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Analog and Digital Fiber

Optic Systems

Communication by Light Signals

BASIC FIBER OPTIC COMMUNICATION


SYSTEM

Data Transmission Using Analog


Technology

Computer

Modem
Digital
0s and 1s

Analog
0s and 1s

Digital-to-Analog Modulation and vice


versa

OC SYSTEM
Tx
Sources
Laser
LED
Modulators
DM
EM
OF
Non-dispersion
Dispersion
Non-Zero dispersion
Rx

PD PIN, APD
Range & Performance
Long Distance OA Raman, SOA, EDFA

WDM
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FIBER OPTIC TRANSMISSION WINDOWS

Lasers 1310- or 1550-nm single-mode applications

LEDs 850- or 1300-nm multimode applications

EMR FREQUENCY BANDS

ANALOG VERSUS DIGITAL SIGNALS


Telecommunication
HDTV

ANALOG VERSUS DIGITAL SIGNALS

Easier to process
No conversion is necessary
Less susceptible to noise
Harder to corrupt
Robust to noise
Easy to recover

Pulse Modulation Techniques

PULSE CODE MODULATION

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PULSE CODE MODULATION


Nyquist sampling rate
An example of this is the process that takes place in the
telephone system
A standard telephone has a bandwidth of 4 kHz
When we speak into the telephone, our 4-kHz bandwidth
voice signal is sampled at twice the 4-kHz frequency or 8
kHz
Each sample is then converted to an 8-bit binary number.
This occurs 8000 times per second. Thus, if we multiply 8
k samples/s 8 bits/sample = 64 kbits/s

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DIGITAL WAVEFORMS

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D/A OUTPUT CIRCUIT


Once the digital signal has been reconstructed, it is
converted back into an analog signal using a device called a
digital-to-analog converter or DAC.
A digital storage device or buffer may be used to
temporarily store the digital codes during the conversion
process.
The DAC accepts an n-bit digital number and outputs a
continuous series of discrete voltage steps.
All that is needed to smooth the stair-step voltage out is a
simple low-pass filter with its cutoff frequency set at the
maximum signal frequency

DIGITAL ENCODING SCHEMES

Signal format is an important consideration in


evaluating the performance of a fiber optic
system.
The signal format directly affects the detection of
the transmitted signals.
The accuracy of the reproduced signal depends on
the intensity of the received signal, the speed and
linearity of the receiver, and the noise levels of
the transmitted and received signal.

DIGITAL ENCODING SCHEMES

Many coding schemes are used in digital


communication systems, each with its own
benefits and drawbacks.
The most common encoding schemes are the
return-to-zero (RZ) and non-return-to-zero (NRZ).
The NRZ encoding scheme, for example, requires
only one transition per symbol, whereas RZ
format requires two transitions for each data bit.
This implies that the required bandwidth for RZ
must be twice that of NRZ.

DIGITAL ENCODING SCHEMES

RISE TIME
Digital systems are analyzed on the basis of rise time
rather than on bandwidth.
The rise time of a signal is defined as the time
required for the signal to change from 10% to 90% of
its maximum value.
The system rise time is determined by the data rate
and code format.
Depending on which code format is used, the number
of transitions required to represent the transmitted
data may limit overall the data rate of the system.
The system rise time depends on the combined rise
time characteristics of the individual system
components.

RISE TIME
(a) represents a signal
with adequate rise
time. Even though
the pulses are
somewhat rounded on
the edges, the signal
is still detectable.

(b) the transmitted


signal takes too long
to respond to the
input signal.

DATA RATES

At high data rates, the rise time limitations


cause the data to be distorted and thus lost.

RISE TIME

To avoid this distortion, an acceptable criterion is to


require that a system have a rise time ts of no more
than 70% of the pulse width Tp;

Optical Transmitters

LED

Laser

Semiconductor device
Medium modulation speed
Incoherent output light
Mainly used for short range FSO systems (shorter than 1 km)

Highly directional beam profile


Used for long range FSO systems
High modulation speed
Coherent output light

Lamp

Lower efficiency compared to LED and laser


Lower cost
Low modulation speed
Incoherent output light
Provides higher power
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WHAT IS LED?

LED are semiconductor p-n junctions that under forward bias conditions can emit
radiation by electroluminescence in the UV, visible or infrared regions of the
electromagnetic spectrum. The qaunta of light energy released is approximately
proportional to the band gap of the semiconductor.

ELECTROLUMINESCENCE

Electroluminescence (EL) is an optical phenomenon


and electrical phenomenon in which a material emits
light in response to the passage of an electric current
or to a strong electric field

WHAT IS AN LED?
Light-emitting diode
Semiconductor
Has polarity

WORKING PRINCIPLE

Spontaneous emission

ABSORPTION

E1

E2

SPONTANEOUS EMISSION

STIMULATED EMISSION

LED: HOW IT WORKS


When

current flows
across a diode

Negative

electrons move one way


and positive holes move the other
way

LED: HOW IT WORKS


The

wholes exist at a
lower energy level
than the free
electrons

Therefore

when a free electrons


falls it losses energy

Excitation
E
Electron (excited by the biased
forward voltage) is in the conduction
band

Hole is in valance band

Normally the recombination takes place between


transition of electrons between the bottom of the
conduction band and the top of the valance band
(band exterma).
The emission of light is therefore;
hc/ = Ec-Ev = Eg(only direct band gap allows
radiative transition)

LED: HOW IT WORKS


This

energy is
emitted in a form of
a photon, which
causes light

The

color of the light is


determined by the fall of the
electron and hence energy level of
the photon

HOW DOES IT WORK?

P-n junction

A typical LED needs a p-n junction


There are a lot of electrons and holes at
the junction due to excitations
Electrons from n need to be injected to p
to promote recombination
Junction is biased to produce even more
e-h and to inject electrons from n to p for
recombination to happen

Recombination
produces light!!

Electrical
Contacts

KINDS OF LEDS

VISIBLE LED
Definition:
LED which could emit visible light, the band gap of the materials that we use
must be in the region of visible wavelength = 390- 770nm. This coincides with
the energy value of 3.18eV- 1.61eV which corresponds to colours as stated
below:

Colour of an
LED should
emits

Violet
Blue
Green
Yellow
Orange
Red

~ 3.17eV
~ 2.73eV
~ 2.52eV
~ 2.15eV
~ 2.08eV
~ 1.62eV

The band gap, Eg


that the
semiconductor
must posses to
emit each light

APPLICATIONS
Displays
Automobiles
Home appliances

OLED

LED - Types

LED Types

Planar LED

Dome LED

Edge-Emitting LED
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SLED

Radiation emanates from the surface


Large numerical apertures
Multimode fiber
Output spectrum of a typical LED is about 40 nm
High CD
Analog Modulation

Definition of laser
Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation

Principle Stimulated emission


Monochromatic light

Coherent beam All of the photons are in phase

Absorption of light
When light passes through
materials it is usually
absorbed.

In certain circumstances light may be


amplified.
This was called negative absorption
It is the basis of laser action

Light and an atom


Electron transitions between energy levels

Light
amplification
by stimulated
emission of
radiation
Lower state full
Upper state empty
Light absorbed

Lower state empty


Upper state full
MORE light emitted

Einstein
1917

Background Physics
In 1917 Einstein predicted that:
under certain circumstances a photon
incident upon a material can generate a
second photon of
Exactly the same energy (frequency)
Phase
Polarisation
Direction of propagation

In other word, a coherent beam


resulted.

Stimulated emission leads to a chain


reaction and laser emission.
If a medium has many excited molecules, one photon can become many.
Excited medium

This is the essence of the laser. The factor by which an input beam is amplified by a
medium is called the gain and is represented by G.

Can light amplify light?


Amplification:
Need more electrons at high
energy than at low energy.

No one thought this could be done


stimulated emission just a theoretical curiosity
for about 30 years!

Microwave Amplification by Stimulated


Emission of Radiation
Townes, 1951, devised method to amplify microwaves
Wavelength about 1 cm. (Radio 1 FM: about 3 m)
.while sitting in Franklin Park, Washington on a Saturday
morning!
Townes with PhD student Gordon demonstrated this using ammonia molecules
in April 1953.

This was the first MASER

The Invention

Light output

mirror
Cavity in one direction only
Length ~10,000 wavelengths

mirror

The LASER maker


16 May, 1960,
Theodore H Maiman,
Hughes Labs, generated a
laser beam
wavelength 694 nm
from a ruby rod in a coiled
flash lamp.

Paper submitted for publication Rejected.


Results announced in New York Times, 8 July 1960.
Paper accepted by Nature, appeared 6 August 1960.

Maimans laser
Ruby rod (pink) 3 cm long.
Electrons excited to upper level by the
flashlamp

Wikipedia

Optical Transmitters: Laser

Laser Types

Vertical-cavity surfaceemitting Laser (VCSEL)

Fabry-Perot Laser

Distributed Feedback Laser


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Fibre Optics Communication

Optical Transmitters: Lamp

Can be used in FSO communications, not in fiber optics

Wideband and continuous spectrum

Have very high power, but undirected

The electro-optic process is inefficient, and huge amount of


energy is dissipated as heat (causes high temperature in lamps)

Has very low modulation bandwidth

Divided as follows

Carbon button lamp

Halogen lamps

Globar

Nernst lamp
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Optical Transmitters

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OPTICAL MODULATORS

Lasers and LEDs used in telecommunication


applications are modulated using one of two
methods:
Direct modulation
Indirect/External modulation.

Optical Modulators

Direct Modulation

Absorptive Modulators

Electro-Optic Modulators Acousto-Optic Modulators

External Modulation

Refractive Modulators

Magneto-Optic Modulators

DIRECT MODULATION

The output power of the device varies directly with the


input drive current.
Both LEDs and lasers can be directly modulated using
analog and digital signals.

DIRECT MODULATION
Benefits
Simple and cheap
Cost effective
Compact
Disadvantage
Short distance applications
Affects source original wavelength

EXTERNAL MODULATION

An external device is used to modulate the intensity or phase of


the light source.
The light source remains on while the external modulator acts
like a shutter controlled by the information being transmitted.
External modulation is typically used in high-speed applications
such as long-haul telecommunication or cable TV head ends.

EXTERNAL MODULATION
Benefits
Much faster and can be used with higher-power laser sources.
Low Modulation distortion.
Disadvantage
More expensive
Requires complex circuitry to handle the high frequency RF
modulation signal.

OPTICAL MODULATORS - MZM

MZM consists of an input splitter arm, two arms (one modulated and one
un-modulated arm) and an output combiner arm.
At the modulating arm an RF signal is applied.

The expression for the optical output power is given by as

1 +

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OPERATION OF MZM

Image Courtesy : Wikipedia

EAM
To control optical absorption in the material by
applying Electric field
Based Franz-Keldysh effect
Advantages

Operate with much lower voltage ~ EOM


Operated at very high speed
High Modulation bandwidth

OPTICAL MODULATORS - EAM

Electro absorption modulators are based on electro absorption effect, which is


defined as the change of material absorption in the presence of an electric field.

EAM is used for modulating the intensity of laser beam via an electric voltage.

The basic principle of EAM is Franz-Keldysh effect.

The expression for the optical output power is given by as


T =

Pout
Pin

= exp 1 2 2

(6)

Optical Carrier

RF Signal

EAM

Modulated Signal

RoF
Optical Fiber

Central Base Station

Remote Base Stations

ROFSO SYSTEM CONFIGURATION

RF Signal

RF Unit

FSO Channel
Optical
Modulator

RoFSO
Transmitter

Optical Signal

Optical Unit

RoFSO
Receiver

SPECTRUM ANALYSIS

Input and Output signal of the Modulator

PHOTO DETECTORS

Optical receivers convert optical signal (light) to


electrical signal (current/voltage)

Hence referred O/E Converter

Photodetector is the fundamental element of optical


receiver, followed by amplifiers and signal conditioning
circuitry
There are several photodetector types:

Photodiodes, Phototransistors, Photon multipliers, Photoresistors etc.

REQUIREMENTS
Compatible physical dimensions (small size)
Low sensitivity (high responsivity) at the desired
wavelength and low responsivity elsewhere
wavelength selectivity
Low noise and high gain
Fast response time high bandwidth
Insensitive to temperature variations
Long operating life and low cost

Photodetectors

A square-law optoelectronic transducer that generates an electrical


signal proportional to the square of the instantaneous optical field
incident on its surface

The ratio of the number of electronhole (eh) pairs generated by a


photodetector to the incident photons in a given time is termed the quantum
efficiency,

Dark current: the current through the photodiode in the absence of light
Noise-equivalent power (NEP): the minimum input optical power to
generate photocurrent equal to the root mean square (RMS) noise current in
a 1 Hz bandwidth
Responsivity: photocurrent generated per unit incident optical power
(W/A)

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PHOTODIODES
Photodiodes meet most the requirements, hence widely
used as photo detectors.
Positive-Intrinsic-Negative (pin) photodiode

No internal gain, robust detector

Avalanche Photo Diode (APD)

Advanced version with internal gain M due to self


multiplication process

Photodiodes

are sufficiently reverse biased


during normal operation no current flow
without illumination, the intrinsic region is
fully depleted of carriers

Photodetectors

p-i-n photodetector

Consists of p- and n-type semiconductor materials separated by a very


lightly n-doped intrinsic region
In normal operating conditions, a sufficiently large reverse bias
voltage is applied across the device
The reverse bias ensures that the intrinsic region is depleted of any
charge carriers

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PIN PHOTODIODE

It is a junction diode in which an undoped intrinsic ( i ) region is


inserted between relatively thin p region and relatively thick n
region.

Diode is reverse biased so that the entire i- region is depleted


and has a strong electric field.

Light absorbed in intrinsic region produce free electron hole


pairs, provided that photon energy is high enough.

These carriers which are responsible for photocurrent are swept


across the region with high velocity and are collected across the
reverse biased junction.

This gives rise to a current flow in the external circuit called the
photocurrent.

PIN ENERGY-BAND DIAGRAM

hc
c
Eg

A particular semiconductor material


can be used only over a limited
wavelength range

PIN ENERGY-BAND DIAGRAM

hc
1.24
c

m Cut off wavelength depends on the


bandgap energy
Eg Eg (eV )
Cut off wavelength for Si is about 1.06 m and for Ge it is 1.6 m.
For longer wavelengths the photon energy is not sufficient to
excite an electron from the valence band to the conduction band.

MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION
The material used to make a photodiode is critical to
defining its properties, because only photons with
sufficient energy to excite electrons across the material's
bandgap will produce significant photocurrents.
Materials commonly used to produce photodiodes include:

Material

Wavelength range (nm)


(for good sensitivity)

Silicon

1901100

Germanium

4001700

Indium gallium
8002600
arsenide
InGaAsP

<1000-3500

AVALANCHE PHOTODIODE

AVALANCHE PHOTODIODE

More sophisticated structure than the PIN photodiode in order to create


an extremely high electric field region(app 3*105 V/cm).

Internally multiplies the primary signal photocurrent.

Impact Ionization

The photo generated carriers must traverse a region where a very high
electric field is present.

In this region, a photogenerated hole or electron can


energy to excite new-electron hole pairs.

gain enough

Avalanche Effect

The newly created carriers are also accelerated by the high electric
field, thus gaining enough energy to cause further impact ionization.

This phenomenon is the avalanche effect.


Often requires high reverse bias voltages(50 to 400 V) in order that the
new carriers created can themselves produce additional carriers.

REACH THROUGH AVALANCHE PHOTODIODE

REACH THROUGH AVALANCHE


PHOTODIODE(RAPD)

Commonly used structure for achieving carrier multiplication with very


little excess noise.

RAPD is composed of a high-resistivity p-type material deposited as an


epitaxial layer on a p+substrate followed by the construction of an n+
layer.

The configuration is referred to as p+pn+ reach-through structure.

The layer is the intrinsic layer with p doping.

When a low reverse-bias voltage is applied, most of the potential drop is


across the pn+ junction.
The depletion layer widens with increasing bias until a certain voltage is
reached.
At this voltage the peak electric field at the pn+ junction is about 5-10
percent below that needed to cause avalanche breakdown.
At this point , the depletion layer just reaches through to the nearly
intrinsic region.

REACH THROUGH AVALANCHE


PHOTODIODE(RAPD)

Light enters the device through the p+ region and is absorbed in the
material.

After being absorbed, the photon gives up its energy, thereby creatingelectron-hole pairs.
The photogenerated electrons drift through the region in the pn+ region,
where a high electric field exists where carrier multiplication takes place.

Ionization Rate
Average number of electron-hole pairs created by a carrier per unit
distance travelled.
Electron ionization rate=

Hole ionization rate=


Ratio K=

/ is a measure of the photodetector performance.

Transmission Media
Two main categories:
Guided wires, cables
Unguided wireless transmission, e.g. radio,
microwave, infrared, sound, sonar
We will concentrate on guided media here:
Twisted-Pair cables:
Unshielded Twisted-Pair (UTP) cables
Shielded Twisted-Pair (STP) cables
Coaxial cables
Fiber-optic cables

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Twisted-pair cable

UTP and STP cables

Coaxial cable

BASIC FIBRE PROPERTIES


Low loss
Usually fused silica
Core refractive index > cladding refractive index
Operation is based on total internal reflection

Core Cladding

Buffer coating

fiber core

glass or plastic
cladding

plastic jacket

85

Fiber-Optic Cables
Light travels at 3108 ms-1 in free space and is the
fastest possible speed in the Universe
Light slows down in denser media, e.g. glass
Refraction occurs at interface, with light bending
away from the normal when it enters a less dense
medium

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Beyond the critical angle total internal

87

An optical fiber consists of a core (denser


material) and a cladding (less dense material)
Simplest one is a multimode step-index optical
fiber
Multimode = multiple paths, whereas step-index
= refractive index follows a step-function profile
(i.e. an abrupt change of refractive index
between the core and the cladding)

Light bounces back and forth along the core

Common light sources: LEDs and lasers

FIBER TRANSMISSION MEDIA

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FIBER TRANSMISSION MEDIA

89

Optical fiber

MODES IN FIBRE
A

fiber can support:

many modes (multi-mode fibre).


a single mode (single mode fiber).

The

number of modes (V) supported in a fiber is


determined by the indices, operating wavelength
and the diameter of the core, given as.

2
V 2 a nc2 ncl

2a
V
NA
or

V<2.405 corresponds to a single mode fiber.


By reducing the radius of the fiber, V goes down, and it becomes
impossible to reach a point when only a single mode can be
supported.
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Propagation modes

STEP-INDEX MULTI-MODE FIBRE

Input
pulse 120-400m

50-200 m

Output pulse
n1 =1.48-1.5
n2 = 1.46
dn=0.04,100 ns/km

Advantages:
Allows the use of non-coherent optical light source, e.g. LED's
Facilitates connecting together similar fibres
Imposes lower tolerance requirements on fibre connectors.
Cost effective

Disadvantages:
Suffer from dispersion (i.e. low bandwidth (a few MHz)
High power loss
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GRADED-INDEX MULTI-MODE FIBRE

50-100 m
Input
pulse 120-140m

n2 n 1
dn = 0.04,1ns/km

Output
pulse

Advantages:
Allows the use of non-coherent optical light source, e.g. LED's
Facilitates connecting together similar fibres
Imposes lower tolerance requirements on fibre connectors.
Reduced dispersion compared with STMMF

Disadvantages:
Lower bandwidth compared with STSMF
High power loss compared with the STSMF
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STEP-INDEX SINGLE-MODE FIBRE

Input
pulse 100-120m

8-12 m

Output pulse
n1 =1.48-1.5
n2 = 1.46
dn = 0.005, 5ps/km

Advantages:
Only one mode is allowed due to diffraction/interference effects.
Allows the use high power laser source
Facilitates fusion splicing similar fibres
Low dispersion, therefore high bandwidth (a few GHz).
Low loss (0.1 dB/km)
Disadvantages:
Cost
95

SINGLE MODE FIBER - POWER DISTRIBUTION

Optical power

Guided

Evanescent

Intensity profile of the fundamental mode


96

Figure 7.13 Modes

7.97

SMF VS. MMF


Parameters

SMF

MMF

Core radius

8 to 12 m

62.5/125 m

Supports

Only 1 mode of propagation

100s of modes

Optical source

LASER (1 nm)

LED (20 nm)

Launching of optical
power

Difficult Core radius is


small

Easier Core radius is large

Supports

Larger BW (1550 nm)

Lesser BW (850 nm)

IMD

Absent

Suffer

Use

Long distance
communication

Short distance
communication

Modes

FIBRE CHARACTERISTICS
The most important characteristics that limit the
transmission capabilities are:
Attenuation (loss)

Dispersion (pulse spreading)

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ATTENUATION
Attenuation means loss of light energy as the
light pulse travels from one end of the cable to
the other.
It is also called as signal loss or fiber loss.
It also decides the the number of repeaters
required between transmitter and receiver.
Attenuation is directly proportional to the length
of the cable.

ATTENUATION
Attenuation is defined as the ratio of optical output power
to the input power in the fiber of length L.
= 10log10 Pi/Po [in db/km]
where, Pi= Input Power
Po= Output Power, is attenuation constant
The various losses in the cable are due to

Absorption
Scattering
Dispersion
Bending

FIBER ATTENUATION

102

FIBER ATTENUATION

103

FIBER ATTENUATION

104

BENDING LOSSES
The loss which exists when an optical fiber
undergoes bending is called bending losses.
There are two types of bending
i) Macroscopic bending
Bending in which complete fiber undergoes
bends which causes certain modes not to be
reflected and therefore causes loss to the cladding.
ii) Microscopic Bending
Either the core or cladding undergoes slight bends
at its surface. It causes light to be reflected at
angles when there is no further reflection.

Macroscopic Bending

Microscopic
Bending
ISO 9001 : 2008 certified

ABSORPTION LOSS

1.
2.

Absorption of light energy due to heating of ion impurities


results in dimming of light at the end of the fiber.
Two types:
Intrinsic Absorption
Extrinsic Absorption

Intrinsic Absorption:
Caused by the interaction with one or more components
of the glass
Occurs when photon interacts with an electron in the
valence band & excites it to a higher energy level near
the UV region.
Extrinsic Absorption:
Also called impurity absorption.
Results from the presence of transition metal ions like
iron, chromium, cobalt, copper & from OH ions i.e. from
water.

ATTENUATION - STANDARD FIBRE


SM-fiber, InGaAsP DFB-laser,
~ 1990 Optical amplifiers

InGaAsP FP-laser or LED

Attenuation (dB/km)

10

MM-fibre, GaAslaser or LED

80nm

180 nm

5
2.0
Fourth Generation,
1996, 1.55 m
WDM-systems

1.0
0.5

1300
nm

0.2
0.1
600

800

1200
1000
1400
Wavelength (nm)

1550
nm
1600

1800

c
Bandwidth f 2 = 1.142 x 1014 Hz |1300 nm + 2.2475 1014 Hz |1550 nm

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FIBRE ATTENUATION - CONTD.


In a typical system, the total loss could bas 20-30 dB, before it
needs amplification.
So, at 0.2 dB/km, this corresponds to a distance of 100-150 km.

Attenuation along the fibre link can be


measured using Optical Time Domain
Reflectometer

110

FIBER DISPERSION

111

FIBER DISPERSION
Types

Intermodal dispersion
Chromatic dispersion

MODAL (INTERMODAL) DISPERSION


Lower order modes travel travelling almost parallel to the centre
line of the fibre cover the shortest distance, thus reaching the end of
fibre sooner.
The higher order modes (more zig-zag rays) take a longer route
as they pass along the fibre and so reach the end of the fibre later.
Mainly in multimode fibres
2

Cladding n2
Core n1

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CHROMATIC DISPERSION
It is a result of group velocity being a function of wavelength.
In any given mode different spectral components of a pulse traveling
through the fibre at different speed.
It depends on the light
source spectral characteristics.

Laser

LED
(many modes)

= 1-2 nm
= R.M.S Spectral
width
= 40 nm
wavelength

May occur in all fibre, but is the dominant in single mode fibre
Main causes:
Material dispersion - different wavelengths => different speeds
Waveguide dispersion: different wavelengths => different angles
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MATERIAL DISPERSION
Refractive index of silica is frequency dependent. Thus different
frequency (wavelength) components travel at different speed
RMS pulse broadening

d 2n
mat L
c d2

Where material dispersion

175

coefficient:

100

d n
Dmat
c d2

ns / km

2nd window

ps / nm.km

Note: Negative sign, indicates that low


wavelength components arrives before
higher wavelength components.

Dmat 0
-100
0.8

1.0 1.2

1.4 1.6 1.7

115

WAVEGUIDE DISPERSION
This results from variation of the group velocity with wavelength for
a particular mode. Depends on the size of the fibre.

This can usually be ignored in multimode fibres, since it is very


small compared with material dispersion.
However it is significant in monomode fibres.
175
Waveguide dispersion

100
Dmat 0
-100
0.8

Total dispersion
Material dispersion
1.0 1.2

1.4 1.6 1.7


116

FIBER LIMITATIONS

117

FIBER LIMITATIONS

118

SIGNAL RESHAPING AND AMPLIFICATION

In long distance communications, whether going


through wire, fibre or wave, the signal carrying
the information experience:
- Power loss
- Pulse broadening
which requires amplification and signal
reshaping.
In fibre optics communications, these can be done
in two ways:

Opto-electronic conversion
All optical
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REGENERATORS

3R

2R

Reshaping
Re-clocking
Amplification
Reshaping
Amplification

1R (Example EDFA)

Amplification

1R, 2R and 3R Regeneration

TRADITIONAL OPTICAL COMMUNICATION


SYSTEM
Loss compensation: Repeaters at every 20-50 km

WHY OPTICAL AMPLIFIERS?


Increase transmission distance
by increasing optical power coupled to transmission fiber(power
booster)
by compensating optical fiber losses(in-line amplifier, remote pump
amplifier)
by improving receiver sensitivity (optical preamplifier)
Function : Amplification of optical signal without conversion to
electrical signal
Ingredients : Pump energy, amplification medium

Pumping of energy
Optical input

...
amplification
medium

...
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Optical output

16

OPTICALLY AMPLIFIED SYSTEMS


EDFA = Erbium Doped Fibre Amplifier

THE NEED OF OPTICAL AMPLIFICATION


Why? Extend distance light signal can travel
without regeneration

Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers (EDFAs) application in


long haul. Todays amplifier of choice.
Erbium-Doped Waveguide Amplifiers (EDWAs)
application in metro and access networks
Raman Amplifiers application in DWDM
Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers (SOA) not fiber
based type, application in metro and access networks
Amplifier

Pump Lasers

Standard Fiber

GENERAL APPLICATION OF OPTICAL


AMPLIFICATION
In-line amplifier
Preamplifier
Power (booster) amplifier

LAN booster amplifier


Amplifier

Pump Lasers

Standard Fiber

OPTICAL AMPLIFIERS
Why is there a requirement for optical amplifiers?
=> Light signal over long distances become
attenuated.
=> Regeneration of the light signal is necessary
especially over distances of perhaps several
thousand kilometers.
=> The overhead of photo detection to electrical
conversions and back to light via a laser diode
contributes to high cost .
Optical Amplifiers: EDFA, Raman, SOA.

WHAT IS AN OPTICAL AMPLIFIER?


Main function is to amplify received light
pulses
Amplifies without converting pulses to
electrical form
Amplifies many wavelengths simultaneously
Added power is shared across wavelengths

Amplifier

Applications of optical amplifiers

Applications of optical amplifiers


In Line Optical Amplifiers

A single mode link does not require a complete


regeneration of the signal, simple amplification of the optical
signal is sufficient.

In-Line optical amplifiers can be used to compensate for


transmission loss and increase the distance between
regenerative repeaters.

Pre Amplifiers
Weak Optical signal is amplified before photo detection so
that the SNR degradation caused by thermal noise in the
receiver is suppressed.

Preamplifier provides a larger gain factor and a broader


bandwidth.

Applications of optical amplifiers


Power Amplifiers

Power or booster amplifier applications include placing


the device immediately after an optical transmitter to boost
the transmitted power.

Eg, Using this boosting technique together with an


optical preamplifier at the receiving end can enable repeater
less undersea transmission distances of 200-250 km.

IMPROVEMENT OF SYSTEM GAIN

Booster
amplifier
Preamplifier

Improvement
in gain(dB)

Improvement Key
in length(km) technology

10 - 15

40 - 60

High efficiency

5 - 10 (APD)
10 - 15 (PIN)
15 - 30

20 - 40
40- 60
60 - 120

Low noise

In-line
amplifier
Remote pump 5 - 15
amplifier

30 - 60

Low noise
Supervisory
High pumping
power

Generic optical amplifier

OEO REGENERATOR

OPTICAL AMPLIFIERS

PDFA Praseodymium-doped fiber amplifier (1310


1380 nm)
EDFA Erbium-doped fiber amplifier (15301565
nm)
GS-EDFA Gain-shifted EDFA (15651625 nm)
EDTFA Tellurium-based gain-shifted TDFA (1530
1610 nm)
GS-TDFA Gain-shifted thulium-doped fiber
amplifier (14901530 nm)
TDFA Thulium-doped fluoride-based fiber amplifier
(14501490 nm)
RFA Raman fiber amplifier (14201650 nm or
more)

OPTICAL AMPLIFICATION: MECHANICS

OPTICAL AMPLIFICATION
Amplification gain: Up to a factor of 10,000 (+40 dB)
In WDM: Several signals within the amplifiers gain (G)
bandwidth are amplified, but not to the same extent
It generates its own noise source known as Amplified
Spontaneous Emission (ASE) noise.

Weak signal
Pin
ASE

Optical
Amplifier
(G)

Amplified signal
Pout
ASE

Pump Source

137

Single channel

Wavelength

Power
(amplified signal)

Power
(unamplified signal)

OPTICAL AMPLIFICATION - SPECTRAL


CHARACTERISTICS

ASE
Wavelength

Wavelength

Power
(amplified signal)

Power
(unamplified signal)

WDM channels

ASE
Wavelength
138

OPTICAL AMPLIFICATION - NOISE FIGURE


Required figure of merit to compare amplifier noise
performance
Defined when the input signal is coherent

NoiseFigure (NF)

Input signal to noise ratio ( SNRi )


Output signal to noise ratio ( SNRo )

NF is a positive number, nearly always > 2 (I.e. 3 dB)


Good performance: when NF ~ 3 dB
NF is one of a number of factors that determine the
overall BER of a network.
139

OPTICAL AMPLIFIERS
Basically, there are four types of optical amplifiers.
1.

Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA)

2.

Fiber Raman Amplifier (FRA)

3.

Semiconductor Laser Amplifier (SLA)

4. Integrated optical amplifiers

Signal input

WDM
Coupler

Power
Monitor
Isolator
Signal
output

Er doped Fiber Coil


980 nm Pump

Typical Point-to-Point Optical Link

Rx

Tx

Signal Power

Post Amplifier

Line Amplifier

Receiver Sensitivity
Link Length

Pre Amplifier

DOPED FIBER AMPLIFIERS

Doped fiber amplifiers (DFAs) are optical amplifiers


that use a doped optical fiber as a gain medium to amplify
an optical signal.
The signal to be amplified and a pump laser are
multiplexed into the doped fiber, and the signal is
amplified through interaction with the doping ions.
The most common example is the Erbium Doped Fiber
Amplifier (EDFA), where the core of a silica fiber is doped
with trivalent Erbium ions and can be efficiently pumped
with a laser at a wavelength of 980 nm or 1,480 nm, and
exhibits gain in the 1,550 nm region.

BASIC CONSTRUCTION OF EDFA OPTICAL


AMPLIFIER
Optical
Isolator
Optical Signal
Input at 1550 nm

Optical
Isolator

WDM
Coupler
Erbium
doped
fiber
Semiconductor
Pump
Laser at 980 nm or 1480 nm

Length of fiber:core doped with(rare earth) erbium


ions Er3+
Optical Isolators allow light to travel in one direction
only
Couplers combines signal & light into erbium Doped
Fiber
Pump laser operates at 980nm or 1480nm

EDFA: OPERATION
When Er3+ ions introduced in silica, electrons disperse
into an energy band around the lines E1, E2, E3 (Stark
splitting)
Within each band, the ion distribution is non-uniform.
Due to these effects, a large range (50 nm) can be
simultaneously amplified & luckily it is in the 1530nm
range

Booster or power amplifier is used at the transmitter after the source. In-line
(repeater) amplifier is used at intermediete points. Pre-amplifier is used
before the photodetector at the receiver. An EDFA coprises of LD pump source,
Erbium doped fiber, WDM coupler and Optical isolator. Pumping schemes are
shown in figure below.
WDM coupler

Output
Signal

Isolator
LD

Pump

(a)

Erbium doped fiber

Forward pumping
Output

Signal
LD
Pump

(b)

Backward pumping
Output

Signal
LD

Pump

LD
Pump

(c) Bidirectional pumping

SEMICONDUCTOR OPTICAL AMPLIFIERS

Semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) are amplifiers which use a


semiconductor to provide the gain medium.
Simple SOA are almost the same as regular index-guided FP lasers but
with anti-reflection design elements at the end faces.
The gain peak of an SOA can be selected in any narrow wavelength band
extending from 1280 nm to 1650 nm.

SOAs belong to the travelling wave amplifier category.


This means that in contrast to the laser feedback mechanism where the
optical signal makes many passes through the lasing cavity, in the SOA the
optical signal travels through the device only once.
During this single passage the signal gains energy and emerges intensified
at the other end of the amplifier.

RAMAN FIBER AMPLIFIERS


The gain spectra for Raman amplification is quite broad (150 to 200
nm) and covers the entire operating S-, C-, L-, and U-bands

The pumping can be done in forward (co-propagating) and in


reverse (counter-propagating) direction.
20- to 35-dB gain with 800 mW to 1W pump power

RECALL: SRS
Stimulated Raman Scattering is an interaction between light
waves and the vibrational modes of silica molecules.
If a photon of energy h1 is incident on a molecule having a
vibrational frequency Vm, the molecule can absorb some
energy from the photon.
In this interaction , the photon is scattered, thereby attaining
a lower frequency 2 and a corresponding lower energy h2.
The modified photon is called a stokes photon.
The optical signal that is injected into the fiber is called the
pump wave.
This process generates scattered light at a wavelength longer
than that of incident light.
If another signal is present at this longer wavelength, the SRS
light will amplify it.

BROADBAND AMPLIFICATION USING RAMAN


AMPLIFIERS

Raman amplification can provides very broadband


amplification
Multiple high-power "pump" lasers are used to produce
very high gain over a range of wavelengths.
93 nm bandwidth has been demonstrated with just two
pumps sources

Source: Master 7_5

Advantages

Variable wavelength amplification possible

Compatible with installed SM fibre

Can be used to "extend" EDFAs

Can result in a lower average power over a span, good


for lower crosstalk

Very broadband operation may be possible

Disadvantages

High pump power requirements, high pump power


lasers have only recently arrived

Sophisticated gain control needed

Noise is also an issue

Problem-1

Problem-1

Problem-2

Problem-2

Problem
A 6 km optical link consists of multimode step index fiber with a core refractive index
of 1.5 and a relative refractive index difference of 1%. Estimate:
(a) the delay difference between the slowest and fastest modes at the fiber output;
(b) the rms pulse broadening due to intermodal dispersion on the link;
(c) the maximum bit rate that may be obtained without substantial errors on the
link assuming only intermodal dispersion;
(d) the bandwidthlength product corresponding to (c).

Problem
A 6 km optical link consists of multimode step index fiber with a core refractive index
of 1.5 and a relative refractive index difference of 1%. Estimate:
(a) the delay difference between the slowest and fastest modes at the fiber output;

(b) the rms pulse broadening due to intermodal dispersion on the link

Problem
A 6 km optical link consists of multimode step index fiber with a core refractive index
of 1.5 and a relative refractive index difference of 1%. Estimate:
(c) the maximum bit rate that may be obtained without substantial errors on the
link assuming only intermodal dispersion;

(d) the bandwidthlength product corresponding to (c).

Problem
A 6 km optical link consists of multimode step index fiber with a core refractive index
of 1.5 and a relative refractive index difference of 1%. Estimate the rms pulse
broadening per kilometre due to intermodal dispersion on the link; Also estimate the
rms pulse broadening per kilometre for an optimum near-parabolic profile graded
index fiber with the same core axis refractive index and relative refractive index
difference and compare it.
Solution:
The rms pulse broadening due to intermodal dispersion on the link

The rms pulse broadening per kilometer for the multimode step index fiber is:

Problem
A 6 km optical link consists of multimode step index fiber with a core refractive index
of 1.5 and a relative refractive index difference of 1%. Estimate the rms pulse
broadening per kilometre due to intermodal dispersion on the link; Also estimate the
rms pulse broadening per kilometre for an optimum near-parabolic profile graded
index fiber with the same core axis refractive index and relative refractive index
difference and compare it.
The rms pulse broadening per kilometre for the corresponding graded index fiber is:

Link Impairment consideration and


system design

Point-to-Point Links
Key system requirements needed to analyze optical fiber links:
1. The desired (or possible) transmission distance
2. The data rate or channel bandwidth
3. The desired bit-error rate (BER)
LED or laser

(a) Emission wavelength


(b) Spectral line width
(c) Output power
(d) Effective radiating area
(e) Emission pattern

MMF or SMF

(a) Core size


(b) Core index profile
(c) BW or dispersion
(d) Attenuation
(e) NA or MFD

pin or APD

(a) Responsivity
(b) Operating
(c) Speed
(d) Sensitivity

Selecting the Fiber


Bit rate and distance are the major factors
Other factors to consider: attenuation (depends on?)
and distance-bandwidth product (depends on?)
cost of the connectors, splicing etc.
Then decide
Multimode or single mode
Step or graded index fiber

Selecting the
Optical Source
Emission wavelength
Spectral line width and
number of modes
Output power
Stability
Emission pattern
Effective radiating area

LED
LASER

Selecting the detector


Type of detector
APD: High sensitivity but complex, high bias voltage
(40V or more) and expensive
PIN: Simpler, thermally stable, low bias voltage (5V or
less) and less expensive

Responsivity (that depends on the avalanche gain


& quantum efficiency)
Operating wavelength and spectral selectivity
Speed and photosensitive area
Sensitivity (depends on noise and gain)

Design Considerations
Link Power Budget
There is enough power margin in the system to
meet the given BER

Rise Time Budget


Each element of the link is fast enough to meet
the given bit rate
These two budgets give necessary conditions
for satisfactory operation

Link Power Budget


The link loss budget is derived from the sequential loss contributions of
each element in the link expressed in dB as

Optical power-loss model

Optical power-loss model

PT Ps PR mlc nlsp f L System Margin

PT : Total loss; Ps : Source power; PR : Rx sensitivity


m connectors; n splices

Optical power-loss model

PT Ps PR mlc nlsp f L System Margin

Problem

Problem 2
An optical system has the following characteristics:
LED power (Ps) = 2 mW (3 dBm)
LED to fiber loss (Lsf) = 3 dB
Fiber loss per km (FL) = 0.5 dB/km
Fiber length (L) = 40 km
Connector loss (Lconn) = 1 dB (one connector between two 20-km fiber lengths)
Fiber to detector loss (Lfd) = 3 dB
Receiver sensitivity (Pr) = 36 dBm
Find the loss margin.

Solution:

PT [dB] Ps [dBm] PR [dBm]


PT 2lc [dB] f [dB / km] L[km] System Margin
Lm = 3 dBm 3 dB (40 km 0.5 dB/km) 1 dB 3 dB (36 dBm) = 12 dB

Rise Time Budget


Convenient method for determining the dispersion limitation of an
optical fiber link-Each element of the link is fast enough to meet the given bit rate.
Total rise time depends on:
Transmitter rise time (ttx)
Group Velocity Dispersion (tGVD)
Modal dispersion rise time (tmod)
Receiver rise time (trx)

tsys

1/ 2

2
ti
i 1

Total rise time of a digital link should not exceed


70% for a NRZ bit period, and 35% of a RZ bit period

Rise Time

Rise Time
trx 350 /Brx ns; where
Brx is receiver bandwidth in MHz
Similarly

ttx 350 / Btx ns


Assuming both transmitter and receiver as first order
low pass filters

Modal Dispersion Rise Time


Bandwidth BM(L) due to modal dispersion of a
link length L is empirically given by,
BM ( L) Bo / Lq
B0 is the BW of a 1 km length of cable(MHz-km
product) and q ~0.5-1 is the modal equilibrium factor

tmod (ns) 440 / BM 440 Lq / B0


Where B0 is in MHzKm, BM is in MHz

Group Velocity Dispersion


tGVD | D | L
Where,
D is the dispersion parameter (ps/km.nm)
is the half power spectral width of the source (nm)
L is the distance in km

t sys

2 q2
2 2

2 2 2
440
L
ttx trx D L
2
B
0

1/ 2

Problem 1
An LED together with its drive circuit has a rise time of 15ns.Taking a typical LED spectral width
of 40nm, the material dispersion rise time degradation is 21ns over the 6-km link. Assuming the receiver
has a 25-MHZ bandwidth,
1.Find the rise time degradation from the receiver.
2. If the fiber we select has a 400-MHz.km bandwidth-distance product and with q=0.7, find the modal
dispersion-induced fiber rise time.
3.Calculate the total rise time of the link

Problem 2
An LED together with its drive circuit has a rise time of 0.025ns. Taking a typical LED spectral width
of 40nm, the material dispersion rise time degradation is 21ns over the 6-km link. Assuming the receiver
has a 25-MHZ bandwidth,
1.Find the rise time degradation from the receiver.
2. If the fiber we select has a 400-MHz.km bandwidth-distance product and with q=0.6, find the modal
dispersion-induced fiber rise time.
3.Calculate the total rise time of the link

Ans:25 ns