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Definition of Flip-flop
In electronics circuit, a flip-flop or latch is a circuit that has two stable states and
can be used to store state information. A flip-flop is a bistable multivibrator. Flip-flop or
often called FF is one of memory digital components, because the output can remember
the last condition even the input pulse is discontinued.
Flip-flop have some input and two output, they are normal output ( Q ) and inverse
output ( Q ), where both of them is reverse each other. When the output Q = 0 so the
output Q = 1, then when the output Q = 1 so the output Q = 0.

The clock input of flip-flop is used as a timer when the output Q responds the
inputs of the flip-flop. The activation clock input of flip-flop happen when up transition
(active high), or the down transition (active low). From this picture, we can know that the
output Q will be change in conjunction with the active clock pulse.

Types of Flip-flop
1. R-S flip-flop
R-S flip-flop is a type of flip-flop that has two inputs and two outputs, where
one output (Q) serves as complement. So, this type of flip-flop is also called basic
circuit to generate a variable and its complement.
The symbol of R-S flip-flop :

R-S flip-flop has 2 inputs, namely: S = Set and R = Reset. And also has 2
outputs, namely: Q and Q output. RS flip-flop can be made of the combination of
two logic gates, that name NAND gate and NOR gate, or combination of the two.
a. R-S flip-flop made of NAND gates
The truth table :






b. R-S flip-flop made of NOR gates

The truth table :






Note : - Memory is a state where the output value is equal to the previous condition.
- Illegal is a condition that is not allowed, and should be avoided
2. D flip-flop
D flip-flop (Data or Delay flip-flop) is a type of flip-flop which only consists
of an input namely D input, and has a pair of output value is the opposite, namely: Q
and Q output, and has a pair of feedback. In addition, the D flip-flop is also equipped
with the bits or clock CLK as input.

This clock gives permission, when the time value of output should be changed.
Then the Q output value will always be equal to D input, and output value changes
can only happen if permitted by the condition of the clock. This type of flip-flop is
very widely used as a memory cell in a computer.
The symbol of D flip-flop :

The truth table of D flip-flop :



Note : Output Q# will be change when the clock in down transition (active low).
3. J-K flip-flop
J-K flip-flop is a type of flip-flop which are based on the development of the
RS flip-flop. J-K flip-flop is often applied as a basic component of a counter, which
can be up counter or down counter.
J-K flip-flop is often called as the J-K Master Slave flip-flop, because it
consists of two flip-flop, that name Master flip-flop and Slave flip-flop. J-K Master
Slave flip-flop has three input terminals, namely: input J, K and Clock. And also has
two output terminals, namely: Q and Q output.
In the J-K flip-flop, the master and slave parts will work interchangeably. So,
that the reading of inputs J and K is done during high clock interval. Therefore, the
output in the J-K Master Slave flip-flop will not happen output is not predictable. So,
the J-K Master Slave flip-flop is widely used in synchronous circuits.
The symbol of J-K flip-flop :

The truth table of J-K flip-flop :





Note : Output Q# will be change when the clock in down transition (active low), and
toggle is output conditions are contrary to the conditions before the clock
pulse output active.
Applications of Flip-flop
In electronic circuit, flip flop usually used as frequency divider. A flip-flop can be
used as a frequency divider circuit by way of setting the value of the input frequency
given to the flip flop, and setting the input duty cycle flip-flop.
In general, in electronic circuits we can find a flip-flop is used as a 2 frequency
divider circuit, 3 frequency divider circuit, 4 frequency divider circuit, 5 frequency
divider circuit, and many more. And now I will tell you about one application of the J-K
flip-flop that can be used as 4 frequency divider circuit.

Timing Diagram:

For example :
A flip-flop 4 freuency divider has Input frequency = 10 KHz, and Duty Cycle Input = 10 %.
Find the output frequency and the duty cycle output from the 4 frequency divider circuit ???
Answer :
Tout = 4 x Tin
So, the value of output frequency :
x Fin

Fout =

x 10 KHz

= 2,5 KHz
Then, the value of duty cycle output :
DCout =

tp out
x 100
T out
x 100
4 Tin

= 50