sang out loud he got comfortable hestarted tonod off _he sawa bear the bear kept away his radio malfunctioned he slept fitfully he heard growling How would you describe Guy’s character? 4 GHLBB Listen to Part 3 and answer the questions. 1 How did he get to the bottom of the valley? How quickly? Why did he go there? 2 Why was it surprising that his friend Russell spotted him? 3 What did the search operation involve? 4. Can you explain his Facebook post about being ‘hide and seek champion’ now? Why does he keep flying? PMisiyour own words 5 In pairs, act out an interview between a journalist and Guy’ friend, Russell Ogden. Journalist So, Russel, tell us about your role in Guy’ rescue. Well, heard that held gone missing, and to be honest. Russell Brounen 1) What does quite mean in these lines? Iwas quite comfortable. That's quite amazing! 2 GHB usten and repeat lines A-C 1 Inwhich does quite mean ..? © alittle morethanespected | extremely 2 When do we stress. C quite theadjectve both 3 Listen to the lines and reply using quite and an adjective from the box. Repeat the example you then hear. ridiculous interesting big warm impossible pleased unique diffcut That lesson wasnt as dla expected! Yes, it was quite interesting! VOCABULARY AND SPEAKING Words to do with the body 1 Match the 36 numbers on the figures to the parts of the body in the box. elbow sole thumb eyelash shin calf cheek lip ankle nostril jaw———earlobe waist’ palm thigh stomach chin chest necked throat hip lung ver ‘eyebrow armpit intestines rib spine pelvis knuckle kidney forehead wrist veins-——_temple ‘What other body parts can you name? 2 Practise some of the ch you jan parts of the body in. >= exercise lin pairs. 3 Complete the sentences with the words in the box. stomach eyeing lip chin. chest thumb elbow cheek heels toe 1 Come on, don't et it all get you down. Keep your___ up! 2 Titried to persuade Pete, but he dug his in and refused to change his mind. 3 find it hard to__ when politicians half iy age start preaching to me. 4 It-varies, but as a rule of, 20 minutes a mile on this walk. 5 The teachers in my school were pretty strict - they made us_ the line. 6 How dare he expect me to tidy up after him! Whata__! 7 Ym ashamed about itall, but I'm glad I've told you. I needed to get it off my _. 8 The boys stood on one side of the room, up the girls on the other side. 9. The government talks as if they're concerned about the environment, but they're just paying __ service. 10 ‘These candlesticks aren't easy to clean ~ you'll need a bit of. (HORD Listen and check. >> WRITING Debating an issue — An opinion piece p19. Tallow grease. feasted 4. What part of your body do you use to perform these verbs? tickle nod thump sniff slap swallow smack pinch frisk rub stroke clap nudge pat hug squeeze shove spit wink Why might you do them? Youtickle someone to make them laugh. 5 GHDED Listen to the lines. Which of the verbs in exercise 4 are they examples of? ‘6 Mime some of the verbs in exercise 4 for your partner to guess. ‘Try not to look in the book when you're guessing. Unit10 + Body and mind 87 THE LAST WORD He does, does he? 1 GHEMDD Read and listen to the lines from p86. Does 4 Work with a partner. Decide where tags and replies can the intonation on the question tags rise or fall? go naturally in these conversations. Do they rise or fall? But you didnt gt rescued before dark, did you? You must have been in terrible pain, weren't you? 1A You haven't seen my ‘You decided to get moving didn't you? ex lent Ea B No. Youhad them Which isa genuine question? Why are question this moming, tags used in the others? A That doesnt mean ‘know where the 2 GHDMD Read and listen to these examples of tags. peers ney Which expresses the following? B Well lets lookin + scepticism «pride «aggression faces al a Youve made a mess of ths Prime Minster, havent you? usual leave them. bb Soyouleft your homework on the bus, dd you? A ve already done that. Try some of my bread! Tata damn fine loa, thats! B And .here they are How are the tags formed in each one? What are the Now that wast hard intonation patterns in each tag? A Oh, thanks Youre asta 3 Match the lines in A with the tags in B. Is the form similar to a, b, or ¢ in exercise 2? ‘What feeling might be expressed in each? Say them ie se forgtten with appropriate intonation. is shoppin st ith appropriate intonation. Bre eS EER Lene to yoy 1% i aie aswewere leaving. of be corel, a A Yeah. But veleft 2 Soyouwere out withlisalastright, | Id. Ft hatches 3 Youimeant tol the victim, Mrjones, thats table 4 I've been a bit stupid, won't you? B Youre so forgetful! e = ‘Oh, and youre 5 Youte any, shall we’ a 6 Sothese are the Spacious bedrooms, | wont it? 1 That eat be right, you ae 8 | always do a good job, didn 9 Ohyeah, camping wil ally appeal too, | are they? 10 So that al the help tm getting, idotyou? | EALEEB Listen and compare. Practise the conversations 1 wont hur, anit in pairs. 12 | went and beat hi, haven? | 5 Respond to these statements indifferent ways 1B Mim. Thats a proper cup of affee, | sit 1 Alex earns an absolute fortune! 1 Let's eat, Were your! He does, doesn't he? ){ Does he? I'd no idea. Listen and check/compare. What short answers do the replies begin with? What’ the situation in each? Practise the lines in pairs, using the short answers in your replies. 2 Apparently Jane and John have emigrated to Australia, 3 Peter's new, German girlfriend works for a television company, 4 There’ always something wrong with Alan ~ he’ such a hypochondriac! 5 Ti definitely stay in this hotel again, 88 Unit 10 + Body and mind (> vioro Sa pr starrer 11 What are geeks? Are they people or things? What sa techno geek? Do you know any? 2 Work in small groups. Go through the questions together and discuss your answers, How much variation is there in your answers? ‘Do you keep your phone with you most of the time? Are you lost without it? How often do you text? Do you own a tablet? What do you use it For? Which tech brands do you have? Which ore ‘your Favourites? How many opps do you have? Which do you use most often? What's your all-time favourite computer game? why? How do you listen to music? What other gadgets do you own? What are ‘your Favourites? Why? Do you have a gadget that you bought but sorely use? Which? Do you use satnav a lot? Would you ever use ‘print map? Do you use social networking sites? Which? How often? How many emails do you receive or send in ‘O week? Do you get much junk mail? Do you think that technology isolates or connects people? How? What would you make on a 30 printer? I you could time travel, when and where !) would you go? ‘What technological advancements do you predict for the future? Our high-tech world Future tenses and future in the past Synonyms and antonyms * Ten really bad predictions 3 EHUD isten to Pete talking about ‘his tech: How does he answer the questionnaire? How old do you think he is? What clues do you get about his age? ‘Would you call him a techno geek? LISTENING AND SPEAKING THE 1. You and Yoursis a radio consumer programme. ‘Today its about the early days of The internet of Things, What is it? 2 GHB Listen to the programme. Which thingsin 4 Work with a partner. the picture are mentioned? What are white goods? What do the speakers say about navigation apps? SID ENT AN SUD ENIE) Read the tapescript ofthe Read the tapescript ofthe 3. GRIER These lines are from the programme, Listen programme on ppl40-41 Write programme on ppl. Write again and say what the words in italics refer to. questions about it using these questions about it using these 1 They'll be connected to the Internet when they're question words question words switched on What? Where? Why? How? What? When? Who? Why? 2 [personally use an app that does this, an app How many? Which? What... for? What kind of? which has been in the news a lot recently... 3 can also see other drivers using the same app ... 4 Itenables you to document your day in images... (GIBB Listen and compare questions. Answer any that you 5. All wearing the same kind of technology I have Maseriok lreadiraaked an ennwere around my neck .. Ask and answer your questions with your partner, 6 really like this peer pressure What do you think? 7... that’s been quoted for so long it’s almost ‘+ Do you think The internet of Things is a good thing? Why/ Why not? become a joke, hasn't it? + What developments have you noticed already in your daly lives? “+ What do you think the most useful developments wil be in the Future? ‘+ What problems have you experienced with technology? Give examples Bream 8 This may be a naive question Theword stuffs widelyusedin—[, . spoken English means random ie deste cowie 1 Thanks forthe great feedback on my report. | Youknow me. made of strong stuf. tye 2 What sort of stu do you get wth your new car? b Come on cheer ptf happens Pome navhow otsot statins |? HoWdoyoucope wih allthat pres at work | That the stu of nightmares hve eee and fours? been tried, 4 ce you ready to go! Were late 4 vasimpressed. You realy know your stuf. 1 Whatkindofstuffdoyoucary | 5 We were crossing afield and suddenly there was. | e fmnot sure it ook ke aload of sticky, inyour bag? thishuge bull heading toward us brow stuf. 2. Match the nes nA and. 6 What a day! min pieces-Ilostmy carkeysand | f Oh ouknow, ll the usual stuff—satnay, Tiytoextend the conesation, | had towalkhome in the pouring ran and DAB radio, eather seats 7 Usgh Whats tat onthe carpet? «5 Iijust get my stuff and we can be of. 3 GB Este, check and ea cxbaleet ee et h Great stuf! compare, 90 Unit + Our high-tech world LANGUAGE FOCUS The future Future forms 1 English does not havea future tense as such. It has several forms which express different shades ‘of meaning. Look at the underlined examples in EEBB 00 pp 40-41 2 Identify the Future forms in A. Match them with a definition in A 1 The exams start on Friday 2June. 2 ral the plumber immediately 3 'm going to work hard this yea. 4 Tile rich and famous one day. 5 immeeting Mara for coffee atten. 6 1llbe having a tennis lesson at 3 pm 7 thave written the report by Friday 8 The president isto speak on TY. a Ive decided tis / I my intention b I predict this about myself € Its on the timetable 4 Vmreacting toa situation e A formal, scheduled arrangement f finish this before a given future time, ig Weve arranged this. h be inthe midele of doing this. Discussing grammar 1 What’ the difference in meaning between the verbs in these sentences? 1 Sue’s leaving tomorrow. Her train leaves at 13.05. 2 Pll give you lift to the station, if you like, Its OK, John’s going to give me a lft, 3. Were going to have dinner at 8.00. We'll be having dinner at 8.00. 4 The plane will be landing at 22.30. ‘The plane will have landed by 22.30. 5 The meeting will finish at five otlock. ‘The meeting will have finished by five oclock. 6 P'm (due) to get an upgrade on my phone, 1’m going to get a new phone soon. 7 I think Alison will get promoted, 've heard that Alison is going to get promoted. 8 Run for cover! It's about to pour. It’s going to bea stormy night. Future in the past ‘The past tense ofthe future forms i used to express ‘the future seen from a point inthe pat. will/would is going to/was going to Isarriving/was arriving is to/was to {was going to attend the meeting but it was cancelled. >> Grammar Reference pIST 2 Complete the second sentence in each pair. 1 I think their marriage will end in disaster. I predicted that their marriage in disaster, 2 Bob is going to move to Australia if he gets the job in Sydney. Bob. to Australia but he didn't get the job. 3 Annis happy because shell be seeing Tom tonight. ‘Ann smiled to herself, she ‘Tom in an hour, 4 The President is to make an announcement this evening. ‘The President an announcement that evening, but it was cancelled. 3 Choose the correct ending to complete the sentences. 1 Twas sure that the MRI scan .. would show that his heart was fine / will have been cancelled. 2 didn't call you with the news because ‘we would meet later / we were meeting later. 3 Last time I saw Jim he was due to start a new job / he was leaving tomorrow. 4 There was to have been an investigation into the accident ... ‘but it never took place / and it was the driver’ fault. 5 He believed that one day his newborn son .. ‘would be running the business with him / was running the ‘business with him, What do you say? 4 EHEB Listen to the eight situations. Complete the responses using only future forms. 1 Hey guys! 1. 2 Treally don't think 1. 3: Hurry up! The play. 4 Thnow my hair’ a mess, but I 5 Tim really sorry. Tknow I. 6 7 8 Can you believe it? This time next week we. Tm aiming high, by the time Ym 40, 1. Tmo sorry, Iwas... isten and compare, How do the conversations continue? Practise some. Unit M+ Our high-tech world 91 READING AND SPEAKING Too much science? 1 Work in small groups. Make a list of all the household appliances in your house. Compare your list with your group. ‘Who uses them? Which do you use most/least frequently? How old are they? 2 Look at the pictures and read the introduction and the descriptions of the appliances. ‘+ What's your opinion of them? + What does ‘this £150 monument to excessive disposable income’ meant + What does it say about the journalists style of wting? 3. Read the article quickly. Answer the questions. 1 What is function inflation? Give examples. 2 What is the problem it creates? 3 Isit driven mainly by consumers or manufacturers? 4. What is a focus group? 5 How have Apple products changed over the years? 6 How might one single button be used in years to come? 4 Read the article again more thoroughly. These lines are taken from it. What do they refer to? Why are some of them humorous? 1... parents too lazy to wash their babies inthe bath, 2. allour appliances have learned new tricks 3... aneasy way to constanty relaunch essentially the same product. 4 «the job-endangering' snooze button, 5. rampant function hyperinflation has left many ‘of us staring 6 more cycles than we have outfits to wash, on some customer feedback survey, atleast two people piped up. '8 The marketplace rewards designers who edit a product down, What do you think? + Do you agree with the idea that household appliances are getting too complicated? + Do you believe it generational thing and that younger people appreciate function inflation? + Despite this inflation, are there any functions you ‘would actually add to machines that you use? D> WRITING Describing and evaluating - ‘An online product review p120 2 Unit N+ Ourhigh-tech world UU Say Ey Sc eC Toaster Six toast settings, independent slot ‘operation, hight, ‘cancel, defrost, and reheat functions, plus variable browning and Iuminated controls. A Ee Re La Rod CeCe Ca Mea eR Se ee ecm Sa SC Rn) Pe Weed ‘The modern washing machine has a dozen or more cycles that no one has ever used. The baby cycle, for example, aimed, presumably, at parents too lazy to wash their babies in the bath. Or, quoting from a variety of machines, the duvet, sports, bed and bath, reduced creases, allergy, and freshen up cycles. ‘The washing machine is hardly alone in this; all our appliances have learned new tricks. Posh kettles heat our water to a choice of temperatures, tumble dryers offer a variety of dryness: levels and even fairly basic toasters now proudly boast a bagel funetion. At the top end of the market, you can buy a fridge with a builtin radio and voice recorder, proving we've reached the stage of combining functions entirely arbitrarily. It has all become a little overwhelming, Function inflation is not, of course, confined to the kitchen. We can see it in our computers and cars, our phones and. televisions. ‘Fundamentally’ says David Mattin, lead strategist at, ''d say function inflation is one ‘consequence of the everincreasing consumer thirst for the new — new products, services, brands, and yes, new features. ‘Throwing more functions and features onto an essentially standard product is an easy way to constantly relaunch essentially the same product and argue that their product APPLIANCES GETTING({.!) COMPLICATED Aqua Vivo Washing Although by current standards this model’ total of 16 wash programmes Is relatively modest, the sheer range of them The ridiculous name aside, this £150 monument to excessive disposable income includes |s baffing. It boasts both a crevie tool, dusting brush, the aforementioned baby and Sa eT freshen up cycles, as well as duvet, flexi crevice tool. You know, allergy care and bed and bath, for cleaning your flextcrevices. Itis not without its benefits. Plenty of life-changing New settings clearly continue to be seen as an easy road 30 innovations, from the handy oven timer to the ‘job- 5 to higher sales. Yet, as Mattin points out, some of the most endangering’ snooze button, started out as added successful products on the market ‘succeeded specifically gimmicks on familiar household items. But, in the kitchen because they did not succumb to function inflation, indeed at least, things are moving a little too fast, and rampant ey made a virtue out of having very few functions function hyperinflation has left many of us staring, uncomprehending, at a washing machine control whee! with more cycles than we have outfits to wash Though Apple's app store is now a fastmoving bastion of © user-controlled function inflation, the iPhone and iPad's predecessor began life as a reaction against it. ‘The iPod, In theory, all such funct response to consumer _says Mattin, ‘is a nowlegendary example of a tech product demand: if a washing machine has a freshen up cycle, that was beautiful in its simplicity. Compare earlier MP3 itis because in a focus group somewhere, or on some players, laden with various buttons and switches and customer feedback survey, at least a couple of people _6s features, with the iPod's click wheel. piped up and said, ‘I want my clothes fresher, but not cleaned.’ Yet such demanding shoppers are in fact a ‘small minority: research shows that 70% of people use the same wash cycle almost every time, and nearly half of 45 us are put off by complex multi-setting controls. ‘There’s good evidence,’ he argues, ‘that the marketplace rewards designers who edit a product down until it does just what it should and no more. But that takes designers of genius. Mediocre designers ~ that is 90% of them ~ just throw more and more functionality ‘The innovation is obviously being driven by manufacturers’ __ what sticks. desire to add value and to differentiate themselves’ says analyst Neil Mason, head of retail research at market research company Mintel. ‘But from a consumer's point, of view, what they want is convenience and simplicity. You run into trouble when you add all these extra functions, and consumers just get perplexed as to how to actually use them consumers and see Perhaps, then, despite the current trend, the household of the future will be free of such baffling settings, switche: and dials. The ideal household gadget — be it a washer, '» diyer, oF toaster ~ may one day sport a single, simple button marked Sort this stuff out for me, will you? The machines can work out for themselves when, if ever, merely want our clothes freshened up. ree noc a) VOCABULARY Synonyms and antonyms 1 We often use synonyms for reasons of style, to avoid repetition. Read the sentences below. Then find the synonyms in the texts on pp92-93 which are used. instead of the words underlined. ‘Who needs a washing machine with a freshen up’ function? A toaster with six browning functions? ‘The washing machine is hardly alone in this; all our ‘machines have learned new tick. Posh kettles heat our water toa choice of ‘temperatures, tumble dryers offer a choice of “dryness levels In theory, all such functions are a response to consumee demand .. Yet such demanding ‘consumers are in fact a small minority. 2. Find words in the article on pp92-93 which mean approximately the same as those in the table below. fancy line 12) brag about (4) limited (9) result (23) ‘yearning (23) advantages (29) uncontrolled (3) garments (36) complicated (45) baffled (52) second-rate (69), fashion 72) 94 Unit | + Our high-tech world ‘Complete the sentences with a word that has a similar meaning to the word in italics. Sometimes the word class changes. 1 By present-day standards the 10-wash programme is, modest; many washing machines have 16. 2 ‘Did he say how his jobs going?” ‘No. He didn't t 3 He admitted murdering his boss. This came after days of interrogation. 4 Progress will be slow, but if we persist, things will improve. 5 You can't count on her. She’ totally. 6 You want an approximate figure? At a ‘guess, Pd say there were about 50. 7 Massage eased the pain in my back and the tension I've felt for so long. 8 He’ made a miraculous recovery, but then he has strength. 9 Soldiers attacked the enemy headquarters. The took place before dawn, 10. Drugs can treat many illnesses, but there are some that are incurable. Yes, | did say you have the blood pressure of «4 teenager. Did | mention i's one who lives on Junk food, TV, and the computer?