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Thermal Analysis of Water Cooled Charge Air Cooler in Turbo Charged Diesel Engine

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IN TURBO CHARGED DIESEL ENGINE

J.N. Devi Sankar1 , P.S.Kis hore 2

1

M.E. (Heat transfer in Energy Systems) Student, Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering(A),

Andhra University, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India

2

Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering (A), Andhra University, Visakhapatnam,

Andhra Pradesh, India

Abstract

Air-cooled and water-cooled charge air coolers are used as applications in automobiles. The cooling media include engines

coolant, ambient air or any other external coolant source. Charge air cooler with offset strip fin geometry is chosen on both hot

and cold sides with fin thickness 0.15 mm, length 3.2 mm, height 5.2 mm and frequency of 18 fins per inch. The flow rate on hot

side is taken as 0.3 kg/s and cold side as 2 kg/s for air-cooled charge air cooler and for water-cooled charge air cooler on hot

side it is 0.3 kg/s and cold side is 0.265 kg/s with inlet temperature on hot side 160 o C and cold side 40 o C. With the above

conditions, performance evaluation is done on both charge air coolers. Having found water-cooled charge air cooler is having

higher effectiveness than air-cooled type, performance evaluation is carried out on water-cooled charge air cooler with varying

mass flow rates on hot side from 0.1 to 0.6 kg/s and keeping cold fluid rate constant at 0.265 kg/s and the outputs obtained are

Colburn-j factor, Fanning friction factor, heat transfer coefficient, overall heat transfer coefficient and effectiveness of h eat

exchanger. From the obtained results, graphs are drawn to assess the performance of the water charge air cooler.

Keywords: Charge Air Cooler, Plate Fin Heat Exchanger, Colburn-J Factor, Heat Transfer Coefficient, Fanning

Friction Factor, Effectiveness

--------------------------------------------------------------------***---------------------------------------------------------------------1. INTRODUCTION

Different types of heat exchangers are used in aerospace and

automobiles as charge air coolers (CA C), rad iators, oil

coolers, heater cores, air conditioning machines (ACM), etc.

The present work is concentrated on charge air cooler. The

main goal of charge air cooler is to decrease the temperature

of in let air entering into the cylinder. In this work, thermal

and heat transfer analysis is carried out on an air cooler

treating it to be a plate fin heat exchanger. To install this in

aero or auto mobile application, space is a major constraint.

So the exchanger chosen should be compact enough. These

are characterized by high heat transfer surface area per unit

volume.

Several researchers discussed performance of d ifferent types

of heat exchangers used for different purposes and

developed correlations both numerically and experimentally.

Shah and Sekulic [1] pointed out that compact heat

exchangers are taken to have large surface area/volu me

ratios. Plate fin exchanger is used for various applications

which use plain, wavy, o ffset, perforated, pin and louvered

fins. Manglik and Bergles [2] in their paper discussed the

effect of fin geometry on heat transfer and pressure drop

correlations. The results are found to be in close agreement

with experimental data got by Kays and London [3]. Zhang

et al. [4] in their art icle gave the increase in heat transfer in

parallel plate fin heat exchangers. This includes inline and

staggered array arrangements of offset fins taking fin

thickness. Dejong et al. [5] in their paper studied flow and

evaluate skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number on off

strip channel. Bhowmik and Lee [6] in their study derived

pressure drop and heat transfer effects on offset strip fin heat

exchanger using a three dimensional model. Friction factor

and Colburn j- factors are arrived for both laminar and

turbulent flow regimes. Hu and Hero ld [7] discussed

experimentally the Prandtl nu mber effect on heat transfer

and pressure drop for offset strip fin array. Devi sankar [8]

in his thesis carried out performance analysis of charge air

cooler with offset strip fin geometry in turbo charged diesel

engine and studied the effect of mass flow rates of air on

Colburn-j factor, frict ion factor, heat transfer coefficient and

effectiveness of water cooled charge air cooler. In his work,

a charge air cooler in turbo charged diesel engine is chosen

as a cross flow heat exchanger where charge air is cooled by

coolant (water).

AIR COOLER IN TURBOCHARGED DIESEL

ENGINE

A turbocharger is a turbine-driven forced induction device

that increases internal co mbustion engine efficiency and

power output by forcing ext ra air into the cylinder. The

turbocharger has two major co mponents i.e. co mp ressor and

turbine. Co mpressor is driven by turbine on which the hot

gases from exhaust manifo ld strikes the turbine blade and

_______________________________________________________________________________________

Volume: 05 Issue: 02 | Feb-2016, Available @ http://www.ijret.org

193

outside through an air cleaner and comp resses it.

Fig-1: Charge air cooler core geo metry

1) Part ing sheet 2) Offset fin 3) Header 4) Side bar

Fig.4. shows the circuit o f water cooled charge air cooler

(WCAC). Here the coolant is water. The water is circulated

through a circuit. This circu it consists of a radiator and a

pump. The water after passing through radiator passes to

water charge air cooler thereby removing heat fro m air. The

present work is main ly focused on WCAC with same fin

configurations, core size of the exchanger as charge air

cooler (CAC). WCA C will have some advantages over

charge air cooler (CA C).

Fig.1 shows charge air cooler (CAC) with cross flow

arrangement. The main co mponents of the CAC are part ing

sheets, fin, header and side bar. All the co mponents are held

together to form a plate fin heat exchanger. Fig. 2 shows

offset strip fin geometry put on both sides of the heat

exchanger.

Fig-4: Water to Air charge air cooler circu it

In Fig. 3 charge air cooler is put before intake manifold and

after compressor. The major co mponents in the system are

turbocharger, charge air cooler, engine intake and exhaust

man ifolds. The amb ient air is sucked into the comp ressor

through an air filter, where it is compressed to high

temperature. Co mpressed air leaves the compressor and

enters into charge air cooler with high temperature, which

rejects its heat to the ambient air and cools down. The

cooled charge fro m the CA C enters into the intake manifold.

After co mpletion of cycle, exhaust gases fro m engine enter

into exhaust manifold before it leaves to the atmosphere.

Energy of the exhaust gases were used to run the turbine.

3.

ANALYSIS

OF

PLATE

FIN

HEAT

EXCHANGER

The performance of a plate fin heat exchanger can be

analyzed by putting the necessary equations in order as

below:

Minimu m free flow area, (A o ) is calcu lated as

A o = (b-t) w (1-nt) Np

(1)

no. of fluid passages, n is number of fins per unit length

Primary area of p late, (A p ) is given by

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Volume: 05 Issue: 02 | Feb-2016, Available @ http://www.ijret.org

194

A p = 2 {l w (1- nt) Np }

(2)

Af

(3)

(b-t)

Np

thermal conductivity of fin material and refer to fin

thickness

Overall surface effectiveness is given by

o = 1 1

(14)

Where, A f / A = fin area/heat transfer area

A = 2 {p rimary area} +n f secondary area

(4)

Hydraulic diameter, Dh

Dh =

(

{(

)(

)

)

)}

(5)

tco = tci +

equation,

=

+

+

(15)

(6)

of hot and cold fluids respectively and mh , mc are mass of

hot and cold fluids respectively.

Core mass velocity (G)

and cold fluid sides, A h and A c are heat transfer area on hot

and cold flu id sides, h h and h c are heat transfer coefficient on

hot and cold fluid sides, kw refers to thermal conductivity of

wall, t w refers to thickness of wall.

A w refers to wall lateral conduction area given by

Where, A w = l w (2 Np +2)

Fro m the known UA, NTU is determined as

NTU=

G=

(16)

(17)

(7)

For unmixed unmixed cross flow arrangement, is given

by

(C NTU . ) 1}

= 1

[

NTU . {

Reynolds number based on hydraulic diameter (Re)

Re =

(8)

The heat transfer and pressure drop correlat ions are

expressed as j and f factors according to Shah and Dusan [1]

j = 0.6522 Re -0.5403 ()-0.1541 () 0.1499 ()-0.0678

[1+5.269E-5 Re1.34 ()0.504 ()0.456 ()-1.055 ]0.1

-0.7422

-0.1856

0.3053

(9)

-0.2659

f = 9.6243 Re

()

()

()

[1+7.669E-8 Re4.429 ()0.92 ()3.767 ()0.236 ]0.1

(18)

Where

C* = Cmin / Cmax

The values got from the above are shown plotted as graphs

depicting their behavior as mentioned below.

(10)

= , =

, =

l is fin length.

Heat transfer coefficients for both the flu ids (h) accord ing to

Shah and Dusan [1]

h = j G Cp Pr-2/3

(11)

Where, Cp is specific heat of fluid and Pr refers to Prandtl

number of fluid

Fin effectiveness can be calculated as

f =

Fin parameter for rectangular fin is given by

m = (2h / k f )

(13)

1/2

(12)

air

Fig.5. above shows the plot between Colburn j- factor and

Reynolds number of air. It is seen from the graph that as

Reynolds number increases, Colburn j- factor decreases.

Where, l = (b/2)

_______________________________________________________________________________________

Volume: 05 Issue: 02 | Feb-2016, Available @ http://www.ijret.org

195

coefficient is small on air side. With the increase in mass

flow rate of air, the Nusselt number increases, resulting in

higher heat transfer coefficients. So with increased in mass

flow rate of air fro m 0.1 to 0.6 kg/s the heat transfer

coefficients increases, resulting in increase of overall heat

transfer coefficient.

Fig.6. shows that the friction factor f, decreased with

increase in Reynolds number of a charge air cooler with

OSF. Friction factor g ives high value in laminar zone Re <

2000 and decreases in turbulent zone. Friction factor

depends on fin geo metry with increase in fin geo metry like

height, length the friction factor tends to decrease.

Fig-9: Variation of effect iveness with mass flow rate of air

Fig.9. shows that as mass flo w rate increases, effectiveness

of the water charge air cooler treated to be a heat exchanger

decreases. It was found fro m the graph that fo r an increase

in mass flow rate of air fro m 0.2 to 0.6 kg/s, effectiveness

rapidly decreases.

5. CONCLUSIONS

mass flow rate of air.

Fig.7. above shows the graph plotted between heat transfer

coefficient and Reynolds number of air. As the offset strip

fin length is small, the boundary layer in the form of laminar

is developed and thus helps to increase in the value of heat

transfer coefficient.

Fig.8. above shows the variation of overall heat transfer

coefficient with mass flow rate of air. The overall heat

transfer depends on heat transfer coefficients of both hot and

and effectiveness of the water charge air cooler treat ing

it as plate fin heat exchanger.

2. Taking same fin configuration, core size and temperature

inlets of hot and cold fluid, it was found that watercooled charge air cooler gave higher effectiveness than

air-cooled charge air cooler.

3. Varying hot flu id (air) mass flow rate fro m 0.1 to 0.6

kg/s and keeping cold fluid (water) rate constant at 0.265

kg/s, with inlet temperatures taken on hot side as 160 o C

and cold side as 40 o C, the thermal performance of the

exchanger was analyzed using -NTU method and

results obtained are Colburn-j factor on air side was

decreased by 58.79%, friction factor on air side was

decreased by 41.81%, heat transfer coefficient increases

by 177.46%, overall heat transfer coefficient was

enhanced by 115% and effectiveness of the exchanger

was decreased by 22.36%.

NOMENCLATURE

A

b

C

Dh

f

G

h

j

k

space between two plates in exchanger, m

specific heat of fluid at constant pressure, J/kg-.K

hydraulic diameter of flo w passages, m

fanning friction factor

mass velocity, kg/ m2 -s

heat transfer coefficient, W/ m2 -K

Colburn j- factor, St Pr2/3

flu id thermal conductivity, W/m.K

Volume: 05 Issue: 02 | Feb-2016, Available @ http://www.ijret.org

196

L

Lf

l

ls

m

m

Np

NTU

Nu

n

P

Pr

p

Q

Re

s

T

t

U

u

V

fin flo w length on one side of a exchanger, m

fin height, m

strip length of an offset strip fin, m

fin parameter, 1/ m

flu id mass flow rate, kg/s

number of fluid passages

number of heat transfer units

Nusselt number

no of fins per length in the fin pitch direction, 1/ m

wetted perimeter of exchanger passages, m

Prandtl nu mber

flu id static pressure, Pa

heat transfer rate, W

Reynolds number

spacing between adjacent fins, m

temperature, o C

fin thickness, m

overall heat transfer coefficient, W/ m2 -K

flu id mean axial velocity, m/s

heat exchanger volu me, m3

Greek symbols

f

o

fin thickness, m

heat exchanger effect iveness

fin efficiency, d imensionless

extended surface efficiency or overall efficiency

flu id dynamic viscosity, Pa-s

kinemat ic viscosity, m2 /s

flu id density, kg/ m3

Vo l.12, pp. 690-702, 1998

[6] H.Bhowmik and Lee, Analysis of Heat Transfer and

Pressure Drop Characteristics in an Offset Strip Fin Heat

Exchanger, International Journal of Heat and Mass

Transfer, Vo l.36, pp.259-263, 2009

[7] S.Hu and K.E.Hero ld, Prandtl Nu mber Effect on Offset

Strip Fin Heat Exchanger Performance: Pred ictive Model

for Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop, International

Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 38, No.6, pp.

1043-1051, 1995

[8] J.N. Devi sankar, Performance Analysis of Charge Air

Cooler in Turbo Charged Diesel Engine, M.E. Thesis,

Andhra University, 2016

[9] Hao Peng, Xiang Ling and Juan Li, Performance

Investigation of an Innovative Offset Strip Fin Arrays in

Co mpact Heat Exchangers, Energy Conversion and

Management, Vol.80, pp.287-297, 2014

[10] Kupeng Guo, Zhang and Robin Smith, Optimizat ion of

Fin Selection and Thermal Design of Counter-Current

Plate-Fin

Heat

Exchangers, Applied

Thermal

Engineering, Vo l.78, pp. 491-499, 2015

[11] Incropera and Dav id.P.DeWitt, Fundamentals of Heat

and Mass Transfer, John Wiley and Sons, 2012.

Subscripts

c

f

fr

h

i

m

o

p

w

fin

frontal

hot fluid side

inlet

mean bulk temperature

overall

primary

wall

REFERENCES

[1] Ramesh K.shah and P.DusanSekulic, Fundamentals of

Heat exchanger Design, John Wiley and Sons, 2003

[2] R.M.Manglik and A.E.Bergles, Heat Transfer and

Pressure drop Correlations for Rectangular Offset Strip

Fin Co mpact Heat Exchanger, Experimental Thermal

and Fluid Science, Vol.10, pp.171-180, 1995.

[3] W.M.Kays and A.L.London, Compact Heat Exchangers.

2nd Edit ion, McGraw-Hill, New Yo rk, 1964.

[4] L.W.Zhang, S.Balachandar, D.K.Tafti and F.M.Najjar,

Heat Transfer Enhancement Mechanisms in Inline and

Staggered Parallel Plate Fin Heat Exchanger,

International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vo l.

40, No.10, pp. 2307-2325, 1997

[5] N.C.Dejong, L.W.Zhang, A.M.Jacobi, S.Balchandar and

D.K.Taft i, A Co mplementary Experimental and

Nu merical Study of Flow and Heat Transfer in Offset

Volume: 05 Issue: 02 | Feb-2016, Available @ http://www.ijret.org

197

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