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SUB-STATION ENGINEERING,

DESIGN, CONCEPTS
AND
COMPUTER APPLICATIONS

Er. R. S. Dahiya
B.Tech.Hons.inElectricalEngineeringandMBA

S.K. KATARIA & SONS


Publisher of Engineering and Computer Books
4885/109, Prakash Mahal, Dr. Subhash Bhargav Lane,
Opposite Delhi Medical Association, Daryaganj, New Delhi110002
Phone: +91-11-23243489, +91-11-23269324; Telefax: +91-11-23243489
e-mail: katariabooks@yahoo.com; katariabook@gmail.com
Website: www.skkatariaandsons.com

Published by:

S.K. Kataria & Sons


4885/109, Prakash Mahal, Dr. Subhash Bhargav Lane,
Opposite Delhi Medical Association, Daryaganj, New Delhi-110002
Phone: +91-11-23243489, +91-11-23269324; Telefax: +91-11-23243489
e-mail: katariabooks@yahoo.com; katariabook@gmail.com

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STATUTORY WARNING
Information contained in this book has been obtained by author from sources believed to be reliable and are
correct to the best of his knowledge. Every effort has been made to avoid errors and omissions and ensure
accuracy. Any error or omission noted may be brought to the notice of the publisher which shall be taken care of in
the forthcoming edition of this book. However, neither the publisher nor the author guarantee the accuracy or
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The book is meant for educational and learning purposes and there is no attempt on the part of publisher/author
to render engineering and other professional services. If such services are required, the assistance of an appropriate
professional should be sought.

The author of the book has taken all possible care to ensure that the contents of the book do not violate any
existing copyright or other intellectual property rights of any person in any manner whatsoever. In the event, the
author has been unable to track any source and if any copyright has been inadvertently infringed, the facts may be
brought to the notice of the publisher in writing for corrective action.
Send all correspondence to: M/s S.K. Kataria & Sons, New Delhi
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First Edition: 2009; Second Edition: 2010; Reprint: 2013

Price :

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SARA ASSIGNMENTS, Patparganj, Delhi-110092.

375/-

Printed at:
A.S. OFFSET PRINTERS, Delhi-110051.

Preface to the Second Edition

The author feels great pleasure in presenting the first edition of the book as for the power
engineering era. The book has been designed as to meet the needs of A.M.I.E., B.E., B.Tech. and
Degree (electrical, electronics, industrial, electronics and communication, computer engineering)
and Diploma (electrical engineering) students. The subject matter has been presented in an easily
comprehensible manner, logical sequence using simple language and to give a detailed exposition
of fundamentals. An earnest effort has been made to provide a comprehensive coverage of the
course as prescribed by the Institution of Engineers (India), Indian and foreign Universities, and
various agencies conducting textbooks and competitive examinations.
The book consists of 32 chapters covering syllabi prescribed by different examining bodies
mentioned above for the subject of Substation Engineering. The book contains adequate material
for the subjects of Transmission Lines, Protection Relays, Power Transformers, Reactive Power
Management, Earthing of EHV System, Capacitor banks, Current Transformers, Voltage
Transformers, Station Battery, Supply System, HVDC, Power System Stability. In addition to
above Computer Application with SCADA, Substation Automation System GIS, Protection
against Over Votlage, Busbar Protection, System Restoration Process, FACTS, Hydro Power etc.
with an Introduction to Indian Electricity Grid Code.
Every care has been taken for no inaccuracy/error/misprint has crept in and the author
would be grateful to the readers for bringing to notice any of such errors/misprints/omissions
they may come across while going through the book.
The author shall feel satisfied if the book meets the needs of the students for whom it is
meant. Suggestions and criticism for the further improvement of the book shall be welcomed.
This book will not only helpful for students and teachers but also for the electrical engineers
serving in various power utilities.
The author will like to thank to all the scientists, engineers, authors and publishers whose
works and text have been the source of enlightenment, inspiration and guidance.
Lastly, but not the least, the author is thankful to his publisher, Sanjeev Kumar Kataria for
bringing out the book in such a short time and for pricing it moderately despite heavy cost of
paper and printing.

June 2010

Er. R. S. Dahiya

Preface to the First Edition

The author feels great pleasure in presenting the first edition of the book as for the power
engineering era. The book has been designed as to meet the needs of A.M.I.E., B.E., B.Tech. and
Degree (electrical, electronics, industrial, electronics and communication, computer engineering)
and Diploma (electrical engineering) students. The subject matter has been presented in an easily
comprehensible manner, logical sequence using simple language and to give a detailed exposition
of fundamentals. An earnest effort has been made to provide a comprehensive coverage of the
course as prescribed by the Institution of Engineers (India), Indian and foreign Universities, and
various agencies conducting textbooks and competitive examinations.
The book consists of 28 chapters covering syllabi prescribed by different examining bodies
mentioned above for the subject of Substation Engineering. The book contains adequate material
for the subjects of Transmission Lines, Protection Relays, Power Transformers, Reactive Power
Management, Earthing of EHV System, Capacitor banks, Current Transformers, Voltage
Transformers, Station Battery, Supply System, HVDC, Power System Stability. In addition to
above Computer Application with SCADA, GIS, Protection against Over Votlage, Busbar
Protection, System Restoration Process, FACTS, Hydro Power etc. with an Introduction to Indian
Electricity Grid Code.
Every care has been taken for no inaccuracy/error/misprint has crept in and the author
would be grateful to the readers for bringing to notice any of such errors/misprints/omissions
they may come across while going through the book.
The author shall feel satisfied if the book meets the needs of the students for whom it is
meant. Suggestions and criticism for the further improvement of the book shall be welcomed.
This book will not only helpful for students and teachers but also for the electrical engineers
serving in various power utilities.
The author will like to thank to all the scientists, engineers, authors and publishers whose
works and text have been the source of enlightenment, inspiration and guidance.
Lastly, but not the least, the author is thankful to his publisher, Sanjeev Kumar Kataria for
bringing out the book in such a short time and for pricing it moderately despite heavy cost of
paper and printing.

25 March 2009

Er. R. S. Dahiya

Foreword

Sub-station Engineering has become important aspect to know technicalities behind the Power
system. The book on Sub-station engineering with computer applications will help the engineers
in the respective field.
I am delighted to see the book by Sh. R.S. Dahiya bring his experience and motivated step. Also
it is added that this is a hard work that Sh. Dahiya has successfully finished the onerous task of
writing this book.
I hope that all readers, engineers will have immense interest in acquiring knowledge through
this book.
Er. J. K. Juneja
Superintending Engineer (HVPN)

Acknowledgement

Staring with the blessings of God. I take this opportunity to express our gratitude and thanks to the
Managing Director, HVPN for according approval to publish the book vide office order no.
Ch 161/EBG-3232 dated 12.11.08.
I also thank to respected Sh. J. K. Juneja, Superintending Engineer, HVPN, Panchkula, for his
valuable suggestion, for his technical sug gestion & constant encouragement without which this
effort of book would not have come in to existence. Also expressing our sincere thanks to
Sh. Y.P. Niranjan, Executive Engineer, HVPN.
I thankful to my wife Dr Suman Dahiya and my kid ( Liza and Kartikay) for their patience during
my business in revising the book and continuous support. I am very thankful to my elder brother
Sh. Jai Singh and my mother and father for their continuous support.
I appreciate the suggestion offered by my colleagues. Specially I also thank to Er. Vinay Attri
who firstly helped because without his effort, it would not have been possible to introduce first
edition of this book. I also thankful to Sh. Ved Prakash Arora (Lecturer) and Er. Ruchi Batra, for
providing comments and support on this book. I also thankful to Sh. Dinesh Kaushik, Sara
Assignments for his consistent help in early revision of this book. I also thank to lots of readers with
their valuable comments regarding revision of this book.
At last a great thank to Sh. Sanjeev Kataria (M/s S.K. Kataria & Sons, New Delhi), who gave me
the opportunity to fulfill the dream of this book and also encouraged continuously for early revision
this book.
Er. R. S. Dahiya

Dedicated
to
My Wife and Children

Contents

1. DEVELOPMENT OF INDIAN POWER


SECTOR AND GRID MANAGEMENT 129
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
1.10
1.11
1.12

Introduction ...................................................... 1
Benefits of Synchronization of Grids ........... 5
Formation of National Grid ........................... 7
Problems Associated with Development of
All India Grid .................................................... 8
Indian Grid Management ............................ 10
Grid Characteristics ...................................... 12
Frequency Control ........................................ 15
Voltage Control : Proper Voltage is
Essential for Active Power Flow ................. 18
Controlling of Transmission Line Loading 19
Power System Security ................................ 21
Concept of ABT (Availability Based Tariff) 23
Technology for New System Keeping in
View Long-term Perspective ...................... 25
Summary ........................................................... 27
Review Questions .............................................. 27
Short Answer Type Questions .......................... 27

2. DISTRIBUTION OF POWER

3048

2.1 Distribution Losses in India ........................


2.2 Efficiency Improvement by Line Loss
(Distribution Losses) Reduction .................
2.3 Technology Development Occurring in
Distribution System ......................................
2.4 Energy Accounting and Auditing ...............

3.7
3.8
3.9
3.10
3.11
3.12
3.13
3.14
3.15
3.16
3.17
3.18
3.19
3.20
3.21

31
3.22
33
46
48

Summary ........................................................... 48
Review Questions .............................................. 48

3. SUB-STATION

3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6

4996

3.1 Introduction .................................................... 49


3.2 Functions of a Substation ............................ 49

Classification of Sub-stations ..................... 50


Layout of Substation ..................................... 52
Types of Bus Bar used in a Sub-station ..... 53
Design and Construction of Bus Bar and
Earth Wire in Sub-station ............................ 59
Jumpering of Conductors ............................ 61
Jumpering from Bus Bar to Equipment/Pipe
Bus .................................................................... 62
Jumpering between Equipments ............... 62
Stringing of Shield/Earth Wire .................... 62
Aluminium Pipe Bus Bar and Joints ........... 63
Factors Affecting Layout of a Sub-station 66
The Testing of Sub-station Equipment ...... 68
On Load Tap Changer .................................. 74
Commissioning of Power Transformer .... 75
Stability of Protections ................................. 76
Testing of Lightning Arresters .................... 76
Testing of Circuit Breaker ............................ 77
Inspection/Technical Audit of Grid
Sub-Station ...................................................... 80
List of Material for Construction of 132 kV
Grid Sub-station ............................................. 85
List of Material for Construction of 220 kV
Grid Sub-station ............................................. 87
List of Material for Construction of 400 kV
Grid Sub-station ............................................. 90
Summary ........................................................... 94
Review Questions .............................................. 94
Short Answer Type Questions .......................... 95

4. POWER TRANSFORMERS

97137

4.1 Introduction .................................................... 97


4.2 Principal of Working ...................................... 98
4.3 Real Transformer .......................................... 99

Contents

4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9
4.10
4.11
4.12
4.13
4.14
4.15
4.16
4.17
4.18
4.19
4.20
4.21
4.22
4.23

Parallel Operation of Transformers ........ 101


Standard Symbols ....................................... 102
Classifications .............................................. 102
Types of Transformers ............................... 103
Vector Group Used in Power ..........................
Transformer .................................................. 104
Autotransformer ......................................... 105
Transformer Losses and Efficiency ......... 107
Ratings of Power Transformers ............... 109
The Power Transformers are Subjected to
following Type of Faults during Service 109
Investigation Report of Damage of Power
Transformers at Various Sub-station ...... 110
Main Causes of Failure as Pertaining in
India are Given Below ................................ 116
The Recommendations to Increase the ......
Life of Power Transformers ...................... 121
The Relays are used for Protection ...............
Against Internal Faults .............................. 122
Various Special Transformers .................. 124
Key Standards for Power Transformer .. 124
Power Transformers [IS: 2026 .........................
(Part 1)-1977] ............................................... 125
Transformer Oil ........................................... 126
Drying Out the Moisture Inside Winding/
SRBP in the Transformers .......................... 131
Latest Diagnostic Techniques ................... 132
Capitalization Formula for Power ..................
Transformer .................................................. 134
Summary ......................................................... 134
Review Questions ............................................ 135
Short Answer Type Questions ........................ 135

Summary ......................................................... 165


Review Questions ............................................ 166
Short Answer Type Questions ........................ 166

6. FUNDAMENTALS OF EARTHING AND


DESIGN OF EARTHMAT
169200
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
6.8
6.9
6.10
6.11
6.12
6.13
6.14
6.15
6.16
6.17
6.18
6.19
6.20

Summary ......................................................... 198


Review Questions ............................................ 199
Short Answer Type Questions ........................ 199

5. REACTIVE POWER MANAGEMENT


138168
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7
5.8
5.9

Introduction ..................................................
Reactive Power ............................................
Need/Importance of Reactive Power .....
Sources and Sinks of Reactive Power .....
Reactive Power Compensation ................
Advantages of Compensation .................
VAR Generators of Reactive Power ........
Self-commutated VAR Compensators ...
Comparison Between Thyristorized and
Self-Commutated Compensators ...........
5.10 New VAR Compensators Technology ...
5.11 Pricing of Reactive Energy in India .........
5.12 Ready Reckoner on Reactive Power
Management ................................................

138
139
140
141
142
146
146
153
155
156
163
165

Introduction .................................................. 169


Types of Earthing ......................................... 170
Methods of Neutral Earthing .................... 170
Sub-station Grounding ............................... 173
Substation Earthing Calculation .....................
Methodology ................................................ 175
Earthing Materials ....................................... 177
Earthing Design Calculations ................... 177
Selection of Grounding Neutral ................ 182
Construction of Earth Mats in .........................
Substations ................................................... 182
Burial of Earthing Conductor .................... 183
Earth Electrodes .......................................... 184
Joints .............................................................. 184
Placing of Earth Electrodes ....................... 184
Laying of Earthmat ..................................... 185
Preparation and Fitting of Risers ............. 187
Why Fence Earthing is Required? ........... 190
Artificial Method of Reducing Earth ..............
Resistivity ...................................................... 190
Substation Shielding Design ..................... 193
Providing Gravel/Pucca Floor in EHV ...........
Sub-stations Yards ...................................... 195
Electric Shock ............................................... 196

7. LOAD MANAGEMENT
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5

201206

Introduction ..................................................
Load Curve ...................................................
Peak Load Power Plant ...............................
Base Load Power Plant ...............................
Load Control/Load Management ............

201
202
203
204
204

Summary ......................................................... 206


Short Answer Type Questions ........................ 206

8. CAPACITOR BANKS

207219

8.1 Introduction .................................................. 207


8.2 Importance of Capacitor Banks ............... 207