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REVIVAL OF DISAPPEARING

ARCHITECTURAL PROFESSIONS

STUDY ABOUT THE FUTURE AND CONTINUATION OF


TRADITIONAL BUILDING TRADITIONS & CRAFTMANSHIP
ABOUT REDIAPRO
From its start the aim of REDIAPRO - Revival of Disappearing Correct and authetic preservation of monuments clearly and
Architectural Professions program has been to provide unquestionably raise the demand for a professional knowledge
appropriate forum and possibilities for those institutions and - creator of the former ones -, that is not only available in
private persons who have their mission to preserve those theoretical form to be researched in museums, but also as a
traditional building professions and craft traditions connected practical knowledge, furthermore it should be available in a
to architecture, which represented building activities themselves well-practised form for the help of restorers and architects, at
for centuries, in different forms and scales based on the different every single architectural or interior design intervention and
time phases and locations. always adjusted to the volume of the actual individual projects.
REDIAPRO programme however tries to achieve even wider and
The programme was realised in the framework of the Erasmus+ more all-embracing results, likewise we can not only recognise
KA2 Strategic Partnership of the European Union in the period heritage value on the level of the individual buildings, but in
between 2014 and 2017. Co-operating partners of the project the same time in a larger synthesis of these elements and in
were the following institutions: the coherent system of different characteristics - distinguishing
local, municipal, regional, countrywide (nationwide) or even
DOCTUM, Spain higher levels.
Edinburgh World Heritage Trust, United Kingdom
ECIPA Umbria, Italy In the times before the globally organised manufacturing
EK Association, Hungary and trade of building materials the determining building
Fine Crafts of Vilnius, Lithuania characters and differences were originated from the climatic and
SEK Stroyexpert, Bulgaria environmental conditions of the given region. These territorial
Tektum Architectural Studio, Romania characteristics could also partially overwrite the different styles
Vanaajamaja, Estonia of the ages and the technological trends of architecture, creating

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unique modifications and separate formal manifestations - The success for the architecture that keeps regional architectural
however their full scale achievement could only happen within values in mind, respects ecological aspects, being based on the
the domain of vernacular architecture. Keeping this comaprison usage of local materials and being respected by gross of people
in mind, REDIAPRO programme wants not only to provide a - beyond the eligible architectural or heritage approach - comes
synthesis of problems on the level of public or residental houses mainly from the successful development of the regionally
of greater volumes (urban dwellings, multi-storey houses), but it organised construction model. This model has two basic pillars:
also considers buildings of smaller scale and even in the rural re-opening of the sources of local materials and the masters
or village environment as equally important. And even this latter acting locally, while the third essential support is the vocational
area - the mass private house constructions, refurbishments and training itself which provides appropriate and complex
reconstructions - where significant changes would be claimed knowledge operating with well-developed learning materials.
by the contributors of the programme, by trying to change the
architectural thinking of the wide public. The construction industry being regionally organised, using
traditional materials and requiring specific craftmanship
In accordance with the basic theories of critical regionalism knowledge can only reach its target and gain significant
conceived by Kenneth Frampton, the main objective of the segment in competition with large scale industry if it can collect
programme is to support a modern architecture originated from considerable support from the society and this will reveal itself
the own identity of the separate regions, which can re-emphasise in client conceptions, on the other hand if within the individual
these determining regional images. This sort of adaptation - after communities the demand for the valorised disappearing
the aims of the programme and with respect to the possibilities professions is significantly raised, which is gratified by a
- should take place on the basis of the locally still available vocational training supported by state or EU funded programmes.
traditional materials of these individual regions. So principles As the social recognition of a new Arts & Crafts movement has
determined in REDIAPRO does not exclude the usage of a key importance, the success of the original movement started
modern technologies or global architectural endavours either, by William Morris can also give useful strategic points of views.
but it considers usage of traditional and thereby sustainable
materials as primary. During the utilization of both traditional With respect to all these, REDIAPRO partnership carried out
and modern building technologies it is a basic expectation that the following researches and investigations, summarising the
the representation should be honest, that means even during situations in the different areas by each partner on its national
the application of historical forms or angles these elements level:
can only come from the attributs of the given material and
the used building technology - so the look should not fake the 1. Overview of the architectural traditions of the individual
characteristics of the construction itself. partner countries, vernacular regions and used building materials
and in close connection to these about the traditional building
Harmonised utilisation of these three principles together - not professions. The latter in the same time are suggestions for
only at historic reconstructions but in the case of sustainable the trainings that can be started or imporved in the partner
architetcure as well - requires the existance of such craftmanship countries.
and knowledge, as only that can give chance for the realisation
of an architecture which fits to the exisitng surroundings 2. Best prctices in the field of vocational education, acting in
respectfully and which is formed from local, economically order to revive and preserve the disappearing architectural
obtainable materials instead of catalogue products of the large professions, with special regard to the methodology and to the
scale building industry. combinative solutions with other programmes.

Vocational knowledge of future masters idealised by this 3. Overview of the Arts & Crafts movements of the partner
programme will not be considered as only traditional or only countries as references to the REDIAPRO project.
modern and their field of work will not be historic restorations
only or new constructions only, but their wide store of learning 4. Followable examples from the field of architectural planning
should be connected with the different building materials - examples of modern acrhitecture that takes local identity into
themselves and the behaviour of these between different consideration.
conditions, making it possible for architects and masters to
choose the building methods to be used after the character and 5. Profiles of 24 masters (craftsmen, restorers, architects or
primary characteristics of the project, adapting either traditional workshops), 3 from each partner countries to represent some of
or modernised solutions, and if required, mixing these options the most important disappearing building professions.
with each other.

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General Editor INTRODUCTION
Gabor Palotas
2 ABOUT REDIAPRO
- EK Association
HUNGARIAN MASTERS
Editor (Spain) Portraits of REDIAPRO Masters
Laura Lpez Luiz
- DOCTUM 7 FERENC HEIMANN - BRICKLAYER OF WINE CELLARS
12 RPD ROSTS - CARPENTER
15 ISTVN CSORDS - REED THATCHER
Editor (Bulgaria)
Gergana Deeinchina SPANISH MASTERS
- SEK Stroyexpert Portraits of REDIAPRO Masters

Editor (Lithuania) 21 RAMN FRANCISCO RUBIO DOMENE - MASTER PLASTERER


24 TRINIDAD LPEZ ALGUACIL - CERAMIST
Agne Zilinskaite &
27 JUAN ANTONIO ORELLANA - STONE PAVEMENT MAKER
Indre Rutkauskaite
- Fine Crafts of Vilnius LITHUANIAN MASTERS
Portraits of REDIAPRO Masters
Editor (Scotland, UK)
Fiona Rankin & 31 MINDAUGAS RUTKAUSKAS - POTTER
34 AUDRONIS SKURVYDAS - CARPENTER
Krzysztof Jan Chuchra 37 STANKUS FAMILY - BLACKSMITHS
- Edinburgh World Heritage Trust
ESTONIAN MASTERS
Editor (Romania) Portraits of REDIAPRO Masters
Gabor Tthfalusi
41 MARGUS PALOLILL - CARPENTER
- Tektum Arhitectura & Arta
43 AHTO RAUDOJA - SHINGLE ROOFER
45 COMMUNITY OF MOOSTE - WORKSHOPS
Editor (Hungary)
Gabor Palotas TRANSYLVANIAN MASTERS
- EK Association Portraits of REDIAPRO Masters

49 ISTVN EGRI - GLASS ARTIST


Editor (Estonia) 52 JOINER & MASONRY WORKSHOP OF BONCHIDA CASTLE
Mari Kaisel &
Piret Uus BULGARIAN MASTERS
- Vanaajamaja Portraits of REDIAPRO Masters

Editor (Italy) 57 ANGEL MITROFANOV - CARPENTER


61 VARVARA VALCHANOVA - EARTH BUILDER
Irene Morici &
64 VESELIN VASILEV - CARPENTER
Adriana Chiachiella
- ECIPA ITALIAN MASTERS
Portraits of REDIAPRO Masters

69 ANTONIO LUNGHI - FOREMAN, ARCHITECT


71 LUCA GRILLI - STONECARVER
73 CHRISTIANE ZSCHIESCHE - RESTORER

SCOTTISH MASTERS
Portraits of REDIAPRO Masters

77 LEONARD GRANDISON & SON - MASTER PLASTERER


80 ROBIN ABBEY - SIGNWRITER
82 ANDREW RAMSEY - STONECARVER
MATERIALS &
PROFESSIONS
TRADITIONAL MATERIALS & BUILDING
CRAFTS BY COUNTRIES

87 ESTONIA
88 BULGARIA
90 LITHUANIA
92 SCOTLAND (UK)
94 ROMANIA
95 ITALY
96 HUNGARY
97 SPAIN

BEST PRACTICES IN
EDUCATION OF OLD
PROFESSIONS
OUTSTANDING VOCATIONAL
EDUCATION & TRAINING INSTITUTIONS

101 BEST PRACTICES OF VET

ARTS & CRAFTS AS


HISTORIC BASIS
FORMER ARCHITECTURAL MOVEMENTS
& TRENDS

107 ESTONIA
107 TRANSYLVANIA
108 SPAIN
108 LITHUANIA
109 SCOTLAND

COLLECTION OF
GOOD EXAMPLES IN
ARCHITECTURE
113 SELECTION OF PROJECTS
HUNGARIAN MASTERS

Ferenc Heimann, Bricklayer


rpd Rosts, Carpenter
Istvn Csords, Reed Thatcher

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FERENC HEIMANN
BRICKLAYER
SZEKSZRD, HUNGARY

F
erenc Heimanns family can date its presence in the city press-houses and the rows of wine-cellars dug or built into the
of Szekszrd and its surroundings back 10 generations. silt walls.
Their antecedents arrived in Hungary in the 1780s
from Stuttgart of Wrttemberg, based on available Within the family, the only one to take up the oenologists trade
information. After the expulsion of the Turks, the German settlers was his brother Zoltn, who has made the Heimann family
(Donauschwaben) arriving in many parts of Hungary had the role vineyard well known. It is recognised all over the country and
of repopulating the ghost-regions and resuming agricultural internationally, as part of the Hungarian wine economys revival
production. For this reason, it was mostly peasants and farmers after the changes to the political system that took place in 1990.
who came to start a new life rebuilding the villages and towns. Ferencs interests turned towards architecture and building in his
Wine-growing and oenology was a basic part of everyday life youth and he chose his schools accordingly. He left the Mihly
for the Swabians (Germans) of Szekszrd right from the very Pollck of Pcs Vocational School with a technician qualification,
beginning, and the Heimann family is also connected to this which in those days would have allowed him to plan houses
sector and its centuries-old traditions. The most characteristic on his own as a quasi-architect. To get some experience in
signs of this heritage in amongst the rows of vines were the construction and the building trade itself, he started working

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as a bricklayer entrepreneur. A 3 year period spent in Germany times when he was working with 45 builders, as he was the one
beginning in 1993 brought plenty of new experiences whilst building most of the new wine-cellars in Hungary.
he worked there as a foreman on housing developments, but
instead of bringing his work experience home he planned to What is even more important than the number of authentically-
stay abroad indefinitely. Unfortunately, the work permit rules built cellars is that Ferenc Heimanns lifes work is inseparably
prevented this and he was forced to come back home for 2 years. tied to the latest renaissance of the Szekszrd and Hungarian
In the end, his planned return to Germany never happened as life wine, making this movement more genuine and providing an
brought along something completely different. unbroken link to its forgotten traditions.

In his life working out differently, the brick-domed cellar that he The Evolution of Heimann Cellars
started building at the request of his younger brother, played a
key role. The precedent and model for it was their grandparents Wine cellars of Szekszrd were originally hollowed out of the
domed cellar that had been filled with concrete during the loess walls of the hillsides. If the auger-hole was narrower than
Communist period. Even though he had constructed smaller 1 metre, they were made without brickwork, but if they were
barrel-vaulted cellars before, the considerable 4 by 4 metre span greater then barrel-vaults were built. The more characteristic
posed such an interesting challenge for him that he resolved type, vaulted cellars, were usually 1.80 m wide, which took into
to build it entirely unaided. After a whole month of trials and consideration the size of the basic Hungarian-type 70 litre barrel
researching professional literature from a hundred years earlier, and allowed space for them to be moved down to the cellars and
this first proper example allowed him to experiment with a long for handling them as well.
lost technique from first principles. He subsequently improved to
reach excellence in his later works, making the cellars even more The barrel vaulted part of the example cellar that Ferenc
decorative at the same time. Heimann made for his brother was planned to have a width of
3.60 meters, double the traditional width, and making it possible
The finished domed cellar at the Heimann vineyard was to organise the barrels in two rows. Although the resulting dome
viewed as a masterpiece and this brought in new work all in at the intersection of the barrel vaults was a copy of a previous
a row, as the sudden new appearance of this craft knowledge example, it was a curio both in its execution and functionality
met the basic needs of this reviving sector. During 40 years of compared to traditional cellars. Despite the difficulties of the
Communism, family vineyards had withered away and factories actual construction, the dome had an additional importance:
operated instead as part of the state-run agriculture and food as well as being a functional part of the vineyards technology
industry. In the meantime, in the surroundings of Szekszrd a and unique system of barrels, the dome made it possible to
lot of cellars that were out of use were simply filled with earth entertain visitors at a table, providing a suitable space for wine-
or concrete, which illustrates how much heritage and tradition tasting and dining. Apart from just personal use, this could make
was devastated among the limited possibilities of the era. The a charming place for catering and in fact this extra feature
transformation of the political and economical system allowed stood behind the sudden, huge demand for these cellars. In
changes to this almost completely closed process and so the later works, a continuous goal was to increase the spans and to
reopening of family vineyards and the start up of new private fulfil a perpetual desire for innovation in creation by building
companies escalated the demand for orders. The expanding more and more special structural types. Many things thwarted
circle of clients came from all over Hungary and even beyond this ambition: starting with the clients wallet to the technical
the borders, from Austria, Germany and Slovenia. There were

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necessities. In this way, the laboursome groin vaults that put sketches. He says, apart from that fact, he planned the whole
loading on the bricks turned into constructionally much simpler cellar to its smallest detail so much so that he could even
domes or Baroque vaults. walk around it in his mind. The planning process didnt stop
there however, new ideas could prompt to him create custom
In increasing the spans and room sizes by leaps and bounds, solutions, forming the design as he went along just as a sculptor
building regulations also played an important role. Ferenc does with his work. For instance, the very high arch of the
Heimanns team also built cellars using the traditional technique vaults at the Gothic-style cellar in Csopak came about when the
of hollowing out the hillside, a metre at a time, by excavating excavator worker accidentally dug the site for the cellar 2 metres
the soil and supporting the cavity by brick from below. Later on deeper than it was planned to be. Instead of taking the obvious
however, this kind of tunnelling technique needed permission step of filling up the site with soil, Heimann decided to keep as
from the Mining Engineering Authority, which massively it was and to build higher lancet arches as part of the creative
increased the administration required for construction and process, resulting in much more special building. This way of
created far too many difficulties for the preparation and working results in lot of changes to the drawing plans, so there
execution of cellar-building. This had the effect of making it is a need for extra co-operation on the part of the architect and
much easier to excavate all of the soil above the floor area of other designers as well, as the company only takes part in the
the cellar, to build the structure and then to back-fill the soil official architectural and construction planning as an advisor.
afterwards, typically to a depth of 2 metres. Using this method,
limitations in size also disappear, as these were derived from
the self-supporting properties of the loess soil. Breaking away
The Use of Materials and Common
from these constraints meant the previously separate tunnels Features
could now be joined together making it possible, to create the
same gross built area within a substantially smaller floor space, Ferenc Heimanns building method is synonymous with sticking
opening the gates for the building of big spanned multiply- closely to traditions, existing roots and authenticity. As a
bayed wine-cellars. It has always been a major consideration result, his firms cellars were all built exclusively in brick, in
to be able to use the event spaces as much as possible. This the Szekszrd region. However, where it was traditionally
was the main reason behind the endeavour for better results, characteristic, for instance in the Balaton upperland he also
imagining large events such as weddings, for example. It might boldly used stone. Although it is quite widespread nowadays, the
be quaint, but this is why the starting point for the design was Heimann company never turns stamped bricks outwards, except
the visibility of the bride. for in the position of the vaults keystones, as originally the
stamp was only information for the bricklayer about the origin
and quality of the brick, and was meant to be decoration for the
Planning and Building
final surface. It has been an unvarying signature of their work to
build a small window or niche in the form of a Latin cross out
Ferenc Heimann usually had a free hand in the exact design of
of a few pieces of brick, which appears in every project without
the cellars, harmonising the clients agenda with his own ideas.
exception.
He also drew up the plans, for which he only created freehand

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The first use of salvaged brick is also connected to the St Dont a trowel again, if he could build something unique once more.
Cellar and Wine House. The client was decidedly insistent on If there was a client, who could stand a little experimentation
using the material which was originally thought to be of dubious in the search for something special, for instance the technical
quality. Heimann accepted the commission with a great deal of realisation of the herringbone brick pattern method as part of
reservation after agreeing with the owner that they would only a huge dome.
build the cellar using the brick from a demolition, if he never
told anyone who the master bricklayer was. The result surprised Luckily continuity is guaranteed through his foster-son who is
him so much that they have been only using large size salvaged now fully grown. Csaba Heimann has had a great schooling,
brick ever since. Although the bricks coming from all types of being on all the construction sites since the age of 14, learning
demolition are of varying size and completeness, they perform all that he could over a twenty year period. Over the past few
advantageously when used to build vaults as they can better years, he was the one who effectively supervised the buildings
bear directional forces that arise there. One reason for this may and the workers, and in recent years he has run his own company.
be the simple fact that those bricks which have survived well are In addition to the serious amount of work experience he has
guararanteed to be of good quality, and that means they have had, he also graduated in civil engineering at the Mihly Pollck
excellent rigidity. The other factor comes from the difference in College in Pcs, writing a thesis about traditional vaulted
production method, which means that newer small-size bricks structures of course. The examiners at the diploma thesis aural
(12.5 x 25 x 6.5mm) are much more susceptible to sideward did not have an easy job interviewing him about a long-lost
forces causing them to lose their front face much more often, technology that hadnt been taught for decades. It equated to
resulting in an imperfect surface. Besides which, the large size doing static calculations for a structure operating with only
brick (14 x 29 x 7mm) which is not produced anymore, is more stressed inner forces using the current Eurocode standards. One
practical from the point of view of use of material as well as thing is for certain: it is much more straightforward to plan and
requiring fewer joints. On the whole, from experience, well- build based on a carefully developed method and 30 years of
handled salvaged material enables much quicker and finer work experience. Similarly, Csaba is full of hope regarding the future,
and in the same time reduces costs. believing that new challenges will appear and even greater
spans will be achieved in the near future.
As well as the careful building of the structure and similarly
careful selection of materials, it has been always outstandingly Most important works
important to use appropriate lighting technology by working
in partnership with relevant masters who produce associated St Dont Wine-cellar and House, Csopak
ceramic objects and lamps. In both cases, forming long-term Fritz Wine House and Pension, Szekszrd
relationships with the same designers was the expedient Heimann Family Estate, Szekszrd
way. It has been always Jzsef Nyls responsibility to create Liszt Wine-cellars, Szekszrd
cosy lighting solutions in every project that highlight the Takler Wine-cellar, Szekszrd
monumentality of the brick structures, while ceramic decorations Vesztergombi Wine-cellar, Szekszrd
and furniture have been the result of Jozsef Nyuls handiwork. Szchenyi Wine-cellar, Szentgyrgyvr
Rmer Wine-cellar, Hvz
Retirement and Generational Change Vincze Bla Vineyard, Eger
Strobler Hof Hotel, Salzburg, Austria
Ferenc Heimann has been retired from the masonry and Koralevics Kroly (private owner), Csopak
construction industry since the end of the year 2014. His Bodri Wine-Cellars, Szekszrd
decision was obviously influenced by the economic crisis and a Eszterbauer Vineyard, Szekszrd
series of unpaid for works, however it would be difficult to call Mszros Wine House and Cellar, Szekszrd
him disillusioned in any way. They run the White Cow Bed and
Breakfast at the foot of the hills of Szekszrd, close to a number
of cellars built by him. He would only see the point in taking up

We could revive this world which was almost completely lost.

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11
RPD ROSTS
CARPENTER
BUDAPEST, HUNGARY

rpd Rosts, cabinetmaker and restorer, has worked in Hungary that an artist can receive during his lifetime, after
in 200 castles and restored 1000 pieces of furniture the state-given Kossuth Prize. However he stepped down after
both home and abroad, over 36 years spent working. receiving insults, probably due to jealousy from within the
He refers to himself as a travelling carpenter who, trade, as the comments were all negative. His withdrawal was
following the example of medieval masters, goes around considered a missed opportunity by many people, especially
looking for ever newer challenges and opportunities to learn because Rostss story is an outstanding example of the progess
and accordingly travels from one job to the next, settling down that can be achieved despite the poverty and hopelessness that
for longer or shorter periods depending on how much time the comes from being an outcast, since he grew from an orphaned
current piece takes to finish. As well as Hungary, he has also gypsy child to be an acknowledged expert and artist.
roamed all over the countries of Western Europe in this manner,
receiving orders from as far as France, England and Germany. Rosts claims that one can only learn effectively through
Currently he is mostly interested in the traditional carpentry practical training, and therefore after finishing vocational school,
profession of India and he is thinking about about developing he extended his education for many years by applying for jobs
his knowledge there in the near future. The outstanding with master after master in carpentry, trying to learn all the
achievements of his lifes work are the repairs and restoration master-strokes from his hosts. As he remembers it, this was
work carried out in the Louvre, Versailles, in the Hungarian not always an easy task as his teachers often kept their most
Parliament or at the Academy of Science, but there are also many valuable tricks and techniques as their most prized possessions,
other building components that were in a hopelessly dangerous so as a youngster he also had to be expedient to be able to
state and judged well beyond recovery by a series of previous gather such precious knowledge. The secret was to never spend
restorers, that have been returned to their original condition too much time at any one of the masters: he was so thirsty for
specifically because of his personal contribution to the project knowledge that as soon as he learnt all that was possible he
just as happened with the staircase of the hospital of Marcali or would ask the master to recommend him to another carpenter.
with the ceiling of the Mirror Room at the Andrssy University Most of the time he only asked for food and accommodation as
in Budapest. a salary, but if he had the opportunity he would even pay for
training. Even when he was an expert craftsman he was not
He holds a number of Commendations and Awards, amongst ashamed to be a novice and later on too, if he had the chance
which he received the Hungarian Heritage Award in 2011 as an he worked for some older and more experienced professionals.
acknowledgement of his work carried out 10 years previously
when he restored the Neo-Renaissance timber cladding of the The Restorer without a Degree
Hungarian Academy of Science. The honorary citizenship of
Kaposvr is another outstanding achievement, as this is the town Rosts has gained the highest respect as a restorer, despite
where he was born and studied, while growing up in the charity- having no qualifications or papers, as he never earned a degree.
school of Ngocs. He was also nominated for the privately He believes that there is nothing usual about this though as
organised Prima Primissima Award, which is the greatest honour carpenters in olden times worked in exactly the same way: they

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constructed furniture as well as timber for a piece of furniture or a structure
structures and they were also the ones to be restored. He never turned down
who repaired them. Later the profession a single request, instead he always
split into separate occupations: carpenter accepted the challenge to use his self-
My school is
and cabinetmaker, whilst the restoration acquired knowledge, confirming many
profession emerged with its higher level times over that the craftsmans skill is
specifically about
of academic knowledge. In his opinion still in existence, and that the knowledge craftmanship,
however, restorers should not be allowed that can save valuable timber or work
to operate without real practical carpentry created from it from destruction, has not without any
knowledge and that even today it would completely disappeared.
be the most ideal if it were carpenters
machinery, only
who performed this type of work. Another Restoring the main staircase at the church handicrafts and
alternative that could happen even of Marcali was an important turning point
today, would be for master carpenters in his life. This project was also recorded the revivification
and restorers to collaborate so that they in the Hungarian Film Festival winning
could rely on each others knowledge: on documentary titled Stair (directed by
of traditional
the restorers deeper academic, historic Livia Gyarmathy, 1994), though filming
knowledge and the craftsmans greater
techniques using
started without the knowledge of the
practical and technical skills. In cases main character. Although his extreme surface-planing,
where a certain practical skill disappears, efforts made it possible to rescue the
sooner or later the academic knowledge ornate wooden stair situated in the foyer milling, and jointing
about it will follow on. This is a situation of the building despite the original
that rpd Rosts has come across many architectural plans and the views of
by hand.
times as part of his practice, whenever expert restorers the struggle was not
his name came up as the last ray of hope a success story. This is hardly surprising

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as the gypsy carpenter would have needed to become an (degree) that was important but rather the references and
entrepreneur to meet the impossible expectations of the whether he had the professional knowledge and skills that were
heritage office while wandering in the labyrinth of bureaucracy. required to obtain the expected quality and result. Although
He was not even paid for the work he did and the project was there were restorers involved with the work in other countries
finally carried out by another much bigger firm for several times as well, the relationship was appropriately co-operative however,
the amount that his payment would have been. This period took and did not lack respect towards him.
its toll on his personal life as well and his wife divorced him
soon after, taking their children with her. Although the situation Natural Solutions instead of Chemicals
arising from work was tough, it pushed his life in a certain
direction. He started to get commissions from abroad, assisted One of the keys to success in his work is the home-made reci-
by those people who stood by him, and soon he was restoring pes, made from natural materials, that he uses for the treatment
in the Louvre, and from there he moved on to Versailles, where of wood to control the pests, to strengthen the timber and to
he repaired and restored the Sun Kings parquet floor. And from restore the original colour and tone. The materials used are
this came further assignments and he went as far as castles in always specifically tailored to the given piece of furniture or
England and Germany. timber construction, and the various ingredients are based on
the characteristics and scale of the problem. Every recipe comes
Although Rosts carried out more and more new works at home, from the disappearing, but in places still surviving, traditions and
which far exceeded his original qualification level, he could not historic descriptions from for example, the books of Vitruvius, so
undertake a restoration job on his own as a restorer without a some techniques can even be traced back to Ancient Egypt. The
paper qualification. He could only work as a carpentry subcon- exact methodologies and experiments with the proportions took
tractor without requiring the contribution and supervision of decades to perfect, and are professional secrets now. The group
another restorer. This is a real sore point for him since he was of characteristic materials used are well known, but some of
not able to undertake a number of restoration jobs because of them may sound strange like juice from garlic, apple and potato
this. Furthermore his great accumulation of special knowledge peels, distilled fruit spirit (palinka) or even dung water or urine.
really annoyed the Company of Restorers as this type of knowl- In using these materials he often has serious arguments with
edge goes against the trades actual and general principles. As timber preservation experts because in their profession they
he says, he has never experienced these kind of issues abroad, are accustomed to using chemically produced materials and
getting on there was much easier, as it was never the paper solutions, while his own recipes sound a bit like quackery these

14
days. In spite of that, he goes against the trend much of the time carpentry, to his rescuing of traditions and teaching activities
and has gained more and more results that give legitimacy and and also to the importance of appropriate vocational training to
meaning to these efforts, as lately he has started to be invited tackle poverty and reduce the social vulnerability of Roma peo-
to university conferences where he can express his own views ple. In this vein, the handover of a throne made for Pope Francis
and show his solutions. is planned for 2016 as part of a Vatican pilgrimage organised
for 100 children who have grown up in a boarding school, giving
Rescuing and restoring the ceiling of the Mirror Room at them the experience of a lifetime. The highly decorated chairs
Andrssy University is a very good example of the success of his central design is a glass case in the shape of Hungary, in which
techniques. In 2003, when the University was refurbished, the he plans to put Hungarian mother earth (soil). The back-rest of
ceiling of the room fell down and work stopped for 6 months the throne is decorated with the coats of arms of the Vatican,
as there was no restorer who would accept the challenge of its Hungary, Argentina and Marcali (Rostss birthplace) while a
restoration, until it popped into someones mind that there was a quadrilingual inscription asks for the blessing of Roma people
travelling carpenter in Marcali. He was able to use his own meth- of the world in English, Latin, Hungarian and the Roma language.
ods to demonstrate quite quickly that there was dry rot (fungus)
present, a diagnosis which equalled a death sentence and this rpd Rostss School and Textbook
was later confirmed by a timber preservation expert. In the end,
Rosts restored the structure instead of the complete demolition Over and above the execution of his projects with humility
that seemed unavoidable before he arrived on the scene: he got to achieve the best possible results, rpds career has some
rid of the disease from the structure and substituted the missing further important goals, namely to ensure the survival of cen-
timber material thereby strengthening the structure. turies-old handicraft traditions, carpentry and cabinet-making
techniques for future generations. To achieve this, he is currently
Ambassador for Traditional Carpentry working on putting together a comprehensive textbook which
summarises all the knowledge which he has gathered over his
In recent years rpd Rosts has paid great attention to making lifetime through his work and will put teaching of the profession
furniture that he has designed himself, as he plans to work main- on a new level.
ly as a cabinetmaker in the future. Only the greatest masters
match his ideals in these lofty ambitions, such as Michelangelo, He truly believes that his career can be a example to follow for
Girland or Leonardo. Some of his completed custom-made pieces those young people whose fate is similar to his own childhood.
have attracted the interest of the media as well as they were He therefore organises a summer school and creative workshops
donated as gifts to well known people. The first such pieces every year for orphan children, where he gets them involved in
of furniture were the cradles made as gifts for the children of restoration and building activities. It is one thing to teach them
the British royal couple, William and Kate, for George, Prince practical skills, but more importantly he can show that learning
of Cambridge in 2013 and later in 2015, for Princess Charlotte a trade is worth sacrifice and effort to be able to produce work
(Charlotte Elizabeth Diana). The unique, Neogothic style cradles of a good quality. Finally he teaches that belief is indispensable
are made of oak and nut-wood are richly ornamented and deco- for any creative activity or art and he also promotes a vocational
rated with inlay-work. Both handovers were preceded by church lifestyle that is closely connected to the work carried out. The
benedictions of the cradles. In the case of Charlottes cradle, this best result to come from the summer schools is a joint project to
took place in St Peters Basilica (the main church in Budapest) restore the furniture of the castle in Somogyvr (Somogy County,
the Sunday before its departure, and the handover took place on Hungary), where Dr. Andrs Morg, Professor of Restoration
19th November 2015 in Kensington Palace. provided the required professional background. Among Rostss
long-term plans lie the development of a vocational training
With these donated pieces of furniture, Rostss main aim was centre in Marcali (Somogy County, Hungary) and on top of that,
to represent some important issues at home as well as abroad, a timber-framed cathedral which is to be built together with the
to attract peoples attention to the real values of traditional trainees.

A restorer has to be somewhat like a magician - he has to be


able to hide any defects.

15
Love of nature,
need for liberty
and for the joy of
creation - these
are all required in
this profession.
ISTVN CSORDS
REED THATCHER

I
stvn Csords family deals with the economic and political circumstances
harvesting of reeds, distribution within the region started to be less SZKESFEHRVR,
of reed products and thatching in and less favourable, not to mention
the neighbourhood of Pakozd in the high risk of continuously chang- HUNGARY
Fejer County, Hungary. Although thanks ing natural conditions and the growing
to his parents profession, this was the negative effects of global warming, all
world that he was brought up in, and making it more difficult to survive. The
as a a child whatever the season, his continuation of the business has never
life revolved around Lake Velence; as a been in question though, nor could the
young man, he did not take up the career fire which broke out in the warehouse
offered by his parents. He tried different and factory discourage them, mostly
occupations and was even member of because of their love of the profession
the fire department, till he finally found and the close-to- nature lifestyle associ- I can remember
his way back to the family trade. The ated with it. Continuity is also provided
Start-up Licence was just a few years old within the family through their daugh- from my childhood
when the political changes happened in ter and son-in- law both of whom are
1990 and this opened the gateway for a already working in the family business.
when we went to
series of new possibilities for this pro- harvest the reed with
fession as well so he started up a family Agricultural Reed
business along with his wife, distribut- my father and my
ing assorted reed products to retailers
Management
and wholesalers. As well as selling at
grandfather.
Reed is considered to be an ancient
home, they also export materials and
building material, whose use as a roof
products to Western Europe, primarily
covering material or for other building
to the Netherlands, Denmark, Belgium,
purposes is widely known across the
Germany and France. Besides harvesting
whole of Europe and other parts of the
reeds, assembling products and selling
world as well. The available habitat for
them, the business is equally involved in
it, especially in Western Europe is gradu-
construction work: planning and build-
ally getting smaller and smaller, even
ing thatched roofs and coverings, and
though it can significantly improve the
also managing their maintenance and
water quality of lakes and ditches, by
refurbishment. They built a number of
contributing to the self-purification of
roofs in other European countries, such
the water, typically by acting as a filter
as Germany and Belgium as well as the
for organic and other types of dross.
Hungarian market.
With the elimination of the reed, the
associated characteristic wild fauna also
Their most succcessful period lasted
disappears with its song birds and other
until the end of the 90s, after which the
waterlife animals.

17
Although the reed spreads very quickly wherever it appears, and it started to become established in an organised way in
primarily through vegetative propagation ie. through shoots the 70s. The proximity of the capital had an obvious role in this
from its roots and stalks, but it equally easily die out should it process. The gross built area of the holiday resort and residential
suffer two reapings in a year. The rootstock or rhizome serving area is continuously increasing, leaving less and less space for
as store for nutrients cannot generally bear this burden and nature. On the other hand, the excavation of the bottom of the
repetitive sprouting can completely impoverish it. Wherever reed lake which took place during the redevelopment of the area
is cultivated, the harvest is usually timed for the winter months, along with the newly built reservoirs around the lake and the
always reaping the products of the current year, as only this has maintenance of water supplies is guaranteed to lengthen the
value for building and industrial purposes. When harvesting, it lakes lifetime. This is crucially important as we know that up
is also important to take care to minimise the potential damage until then, the lake completely dried out every 100 years on
to the remaining parts. Similarly, reaping when the water level average and the last time this happened was in the mid 19th
is low can be also dangerous because a rise in the level of century. The reed beds themselves had a role in this process,
water later on can prevent the roots from breathing. This type contributing to the continuous decline of their own habitat as
of mistake can even affect or completely damage the next years a result of their spread and the increased sediment produced.
growth.
As the example above shows, there are plenty of conflicting

The Reed Colonies of Lake Velencei interests and points of view all at the same time, which are
impossible to fulfil equally, and therefore only the best possible

Considered to be the third largest lake of Hungary, Lake Velencei balance can be found. Best placed to answer these questions is

with its average depth of 1.5 metres it is an ideal habitat for reed. the Hydrographic Office of Central Transdanubia, caretaker of the

It is therefore not surprising that until the 1960s, 60 percent of lake as a state property. The Office can exert power through the

the water surface was covered by vegetation. Today this number continuous supervision of broad water management plans and

is still high, at around 30-40 percent. There is evidence that this through the development and delivery of different long-term

wetland has been cultivated for centuries, contributing to the plans in connection with the lake. Within these plans, as well

architectural vernacular of the region and to the close ties of as many other issues, the sustainment of reed thatching and

many reed cutter families to the lake and the lacustrine world. the continuation of the reed-thatchers profession as a cultural

These reed beds are his homeland, Istvan Csordas insists. His activity with its centuries-old traditions, should be considered

work is inextricably linked to the water world of this region, the high priority as they were once responsible for the characteristic

actual conditions around the lake, changes in water-level and architectural look of certain regions. Istvn Csords worries most

the effects that these inconsistencies have on the quality and amongst many other things about the increasingly frequent

quantity of reed that grows here between two harvests and can absence of the winter season. As he says, long-term freezing

be used for construction or distribution. periods are getting fewer and fewer, which is disadvantageous
for both the economic harvest which is carried out from the

Lake Velence is one of Hungarys most visited holiday resorts, surface of ice and the reed as a building material.

18
From the Harvest to Reed Products called reed-pulling because the finer blades are chosen and
pulled out from the sheaves one after the other. Having finished
Istvn Csords and his team work by themselves, not only with with picking these out, the leftover material is cleaned up to
the reed harvest but with thatching as well. This way, they are remove dirt and foreign bodies and forms the 4th class of reed
familiar with both the construction and the agricultural work, which is used separately from the others. Reed panels are envi-
and this means they are also able to help with other activities ronmentally friendly building materials with excellent physical
in both fields. The harvest period lasts for 5 months, normally qualities. They are prepared by pressing the spears between
from November to March, depending on what the weather (tem- parallel lines of pairs of wires. Their most important quality is a
perature and rainfall) conditions allow. Since the total or even good thermal insulation capacity and a low weight. They can be
partial reaping of the reeds at Lake of Velence has become used for the insulating attic spaces and fixed to the walls and
almost impossible, the area of the harvest has extended to fish- rendered. The panels are made 5 centimetres deep, usually 1 x 2
ponds and reed-beds in the surrounding area, sometimes even metres in size. In conjunction with 2 centimetres of plaster they
futher than 100 km from the store in Pkozd. By the end of the are considered to be a hardly flammable material. The densely
harvest period, cones made of sheaves are standing throughout woven reed texture contains 120-160 spears in a metre. The rolls
Northern Transdanubia waiting to be transported to the store are 6 metres long and they are 100-200 centimetres wide. They
for future use. are used as panels against sun, wind and for privacy.

Nowadays of course, the previously manual harvest has changed The Technique of Thatching with Reed
with the use of different types of machine. Mechanisation makes
a more effective cutting and processing of the reed possible, but There is a big difference in thatching when compared to other
on the other hand, these machines cannot be used in certain roof covering techniques in that its depth of 30 centimetres is
tricky areas and so there, the harvesting and collection can be enough to provide all the requirements of a roof covering: it pro-
only carried out in the traditional manner. Before the harvested vides thermal insulation at the same time as water protection
reed is ready for storing, the important step of expertly classify- and due to the pitch of the roof the transportation of rain away
ing the reed spears by their quality and diameter. This phase is from the building. It also stands up well against forces arising
almost exclusively done by an external team nowadays. This from wind or snow. From real-life experience we know that only
often takes place at Balmazjvros situated next to the grass- the top one third works effectively against the forces of nature,
land of Hortobgy where Roma workers come from to carry out while the rest only functions as a reserve. In the case of thermal
the sorting which requires great physical strength and profes- insulation, the full depth is naturally relevant in both summer
sional expertise as well. heat and winter freezes. The owner has ensure the regular refur-
bishment of the roof, which mainly requires the partial exchange
The highest quality of reed is exported primarily to Western of the upper 10 centimetres. The roof is more resistant if the
Europe, where the best price is paid for them. The next level is work is carried out expertly: by making sure that the sheaves are
used for thatching, and the other categories are used for reed properly distributed and fixed and afterwards that the compres-
plates and fences. The classification procedure is often also sion and repeated compression are done in a professional way.

19
Spanish Masters of REDIAPRO:

Ramn Francisco Rubio Domene, Master Plasterer


Trini Lpez Alguacil, Ceramist
Juan Antonio Orellana, Pavement Maker
RAMN FRANCISCO
RUBIO DOMENE
MASTER PLASTERER
GRANADA, SPAIN

R
amn is a craftsman and restorer specialised in
making official reproductions of parts of the World
Heritage Site the Alhambra. He holds a Doctorate
degree in Arts and Restoration cum Laude from the
University of Granada. He has been employed since 2000 on
the Board of the Alhambra, in the Conservation Department as
Head of the Restoration Workshop for plasterwork and tilling. He
therefore has extensive experience in these materials and the
daily interventions that are taking place in the Alhambra and its
Museum. He has been working with gypsum plaster for 26 years.
He started to work with it as a student of the Academy of Fine
Arts, when he decided to deepen his knowledge of the work made
in the Alhambra. I became fascinated and curious about how to
work with gypsum and I started to work with artisans who worked
in the Alhambra, learning their techniques. I learned, for example,
how to do direct curving and to work with moulds, he explains.

Ramon is also the Director of Doctum a private, cultural and non-


profit organisation whose mission is the protection, conservation,
restoration, management, promotion and growth of the Spanish
Culture and Heritage. It is involved in the study, research,
exchange, training and promotion of the methods, techniques,
procedures, materials, know-how and the protocols used in the
restoration, rehabilitation, management and consolidation of
cultural heritage. Its main objective is to transmit knowledge
and understanding of the traditional building and decorative
skills acquired by our ancestors. Doctum also actively takes part
in tangible and intangible Spanish heritage conservation with
projects aimed at halting the deterioration of its legacy being
caused by environmental and anthropogenic agents.

21
Ramon has also invented a new restoration mortar: official reproductions of parts of the Alhambra, he works on
Procedimiento de Reconstruccin de Obras de Arte legally the restoration of plasterwork and mouldings in many religious
registered at the Spanish Patent and Trade Mark Office (SPTO) by buildings. In Jan, he worked on the plaster mouldings in Saint
the Council of the Alhambra and the Generalife. Finally, he has Andrews Church. In Saudi Arabia, he worked on a reproduction of
published many books and articles on different topics, mainly the Alhambra in Riyadh. Finally, he has collaborated with other
about the Alhambra, restoration and conservation techniques artisans from Morocco, Turkey, Thailand, the Philippines etc. and
among which the most important ones are the following: since March 2016, he has been working on the restoration of the
plasterwork in a mosque in Morocco.
BOOKS:

Description of the Work and Materials


- The Alhambra Plasterworks: History, Technique and Conservation

Ramn explains: My work consists of making reproductions of


CHAPTERS IN BOOKS: Alhambra pieces. These can be of existing pieces or of pieces
that have to be re-created by designing them and cutting them.
In the book titled The Alhambra Official Guide: Then we have to create silicone moulds to reproduce the new
- The Alhambra Plasterworks pieces. Usually, this technique is used to reproduce parts of a
- The Stalactite work cornice or facade that have been ruined or damaged and which
need to be replaced.
In the book titled The invention of the Hispanic-Maghrebi style:
present and future:
- Decorative techniques in the Alhambra: knowledge and
The Source of Inspiration
restauration
As Ramn says, his source of inspiration is undoubtedly the
Alhambra, with its walls and Arabic motifs. There he can find
PUBLICATIONS IN JOURNALS:
inspiration for the creation and reproduction of different motifs
(epigraphic, geometric or from nature). There are so many
- Preliminary Study on the Biodeterioration of Canvas Paintings
different motifs that, when combined together, its possible to
from the Seventeenth Century by Microchiroptera
have thousands of different variations. The final pieces are sold
- Innovations from the Alhambra: New Materials in the Application
as official reproductions of the Alhambra and its possible to find
of Traditional Restoring Mortars
them in the souvenir shops around the Alhambra. The majority of
He works every day at his workshop in Cenes De La Vega but
Ramns clients are tourists, who want an exact reproduction of
he also has experience working in Granada, Jaen, Saudi Arabia
the decorations which are on the walls of the Alhambra palace.
and Morocco. In Granada, when he is not working making

22
Summary future of this profession could be seriously in danger. However,
the use of new materials or technology is not considered
There will not be continuity within Ramns family. However, completely negative by Ramon, who adds: I support the artisans
many artisans want to work with this type of material and are work, but I do not deny the importance of using methods that
interested in the technique of plaster reproduction with moulds. the advances in science have given us. Nowadays, without
Many of them also come from the Academy of Fine Arts of silicone, my job would not even be possible.
Granada. In addition, Ramon also collaborates and works with
students and professionals from beyond Granada and Spain.

And what about the job prospects for his field of work? The
future of this profession, just as the future of all the other crafts,
is uncertain. Artisans have to travel, constantly update their skills
and knowledge and try to find a niche in the marketplace for
themselves. New technology (for example a 3D printer) means
its possible to make cheaper reproductions. Of course that will
mean the reproductions are all identical, but nowadays many
customers prefer the lower prices due to mass production even
though the quality is inferior. If something does not change, the

23
TRINIDAD LPEZ
ALGUACIL
CERAMIST
SANTA F, SPAIN

T
rinidad and her husband Agustn have worked with
ceramic tiles for over 30 years. They produced them using
mainly water, mud and colours and they have sold their
produce all over Spain and internationally. Agustn and
Trinis factory is located in Santa Fe, in the province of Granada.
They started working in this field because of family tradition.
Trinis father had worked in this area since her childhood and
she really liked his job. She was always in the shop watching her
father working. Ever since she was a kid, she had always wanted
to participate in the work that her father did and day by day, she
learnt how to do the different techniques, distinguish the materials,
set up the oven temperatures and much more.

Their tiles are mainly used to decorate kitchens, bathrooms or


patios in homes, hotels and public buildings or even to decorate
the walls of any room. They are well known in the Santa Fe area
and in the region of Andalusia and they also have clients all over
the world: Saudi Arabia, Morocco, Algeria, Dubai, Quatar, Italy and
the United States. In Spain, they have worked for clients all over
the country: one example is the Pavilion of the International
Exhibition of Seville in 1992.

The origins of ceramic and its properties

Spanish tiles have gained a worldwide reputation for some of the


most brilliant and colourful combinations. The origins of Spanish
tiles go back thousands of years.

During Medieval times and before the Muslim invasion of 711AD,


ceramics were produced extensively in Southern and Coastal
Eastern Spain, including tiles for design and manufacture, practical

24
pieces, mosaic art pieces, roof tiles, fountains, and so on. to separate them.
Amazing pieces of artisan tilework were made for palaces and - Artistic hand-painted tiles with floral motifs, animals etc.
churches all around Spain. Ceramic tilework later developed
and spread throughout Spanish homes to floors, kitchens, Trini and her husband work with many different materials,
bathrooms and most of all, indoor patios. but mainly with clay and water. They also work with different
oxides, cobalt and tin which they use for decorating tiles. Taking
Glazed tiles are enamelled with metallic and glass oxides that a rectangular or square-shaped piece of fresh clay, a specific
help protect tile surfaces, making them durable but also glossy motif is applied. Once the pattern on the tile is drawn, it is
and shiny in design. Spanish ceramics began to be exported placed in the kiln at a temperature of 800-900 C. When the tile
from many cities in Andalusia, southern Spain. Rich in Islamic is ready, it is painted with coloured glazes and then it is placed
and Arabic heritage, ceramic tiles were exported throughout the back in the kiln to complete the process. We come here every
Mediterranean, Europe and then the world. day and we always have work to do. If we have some pending
requests, we start to work on them first. There are always things
Nowadays, Spanish tiles vary from modern to traditional, from to do, such as cleaning, sorting or ordering materials that we
colourful and patterned, to wood-like designs. The traditional have run out of Trini explains.
and original kinds of Spanish tile may be quite expensive but
they are extremely high-quality and durable. Ceramic tiles The bases of the tiles are made of clay, they may be reddish
are, in fact, very resistant against many potentially damaging if they are highly ferruginous, or whiter if they are more
factors, such as water, wind and heat. The glazed surface of calcareous. To obtain strong colours on the tile, it is necessary
this material provides the product with impermeability, which to use glazes that contain lot of silica, which will make the
makes it more resistant to rain, and that is why it was usually tiles look like they are made of glass. The most expensive glaze
used as a roof covering. used today, and one of the most difficult effect to achieve, is
the metallic reflex, which needs to be processed with oxidizing

Description of the work and materials and reducing.

Trini and her husband produce three types of tile: Summary

- Arista: From the Arabic tradition each colour on the tile is Trini and her husband have worked for many years as artisans,
separated by a small ridge (arista). and they have been through ups and downs in the market, but
- Cuerda Seca (dry cord): there is a small gap, like a path, they have always been able to keep going.The economic crisis
between the different motifs and colours that the tile may have, has also been a difficult period of time for our work, but we

25
have managed to maintain our profession and make a living to delegate someone to do all these tasks. We have spent a few
from it. months in contact with an external company that is interested in
moving in to reopen the workshop and continue the tradition. To
And what about the future of the factory? It looks like our do that I will hire new people and my son will also collaborate
child is going to re-open the workshop, and even though we are with them and us, my husband and I. We will also be here almost
already retired, we will keep on helping him little by little. He is daily to help out in any way possible. Although our son did not
not going to be directly involved in making tiles for now, but he want to work in the workshop initially, because of the crisis
will mainly take over the management of the company. We are and the lack of work, he has been more inclined to get to know
also in contact with a private company that will try to open new this world and work in the workshop, even if not directly on the
international markets for us to expand to new customers. creation of the tiles.

And she adds: After all these years it makes us sad to see the
profession of craftsman is increasingly less valued and is slowly
disappearing. We have already retired, but still keep coming to
the shop and doing small jobs. We know that soon we will have

26
JUAN ANTONIO
ORELLANA
PAVEMENT MAKER
LOJA, SPAIN

J
uan Antonio Orellana is a stone pavement expert. He
started his career in 1990 at a small construction company
in Loja and the surrounding villages. This company was
involved in many construction projects and jobs including
constructing Granadino stone pavements (empedrado granadino).
When he began, there were already workshops dedicated to
making this particular type of stone pavement. These workshops
started appearing in Granada as early as the XIX century. His
current workshop is in Loja, although in reality most work is done
on site, so its more like a storehouse than a workshop.

The Origins of the stone pavement

The first culture to use stone pavements was the Aegean


culture (Neolithic Period 1600 -1000 BC). First the Greeks, then
the Romans decorated their buildings with beautiful mosaics
composed of small pieces of coloured stone called tesserae.

The type of pavement found in Granada is derived from the


Roman tessellations but it was conceived in Arab culture, with
the Umayyad dynasty being the first to create it and use it in
the independent Caliphate of Crdoba (Century IX XII). The
materials used to form these pavements were naturally rounded
little rocks (with a diameter of 5 cm) mainly obtained from
riverbeds.

The first creations during the Umayyads dynasty were geometric


compositions using darker rocks to fill in the decorations. The
Umayyads were copied by the Nazarites, descendants of Nasridas
who were early settlers of what later became the Kingdom of

27
Granada. In Granada, however, white and black stones (those suitable for making a flat surface and they are comfortable to
found in the ravines and rivers of Granada) were used to create walk on. There may be other materials used to create these
the stone pavements. This is what makes its empedrado special pavements in Andalusia, such as marble, but stones taken from
and unique. ravines and rivers are the main materials used. Finally, both
locals and tourists seem to appreciate and like these stone

The Materials and Workmanship pavements. They think of them as a symbol of Granada and
Andalusia and they find them very characteristic of Andalusian

The main materials that he works with are mortars a culture and traditions.

homogeneous mixture of cement and sand, stone pebbles


or limestone for the infill and slate for pattern formation or Several steps are needed in order to
decorative motifs. The selection of materials is both important create a stone pavement:
and very basic at the same time. On one hand, you need to find
a material that is long-lasting and able to stand the wear and 1. The sand and cement are mixed in the following proportions:
tear of both people and vehicles. On the other hand, the material of sand and of cement.
should be physically and chemically stable, so that cant be 2. The mixture is spread out in the place where the stone
damaged by rain, and can cope with chemical elements that can pavement is going to be laid.
be present on the streets of any city. 3. The layer of dry mixture is smoothed and the motif is drawn
on with a finger.
The stones used to construct these typical Andalusian stone 4. The stones are placed to form the motifs and the background
pavements are white and black stones, and they are gathered infill.
from ravines and rivers in Granada. These stones are used 5. The whole thing is flattened with a piece of wood in order to
because of their uniform consistency and because their form leave all the stones at the same level and then it is covered with
makes them suitable for setting into the mortar in the street. a mixture of sand and cement and smoothed off until the result
They are also very rich in quartz, which doesnt allow salt and is homogeneous.
humidity to enter, and their edges are rounded by the passage of 6. Then water is sprayed very carefully to avoid removing the
time, which makes them ideal for street construction. cement. The stones are cleaned with a brush and left in such a
way that they just stand out from the mortar.
If they had not been paved, the streets would have been muddy Finally, the stones are washed carefully with a sponge in order
and in the past it rained much more than now. The choice of to remove all the cement stains.
stone for pavements over other types of material was mainly
because the stones were easily found in rivers and streams in
the area, and they were free. Besides which, these stones are

28
Summary However, he has taught his craft to students that are currently
working in this field. He doesnt officially hold the title of
Nowadays not many artisans work as stone pavement experts teacher but he knows his profession very well and in Spain and
(only about 30 in the Andalusian region). Juans main clients in Andalusia, about 20 years ago, the administration created a
are private clients, however in the past he also worked for city School Workshop (Escuelas Taller), where the teachers were
councils. With his job, he can barely pay for his food and monthly professional builders and carpenters etc. who taught their skills
expenses. Since most clients are private clients, the majority and passed on their knowledge to students who learnt the
of work is carried out directly in their private homes, chalets, trades in these workshop schools. All of these Escuelas Taller
courtyards etc. When he works for city councils, he mainly works have now disappeared.
in squares, pedestrian streets and footpaths. In the latter case
(public spaces) there are no restrictions applied in terms of So what is the future of this profession in Spain? Just as for
the choice of patterns: Juan is free to choose the patterns and all the artisan professions, it will only continue to exist if there
decorations himself. Since the work is generally done on smaller are still people who value and appreciate the workmanship and
areas, Juan usually works alone. the unique qualities of work by hand. However, because of the
In Juans case, the family continuity has unfortunately been lost. spread of new materials it might be even tougher in the future.
Juan explains.

29
Lithuanian Masters of REDIAPRO:

Mindaugas Rutkauskas, Potter


Audronis Skurvydas, Carpenter
Algirdas Stankus & Sons, Blacksmiths
MINDAUGAS
RUTKAUSKAS
POTTER
VILNIUS, LITHUANIA

M
indaugas Rutkauskas has been involved in the craft
of tile-making and pottery for more than 20 years.
This great artist was born on 1st January, 1956, in
Kaunas. He graduated from the Faculty of History
at Vilnius University in 1981. After graduation he couldnt find
a job that suited his education because of the constraints of
the contemporary government (at that time Lithuania was part
of the Soviet Union) so he became interested in ceramics. In an
independent Lithuania, he became a member of the Folk Artists
Union in 1991. The Union is a creative, independent, voluntary
and non-profit organization which unites the best folk artisans
from the fields of painting, sculpture, graphics, ironwork, pottery,
weaving, knitting, jewellery, braiding, and traditional art. It unites
non-professionals who do not have professional qualifications
in the art and crafts. Today, Lithuanian Folk Art is considered
to be a significant part of ethnic culture reflecting traditions
and a unique perception of the world. Mindaugas Rutkauskas
was given the status of Art Maker in 2007. This status is given
to people whose artistic work has been positively evaluated as
professional artwork and who have carried out craft activities
that are recognized as professional artistic creations. Finally, tiles,
jugs, bowls, plates, pots, jars and whistles made by Mindaugas
Rutkauskas were certified as National Heritage Products in 2010.
National Heritage Products are non-mass-produced, certified
items that are made by artisans, handmade using traditional
raw materials or new techniques based on old traditions while
maintaining the unique qualities and composition of the products.

Basically, Mindaugas Rutkauskas carries out all the major


processes for the production of ceramics starting with the search
for suitable clay, its cleaning and kneading, to throwing pottery
and ending with kiln construction, glazing and firing. All of this is
done following the principles of reproducing a craft, ie. using the

31
same tools, materials and techniques that were traditionally used
in the period of the pottery being replicated. Traditional methods The Manor of Bistrampolis and its Tile
are used for processes such as as clay preparation, moulding
and throwing pottery, decorating, and glazing in various ranges
Stoves
of firing. Chemical test results are analysed; clays of different
This manor has been in existence since the late 15th century.
masses are prepared; copies of selected archaeological samples
It belonged to the Bistramai family from the late 17th century
are moulded and fired.
until 1940. The manor was later nationalized (confiscated), and
then abandoned and so it began to decline. The manor house
Mindaugas Rutkauskas spends a lot of his time studying
was built in 1850 and survives to the present day. The two-storey
collections and ethnographic notes in museums. He has an
palace is built in the classical style with a rectangular plan.
archaeological knowledge of cultures development and the
The main facade is decorated with a portico with four columns
different ceramic techniques of these cultures, and he analyses
erected on the second floor above a porch of three arches. The
the patterns and techniques, and moulds and fires reconstructions
first floor of the palace was filled with guest rooms and the
of selected archaeological samples. He also reproduces the
whole right side had a large hall. The second floor was devoted
ancient techniques of Gothic and Renaissance ceramics in an
to creating an impression. It had larger and smaller salons, the
experimental way, exploring and reconstructing historic stoves,
dining room, workroom, and library. The landlords had collected
by analysing the evolution of stoves and tiles, samples of tile-
2000 books, a rich archive of the family and an art collection. In
moulds, plastercasts and clay matrix presses.
1997, the ownership was transferred to Christ the King Cathedral
in Panevys. The new owners did not maintain the park and
As well as his artisan activities, Mindaugas Rutkauskas also
as a result the manor buildings deteriorated. Since 2003, the
implements other initiatives relating to crafts and history. He
manor has been under patronage, maintained and restored by
is one of the organisers and participants of the international
PI as a Centre for Youth Integration Opportunities. Mindaugas
Bartholomew Fair which takes place every August in Vilnius.
Rutkauskas has manufactured two tiled stoves for the manor
This fair showcases the replication of crafts from the late middle
following the traditional methods used for the production and
Ages and the Renaissance, the arts and traditions of the artisan
decoration of tiles in Lithuanian territory (historic and current).
guilds which operated for several centuries in Vilnius. Mindaugas
http://www.bistrampolis.lt/
Rutkauskas is also one of the founders of PI Crafts Guild which
has been operating for 13 years. It is an open workshopgallery
seeking to revive and preserve craft traditions, participating A Success Story
in exhibitions, education, social and cultural activities within
Lithuania and in international events and projects. Mindaugas In answering the question of whether his activities can be called
Rutkauskas also carries out educational activities, for example a success story, Mindaugas Rutkauskas says that he is happy
he teaches tile-making and pottery mostly to individual adults that he has found his place under the sun and is engaging
and carries out informal education programmes for children. in a favorite activity even though it does not bring significant

32
earnings. However, money is not the objective. The goal is quite different, for instance
to replace the missing pieces of tile stoves to match the original design, and if there
are no illustrations available, then to restore them using his own intuition, and his
historical and architectural knowledge which helps to maintain authenticity.
We make everything
we need to: from the
whistle to the tile
stove.

33
AUDRONIS
SKURVYDAS
CARPENTER
LAPYNU VILLAGE, LITHUANIA

T
oday, Audronis Skurvydas spends most of his time as has been told by his mother that his first piece of work was
a restorer artisan working with all things wooden. A made in his grandfathers forge and it involved carpentry. His
well known artisan, carpenter and restorer in Lithuania grandfather stood a handmade stool in front of him, gave him
he is also considered to be a built-heritage specialist a hammer and a handful of nails and that was the beginning.
in the restoration of wooden structures, decoration and joinery. As for his second work, Audronis can remember that himself, it
About five years ago he completely abandoned a career in the was a whistle. Using his homemade folding knife and guided
civil service at the Department of Cultural Heritage under the by his grandfather, he managed the task really well for a child.
Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Lithuania. According to this This suggests that he may have inherited these skills from his
artisan, it was easy to do because he is still working in the same family. Audronis Skurvydas studied and graduated from the old
field. In addition, his educational experience in this field has led high school of Palanga (as it is known today) where his most
to a deeper insight into the practical work that he carries out. memorable lessons were technical studies and music. There
Nowadays, his tasks can be seemingly very simple, for instance were two eminent teachers there, the artist Vytautas Kusas and
restoring old joinerwork (windows, doors, stairs, floors and other the maestro Leonas idlauskas, who were and still are experts
interior and exterior wooden parts) and bringing it back to life in their fields. They both influenced Audronis from an early age.
without damaging any valuable original features.
After graduating from the Faculty of Arts at the University
As well as being a professional restorer, Audronis Skurvydas is of Klaipda (as its called today) and becoming a cultural
also trying to adapt traditional carpentry to todays construction education professional, Audronis Skurvydas chose a career path
world. As a result, he is in constant contact with architects and as a museum worker. He started work at the Lithuanian National
building engineers who work with traditional craft skills. The Museum in 1989. Soon he began to collaborate with Alfonsas
recipe for success is a common interest in historic structures, Gudzeviius, a restorer-expert from the workshop of artistic
the importance of their preservation and their potential for furniture restoration at the Academy of Art P. Gudynas Restoration
adaptation. and Conservation Centre. Maestro Alfonsas Gudzeviius taught
Audronis the basics and gave him an academic-scientific

The Road to becoming a Professional attitude towards restoration work by sharing his insights into
antique furniture restoration and his practical experience.
Artisan

Audronis Skurvydass path to becoming a professional craftsman Art versus Science


began in early childhood, when he spent the summers at his
mothers ancestral home at the emaitija steading near the According to Audronis Skurvydas, the principles of restoration

town of Mosdis in Western Lithuania. Audronis Skurvydas work are generally determined by the ideas and concepts of

35
heritage protection which are clearly defined in both national Materials and Techniques
and international legislation. There is no place for creative
freedom or art. This scientific view is based on a wide range of In his everyday carpenter-restorer work, Audronis Skurvydas uses
studies, experiments, and firmly established dogmas. Audronis traditional and reliable handheld woodworking instruments like
Skurvydas consolidates, preserves, conserves and reconstructs planes, chisels, knives, sharpeners, clamps, choppers, scrapers,
items of ancient craftwork but by no means remakes them. As axes, various hand-saws, drilling tools and others. He could
a restorer, familiar with the historic work and art of artisans, not manage without traditional materials as well such as
Audronis Skurvydas uses this experience to bring established wood, metal, glass, linseed oil, pine resin, turpentine, alcohol,
techniques to modern analogous activities. He has noticed that shellac, chalk and a mixture of linseed oil (kitas), and others.
what were previously technical joints, have now gained more With the help of these tools and materials, authentic, historic
decorative features in the context of modern design. architectural details are refreshed, revived and preserved, such
as joinery details as doors, windows, shutters, stairs, floors, etc.
The Most important thing is Cooperation At the same time new pieces of joinery are born bearing the
hallmarks of ancient craft traditions.
Audronis Skurvydas says that first thing he does on a project
is to engage with others. Before starting any work he gathers Honours
together the widest range of information available. Just as in
medicine, where a surgeon listens to what the anaesthetist Audronis Skurvydas, though modest, is very pleased that his
or cardiologist says before an operation, the same goes for a works have been recognised by others in several competitions.
carpenter-restorer: when you carry out a restoration project you He has been awarded:
usually need to get the views of the architect, archaeologist,
polychrome professional or others such as representatives of - The Certificate of the Union of Restorers under the Republic
traditional crafts. This means that the principle of partnership- of Lithuania in a competition for the best restoration works in
working is what usually determines the quality of the results. 2013-2014.
Audronis Skurvydas is pleased that there has recently been a - A Certificate of Distinction in a competition for Built Heritage.
connection made between the Vilnius Academy of Arts Applied - A Certificate for the qualitative, methodologically-based
Cultural Heritage Research and Conservation Centre in Teliai management of wooden and polychromic works and the
and the Kaunas College Art Faculty of Justinas Vienoinskis preservation of authenticity (Uupis Street 14-6).
Cathedral of Conservation and Restoration of Artworks which is
headed by Bangutis Prapuolenis.

36
STANKAI FAMILY
BLACKSMITHS
VILNIUS, LITHUANIA

T
he Stankai family is one of the most famous Lithuanian The Father of the Family Algirdas
families of blacksmiths. More than 5 generations of the
Stankus
best Eastern European blacksmiths, who were probably
the first to revive Damask technology in this region,
Algirdas Stankus says of himself: Blacksmith Domininkas forged
have this surname. However, the range of activities passed from
me with smooth movements of her body and I first saw light
generation to generation was not restricted to just gunsmithing.
of day in the Spring of 1948 in the town of Viekniai. I finished
Huge works of artistic ironwork were also created, adorning a
high school in Kaunas, and then I learnt order and discipline
number of luxurious homes (staircases, railings, chandeliers, parts
in the Navy, the arts in Teliai Applied Arts School, and worked
of furniture, etc.) were also crafted. The Stankai have also revived
as a restorer in Vilnius. It was a wonderful opportunity to study
the heritage of historic buildings by, for example, restoring or
the secrets of the ancient Art of the Blacksmith. I got new ideas
reproducing locks, keys, hinges and other architectural details.
and courage from Professor Giunter Laufer in Eisenach and from
Over many years of operation, the Stankai family has shown the
architect-blacksmith Achil Kiuhn in Berlin. I was sent the Czeck
importance, relevance and necessity of this traditional craft for
Metal-forging and Art News by Alfred Haberman. I taught the
todays society. Lets meet them!
ancient metal process methods of the Baltic tribes with the
help of archaeologists Jonas Stankus and Marija Gimbutien palace in the centre of Vilnius where their parents had a small
(both Lithuanians), and Aleksis Anteinas (a Latvian). I have been mould room. And of course, their second home was their fathers
a member of the Lithuanian Artists Association since 1988. forge. So the children of the family spent all day there learning
I am a full and active member of the Estonian Blacksmiths the skills to be artisan-blacksmiths. That is why their journey
Association (ticket No. 2) and have been a associate member of to becoming blackmiths was so short from the start of their
the Finnish Blacksmiths Association since 1991. I exhibited the conscious childhood, perhaps even from the age of three when
first Damask items at the Vilnius Decorative Arts Exhibition in they could first hold a hammer. So it is not at all surprising that
1987. My first exhibition and lecture cycle The Traditions and from an early age they were able to contribute directly to the
Future of Artistic Metal Forging in the Countries of the Baltic rejuvenation of Vilnius blacksmith heritage. After all, their father
Sea Region were held in Miunemaki city at the Finland Institute Algirdas Stankus was the blacksmith-restorer at the heart of the
of Applied Arts and Design, and later at the Stockholm Academy restoration of Vilnius monuments. Mindaugas Stankus became
of Arts. I came back to my homeland at the start of Lithuanias interested, due to his Lithuanian language teacher Stasys
independence. I have passed on my experience of the art and Urnieius (Great Knight Vilkdaugas), in the archaeological digs
craft of the blacksmith to young blacksmiths. We participate in taking place at Vilnius Lower Castle, so much so that he actually
exhibitions whenever possible. In conjunction with my students, spent several teenage summers there.
we exhibited blacksmith items in Turku city, Finland in June
1998. We have also participated in worldwide exhibitions of Blacksmithwork Science versus Art
artistic ironwork. We have had exhibitions in the Czeck Republic,
Poland, Germany, and Russia. You can find my work at St. Today, the Stankai blacksmith family try to copy the techniques
Johns Church, the Presidential Palace, Kaunas Priests Seminary, of ancient forging traditions in every single work but at the
Birtonas, and the Lithuanian Embassy in Moscow. I have made same time they do not completely avoid modern technology.
lots of gravestone monuments At first sight it might look as though these two methods
are incompatible, but this synthesis allows the craft of of
The Sons Mindaugas and Martynas the blacksmith to adapt to modern needs and desires. The

Stankus techniques used by blacksmiths are very wide ranging. The latest
knowledge about technological stuff comes to blacksmiths not

I never dreamt of becoming an astronaut or soldier. To be a only from personal experimentation and lots of experience, but

blacksmith was already encoded in my genes at a young age also by attending symposiums and festivals and especially by

tells Algirdas Stankuss son Martynas. The brothers first home communicating with other artisans.

was in the buildings of the present-day Lithuanian presidential

38
The Most Important Thing is Continuity she is needed to give birth to children and look after the home,
and not behave like a Scandinavian woman thinks Martynas, a
One of the best methods of transmitting knowledge is through strong man, who is 186 cm in height and 110 kg in weight. Then
the next generation of students. The Stankai family have signed he remembers a funny story and smiles: Once in Sweden, I saw
a contract with the Teliai Art Faculty of the Vilnius Art Academy a woman carrying very heavy firewood, so I offered her my help,
relating to students practical experience. As a result, they had and I just about got hit over the head with the firewood.
to educate themselves and then teach students for several
summers in a row. Another way of spreading knowledge is by What are the most important characteristics for a blacksmith
taking part in the activities of the Pajautaarchaeological club. Algirdas Stankus has no doubts: Talent, diligence, and a sense
This club brings together artisans who replicate ancient crafts of size, shape and distance. Algirdas Stankus is not a religious
and demonstrate these processes during various events for the man but maybe it is not a cooincidence that it is said that
public. But according to Algirdas Stankus the most important blacksmiths are the closest ones to hell, and that the closest
thing for the transmission and continuation of the craft of the way to the Devil is through smithwork. Hephaestus, the son of
blacksmith is his family and his two adorable sons. Zeus and Hera, god of fire and guardian of blacksmithwork, had
a limp and I have lost an eye the famous blacksmith points to
his left eye. He does not talk much about this painful incident.
There is always plenty of work
The irony of fate is this happened not in the forge, not close to
hell, but whilst restoring Vilnius Church of the Apostles Philip
Algirdas Stankus taught his art Finnish, he has made copies
and James, when he climbed high up a tower and a workman
of weapons for one of the famous museums in the world, the
wrapping metal wire accidentally poked him straight in the eye.
Hermitage Museum, and has forged the most sophisticated
items for churches and Vilnius University. As a blacksmith and
gunsmith, his creations decorate the houses of well-known Cleaner than in an Operating Theatre
businessmen. The blacksmith and the miller have always had
lots of work no matter what the prevailing conditions, ie. war or However, the fact is that the forge is a very clean place. You can
plague says Algirdas Stankus. ask a surgeon. In the old days, giving birth took place in forges. I
took part in my sons birth, so if needed I could always deliver a
Algirdas himself, his bearded son Mindaugas and his other son baby laughs Martynas. Once a famous journalist visited with a
Martynas who lives in Kaunas, can all three confirm by their girl wearing white shoes. I blew away the soot and offered her a
appearance, that blacksmiths are strong and stocky, although seat but she said: its not clean, laughs Algirdas. Lady, I said
the men mentioned several times that nowadays there are slim to her, it is cleaner in here than in an operating theatre. Needles
blacksmiths, too. A woman and a gun should not be put together, are sterilised at 100 degrees Celsius there, and at 1000 degrees
Celsius here, so its 10 times cleaner.

39
Estonian Masters & Workshops of REDIAPRO:

Margus Palolill, Caprpenter


Ahto Raudoja, Shingle roofer
Community of Mooste (Workhops)
MARGUS PALOLILL
CARPENTER
MOOSTE, ESTONIA

M
argus Palolill was born and raised in south- on shingle roofs and some years later he joined a traditional log-
east Estonia, where the culturally distinct, building company, Saulerman, where he learned how traditional
orthodox region of Setomaa is situated. He handcrafted log-houses are produced industrially ie. in a fast,
studied environmental sciences at the University efficient and profit-oriented way. Although he was grateful for
of Tartu and did a masters degree in Geology. During his the experience, he soon realised that there was more he wanted
studies he took an interest in southern Estonian solid clay to know about the science of timber and woodcraft than just
buildings and his primary field of research at university was the mastering the production of log-houses. From 2009-2011 he
contents and characteristics of various clay materials used in the worked for the Rpina School of Horticulture as a log-building
traditional, historic, clay buildings of Setomaa. He also collected teacher to landscape architecture students. In 2013, he opened
information about the building styles and architecture of the up his own carpentry workshop and is currently specialising
local clay buildings, contributing thus to the understanding and more on the skills of cabinetmaking. The primary produce from
conservation of this unique but fast disappearing craft. his workshop is wooden doors and windows but he also makes
also indoor and outdoor furniture.
While studying clay buildings, Margus became interested in
the craft of Estonian traditional log-building as the primary In 2005, Margus bought an old farmhouse in Setomaa and
material for farm-houses. He started as an apprentice working started to renovate it in a responsible way, so that its historic
appearance would be preserved. Estonian vernacular farm Estonians are in general, fond of stressing that their ancestors
architecture is devoid of ornament or decoration and is notably have lived in their present location for thousands of years.
plain and modest with a particular room structure. Retaining the The history of architecture in Estonia starts with cone-shaped
historic appearance and simultaneously adapting it to modern tents and stone graves, continues with fortified settlements
family life was therefore a real challenge. However, Margus and unique barn-dwellings, and somewhere in between the
believes in taking things slowly and gradually learnt about the smoke-sauna appears, which is a small log-built sauna without
history and character of his old house. He even interviewed the a chimney and is common to all Balto-Finnic people, including
former inhabitant of the house in order to gain more information Latvians-Lithuanians, Finns, Karelians and Estonians. As the
about it. He finally moved in with his family in 2007 and social status of Estonian villages did not change much until the
continues the renovation at an equally slow pace still aiming for 19th century, this type of building endured perhaps for centuries.
authenticity. In 2008 he built a traditional smoke-sauna. During the 20th century, smoke saunas in most of Estonia were
gradually replaced by Finnish saunas. However, it would appear
Drawing from his experiences in traditional log-building, that southern Estonians have the smoke sauna tradition more
renovation and teaching, he joined Vanaajamaja in 2009 as deeply rooted in their culture. Saunas of traditional design there
a log-building instructor and adviser on old wooden houses. have been more resistant to the changes of modern times than
Vanaajamaja is an Estonian non-profit organisation that is in other countries, and historic smoke-saunas are well preserved
dedicated to the studying and teaching of traditional building and popular despite the inconveniences of a longer heating time
crafts. Margus has been tutoring traditional log-building courses and greater consumption of firewood. The smoke sauna tradition
at Vanaajamaja since 2009 and in 2012 he started to teach is an important part of everyday life for most southern Estonian
international log-building courses on Estonian smoke-sauna families. It comprises a rich set of traditions including the actual
construction. During the six day workshop, the participants bathing customs, the skills of making bath whisks, of building
are taught how the log structures were built in the old days and repairing saunas, and of smoking meat in the sauna.
with only hand tools. They will learn traditional Estonian log-
building by cutting and raising a traditional smoke sauna (in The building material is usually Scotch pine or Norwegian
est. suitsusaun), which is a sufficiently small log building but spruce and most of the traditional joints and notches are
nevertheless an iconic form in Estonian vernacular architecture. covered. Although knowledge about traditional sauna customs
Workshop participants will also hear about the historical and is still widely spread, the skills of building the saunas that were
cultural context of log-building in Estonia, and about historic also common once, and taught by fathers to sons, have mostly
buildings and restoration techniques and usually Margus also disappeared these days. Margus and the rest of the Vanaajamaja
covers also the importance of the smoke sauna and Estonian team do their best to encourage people to learn how to preserve,
sauna culture in general in his courses. restore and build their own log-buildings including smoke
saunas.

42
AHTO RAUDOJA
SHINGLE ROOFER
MOOSTE, ESTONIA

A
hto Raudoja is a carpenter with an education in forestry
and he is a spokesman for the tiny cultural nation of the
Seto people. Traditional wooden architecture has been
his interest since his university days, when he studied
forestry and made an inventory of and investigated the methods
used for Seto traditional buildings. Wooden roofs, as an important
part of traditional architecture, have been part of his work for the
last 20 years. Mainly, he has constructed and been an instructor
on the construction of shingle roofs, and he also has taught it to
young masters.

During his time at university in 2002, he already founded a small


enterprise Katuskatja, whose main area of work is building
shingle roofs and renovating wooden houses. The roofs constructed
under Ahtos supervision range from tiny 4 m2 shelters to huge
1400 m2 barn-dwellings all over Estonia. His most outstanding
projects have been installed in the Estonian Open Air Museum and
the Seto Farm Museum.

Seto Spokesman

In addition to his architectural experiences, Ahto is also a


spokesman for Seto culture. The Setos are a small Finno-Ugric
nation close to the border between Estonia and Russia. They have
their own language and clothing, cooking, music and architectural
customs, but their territory is found in both Estonia and Russia.

Amongst other things, Ahto has investigated and renovated


Seto tsssons, orthodox chapels which have a significant role
in Seto rural architecture. Unlike churches, the tsssons are
established by village communities and built by local men with
their own resources and willpower, using local traditional building
techniques. These buildings are therefore essential sources of
information for architectural heritage research.

43
Ahto has compiled the voluminous anthology, Tsssons of alder using a special shingle-cutting machine. The most durable
Setoland (published in 2011, authors: Ahto Raudoja and Tapio species is spruce, but it is also the most knotty, which makes the
Mkelinen), which gives an overview of the research carried shingle-cutting quite complicated. Logs for shingle-cutting have
out over last 10-12 years and allows an understanding of the to be straight and knot-free. The average thickness of a shingle
essence of the tssson in Seto culture. He has also written is 3-4 mm, the width 7-12 cm and the length can be up to 75 cm.
the review Setoland: the basic features of the traditional
architecture (published in 2014 by Vanaajamaja), which gives The most suitable roof for a log building,which is the most
an overview of different types of buildings and the character of common rural architectural building type, is a roof made of
Seto rural architecture. natural materials. Shingle is flexible and mouldable; it is
suitable for different shapes of roofs and a shingle roof is

Building shingle roofs relatively light often historic log houses are not able to carry
the load of a heavy stone roof.

Wood, as the most easily obtainable building material, has been


in use in Estonia since prehistoric times. Until the stone roof The Revival of Ancient Skills
started to become popular in the 15th century, roofs of dwelling
houses and churches were covered by pieces of wood hacked To build a house with a roof for your own household was an
from timber logs using a wedge. obvious necessity for most peasants at the beginning of the 20th
century. Little boys learned the skills by their fathers sides and in
The growth of wooden roofs accelerated again at the end turn passed them on to their sons. During the Soviet Era building
of 19th century cooinciding with changes in agricultural traditions were interrupted and many traditional building
production. When the use of threshing machines overtook skills were in danger of disappearing. After Estonia regained
manual harvesting, the straw processed by these machines independence, the renovation of historic buildings and the
was not suitable for covering roofs anymore. Different kinds of erection of new ones in a traditional style gained popularity and
shingle roof (in Estonian: pilbas, laast, sindel, kimm) began to alongside that there has been a growth in interest in traditional
appear alongside boarded, torn log and thatched roofs. skills. Nowadays it is possible to learn how to build a wooden
roof on short term courses, mainly organised by societies who
After the Soviet Era, when different kinds of industrial materials are promoting traditional building skills, or by practicing under
were used for roof coverings, wooden roofs rose to prominence the supervision of an experienced master craftsman.
again within rural architecture and spread to use in renovation
projects as well as in building new houses. There are many wooden master roofers all over Estonia, but Ahto
is considered not only a craftsman, but also a ambassador for
Shingles are cut from a raw block of spruce, pine, aspen or traditional skills and conveyor of cultural heritage.

44
COMMUNITY OF
MOOSTE
WORKSHOPS
MOOSTE, ESTONIA

M
ooste is a tiny village in south-eastern Estonia with Vanaajamaja team organises several courses on Estonian
a lively international arts and crafts community. traditional building, and provides continuing professional
The life of the community centres around an development and skills advancement for carpenters. Their
historic steading and its surrounding complex of course calendar is full of exciting training possibilities in
red brick farm estate outbuildings, gates, walls and majestic traditional building beginning with 1-day refresher courses and
valitsejamaja (manor house), set in relaxing countryside. Each information seminars progressing right up to full 10-day, hands-
of the outbuildings has its own function and focus and hosts on, practical logbuilding courses. Once or twice a year they offer
different kinds of arts and crafts workshop. logbuilding, timber frame or other traditional building courses
for international masters, students and enthusiasts.
The old manors grain-drying kiln is home to Vanaajamaja,
a nonprofit educational organisation that provides training The earth building and clay plastering workshop is run by
programs, promotes Estonian traditional architecture and Saviukumaja who produces and sells clay and lime plaster,
serves as a centre of knowledge for historic buildings and compressed earth blocks, clay blocks, clay mixtures for straw
log house renovation. In this cosy old stone building, the bale houses, and masonry mortars etc. Their main interest is in
clay buildings. By constructing and renovating clay houses, they broad scope and focused environment, MoKS is the only project
continue to revive the farm architecture of Southern Estonia. of its kind in Estonia and enriches the life of small countryside
Unlikely most production companies, they also spread knowhow community of Mooste.
and skills of how to work with these materials, they organise
workshops and courses for those who want to gain professional Over the last hundred years, the manorhouse building has
certificates. hosted the local secondary school; the renovated vodka distillery
accommodates the Estonian Photo Tourism Centre, and contains
Next door to Saviukumaja is a wood restoration workshop where a suite of cosy rooms used as a photo studio, accommodation
you can bring your old doors or windows and at the skilful and for various events. The former steam-driven sawmill and
hands of local masters, they will be made as good as new again. flour mill was rebuilt to form a 60 seat village theatre, and much
They also make replicas if the timber is already too decayed to of its special atmosphere is created by the interior of the old
be saved and restored. In addition, there is also a master bow- mill. For big events, one of the stone barns was rebuilt as a folk
maker, originally from South-Africa, who has set up his workshop music hall that hosts several big concerts and theatre events,
here and makes hand-made wooden bows that are used in weddings, parties and first and foremost, an annual folk music
competitions all over the world. festival at the end of April.

Mooste is home not only traditional architectural and carpentry A recycling shop also occupies one part of Mooste manor. This
crafts but also to a textile handicrafts studio and wool workshop. tiny, crowded shop is home to all kinds of domestic goods that
At Sireli Farm woolshop, all kinds of lambswool products are have been saved from the trip to the rubbish dump. The idea
produced from warm woollen socks to majestic fur coats. The behind the recycling shop is similar to garage sale or street sale
blacksmith of the village works in a tiny old forge right next to events held in the US instead of throwing away goods that are
the main gates. no longer needed in your household, you can bring them to the
recycling centre and they might find a new home. At the end of
One very unique and attractive collaboration is MoKS a the day everybody is happy and there is a little bit less rubbish
non-profit artist-run project space. With its diverse approach on our planet.
and open atmosphere, MoKS holds a unique position within
the Estonian and greater European cultural context. Their In addition there is a folk music-school where local kids and
main activities include an international Artist-in-Residence adults can study traditional folk music instruments.
programme, organising Art Symposia, workshops for adults and
youths, art and community events in Estonia and abroad, and Mooste was famous for its tradition of growing flax. The flax-
participation in various international projects in collaboration processing workshop is now a welcoming guesthouse offering
with other arts organizations and cultural institutions. With its accommodation.

46
The history of the manor itself goes back to 17th century when the Baltic German
von Nolcken family started to establish a household there. The buildings you can
visit nowadays were mostly built in the beginning of 20th century. During the Soviet
Era the whole property was misused by a local collective farm and it was only
renovated during the last 10 years. Each house has found a new useful function, but
there still are opportunities for further potential some stone barns are waiting for
the chance to be renovated and turned into new attractive workshops/houses.

47
Transylvanian Masters & Workshops of REDIAPRO:

Istvn Egri, Glass Artist & Restorer


Masonry & Joiner Workshops of Bonchida Castle
ISTVN EGRI
GLASS ARTIST
CLUJ NAPOCA, ROMANIA

I
was born in 1963, on the 7 th of May, in Cluj, Romania. did not secure me a place, so starting the next year I turned to
My parents, both artists, are Nagy Enik, painter, arts, respectively to the Design department of the Ion Andreescu
cloisonne enamel and painted enamel artist, awarded Institute of Fine Arts in Cluj (now the Academy of Arts and
at several international symposia, and Egri Lszl Design). While preparing for admission, I have worked as a pipe
my father, painter and glass artist. My father was part of the glassblower at the Napochim Glass Factory in Cluj. In 1985 I
first generation of professional artists that was included in the passed the entrance examination and became its student. During
glass industry in the country to organize its design departments. the years spent at this faculty, I worked with glass for numerous
He worked for 8 years at the glass factory in Turda and after semester projects, such as the chess project or the perfume
that he founded the glass department within the ceramics bottles project. Also during those years I worked with my father
department of the Ion Andreescu Institute of Fine Arts in Cluj. on several projects of stained glass, such as the stained glass
I finished secondary school specializing in precision mechanics from the Roman Catholic Church in Tunad Bi, the Reformed
and optics at the Industrial High School No. 8 in Cluj. I took Church in Dej etc.
the first entrance exam to enter the Ion Mincu University of
Architecture in Bucharest, but my performance in mathematics After the changes in 1989, I took an exam and continued my
studies at the Institute of Applied Arts in Budapest (now the order ever, the restoration of the Calvaria Roman Catholic Church
Moholy Nagy Laszlo University of Art) the glass department. in Cluj, I opened my stained glass workshop in Cluj, a workshop
I had teachers artists like Bohus Zoltan and Horvath Marton. which operates uninterrupted until this day, under different legal
During those years of study, the years before the faculty spent forms. I became a member of the Romanian Restorers Union
as a pipe glassblower were of great help to me. Often, during since it was founded. I got the qualification of Stained Glass
the practical courses within factories, I was the one blowing and Restoration Expert on movables in 2007 and the accreditation of
executing the projects of my colleagues and teachers. I passed my Stained Glass Restoration Specialist on real estate in 2012, both
graduation exam in 1993. Back to Cluj in 1995, with my first big issued by the Ministry of Culture of Romania.

Istvn Egri have had numerous restoration and stained glass works, both in public buildings and private villas throughout the country
and abroad:

MEDIA APPEARANCES AND OTHER ACTIVITIES:

1999, Member of UAP, the Union of Fine Artists in Romania;


Member of the Barabas Miklos Ceh Guild;
1998-2007, several articles on stained glass in the following magazines: Cminul, Casa Lux, Good Homes and in the local press.
Several appearances on the following TV channels: TV1, Pro TV, Duna TV, Realitatea TV, Klub TV, appearances with stories on stained
glass;
1998-2001, present with a stand at the International Symposium on Restoration in Tunad Bi;
Exhibitions held within the Introductory Courses in Restoration organized by Transilvania Trust, with the theme: Specific cases of
stained glass restorations: Augsburg, Canterbury;
2012-2015 exhibition with artists in the field of stained glass invited in the Roth Miksa Memorial House in Budapest;
2010-2016 annual participation in the Barabas Miklos Ceh exhibitions in Cluj.

STAINED GLASS RESTORATION WORKS (SELECTION):

1994 the Reformed Church in Uriu, Dej


1995-1996 the Adormirea Maicii Domnului Roman Catholic Church in Mntur Calvaria, Cluj-Napoca
1996-1997 the Evangelical Church in Bistria
1998-1999 the Lucian Blaga Central University Library in Cluj-Napoca
1998-1999 the Sf. Emeric Roman Catholic Church in the village of Ghelinta, Covasna
2000-2001 the Sf. Ioan Boteztorul Roman Catholic Church, Covasna
2000-2001 the Calvin Reformed Church in Turda-Poiana, Turda

50
2004-2006 the Reformed Church on Farkas Street, Cluj-Napoca
2006 the White Tower, Braov
2006 the History Museum in Turda
2007 the Reformed Church in Abram, Bihor County
2009 the Reformed Parish, the Protestant Center in Timioara (the place of the outbreak of the 1989 revolution)
2009 the Sf. Mihail Roman Catholic Church, Cluj-Napoca
2011 the Roman Catholic Church of Piarists in Cluj-Napoca
2011 the Evangelical Church in Baia Mare, phase 2
2011-2012 the Sfntu Mihail Roman Catholic Cathedral, Alba Iulia
2012-2013 the Budavari Matyas Catholic Church, Budapest, Hungary, commissioned by GLASS.HU, led by restorer Czebe Istvan
2013 the Sfntu Mihail Roman Catholic Cathedral, Alba Iulia, phase 3
2015 the No. 1 Central Reformed Church on Koglniceanu Street, Cluj
2016 the Mona Evangelical Church, Media

STAINED GLASS WORKS (SELECTION):

1996 the Ecumenical Chapel in Salina Praid, Praid


1985 the Roman Catholic Church in Bile Tunad
2004 the Reformed Church in Bonida, Cluj
2007 the Reformed Church in Finiel, Cluj-Napoca
2008-2009 the Orthodox Episcopacy of Alba Iulia
2009 the Reformed Church in Oorhei, Bihor County
2011 the Sfntu tefan Roman Catholic Church in Cluj-Napoca
2012 the Unitarian Church in Miercurea Ciuc
2012 the Marton Aron High School in Miercurea Ciuc, stained glass reconstruction
2012 The KOVER BELA Puppet Theatre in Szeged, Hungary
2013 Jazz Caf, Trgu Secuiesc
2015 the National Theatre of Satu Mare, stained glass, lighting objects concept, chandelier restoration
2015 the Pentecostal Church in Tulcea
2015 the National Bank of Romania, Baia Mare
2016 the Orthodox Church in Cornetu, Ilfov County

51
BNFFY CASTLE
MASONRY & JOINER
WORKSHOPS
INTERNATIONAL BUILT HERITAGE CONSERVATION

TRAINING CENTRE, BONTIDA, ROMANIA

B
nffy Castle, Bontida, one of the most significant 1999, and since 2001 has been based at Bnffy Castle, Bontida,
castle ensembles in Transylvania, reached an where the courses have been developed to meet international
extremely precarious condition by the end of the demand. As a further step the International Built Heritage
nineties. The Transylvania Trust, since its creation Conservation Training Centre was officially opened in 2005.
in 1996 has carefully followed the castles destiny. The size,
architectural and historic value, and degree of degradation of the The structure of the training
castle make its restoration and use a complex task, which will
only succeed with a proper long-term strategy and international The Centre provides teaching modules, each of two weeks
co-operation. duration, which offer a theoretical and practical understanding
of the care of the historic environment. Its principal emphasis is
In 1998 the British Council and the Romanian Ministry of Culture, to offer a direct hands-on learning experience for its students.
recognising the need to develop a built heritage conservation This is achieved through practical workshops in the crafts of
strategy, invited the Transylvania Trust and the British Institute of Rendering, Masonry Consolidation, Carpentry and Stonemasonry,
Historic Building Conservation (IHBC) to design and implement within which students undertake practical restoration projects
a project to promote historic building conservation in Romania. directly on the castle buildings. The workshops are jointly led by
The result is now the Built Heritage Conservation Training British and Romanian craftsmen.
Centre at Bnffy Castle, Bontida. The program initially began in

53
The courses provided through the centre are available to environment is not the remit of a single group of specialists.
craftsmen who are already within the building industry, who Many disciplines are involved in its care, and therefore in
seek to either specialise or widen their personal skills, and to addition to its practical courses it offers specialist workshops
undergraduate and post-graduate university students. It is these to other participants such as Landscape Architects, Building
individuals who will be responsible for preparing specifications Historians and Archaeologists, who also have a role to play
and schedules of work for the care and maintenance of the within the historic environment.
historic environment in the future. Typically, students have
a background in architecture or structural engineering or The training specifically embraces the principal skills required
conservation related subjects. in the restoration of a building and promotes the concept
of understanding between craftsmen, project managers and
At the end of each course a Diploma (Certificate of Achievement) architects. It also embraces the concept of pride in workmanship.
is presented to successful students. The Certificate is accepted
by the Ministry of Culture and is widely acknowledged within Results
the building industry in Romania as having special value and
recognition of quality. So far more than 2000 students have been trained through
the BHCT programme. They have come from Romania, Hungary,
Goals and principles Slovakia, Slovenia, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Latvia, Sweden,
France, Kosovo, Serbia, Albania, Croatia, Brazil, Australia, Belgium,
The purpose of the centre is to promote excellence in the USA, and UK, etc.
conservation of the historic environment and specifically to
teach traditional building craft skills which can be utilised in the Training through direct work on the castle has achieved the
repair and maintenance of historic buildings; whilst in parallel partial restoration of a number of the buildings within the castle
undertaking the restoration of an endangered major historic ensemble. None have been fully restored to completion but
building. where work has been undertaken; all the buildings have been
saved from extinction. It was completed the restoration of the
The Centre promotes a policy of Minimal Intervention in dealing former kitchen block, and its conversion into accommodation
with the repair of historic buildings, combined with a strategy of and catering facilities for the students of the BHCT Centre,
Compatibility in techniques and materials, and the use of local as well as opening the Art Caf, the restoration of 2 floors of
resources. It promotes a philosophy of researching, analysing, the Mikls building and conversion into lecture rooms and
understanding, and recording historic buildings before and conference facilities, the restoration of the former chapel within
during intervention. the main building, and conversion into a community cultural
hall, the partial restoration of the former stables and conversion
The BHCT Centre encourages an holistic approach to historic into workshops, and partial restoration of the main entrance
building conservation, recognising that the care of the historic gate and adjacent rooms, and conversion into a visitor reception

54
and exhibition area, as well as a lapidarium. problems similar to those experienced at Bonida.

The castle offers a perfect setting for this activity. Its severe The Training Centre has been awarded in 2008 with the top prize
state of dilapidation provided a major challenge to the process for heritage preservation education, training and awareness
of restoration in 2001, and set major questions to the whole raising of the European Union and Europa Nostra. Highly
approach of conservation restoration in Romania. If restoration valued for its double approach: training for conservation and
could be achieved here in the presence of such degradation it conservation through training. It is an excellent example of cross
could be achieved throughout Romania at many other sites. This border exchange of knowledge. The castle has therefore once
was the challenge. The success can only be judged from the again an international recognition, albeit in a different form than
results. that of its previous notoriety.

The training model developed here at Bonida (conservation


through teaching; teaching through conservation) is now being
promoted in other countries, particularly in SE Europe, as
they emerge from years of communist rule which resulted in

55
Bulgarian Masters of REDIAPRO:

Angel Mitrofanov, Carpenter


Varvara Valchanova, Earth Builder
Veselin Vasilev, Carpenter
ANGEL
MITROFANOV
CARPENTER
ROUSSE, BULGARIA

W
hen Angel was only 12 years old he used to keep
a small knife and a piece of wood in his pocket,
always carving something My favorite theme
was The Statue of Freedom in Rousse City I kept
buying postcards of the statue and used to carve tiny wooden
sculptures, he remembers, smiling. One day, a teacher from
Angels school noticed his talent and asked him: Have you been
to the Tryavna School of Applied Arts? Of course I have! Angel
replied. Do you know that there is a class for woodcarvers? was
the teachers question afterwards and it was this very question
that kindled a desire for wood-carving in Angel. The young boy
had already found his ambition in life

Angel Mitrofanov chose to study at the wood-processing


Professional School of Rousse. After five years of hard study and
labour, he became a master of wooden art furniture. He was
taught by some of the legendary masters of the school of Tryanva.
However, his dream was to construct and carve more solid and
remarkable projects. The teachers encouraged his talent by
recommending the young wood carver to a local wood furniture
factory with lots of orders for serious carving constructions. This
happened in 1975 and since then Angel has been devoted to
his first love wood carving. The second one is his family his
beloved wife and their two children.

The Master

Angel Mitrofanov is a master of high quality, artistic work with


wood such as woodcarving, wood-turning, furniture, souvenirs
and decorative carved panels as well as the production of

57
household furniture and complete carving chisels. The techniques he uses
interior solutions ie. both design and are based on the typical Bulgarian wood-
implementation. Angel studied at the carving art of the National Revival Period
Technical School of Woodworking and from the XVIII century which contain
We are the last
Interior Architecture in Rousse City, precise ethereal and opulent floral
specializing in woodcarving, during the elements in several layers. The main
few masters of the
period 1969 1973. He became a Master materials that this master uses to make craft left - like living
Wood-Carver and has spent more than 30 solid wood furniture are solid timber and
years, dedicated to wood. He received his the natural veneers of precious wood monuments of our
Master qualification from the Association species such as the oak and walnut tree.
of Artisans for Traditional Arts and Crafts The Master Wood-Carver makes solid
cultural heritage.
(AATAC) in the 80s. During the 90s he wood furniture with beautiful decorative
became chairman of the Association of ornamentation as well as interior and
Artisans for Traditional Arts and Crafts exterior decorative wooden elements for
(AATAC) in Rousse City, being a true different projects for example, carved
custodian of traditional crafts skills. interior columns, complex balustrades,
gates and many more.

The Work
He believes that he is one of the last

Angel Mitrofanovs work is completely true Masters of wood-carving in Bulgaria

done by hand from the initial planning because there are no disciples of his

of the product and its construction mastery or students to inherit the craft.

to the final coating, using only basic There have only been three young men

carpentry and wood-carving instruments who were willing to learn the master

a rounded wooden hammer and wood- skills of wood carving over the years. The

58
first one studied the craft for five years, the second one for Awards
three years and the third one stayed with Master Mitrofanov for
only a year. Unfortunately, no matter how good they got as wood- 1977 Regional Exhibition of Traditional Arts and Crafts (TAC),
carvers, none of them practice their master skills now. They all Ruse.
are great people and became true wood-carvers, but they have 1978 National Exhibition of TAC, Oreshak.
to take care of their families and the craft of wood-carving is not 1978 The Third Exhibition contest Trojan Master, Oreshak.
profitable enough in Bulgaria Each of them gave up carving 1978 International Exhibition 100 years of the Ottoman
wood and found more lucrative professional fields. yoke, Oreshak.
1980 Sixth National Fair TAC, Sofia.
The master believes however, that if there is a stable and 1980 National Exhibition of TAC, Sofia.
appropriate national and/or international policy to retain and 1983 National Exhibition of TAC, Sofia.
revive wood-carving craftsmanship, devotees will appear who 1984 Regional Exhibition for TAC northeastern Bulgaria, Ruse.
will work and create wood-carvings as they have been done for 1984 Regional Exhibition TAC, Rousse.
centuries, with pride and desire. 1986 National Exhibition of TAC, Oreshak.
1987 Regional Exhibition for TAC northeastern Bulgaria, Ruse.
1987 Jubilee Exhibition of The Association of Artisans for
Traditional Arts and Crafts (AATAC), Sofia.
2015 Award Rousse City for Art and Culture.

59
VARVARA
VALCHANOVA
EARTH BUILDER
SLOW TECH CAMPUS,

RAHOVITZA, BULGARIA

V
arvara Valchanova grew up both in Bulgaria and explored this further and joined international and European
Algeria and studied architecture in Grenoble projects in Central Asia, Africa and Europe. She is amazed by the
(France), where she graduated in 2002. Afterwards soft colors and full variety of shades of the natural material. A
she specialized in earth construction at the Research master does not use common terms as clay and cob, because
Centre for Earthen Architecture (CRATerre) in Grenoble. After they do not fully express the different building techniques she
moving to the Netherlands in 2005, Varvara worked for a small uses. That is why Varvara has chosen the term earth building for
architecture office in the Hague specialising in ecological specifying all the construction techniques, which include subsoil
building. Currently Varvara works in the field of advanced as a main construction material.
lightweight structures with Buitink Technology in Duiven.
The material she uses for the earth building is the subsoil
Varvara lives in Holland and has three children, however, these hidden under the upper layer of the ground the unfruitful soil,
facts never stop her from coming back to Bulgaria every year. made of small stones, fractured into different sizes by erosion.
In a small mountain village, she is reviving the old tradition of Soil, which is suitable for construction, should not contain
earth building. Fortunately, this skill has not been completely organic substances because they decay and are a good hosts of
forgotten and it deserves the chance to survive into the mould. Varvara has dedicated herself to earth building in every
future. She and her husband have bought three houses in the aspect she has planned and carried out the restoration of many
abandoned Rahovitza a neighborhood outside the village old houses in the Rodopa mountain area using earth building
of Kosovo (Asenovgrad) in the Bulgarian Rhodope Mountains. techniques. She also organizes an international architectural
When Varvara and her husband bought the houses, there was camp for alternative building techniques in the Rhodope
no road leading to the buildings and they were almost in ruins. Mountains and has published a book called Earth Building,
Varvara however, managed to recover their authentic charm with written in Bulgarian.
her tireless work and growing enthusiasm. She uses solids and
stones from the hills and hardwood from the nearby sawmill. The book is the result of the experience she has gained, it has
loads of information on how earthen materials are extracted,

The Master tested and prepared, what kinds of earthen building techniques
are used in Bulgaria, as well as some useful tips and tricks for

Varvaras love of earth building started while studying preserving old buildings.

architecture in the University of Grenoble. In order to make


her living and study at the same time, she started working as a
builder-plasterer using natural earth plasters. At CRAterre, she

61
The Technology to identify the right soil for building and
the main earth building techniques. The
Local materials and traditional techniques, participants gain practical experience on
enriched with the latest science and adobe planning, straw-earth infill and
There is no other
plastering. A guided excursion to nearby
design for low-carbon, healthy and
villages gives them the opportunity
material that has
beautiful living spaces is what the
slow technology of building naturally to further explore traditional building more applications,
is all about. Modern materials often techniques and their possible adaptation
contain noxious impurities, which even to modern requirements. it can be used for
in small quantities, can affect health. almost everything.
Earth building is completely ecological. The Book
Unfortunately, today it is so rare to be
able to find someone who can repair and Varvara Valchanova has gathered all
restore old houses. Someone who works the knowledge she has gained, together
with due skill and respect for the work with her professional experience, in a
of the old masters. But it is encouraging construction guide dedicated to earth
to find that Varvara Valchanova is one building. The book, Earth Building is
young architects who has succeeded in written in Bulgarian and was officially
renovating a few old houses in both a launched on the 26th of November
sympathetic and authentic way. 2013, at the House of Culture in Plovdiv,
under the auspices of the festival, Sofia
The Slow Tech Campus Architecture Week.

Varvara Valchanovas aim is to inform The book reveals the features and the
people about earth building and to teach properties of the building material which
them how to use natural materials for has been used in Bulgaria for millennia.
building. Since 2004, she has organised It explains the parallels between
architectural summer camps in Rahovitza, the geology of a specific terrain, the
where everyone, especially students of properties of the local soils and the
architecture from all over the world, can different building techniques. The book
participate and learn about earth building. gives information on how to extract,
During these seminars, they learn about how to test and prepare earth materials,
the characteristics of earth as a building which are the key building techniques
material, field tests that will enable them in Bulgaria, as well as lots of useful

62
information about the conservation and restoration of historic The Award
houses. The books main purpose is to arouse the interest of
Bulgarian readers in the opportunities which earth can give, Terra [In]cognita, earthen architectures in Europe is a European
as a natural and ecological construction material, towards the project financed through the framework for the EU Culture
restoration and maintenance of existing buildings, as well as 2007-2013 program and also supported by the French region of
being a reliable material for a new, eco and bioclimatic building. Provence-Alpes-Cote dAzur. One of its principal objectives is to
make the public more aware of earth architecture, the earthen
The Building Projects heritage and the modern application of earth as a building
material. An award for Outstanding Earthen Architecture in
After five years of hard work and building activities, the Kibela Europe has been given to 42 construction projects selected by a
house in the Rhodopean hamlet of Rahovitza is now complete. 9 person jury from 6 different countries (France, Spain, Portugal,
Varvara and her team mainly used local and affordable materials. Italy, United-Kingdom, and USA). The buildings were judged
The internal climate is unique and interactive. The walls are under 3 different categories:
built with timber/black pine with an infill of light earth and
insulated with reeds. The ground floor and the ceiling of the - buildings with an archeological, historical or architectural
house are insulated with perlite. The ground floor is covered interest
with a Bulgarian limestone and the first floor is made from - buildings presenting a remarkable or pertinent intervention
pine varnished with a linen-based product. For the kitchen, (restoration, rehabilitation or extension)
she opted for a Bulgarian stove Prity, and for the first floor, - buildings constructed after 1970
a Norwegian stove Smarty from the Nordpeis company. The
kitchen furniture was made by the local carpenter from oak and In this context, the Bendida house in the Village of Kosovo
for the worktops she integrated limestone that was leftover from Narechenski Bani was given an award in 2011 under the category
the floors. During the spring of 2015 an open doors event was Buildings presenting a remarkable or pertinent intervention.
held.

Completed projects:

The Kibela house in Rahovitza, Kosovo, Rhodope mountains


The Bendida house in Rahovitza, Kosovo, Rhodope mountains

63
VESELIN VASILEV
CARPENTER
ELENA, BULGARIA

V
eselin VasilevDarVesko was born in 1976 and over
the past 20 years he has become a real master of the
applied arts and authentic carpentry. He finished his
education in Furniture Design at the Tryavna School
of Applied Arts in 1995 where he gained a professional diploma
in carpentry and carving. Afterwards, he completed his education,
graduating from Veliko Tarnovo University in 2003 with a masters
degree in Sculpture. He has devoted his life and work to the Balkan
mountains in particular, the district where the small, picturesque
city of Elena lies with its typical medieval architecture consisting of
historic houses built from wood, stone and traditional plank roofs.
Veselin lives in Elena with his wife and daughter, however, they
spend every summer in the village of Mijkovtzi, a small, beautiful
village in the mountains where he works and creates his wooden
masterpieces of authentic Bulgarian architecture. DarVesko, as
he named himself, is a true custodian of historic traditions in
carpentry and his ecological thinking enriches his work with real
spirit and authentic mastery.

The restoration or renovation of authentic timber boarded houses


extends their lives and adapts them to modern life. Our special
approach to renovation retains the specific character of the house
and thus carries the tradition into the future says DarVesko.

The Master

Since 1997, Veselin VasileDarVesko has worked with wood,


building and restoring houses using the truly ancient techniques
of framed roof construction, building and restoration, learned
from the old-school masterscraftsmen. Historic timber framed
roof types, as authentic as they were 200-300 years ago, together
with typical Balkan architecture, slowly and imperceptibly appear
in the villages surrounding Elena, by dint of Veselins hands and
skills. Natural materials and traditional practices in restoration
and building are the only sources he uses and the true spirit of

64
the mountains can be felt in every timber White House and many more were about
board of the houses that he builds. to follow All of them custodians of
Bulgarian spirit and the old masters
traditions.
I am still optimist,
The Kandaferi House
the Masterpiece Built Veselins expertise does not end with
moderately optimist,
Twice Over these astonishingly authentic houses that these crafts will
furniture, outdoor wooden playgrounds,
The first authentic house built by authentic wooden ceilings, external not die out.
DarVesko was finished in the summer stairs, doors and many other wooden
of 2000. The Kandaferi house, a large pieces of art and decorative elements
3-storey building was made entirely of also come out of the Darvesko Workshop.
wood and it quickly became a symbol of Working with a variety of architectural
the village of Mijkovtzi with its typical constructions and client requirements,
mountain architecture. Several years DarVesko has an unique approach to
later, there was a terrible misfortune every project and he meticulously plans
for the master, when his masterpiece all the restoration and construction works
Kandaferi was completely burnt down with detailed construction drawings.
in an accidental fire. Despite the fact that
it was a real tragedy for all concerned, The young master works with wood and
Veselin and his team summoned up all has an understanding of wood shown by
their spirit, knowledge and skills and his dedication. Enriching the traditional
rebuilt the house once again this with a hint of the contemporary, quality
time more beautiful and stunning than and spirit are the most important aspects
before. The houses in Svetolavtzi, The of his mastery.

65
The roofs The Projects

DarVesko is certain that in general house restoration or the DarVesko finished his first house restoration in 2003. Some
restoration of an authentic timber framed house should extend of the projects he took on are completed by working with the
its life and modify it for a more modern lifestyle. If this master owners of the houses or with other master carpenters who
has a special approach to renovation, it is to retain the specific work in the Balkan mountains and for each restoration or
character of the house and thus carry tradition and heritage into construction he gathers together a team of skilled carpenters
the future. and builders who help him achieve these amazing restorations.

DarVesko uses only traditional carpentry techniques which have DarVeskos most significant works:
been used in the district for centuries. He manages the entire
process of the different types of restoration of these historic - The Svetoslavtzi House nr.1 in Seslavtzi village near Elena
houses and roofs. He personally picks the hardwood from the complete renovation
sawmills nearby. Afterwards, he treats the wood just as the - The Svetoslavtzi House nr.2 in Seslavtzi village, near Elena,
old-school masters did it hundreds of years ago and then he complete renovation
constructs staircases, roofs or a porch for the building. Often he - The White House in Mijkovtzi village near Elena construction,
has to use old pictures of the building in order to reconstruct it exterior and interior renovation
in the same style. - The Kandaferi House in Mijkovtzi village, near Elena
construction, exterior and interior renovation
The types of wooden roof constructions DarVesko restores and - Works in Timber
builds are:

DarVesko loves wood and his work goes beyond the restoration
Mono pitch (slope); and conservation of old houses, roofs, and constructing new
Pitched roofs (slopes); buildings using traditional carpentry techniques. His field of
Two-level (saddled) roofs; expertise is even wider and includes furniture, outdoor wooden
Two-level tapered; playgrounds, authentic wooden ceilings, external and internal
Hipped roofs; stairs, front doors, and many other wooden pieces of art and
Pyramid roofs; even wooden bridges on eco paths high in the mountains.
Hip and valley roofs;
Shed roofs.

66
Italian Masters of REDIAPRO:

Antonio Lunghi, Architect & Builder


Christiane Zschiesche, Restorer
Luca Grilli, Stone Carver
ANTONIO LUNGHI
ARCHITECT
ASSISSI, ITALY

A
ntonio Lunghi is an architect working in the family business
specialized in the field of restoration of monuments and
artworks for generation. To be exact, four generations have
followed in the management: the first Alfonso Long who
was born in Costano and moved to Santa Maria degli Angeli (Assisi) at
the beginning of the Twentieth Century. Alfonso was a master builder
who coordinated the team in charge of restoring relevant artworks and
monuments, such as ancient stone wash, many objects in Montecatini
(Tuscany) and in the Basilica of Santa Maria degli Angeli (Assisi). His son
Esmeraldo continued the family business with difficulty; in fact because
of the economic downturn, the main activity of the family was in the
field of restoration of farmhouses located in the Umbrian countryside.
The Company Lunghi Esmeraldo was established in 1939, when
Esmeraldo affiliated with the Manufacturing Association of Perugia.
After the war the company throve again, leading the development of
Santa Maria degli Angeli. Esmeraldos sons Espartero, Orlando and
Erminio- supported him to manage the company. In 1951, Orlando
got his Degree in surveying in 1951 and he became the technical
manager of the Company. Later, the Company devoted to realize relevant
construction works (hotels, public buildings such as the cinemas,
the Primary schools, the Consortium of Santa Maria degli Angeli. The
Company has also been involved in key activities aimed at restoring
monuments, such as the entrance to the Convent of Santa Maria degli
Angeli. In 1980, the Company started collaborating again with the
Benedictine monks of Porziuncola. The cooperation between the
monks and the Company stopped in the 1970s, when they work together
on the paving of the Church; altar and crypt. Some years later Antonio,
Esparteros son, started working for the Company. Thanks to his Degree
in Architecture, Antonio became the technical manager of the Company.

The main activities carried out by the Company were mainly focused on
restoration works, consequence of the big earthquake struck the local
area in that period. The earthquake caused significant damage to the
lantern of the Dome. The Company worked on the restoration of the
monument, in collaboration with the Mr. Menegotto, an engineer coming
from Rome. Later, in 1989, Company Lunghi Esmeraldo & Figli S.n.c.

69
became Lunghi Ltd. New members of the family started working crucial. This made Antonio think it was necessary to rethink
for the Company: Giovanni -Erminios son- Marco Orlandos his Company, focusing on some principles that the modern age
son- and, some years later, also Luca Antonios brother. In has almost wiped out; that is to say the need of gather some
1997 a terrible earthquake struck Umbria and Marche, causing craftsmen. That is the reason why the Company hired a group of
relevant damages to the Basilica of Francesco[1]of Assisi. The blacksmiths, such as Adelmo Mariani (born in Assisi in 1959, he
collapse of the vault and Bellower of St Francis Basilica caused joined his fathers workshop where he learnt the traditional iron-
the dead of 4 people. The Local Authorities entrusted the working techniques. He stayed in his fathers workshop until
Company the management of the restoration works. From 1997 1987, when he started combining working experiences linked
to 1999 the activity of the Company based on the restoration of to his training as blacksmith and employee in a warehouse).
St Francis Basilica, a very intensive period that ends with the In 2006 Adelmo joined the construction company Lunghi Ltd
reopening of the Upper Basilica. as Master Blacksmith, also having welding, folding, milling
and hot working duties. Adelmo has a particular professional
After the earthquake, Antonio took responsibility for managing profile, as he can integrate different forms of traditional
and collaborating in many restoration works, such as the processing techniques with the needs of a construction company
Monastery of S. Giuseppe in Assisi, the Convent f the Missionary operating in the field of historic and artistic heritage, as well
Sisters in Santa Maria degli Angeli and the Monastery as new constructions. The choice of creating a small team of
of S. Andrea in Assisi. In 2007, relevant finds have been blacksmiths comes from the needs of the Company. In fact,
rediscovered in Assisi, inducing interest towards an area where Antonio claims the situation in the field of restoration was
a Roman amphitheater must have been located. So, Antonio quite critical and nobody was able to provide adequate answers
started carrying out important structural restorations in the to questions concerning key issues, such as the preservation
area surrounding the amphitheater. He also worked on the of conditions of monuments and making them safe and the
interventions on the luxury hotel NUN. Located in a renovated realization of products, antique items.
nunnery, the Nun is set in Roman excavations and uniquely-
decorated rooms with design furnishings. Besides standing out for a genuine interest towards the old
professions and the role they play in the field of architecture and
Antonios professional profile stands out for his great awareness construction industry, Antonios professional profile also sticks
about the old professions linked to the field of architecture out for the commitment of the maintaining a balance between
and construction industry. In fact, in total contrast to what old knowledge and new tools. In fact, nowadays, new techniques
usually happens in the field of construction industry, Antonios and tools (CAD software , 3D printing and the technology of
mission is to maintain a production capacity based on the skills laser cutting) can be applied to the old professions and the
and competencies of the craftsmen such as bricklayers, floor traditional ways of working, widening the horizons of the
layers, plasterers, stonecutters, carpenters, blacksmiths, or better workers operating in our fields, allowing the integration of the
those artisans who used to work in building companies and traditional knowledge and techniques with the modern ones.
now have been dismissed because of the economic downturn. Maybe such integration can be the key for solving the problems
Antonios company is based on the idea that the integration of linked to the world of restoration. The field of restoration is
different profiles (blacksmith, floor layer, marble worker etc) is based on uniqueness, each piece is unique.
LUCA GRILLI
STONE CARVER
GUBBIO, ITALY

T
he story of the Grilli family workshop starts in 1935 A passion for the art of stone-carving was handed down from
in the stone city of Gubbio, when Enzo Grilli, who father to son, so Luca Grilli, Enzos son, began working with his
was just 11, became master of the workshop. His very father in the 1980s. Their work, which is full of passion, is not
early works show his considerable standing, in fact, merely a manual exercise, consisting of technical measures and
the young stonecutter was engaged in the expansion of the proportions. For them, it has become an art form that symbolises
monumental cemetery. Unfortunately, the war years weighed the whole story of the Grilli family workshop.
heavily on the Grillis and during this difficult time Enzo decided
to move to the small village of Narni. During his stay in Narni, Many important and satisfying commissions followed year after
Enzo completed various works such as the statue of a bee at year for Enzo and his son Luca, such as the faithful reproduction
the police station in Terni. Back in Gubbio after the war, he was of the office of the Duke of Urbino Federico da Montefeltro,
involved as a stonecutter in the construction of the Mausoleum where Enzo carefully replicated the original architrave and
of the Forty Martyrs and in the restoration of the main altar of doorposts of the entrance doors of the Dukes study, which are
the Basilica of St. Ubaldo of Gubbio. now exhibited at the Metropolitan Museum in New York.
Enzo worked alongside Luca, on the restoration of many and the production of historical coats of arms for the Conti
influential and prestigious historic buildings, such as the Porcelli family. He has also been involved in some important
Palazzo dei Consoli of Gubbio, the Ducal Palace and numerous major restoration projects, such as the renovation of special
residences of the renowned, ancient families of Gubbio and the insets on the fountain SantErcolano in Perugia and the windows
surrounding area. In addition, the Grilli craftsmen worked on the of the Mausoleum of the Forty Martyrs of Gubbio. Luca also
restoration of the upper basin of the fountain of the Bargello in made the artistic tank for the miraculous fountain of St. Ubaldo,
Gubbio, as well as making church altars and sacred furnishings on the avenues of Mount Ingino. Amongst his recent works, is a
throughout Italy, for example the altar of the church of the sculpture of a rose containing a reliquary for the altar dedicated
Franciscan Fraternity of Bethany located in Terlizzi (Puglia). to St. George in the Church of Santa Maria dei Servi in Corso
Garibaldi in Gubbio.
In 1993, Luca became the owner of the company, following in
his father and teacher Enzos footsteps. A commitment, love For years, the company has dealt with both marble and stone
and passion for this art form are in Lucas blood. The young processing, from traditional to modern including restoration
stonecutter worked on the construction of the altar of the work. The company is also engaged in interior and exterior
Church of Vittorina of Gubbio; the new altar of the Porziuncola design work. For eighty years now, thanks to Lucas commitment
in the Franciscan convent of Santa Maria degli Angeli in Assisi; and passion, the Grillis workshop has been continuing to convey
the altar in the Chapel of the Basilica of St. Ubaldo in Gubbio. He a passion for handcrafted work that comes from the heart, taking
also carved the pulpit of the Basilica of Gubbio and in the same simple pieces of stone and turning them into pieces of history.
Basilica, he has created a new semicircular theatre of peace.

Luca has also been involved in producing artistic funeral


aedicules, the recent restoration of the facade of a building
on Benveduti Ondedei Street in Gubbio, the renovation of the
building and terrace of the Ducal residence of Federico da
Montefeltro in Gubbio, the restoration of the castle of Carbonana

72
CHRISTIANE
ZSCHIESCHE
RESTORER
PERUGIA, ITALY

C
hristiane Zschiesche was born in Erlangen (Germany)
in 1963. She is married and she has three sons. After
graduating, in 1983 she moved to Italy to attend
Italian courses at the University for Foreign Students in
Perugia. Christiane gained experience in restoration at one of the
largest restoration company of central Italy. She has participated
in numerous restoration sites in central and southern Italy, in
the field of stone material, wall painting, paintings on canvas
and wood, wooden sculpture. Christiane started working in
a Restoration Company, one of the biggest company of the
central Italy learning the art of restoration. Since 2007 she has
collaborating with the Building Company Lunghi as responsible
of the restoration department. After a brief interruption for family
needs, he returned to work for the earthquake of 1997 , acting
as a link between the building companies and the restoration
needs. During the earthquake of 1997 the Building Company
Lunghi entrusted her the management of the coordination of the
restoration companies called to intervene on the damage caused
by the earthquake in order to supervise the work and avoid the
use of wrong materials.

Later on, Christiane has continued working as a restorer. She


has also worked on frescos restoration within restoration sites.
Christiane has also worked on stone cleaning restoration that
goes from the clean-up to plastering aesthetic representation
and protection. The peculiarity of her professional profile is
linked to the restoration of artworks in the building sector. Her
area of expertise focuses on the analysis and reproduction of
historical plasters, the treatment of surfaces of historic and
artistic interest (documentation, sampling, cleaning, integration,

73
preservation). Christiane working on the restoration of a stone It is a versatile professional profile, with a good knowledge
emblem (sandstone) belonging to the faade of the Domus of both old and modern materials. He/she must be able to
pauperum, Nobile Collegio della Mercanzia in Perugia. The recognize the materials used over the centuries, reproduce the
Nobile Collegio della Mercanzia, first city Guild followed by that composition and grain size of the aggregates in the mortars,
of the Moneychangers, is set in the fondachi (warehouses) of recognize and select binders, reconstruct the missing parts
Palazzo dei Priori since 1390. The Guild, to show its richness, without incurring false historical, provide real-time indications
chose the precious wooden decoration, covering without for use of materials in use in modern buildings, such as synthetic
interruption both walls and ceilings of the Sala delle Udienze resins, silicates etc.
(Audience Chamber).
Through considerable experience gained in the restoration of
Besides working on the restoration of artworks in the building old artworks and the use of appropriate materials, the building
sector, Christiane is also responsible for workers training. restorer will assess the compatibility of the products used with
the historic surface on which to intervene. So, he/she has to be
Considering the richness of the Italian architectural heritage, able to support the workers in the choice of suitable materials
it is indispensable for the building companies engaged in to ensure durability and reversibility. An important aspect of this
architectural restoration works, have one or more technicians in work is the possibility to find painted surfaces and sculptural
their staff able to intervene in contexts of considerable historical- reliefs within the building that has to be restored. The restorer
artistic interest. The peculiarity of the professional profile of the has the task to intervene immediate in order to preserve
building restorer is to apply to the field of restoration of the the work. Last but not least, he/she will also has the task to
historical-architectural heritage, the methods and knowledge make the construction workers aware about the importance
linked to the historical materials and the subsequent restoration, of the materials and shapes which are crucial for preventing
acquired thanks to the experience of artworks restoration. irreparable human errors.

74
Scottish Masters of REDIAPRO:

Leonard & John Grandison, Ornamental Plasterers


Robin Abbey, Signwriter
Andrew Ramsey, Stonemason
LEONARD & JOHN
GRANDISON
ORNAMENTAL
PLASTERERS
PEBBLES, SCOTLAND, UK

G
randison & Son Ltd have been restoring, conserving The firm was found by Leonard Grandison (1860-1934) in 1886
and stabilising ornamental plasterwork in Edinburgh, at the age of 26 years, with capital of 80. However, already at
the Borders, Scotland and the North of England for the age of 12 he became an apprentice plasterer with then well-
130 years. It is a family owned business where skills known plastering firm James Annan of Edinburgh (with branches
and knowledge are passed from one generation to another. in Perth and London). Leonard was almost certainly the youngest
The company is based in Peebles, the Scottish Borders, one of apprentice working at a major plasterwork contract being carried
the most picturesque parts of Scotland, only one hour away out at Cortachy Castle, Angus. Despite struggles of the business
from Edinburgh. The wealth of this legacy can be seen in the due to the Glasgow Band failure in 1879 Leonard remained
Grandisons workshop, which contains numerous plaster moulds in his occupation thanks to construction of new tenements in
and architectural features created and collected for well over a Edinburgh. He became a foreman in his early 20s and came to
century. work at three sites in the Peebles area: Portmore House near
Eddleston, which was being rebuilt after a serious fire; the new

77
British Linen Bank in Peebles High Street; Tantah House, a large constructions of bathrooms and toilets in farm cottages as well
villa being built about one mile south of Peebles. as upgrades of cow byres sheep dippers in order to combat
various diseases. In the meantime John Grandison became a
One of the larger contracts was the plasterwork for the Peebles good draughtsman known for production of excellent drawings
Hydro rebuild after the fire in 1905. Since the firms own regular of the more elaborate ornamental ceilings. The firm was also
staff was not large enough to cope with a contract of that size, steadily growing as it bought its first car in 1923, a second-hand
Leonard offered an additional half penny/hour to get plasterers Vulcan DS130. In 1920s also technology of work has changed
from further afield. There were no mechanical hoists for this as a new gypsum plaster called Hardwell was introduced as
five storey building. Labourers had to carry the lime in hods and well as the invention of plasterboard, which has replaced the
would take a hod up one of two storeys, leave it leaning against traditional timber lath. In 1930s the firm has installed its first
a wall (known as shanking), and then another labourer would telephone.
carry it up the next one or two storeys. Of course, the empty hods
were returned to ground level in the reverse manner. Leonard Grandison Snr died in 1934 leaving John in charge
of the business that was struggling through the economic
By 1914 Leonard Grandison made a name for himself and depression. Soon after that John started introducing young
was involved in ornamental plasterwork in many houses in Leonard Jnr to the business in the same way his father did after
the Scottish Borders and around Peebles where he eventually 1914. Just before the II World War he visited various projects in
settled down and built his workshop. In 1914 John Grandison, Scotland and met prominent clients including architect Sir Basil
Leonards son, was still a schoolboy when his father got him Spence at Gribloch mansion near Kippen (Stirlingshire) owned
to cast ornament in the evenings. As most of the men went to by the Colville steel-making dynasty. When the war broke out, as
the war every pair of hand that supported the business was in 1914, most of workers left to join the forces and at one stage
important. John started his apprenticeship in 1915 and at the the firm was down to three men. It seemed like the history had
age of 17 he volunteered to join the army. He did his training turned the full circle.
with the Royal Engineers at Chatham and then worked with a
team laying concrete runways on airfields in East Anglia. He Leonard Jnr started his five year apprenticeships in 1948, and
was then sent to France and was near Mons at the time of the during that time, studied building construction at Heriot Watt
armistice. John survived the war unscathed but he was marching College in Edinburgh three evenings a week for five years. He
into Germany to join the army of occupation he developed has finished with a Higher National Certificate in building and
influenza. He was in hospital for two weeks after which he joined passed the Licentiate examination for the Institute of Builders.
his unit near Cologne. He was demobilised in 1919, re-joined the During the apprenticeship, he has experienced all aspects of
business and was made a partner in the 1920s. plastering and worked on one of the last lath and lime plaster
contracts, which was an extension to the Vert Memorial Hospital
After the war the market has changed and ornamental work at Haddington. After the war the firm went through some
had a smaller demand against programmes of council housing, difficulties, which peaked during the Thatchers time when

78
Grandisons had to lay off men because trading conditions were he wanted to give the public a flavour of what plasterwork was
very difficult. about in non technical terms. The book is called The Nearly
Non-Technical Book on Plasterwork
In 1978 John Grandison Jnr (son of Leonard Jnr) started his
apprenticeship. This was somewhat interspersed with being at Currently, the firm is run by Leonard and his son John. In the
university. When he completed both, he spent a few years with a recent years the Museum-Workshop became a popular place
quantity surveyor, which gave him experience with that side of for everyone interested in traditional trades due to its amazing
the business. John Grandison Snr died in 1983. Also during that collection and remarkable history behind. The firm has been
time the plasterwork technique has changed as traditional wet training plasterers until recently and it is not clear whether
plastering was considerably reduced by dry lining. This involves anything is going to change in this regards. It is interesting to
fixing plasterboard not plastered but only having the joints find out about Leonards take on the future of the industry eight
filled. years ago in 2008:

In 1990s the revival of lime has started because conservation War, famine and pestilenceperhaps the apocalyptic vision is a bit
was becoming increasingly important and there was a call farfetched, but, it is not hard to see the impact of diminishing and
for traditional methods and materials to be used in restoring more expensive oil supplies, of steps to combat global warming and
older buildings, which were in need of repair. Thanks to that terrorism and how they impact our lives and business.
Leonard Grandison became a renowned expert on plastering
and application of lime and therefore throughout 1980s and Day to day maintenance will always go on, but large projects which
1990s he was asked to give talks to master classes in Edinburgh, could have a political dimension could be spasmodic. There is
Glasgow and Dundee. At that time the firm has also developed currently talk of building three million affordable homes, but we
a method called rivet replacement. This stabilises distressed will need to wait and see what the outcome is. Certainly too much
and mainly at risk ornamental ceilings. This method does not or too little building work available within a relatively short time
normally require any temporary support of the ceiling and has can cause problems.
been used successfully on several occasions with the approval of
Historic Scotland and National Trust. Could the bureaucratic burden of running a business become too
onerous and put people off going into business?
Grandison & Son owns a very large collection of original
patterns of ornamental features and some of them are as Slow payments can lead to cash flow problems. In this respect we
old as the firm itself. With continued interest in conservation, have usually been reasonably fortunate, only occasionally have
Grandisons decided to open Museum-Workshop of Ornamental customers used dubious pretexts to delay payments. If, however, cash
Plasterwork to the general public in 1988. The workshop still flow problems occurred with say redundancy; the outcomes could be
contains an old lime pit, which Grandisons call ark. It has not extremely serious.
been used for well over 30 years but its owners were encouraged
by Historic Scotland to undertake a full run of putty lime for We started off doing lime and ornamental work and 121 years later
young plasterers. At about 1998 Leonard wrote a little book we are now back doing the same
about plasterwork. There are plenty of good technical books but

79
ROBIN ABBEY
SIGNWRITER
LEITH, SCOTLAND, UK

R
obin Abbey. Born near Beaminster, Dorset, England, Robin started his business with a few signs presented on the
October 1948. Brought up in Cannington near mantelpiece in his home at Albert Place. His current workshop
Bridgwater in Somerset. Attended the local Grammar can be found in Coburg House Art Studios at Edinburghs Leith.
School, and Somerset College of Art in Taunton. There It is a small yet busy place, with an impressive wall of numerous
he took a course in typographic design, and followed his interest shades of paints, projects in various stages of completion and
in traditional signwriting. The course involved learning about samples of past work. Robin is an artist and tradesman. He offers
lead and wooden type letterpress printing, which was critical in a wide range of signwriting services, including glass gilding, tra-
understanding shapes of individual letters He was able to watch ditional lettering, typefaces while being open to special projects
the local signwriters (of which there were far more than there such as lettering boats and painting decorative figures. Robins
are now), but received most of his practical training from Mr Bev projects became an integral part of the Old and New Towns of
Blackmore, now of Milverton. Robin has since had several jobs Edinburgh World Heritage Sites streetscape where visual integ-
involving lettering in printing or signwriting, but after moving to rity is one of the key reasons behind this prestigious inscription.
Edinburgh decided that he would commit himself to signwriting The best manifestation of that are traditional shopfronts, deco-
full-time. That was seventeen years ago, and during that time rative fascias and frontages of public houses that contribute to
interest in painted signs, including gilding and glass-gilding, has Edinburghs historic atmosphere. However, they require regular
increased among a younger generation. maintenance and appropriate restoration, which can only hap-
pen when traditional skills are involved.
Although signwriting as a discipline became recognised in the sec-
ond half of XVIII century it is fair to say that it has lost its primacy
in the second half of the previous century when advertising, new
technologies and materials became more accessible. In the recent I always liken it to jazz: there are
years signwriting started to come back in parallel to an increasing
need for placemaking and maintenance of historic assets. Therefore
several basic themes and you
Robin trains and works with younger professionals who often try to play infinite variations on that
pursue careers in signwriting after having experience in advertis-
ing. His approach to the discipline is authentic as he uses traditional and sometimes its brilliant but
methods and tools while leaving enough space for a competent cre-
ativity. Signwriting requires personal touch, patience and attention to
always its comptent.
details, which Robin describes accurately in economic terms: quality
is remembered long after price is forgotten.

81
ANDREW RAMSEY
STONEMASON
ST MARYS CATHEDRAL,

EDINBURGH, SCOTLAND

A
ndrew Ramsay is a rarity, a master stonemason Andrew learned his skills using tempered chisels. It was
trained in the old traditional way. It is this historic necessary to used really sharp chisels to hew stones into shape
knowledge and skill he is now passes on to the they would use two sets simultaneously, as the tools were
apprentices at St Marys Cathedral Workshop. He constantly going backwards and forwards to the blacksmith to
served his apprenticeship at Edinburgh Castle from 1981-1989 be re-tempered.
under the tutelage of Andrew Atkinson, an Irishman who came
from a long line of old school stonemasons, all legends in their The Army School of Piping was situated in the Castle, and his
own right. foreman practiced the chanter there, but you could be sure over
and above the sound of the pipes he would hear if Andrews mel
Andrew remembers working in the coal yard at the top of the paused for too long. One unforgettable day, when work began on
Esplanade, there he learned all the hewing skills and it was the tunnel (which now takes traffic through the rock) a cache of
always one to one instruction. On his first day (in deep winter), ancient skeletons was found. Andrew has many happy memories
he was shown a large water container, this was the washing of working in that coal yard where the stonemasons had a
bucket, with a film of ice on it which had to be broken before wooden hut. He qualified as a Master Stonemason with his City
use a far cry from todays all singing and dancing facilities for and Guild (in those days) awards, winning the Dux Craft Award
apprentices. He was given a jib thumb cover made from an inner with seven distinctions and a credit, and was then approached
tube cut to shape, and his heavy Mel was made of beech wood. by Lt General Sir David Young (latterly Governor of Edinburgh
Castle) who together with the then Provost of St Marys to the Cathedral. Each summer stonemason firms ring asking
Cathedral, The Very Revd Philip Crosfield, had founded St Marys Andrew for his new graduates as they know that each and
Cathedral Workshop to take up the position of Foreman there. every ex-apprentice from St Marys will be thoroughly trained
in traditional hand carving and will be honest, confident and
In 1991, Andrew judged at the Scottish National Stone Carving reliable.
Championships at Edinburgh Telford College where the standard
was extremely high. St Marys Cathedral Workshop employs apprentices for four
years and enrolls them for three years to study for their Scottish
The Workshop was founded in 1987 with twin aims the Vocational Qualification in stone masonry at Edinburgh College.
restoration of the Cathedral exterior stonework, and the training In short, we provide sound training in a rapidly disappearing
of young apprentices selected from unemployed 16 year-old craft to young people with poor employment prospects who
in the Edinburgh area in the specific craft skills, especially of might otherwise have no training of any sort, but who now will
hand carving, required for restoration work. Andrew arrived as be certain of a flourishing future. Even in a period of economic
Foreman in 1989 and has been responsible for the teaching and downturn within the building trade, our apprentices find good
mentoring of our apprentices ever since, and importantly, for positions.
forging the excellent reputation for quality restoration training
St Marys has throughout Scotland. He has now been running A purpose-built workshop with the latest dust extraction system,
the Workshop for 27 years with the able assistance of Jordan showers, restrooms etc (a complete contrast to Andrews wooden
Kirk, Charge Hand, who in turn was one of Andrews former hut in the coal yard at Edinburgh Castle) was constructed in
apprentices some years ago. 2014 as part of the regeneration of the Cathedrals north side
which included not only the Workshop but also a brand new
The craft of stone masonry is an ancient one and our apprentices GP surgery for the local community, funded by NHS Lothian.
learn in the traditional way, that passing on and continuity of Restoration works to the Cathedral are drawing to a close but
knowledge by Andrew who in turn gained it from a stonemason it is essential that the training function of the Workshop should
with generations of knowledge behind him. continue for the wider benefit of the city and its stonemasonry
contractors and clients. Historic Environment Scotland has
Gradually they learn to work on complicated pieces of carving, therefore helped us to develop a model that will train a greater
and there is a great pride in those stones then being fitted on number of apprentices.

83
Long Term Impact of our Training HRH are good for their confidence too. Andrew always makes a
stone gift ranging from a stone replica of the royal dog to carved
The long-term impact of St Marys training is to produce a birds. It is the first question HRH asks when she arrives, What
small but steady stream of qualified masons in the special has Andrew made for me this time?
hand skills of stonework restoration. It is also good to see
with each apprentice, how they arrive as 16/17 year olds, still Although the training Andrew gained at the Castle and is now
almost children, shy and inarticulate and watch them develop passing on to young apprentices remains in essence unchanged,
into confident, outgoing and responsible young master masons. he has seen many developments over the years, the improvement
There will always be a need for skilled stone masons using their of facilities being one of the most important, the use of dust
specific skills within the building trade and thus playing their extractors to avoid silicosis and an overall improvement in
part in the conservation of Edinburghs built heritage. health and safety practices, for example limiting the use of angle
One of the highlights of Andrews career took place in 1996; grinders to prevent white finger due to vibration, mels made of
The Minister for the Environment and Built Heritage at the nylon. The shape of carving chisels has not changed but we are
Scottish Office presented a framed parchment to the Provost now able to sharpen our tungsten chisels ourselves.
of the Cathedral which reads: This inaugural award to mark the
first anniversary of inscription of the Old and New Towns of The skilled art of traditional stonemasonry will continue to be
Edinburgh as a World Heritage Site was presented to the Very passed down the generations, just as long as craftsmen like
Reverend Graham Forbes . . . The award was made in recognition Andrew continue to live and breathe, and can transmit their
of the quality of repairs to the stonework of the Cathedral passion for stone to the young.
achieved by the apprentices of St Marys Cathedral Workshop.)
St Marys New Project Begun 29 August
Other memories for Andrew include climbing the North West
2016
spire, all 275 ft of it, to make a template for the replacement for
the badly perished capping stone. He made it, but felt incredibly
Edinburgh with its Old and New Towns is a World Heritage Site.
dizzy and vulnerable so courage and guts are also needed to
The unique character and sense of place of the city is created by
be a stonemason! A few years ago we had a deaf apprentice
the predominance of stone as a building material, complimented
and Andrew remembers learning sign language so that the
and showcased by the variety of architectural styles in which
apprentice could be properly taught. On 27 June 1991 HRH The
it has been used through the ages. Edinburgh undoubtedly
Princess Royal made her first visit to the Workshop. HRH agreed
requires a skilled, well-trained work force of stonemasons to
to be our official Visitor and has since visited the Workshop
maintain it for the future. However the economic downturn has
many times. Thus apprentices meet her several times during
had a marked impact on the structure of the local stonemasonry
their four year training, and the conversations they have with
sector and its capacity to undertake training to maintain its skills

84
base. Many larger companies who regularly trained apprentices The Need for the Workshop
have gone out of business and in part been replaced by smaller
companies, undertaking smaller work packages that make it There is an urgent need for our training. Apart from Historic
more difficult to commit to taking sole responsibility for a Environment Scotlands training programme, St Marys Cathedral
four year apprentice. A new method of apprentice training is Workshop is the only place in Scotland providing traditional
necessary to improve this situation in Edinburgh. tuition, a skill in increasing demand but in short supply. This
dearth of stone masonry competence and the vast amount of
This model will allow the apprentices to work for a network of restoration to be done across Scotland is causing concern and
contractors across the city to gain experience in the workplace, is now a political priority. Our new project giving more places to
coordinated and managed by St Marys working closely with apprentices has full political support and we have recently had
the City of Edinburgh Council and other organisations, whilst a visit from the Minister of Employability and Training, Jamie
continuing repairs and maintenance to the Cathedral undertaken Hepburn MSP, to meet our new apprentices with further visits
as part of the training. Contractors would be required, when from MSPs booked in for the new year.
the apprentices are working for them to pay their wages plus
an additional levy of around 25%, to cover our training and
How We Address this Need
administration costs. We are simultaneously increasing our
outreach to apprentices, and are working with the Life Changes
Andrews training has a fully rounded approach in that he
Trust which provides real and meaningful improvement in the
not only teaches traditional hand carving to a high level, but
lives of young people with experience of being in care. Thus,
also address communication and social issues. He teaches the
in August two young people with this experience started their
apprentices to be confident with people, to be able to talk with
apprenticeship with us. We hope that this partnership will
ease about their work, and to be able to demonstrate what
continue and expand over the years. As our numbers are small, six
stone masonry work involves. They learn to do this rapidly at
apprentices, individual apprentices can benefit from one-to-one
our annual demonstration at the Royal Highland Show when
tuition, mentoring and support. Another of the new apprentices
literally thousands of people over the four days ask questions
who started recently is a girl and a very welcome addition. We
and watch them cutting and carving stone. The most frequently
are planning with Skills Development Scotland taster days for
overheard remark from the public is: Isnt it good to see young
girls to encourage them into a career in stonemasonry.
people working on a traditional skill. Andrew also teaches
the apprentices the importance of Health and Safety, and the
This new project will not dilute the quality of our training but
rudiments of running their own businesses later on in life.
rather enhance it. We recruit from Edinburgh and the Lothians
mainly by word of mouth.

85
MATERIALS & PROFESSIONS

Estonia - 87
Bulgaria - 88
Lithuania - 90
Scotland (UK) - 92
Transylvania (Romania) - 94
Italy - 96
Hungary - 96
Spain - 97
MATERIALS
& PROFESSIONS
TRADITIONAL MATERIALS AND BUILDING CRAFTS BY COUNTRIES

Estonia heather and hashed straws are being added between them.
Building this way helps to retain the walls loadbearing function,
Timber has been the most common building material in all over so simple buildings do not need a timber substructure. Light clay
Estonia. The dwellings were mostly built from Scotch pine (Pinus construction technique has gained popularity in recent decades.
sylvestris) because of straight and even trunks. Old handbooks Its name derives from the large proportion of adhesives added
of building crafts state that the minimum age of the pine used to the clay. Sawdust, wood shavings, flax bones, hashed straws,
in a building should be at least 140-200 years. In nowadays hemp, broken thatch and heather stems are the main adhesives
the felling cycle is much shorter and pines are used already in added to the clay. Walls constructed in such a manner have
the age of 80 years and less. In western parts of Estonia where very good thermal properties that also respond to present-day
there has been more deciduous forests, oak (Quercus robur) and building regulations. Walls may be constructed by shedding them
aspen (Populus tremula) have been also used for building. Oak between the holders as well as from blocks. The loadbearing
timber is highly valued because it is strong and heavy and it structure of a light clay wall is made up of wooden framings. In
has been used for the lowermost logs for the buildings. Birches addition to the above-mentioned methods of construction, it is
were important because of their bark that has been used for possible to see also walls made from unburnt bricks and walls
hydroisolation between the stone foundation and the logs. from clay and billet. Similarly to burnt bricks, the construction
from unburnt bricks goes like conventional masonry, where the
Limestone is only found in western and northern part of Estonia, adhesive is clay or lime mortar. Billet-clay walls on the other
therefore lime as building material is used on the coast and hand are quite peculiar. Basically, the billet-clay wall is like a
on islands. Limestone as a building material has been used woodpile that has been put together with clay.
already in the pre-historic times for dry-stone walls, but lime
mortars were introduced as late as the 13th century by Germans Granite stone buildings and foundations are common all over
and Scandinavians who came to Estonia as missionaries and Estonia, as the material has been easily available. Granit as
crusaders to Christianise the land. The churches and castles well as the limestone was used to build foundations, walls of
were the first masonry buildings using local limestone and outbuilding, cold rooms and fences. The stone was used fully or
locally burnt and slaked lime. Since then the lime mortars and chopped.
plasters were used consistently until the late 19th century when
Portland cement and other binding media were introduced. The Adobe has been used very rarely in Estonia and only in
lime production and use declined rapidly and the techniques outbuildings ofmanors.
and crafts were forgotten surprisingly fast. Lime products have
been reintroduced in conservation during the last twenty years, Brick has been an important building material in southern
but with varying degree of success. in southern and eastern part Estonia since the Middle Ages. It was introduced after the
of Estonia, lime was not easily accessible and therefore various Christianisation of the land in the 13th century. The first brickyard
igneous rocks were used for building. is mentioned at 1365 in Tallinn. More precise information about
brick manufactories can be found since the end of the 16th
Rammed earth or massif clay was the most common form of century. Brickyards were widespread all over the land where
clay construction in Estonia. Its principle is that clay is being those could have been found at every bigger town and manor.
stamped between the walls wooden holders or the layers are Still the brickyards were more concentrated to southern Estonia .
placed on top of each other. As an adhesive, roots, branches,

87
Reed (Phragmites australis) as natural raw material is abundant The separation of Bulgaria in different regions depending on
on the shores of the Baltic Sea and bigger lakes, especially after the building traditions is quite conditional, since different
the fast eutrophication processes. Traditionally reed has been construction techniques and materials overlap and are used in
used (for over the centuries) as alternative building material, many of the urbanized areas of the country.
mostly for thatched roofs. Besides being long-lasting and
good-looking reed has superb soundproofing and insulation Rhodope Region
characteristics. Besides roofing reed has been used and still is Traditional crafts: copper processing (Smolyan); wood-carving
used as insulation material in walls and floors. (Momchilovtsi village, Smolyan Region).
as in the northern and western Estonia (including the islands)
the main building stone was the local limestone. During the Rhodope wooden house (the so-called block construction) made
18th century new smaller brick proportions were introduced. of whole pine logs and covered with planks can be found in
Still the traditional proportions were used in smaller brickyards Devin region, the villages of Dospat and Chepino. The plank-
until World War I. In the end of the 19th century bigger brick pillar system is typical for this part of the country. It is skeletal
factories were established and small brickyards became more with columns, called lintels. Between the lintels planks with
exceptional. different thickness and width are stringed. The pillars are
connected at the top and bottom by horizontal beams connected
Log-building has been important in all over Estonia due to easily with the floor structure.
accessible raw-material. The skills were passed from father to
son and basic log-building did not require any hired masters In this mountainous area the stone house is also widespread.
- most of the necessary farm buildings were completed by the These houses are the most conserved ones by the influence
family. Estonian carpenters employed a wide range of lapping of time. The masonry has a significant thickness, sometimes it
joints to bind the corners of their buildings. Most typical corner reaches one meter depending on the location and height.
joints were koerakael (dog-neck) and in the second half of 19th
century with widespread use of the crosscut saw the jrsknurk Lime production was well known to Bulgarians ever since the
(steep corner) joint that was faster to build. medieval construction. In traditional masonry in mountainous
Rammed earth buildings were abundant in southern and eastern areas, where drier masonry or stone and mud is used, lime has
parts of Estonia where the clayey materials were easy to obtain. entered much later. But in some mountainous building centers,
The material was usually dug directly from the nearby earth and which have sent migrant workers throughout Edirne region,
in many farmsteads it is still in nowadays possible to see the Aegean region and Plovdiv plane, as in the village of Slaveyno,
clay holes that are nearby the existing or ruined clay houses. Smolyan region, for example, even in the second half of XIX
Clay or earth materials were used mostly for sidehouses (barns, century a class of lime-burners or called also kirechchii was
granaries etc). Earth building took more time as the material formed. The lime-burners from the village of Slaveyno have built
was added layer by layer and had to stay and dry before the next their lime-pits at the southern slopes of the Rhodopes. The ready
layer could be added. lime they transported by mules to the city, where they possessed
lime-stores. They sold the lime to the craftsmen who erected
Brickyards and brick buildings were common in southern and buildings throughout the whole region.
eastern part of the country - mostly known in the shores of lake
Peipsi where the farm properties did not have much forest. Dobrouja Region
Traditional crafts: copper processing (Varna)
Further important building professions to be mentioned: Stone
mason, Reed thatcher, Shingle Roofer, Blacksmith Construction of houses with bearing adobe walls are found
almost everywhere in the country. It is most widespread in
Bulgaria Dobrouja region. We call adobe the unburned bricks of clay
soil, formed manually into molds. The molds are usually wooden,
The building methods were different in the different regions for one or many bricks. It is desirable that the soil used for
of Bulgaria in 19th century but as a whole the construction such construction to contain between 15 and 20 percent clay.
reveals one and the same spirit, provisionally called Bulgarian Such soil is found almost everywhere in Bulgaria. Therefore,
Renaissance architecture /it is more accurate to be called the division of Bulgaria into separate areas has rather the aim
Bulgarian classical architecture/. It possesses exceptional the differences determined by location to be notices. However,
qualities that distinguish it from all other building traditions in buildings and facilities indicating the typical Bulgarian building
the world and it can be assumed that it reflects the character, traditions and local architecture can be seen throughout the
culture and mentality of Bulgarian people as a whole. whole country.

88
Until the Balkan wars, traditional brick-making is concentrated The town of Bansko has a unique architecture in good shape
mainly in cities in the fields and planes. The season for making from the type of Banskos fortified house. Nowadays a clearly
bricks is only four months - from late May to September. shaped Renaissance core can be seen in the town with numerous
Therefore, brickmakers in mountainous areas are forced to seek residential and religious buildings in good shape - typical
work outside the area of the mountain. Many tilers learnt brick- representatives of the original architecture of Bansko, some
making and began working depending on the conditions and the of which are also valuable works of the famous art school of
demand for tiles or bricks. Bansko. The revival house of Bansko is from the type of fortified
buildings and has a number of specific features that make it an
Northern Region architectural phenomenon. It is erected entirely as a massive
Traditional crafts: wood-carving (ryavna); copper processing construction, with one or several hiding-places, solid plated
(Vidin, Teteven, Veliko Tarnovo, Gabrovo, Shoumen) doors, battlements and decorated facades remarkable with high
standard of living - several guest rooms and a fireplace in all
The skills of Tryavna masters to erect beautiful buildings residential premises, even in the hiding-places.
are invariably associated with the development of two other
crafts - carving and icon painting. In the early years of the Authentic fortified and artistically decorated houses, built mainly
development of Tryavna art school masters very often undertook of stone with small windows with bars, high walls, heavy metal-
both the construction and interior decoration of churches. plated gates and connected by narrow and winding cobblestone
With the increasing demand and orders for the construction of streets are preserved from the 18th and 19th century.
churches in the first half of the XIX century the construction,
icon painting and woodcarving were separated as crafts, which Thracian Region
did not prevent certain families to combine their skills in each Traditional crafts: copper processing (Plovdiv, Pazardjik, Stara
of them. For example, the Vitanovtsi family are carvers and Zagora)
painters. Genchovtsi are excellent builders and carvers. The
grand master Gencho Kanev who managed to incorporate the In Bulgarian history the so called ramshackle structures formed
Bulgarian building traditions to European ones comes from this by three elements - a wooden skeleton, filling and plaster are
clan. As a master he is equal in value with master Kolyo Ficheto most often used for the construction of houses from natural
who is the most famous architect, builder and constructor of materials. Traditionally the ramshackle walls were plastered
this time. During the nineteenth century is active the other both outside and inside. The filling is set in three variations:
great master of the Tryavna building school - Dimitar Sergiov. pletarka when fields between the beams are filled with wattle
He is the first among Tryavna builders who is recognized by the and plastered on both sides with clay, mixed with straw; dolma
Ottoman administration as an architekton, i.e. with the skills of when these fields instead of wattle are filled with clay adobe;
an architect. and basquii, where the skeleton of the building is plated on
both sides with wooden rods and then plastered with clay and
Sofia Region straw.
Traditional crafts: wood-carving (Samokov)
Strandzha Region
Construction approaches, typical for the region of Sofia 150-200 Traditional crafts: pottery-making (Aytos)
years ago:
Until the Balkan wars the center of tile-making in Strandzha is
stonework, the town of Lozengrad. At that time tile-making is developed
ramshackle wooden structures, also in some villages in Lozengrad district and in Bunarhisar
block construction of unhewn timbers, and Vizen districts. In Varna, Provadia, Custenja, Tulcea, Silistra,
walls of unburned bricks - adobe Tutrakan, Rousse, Shoumen, Veliko Tarnovo, Razgrad and in many
wattle-and-daub, other cities Lozengrad tile-makers have opened one or two
cob walls, tileries.
timmer joists with clay filling,
roof of wooden shingles, In Strandja are extracted large quantities of marble and granite.
clay plaster and others. They are necessary for paving of big cities - Sofia, Plovdiv, Varna,
Bourgas and others. In the early twentieth century granite is
Pirin Region extracted from quarries in Atia and Butter Cape at the Black Sea
Traditional crafts: wood-carving (Bansko, Razlog) coast.

89
Traditional building crafts in general: at the level of local, available materials.

Carpentry - Art processing of wood and wood-carving - wood During the Renaissance, as a consequence of the general cultural
processing is mostly typical for mountain areas - the Rhodope and economic upsurge of the Bulgarian population, together
region, Pirin region. The various dense forests which easily with the stone slab, the Turkish tile began increasingly to
provide the necessary timber are favorable for development of be found on the roofs of Bulgarian buildings to the extent of
this activity. Wood-carving is art processing of wood by cutting prevailing roof waterproofing at the end of the period. The one-
(carving) of various decorative motifs and images. Wood-carving runnel tile is not a novelty in our country. It is special feature of
is found both in church architecture and interior design - the Greco-Roman Mediterranean building tradition from which
iconostasis, pulpits, churches, carved doors and at home and we are influenced. The main advantage of the stone and tile
lifestyle - carved ceilings, furniture, chests, wooden utensils, in comparison with straw and wood is their fire resistance and
canes, distaffs, yokes. Carving is highly developed in the towns of durability.
Teteven and Tryavna. Daskalovata house in Tryavna is a Museum
of woodcarving and icon painting, where the famous carved suns Lithuania
are exhibited. Outstanding here is St. Archangel Michael church
with masterpieces from the Tryavna carving school the carved Lithuania has 5 ethno regions (East and West Auktaitija (Higher
iconostasis and bishops throne. Very beautiful carved ornaments Lithuania); emaitija (Lower Lithuania / Samogitia); Lithuania
can be seen in the house-museums in the town of Koprivshtitza. Minor / Klaipda Region; Southeast Lithuania (Dzkija);
The craft is demonstrated in the architectural-ethnographic Southwest Lithuania (Suvalkija)), but the main differences
complex Ether . in traditional rural architecture are between East and West
Lithuania. Architecture of West Lithuania is closer to countries
Brick-making - Until the Balkan wars, traditional brick-making of Middle Europe, meanwhile of East Lithuania to Northeast
is concentrated mainly in cities in the fields and planes - in countries.
Northern and Dobrudzha regions. Molds for bricks are usually
wooden, for one or more bricks. There are different forms. Log houses spread earlier in West Lithuania (5th - 8th centuries)
Besides the most commonly used rectangular form trapezoidal than in East Lithuania where more archaic building methods and
bricks for furnaces and arches, with a rounded corner for variety of constructions and shapes of architecture remained.
formation of masonry corners, bricks with holes for installations Several building methods were used at the same time in
or reinforcing rebar are also to be found. East Lithuania: pole (wall) and roof constructions to build
barns, joist construction for roof cover to build garners, rafter
Roofing works - Laying of tiles, installing gutters, building construction to build newer houses or stables. Wall notching
of chimneys - In ancient times, during the Middle Ages and method did not change a lot from Middle Ages because all
right up to the Renaissance (XVIII - XIX century) the popular rural buildings (except barns) were constructed from separate
roof waterproofing was quite primitive. Buildings are covered cribs which were connected with jambs or wall inserts. Building
with available and local materials, such as straw, reeds and width remained stable (average size of living house was 5-7
rush, boards, sometimes animal skins or barks. The major m); it widened to length mostly adding new blockhouses.
disadvantage of the straw roof is the low fire-resistance. The Narrow rectangular-shape buildings with several blockhouses
other, historically speaking, main roofing material is the tiles. formed in East Lithuania. Innovations were introduced faster in
The roofing waterproofing cover of stone slabs has important West Lithuania, hence bigger sophisticated construction houses
advantages over straw and boards - it is fire resistant and were built earlier. For this reason houses of Samogitians and
durable, with a significant own weight, making it suitable for Minor Lithuanians distinguish for bigger measurements and
harsh mountain climate, but also requires a strong roof structure monumental shapes. According to East and West characteristics
capable to carry it. there are differences in lumber, corner connections, processing
of details, and constructive system, too. Building constructions of
Stone types from which it is possible to obtain roofing tiles (and other regions (Southeast, Southwest and Middle Lithuania) give
these are sedimentary, slaty rocks) can not be found all over the evidence about interaction of building traditions.
country. Such rocks are found in some mountain areas such as
the Central Balkan Mountains, the Rhodope and Pirin mountains. Building features were determined by climate, landscape and
The production was at a low, at craft level at the best, never local nature conditions. Cold and long Lithuanian winters forced
industrial. The transportation was also a problem having in mind to build durable, lasting and warm houses. Wood building
the low level of development of the road network. Therefore, dominated till 20th century in Lithuania. Usually there were
roof covering with stone slabs was not wide spread. It remains conifers (pine or spruce). Sometimes oak wood was used to

90
build lower lumbers, under-window parts and jambs. Walls, Freely scattered villages on landscape with irregular street
windows, doors, floor and ceiling, roofs, decorations, sometimes networking (the oldest of its structure) remained in the region.
even the foundation were made out of wood. Field stones In addition to these villages steadings existed since the old
were usually used to build foundation, and clay was used for times. Homesteads were huge with many outbuildings of
inner installations (dirt floor, stoves, and chimneys). Roofs were various purposes (up to 20). Spruce wood was commonly used
covered with straws, reed, cats-tails, planks, splinters, shingles, for buildings.
and chip; later with tiling and metal roofing. Sometimes people
built masonry houses in places where were lots of field stones, Lithuania Minor / Klaipda region (Maoji Lietuva / Klaipdos
and clay house where were lots of clay. kratas)

Masonries (stone and brick) were used often in building of West Lithuania is a flatland region with wavy relief in some
cities, churches and castles. The brick size was standardized places inscribed with rivers and streams. Impact of Western
(12x6x3 Lithuanian inches) in Grand Duchy of Lithuania already culture is obvious here because of the geopolitical situation.
in 1549. Burnt clay brick technology and installation almost did Here innovations came earlier and people were more technically
not change from Middle Ages. Masonries and clay buildings in advanced. Region was densely populated with intensive
manor house architecture spread till the end of 18th century. agriculture. Inequality of natural conditions determined specific
Clay was started to use for walls in the middle of 19th century in trades and lifestyle of inhabitants. Earlier than elsewhere
rural places (lacking of wood), especially in those regions where emerged differentiation of farming: free peasant (agriculture),
there are lots of clay suitable for constructions Middle and fishermen, growers at fertile Nemunas river delta, grass landers
North Lithuania, Southwest and Minor Lithuania / Coast part. at water meadows (haymakers and stockbreeders), duners at
Outbuildings were usually built out of clay. Sometimes buildings wandering dunes (Kuri nerija), swampers at Nemunas river
were built out of raw clay bricks. Masonries are common in North delta, wood wards / boscagers at forests. After deforestation
and South Lithuania (mostly granite). and higher wood prices clay was started to use in construction
of houses and outbuildings (daubing walls or laying them with
55% of Lithuanias territory consists of clay occurring in plains adobe bricks) in this region earlier than elsewhere. Brickyards
which through the course of history formed the favorable were establishing and presentable buildings constructed with
conditions for development of clay constructions. red bricks and roofed with ceramic tiling were becoming more
common during the 2nd half of 19th century. Wooden log, framed
Higher Lithuania (Auktaitija) or mixed construction houses dominated at the constantly
flooded regions. Roofs were covered with nearby growing reed.
Landscape of East Higher Lithuania distinguishes for hills,
valleys, rich forests, and lakes, meanwhile West Higher Lithuania Southwest Lithuania (Suvalkija)
for fertile flatlands. Agriculture (growing) was developed on
these flatlands, linear settlements with one expressive street This region was occupied and under influence of other countries
uniting regular and strict development of homesteads dominated (Prussia, Poland), and underwent different reforms from the rest
in villages which were structured in 16th century according to of Lithuania in 18th century. Villages of linear settlements (along
Western Europe examples. Hilly terrains were of pour soil, so the road) originated at the middle of 19th century. Because of
additional income was gained from exploitation of lakes, forests, the neighbour Prussia the region experienced faster economic
and scattered or mixed structure villages were dominating. progress. Homesteads became rectangular shape and rationally
Rural building features such as building sizes, amount, capacity, planned; buildings were placed parametrically around the yard
shapes, structure, and materials (big and wide construction (an average of 4-6 buildings). Very fertile land and the earliest
barns, garners with beams on roof building, 5-7 buildings in abolished serfdom created perfect conditions to become the
one homestead dominated here) were determined by type of richest region of Lithuania. Lack of land and early deforestation
agriculture. Pine wood was usually used for buildings. has led to large-scale spread of clay and brick buildings.

Lower Lithuania / Samogitia (emaitija) Southeast Lithuania (Dzkija)

Western Lithuania distinguishes for hilly landscape. There were The land of forests and hills distinguished for differences in land
many free landlords in Samogitia in 16th 19th centuries and use and farming nature. There is a mix of linear settlements,
for this reason reforms of villages were not as common as in the freely scattered villages on landscape and steadings. This region
rest of Lithuania. is low on stones and clay which resulted in almost entirely
wooden architecture (even the foudations). Here the soil is not

91
fertile, region is not rich and being a nook it remained lots of Lewisian gneiss makes up much of the Outer Hebrides and North
ancient construction methods. Buildings are smaller than of West Scotland where it is overlain by remnants of hard, bedded,
other regions (an average of 3-5 buildings). According to the purple Torridonian metasandstone. Generally the crystalline
structure and terminology it is clearly that there is a mix of rocks are difficult to work using traditional methods and were
architectural traditions of East and West Lithuania. Because of used only locally for building purposes. Slate (metamorphosed
the neighbor Belarus there is a huge Slavic impact especially in mudrocks) of the Grampian Highlands were exploited on a major
building decoration. scale for roofing. Although sandstone was the most accessible
building material in Scotland, granite was also widely sourced
Traditional Building Crafts of Lithuania - especially from Galloway, Aberdeenshire as well as Scottish
Highlands.
The Ministry of Agriculture of the Republic of Lithuania made a
systematic list of national heritage products, items, and objects, Timber
traditional species of plants and breeds of animals and its
products, and traditional services. Digest of traditional crafts The UK has lost a lot of its woodland since the medieval times
is made according to the historically formed terminology of in favour to farmland. Further reasons include a need of large
traditional crafts and artisans. Crafts which are assigned to the supplies for the benefit of the Industrial Revolution; as well as for
field of architecture: the I and II world war effort, when British import of timber was
hindered by the German isolation. Also other reasons resulted in
Carpentry, Joinery, Sawyery, Roofery, Bricklayery, Brickery, Glaziery, reduction of woodlands, such as fire and diseases. However, in
Stonebreakery, Welldiggery, Cross craft case of Scotland the main areas where different types of trees
could be found are: oak in Highlands Line, Scots Pine in the
The majority of craftsmen were carpenters, joiners, sawyers, Central Highlands, hazel/oak/birch in the north-east and south-
roofers and bricklayers in a whole Lithuania in late 19th century west Highlands, birch also in the Outer Hebrides, Northern Isles
and 1st half of 20th century. Many masters came from the and north of the mainland. Given that, predominantly timber for
neighboring Prussia to Southwest Lithuania (Suvalkija), and construction was imported. In XVI and XVII century buildings
from neighboring Belarus to East Lithuania. Most of the masters were built with oak and pine imported from the eastern Baltic,
learned their craft from parents and grandparents by helping Norway, Denmark and Sweden. In the early XVIII century mainly
them in daily works and constructions. Others went to study pine was imported from Norway and Sweden, and in the
to the masters, firstly working without salary and later on as second half of that century pine was mainly imported from the
apprentices. Some crafts such as blacksmither or potter were eastern Baltic. However, in north-east Scotland a fair amount
inherited along with the workshop. Nearly every peasant had the of buildings was built with Scots pine as the local woodlands
workbench and he made the simplest things by himself. survived large scale exploitation until XVIII century due to their
inaccessibility and lack of a developed transport infrastructure.
Connecting professions: As it was difficult to import and export in that part of Scotland
Carpenters, Joiners, Sawyers, Roofers, Bricklayers the local pine was very popular. Native oak was used in Scotland
however it was not a particularly good quality of timber, and it

Scotland, UK was not widely present until the late medieval times. In 1602 the
export of Norwegian oak was banned due to limited sources of

In accordance to the Scottish House Survey 20% of the existing this building material.

housing stock in Scotland are traditional buildings. The main


building materials in Scotland are: stone, timber, lime, iron, clay, Iron

sand and straw. Different regions of Scotland used different


building materials depending on the period of time, technology Scotland was the major producer of pig iron by 1830s - only

and accessibility of materials. However, Scotland is the land of Glasgow had 800 operating foundries in XIX century. About

stone, which has been the most commonly used material. Stone one third of the production was exported to England and

was quarried depending on its numerous qualities in terms of another third overseas. Cast and wrought iron gradually became

colour, grain density, and hardness. There are three geological cheaper to produce thanks to the demand build during the

regions in Scotland: North of the Highland Boundary Fault, Industrial Revolution followed by technological advancement.

extending from Arran to Stonehaven, the Highlands and Islands Iron was widely produced in the Scottish construction industry:

are dominated by Precambrian (Dalradian, Moine and Lewisian) structurally to provide framing for mills (New Lanark for instance)

crystalline metamorphic rocks including metasandstone, and other buildings such as train stations. Iron was also widely

quartzite, schist, gneiss, slate and, less commonly, marble. used in production of smaller architectural details such as door

92
handles, boot scrapers, latches, locks and straphinges. In Scottish the Western Isles is made from sea shell, which after burning in
cities a significant part of small architecture was also made a kiln, reduces to pure non-contaminated lime that can be used
from iron including: railings, lamps, gates, benches and even for internal plaster work.
bandstands. Lead became a staple roofing material thanks to its
high resistance to corrosion, ductility and low melting point. The Short Guide
main function of lead was to drain water from buildings through Lime Mortars in Traditional Buildings
flashings and rainwater goods. Bronze and copper were used in Published by Historic Scotland, February 2014
decorative features and details such as door knobs, escutcheons,
hinges, knockers or name plates. Stonemason

The first large blast furnace in Scotland was the Lorne at A significant part of the Scottish building stock and public realm
Bonawe near Oban. It was erected in 1750 and fueled by the are built from stone, Especially in historic towns. Scotland was
local charcoal with iron ore shipped from Ulverston (Furness). one of the main producers of building stone the XIX century
Carron Iron Works in Stirlingshire was established in 1759 and - by 1860 Scotland had more than 1200 quarries. However, by
was designed to produce 1500 tons of iron in its first year. Due to the end of XX century the number of quarries has dropped to
high demand for production of munition Carron in collaboration 20. Also, the quality of stone used in new developments and
with Edington and Cadel, ironmasters of Crammond, established restoration works became questionable as a lot the material
Clyde Iron Works along north bank of River Clyde near Glasgow. is being imported from China and India. Unfortunately, in most
Thanks to its coal and iron mines, good transport connection cases these materials are not suitable for the Scottish climate,
thanks to the Monklands Canal, Coatbridge in North Lanarkshire which is highly demanding and puts buildings against difficult
became the main centre for iron in Scotland in 1828. Gartsherrie weather conditions. Due to the development of industrial
(Coatbridge) was the largest foundry in Scotland and the second production of stone and innovation the role of stonemasons
in the UK, followed by Summerlee Iron Works (also Coatbridge). has decreased. Nowadays, their skills are mainly relevant
The opening of the Caledonian Railway in 1848 raised the in conservation and restoration industry where quality of
role of Motherwell, which was at a junction with Wishaw and workmanship is critical. The challenge is, however, in providing
Coltness Railway, in the iron industry. Currently there are only opportunities for apprenticeships as mastercraftsmen usually
23 foundries operating in Scotland and some of them, such as do not have sufficient resources to facilitate training of new
Charles Laing & Sons or Ballantyne Boness, provide support for adepts. In cities such as Edinburgh, where only within the World
conservation projects. Heritage Site boundary there are 1660 monuments mostly built
from the natural Scottish sandstone. The scale of maintenance
Lime is great and it requires skilled stonemasons.

Lime is produced through heating of limestone and subsequent Joiner work and carpentry
slaking with water. This widely used building material in
Scotland is highly versatile and for a different purpose can be The requirement of joinery skills for a conservation project
mixed with other materials (sand, water or even oyster shells) to depends on its scope. In some cases a highly qualified specialist
produce mortar, plaster or limewash. Lime has been used until in wood conservation is essential, however, the majority of
XX century, when was gradually replaced by cement. There are restoration projects need comprehensively skilled joiner.
three main regions, which geologically matched the economic Restoration projects may involve repair or replacement of
demand and technical expectations in the past: the Southern sash windows, doors, timber panelling, structural work such as
Uplands (Scottish Borders) and the Midland Valley (Central roof repairs, shopfront fascias, floor repairs, or even internal
Belt); Grampian and south-west Highlands; and the north and structures of monuments/sculptures. In case of shopfronts
north-west Highlands. The hydraulicity of limestones is an restoration projects may even require 90% of joinery work,
important factor in production as well as application, and it focused mainly on repairs of the woodwork.
also depends on geology and geography. Mildly hydraulic limes
were formed from the reasonably pure limestones of Inverness- Blacksmith and lead workers
shire and Perthshire, as well as the Central Belt, Borders, the
Lothians and Fife. Two of the more well known Scottish limes, Metalwork restoration projects are usually focused on public
Charlestown lime and Arden lime (Central Belt) were more realm objects such as sculptures, street lamps, railings; metal
strongly hydraulic; Charlestown lime was favoured for wet dock frames of shopfronts; small architectural details such door
and canal constructions including those of Fort George, Leith knockers or boot scrapers. Again, depending on a project
and Granton docks and Dundee docks. Scottish lime produced in different specialists are required. Skilled blacksmith are sought

93
after by conservation managers looking for craftsmen to deliver Szeklers - for wall building, household annexes, and fences.
new and missing wrought ironwork such as gates or railings. The other main raw material used for walls, especially in the
A different subgroup of specialists are lead workers who work mountain areas of Transylvania, is fir tree, which was used for
jointly with roofers responsible for dressing and laying slates on different purposes: beams, joists, and board. All over Transylvania,
mansard and pitched roofs, which are omnipresent in Scottish the household annexes and fences are made of boards fixed on
historic towns. Lead workers provide solutions that ensure water a board frame. Another important raw material used for walls,
is shed from the roof. These solutions take for of flashings, which also meant a certain degree of industrialisation, is brick.
soakers, valleys, parapet gutters and can be very simple or Bricks are burned, but for household annexes, unburned brick
decorative. The principle is to make the roof water tight by was also used. Nowadays, there are few examples, but from
installing a lead sealing on, for instance, the junction between a the historical data results that it was used quite often, even on
slate roof and a stone gable wall, or at the change of plane of a gravel or afforested surfaces, yellow clay/clay roll and adobe,
roof at a ridge at a ridge, hip or valley. made with mud, manure and straws.

Limeburner Yellow clay was built on a stick or board, the adobe was sun-
dried and so, the walls were built. Yellow clay was placed on a
Traditional lime burning occupation is virtually gone in Scotland bat or board structure, yellow clay bricks were sun-dried and so,
as there are only a few existing traditional kilns and production the walls were built.
has a rather modern industrial scale. Nowadays lime is usually
produced in quick mix forms with qualities depending on a In Transylvania, walls were, in most cases, plastered. The plaster
type of job. Since lime was a very common building material of the wooden houses was quite often similar to yellow clay.
throughout the UK many towns had their kilns and limeburners. This activity is called gluing, because of the application method.
Although it may be difficult to classify limeburners as craftsmen Whitewashing or the contact material was made with lime,
in the modern understanding their role in the construction resulted from limestone and sand.
industry was essential.
The simple roofs were made of beams, joists, and the more

Romania complex ones of boards. The roof thatching materials were quite
diverse. In centre Transylvania, region crossed by rivers, the

Romania is divided, from a historic and geographic point of houses were covered in common reed, which can still be found

view, in three main regions: Transylvania, Wallachia (ara in less accessible areas. A similar technique used in mountain

Romneasc) and Moldavia, which are in turn made up of areas is straw thatching. Although straws are very inflammable

smaller regions, two of them having the same name as the larger and hard to maintain, they preserve heat and look very good.

regions. Transylvania region, due to its various ethnic groups - Shingle and shorter shingle was common in mountain areas, and

mainly Romanians, Hungarians and Saxons, has many vernacular in ara Moilor and Maramure regions board was used and was

traditions. The other two regions have fewer ethnic groups, and referred to as shingle. During the industrialisation period, tiles

are more related in what concerns the way vernacular buildings started to be very common in traditional architecture and came

look, but one can say that there is a common building pattern in in two main forms: arched and long tile. Nowadays, these tiles

all three. The emigration process from a region to another of the are produced in workshops, although they are hard to make and

traditional craftsmen started long time ago, when the regions there are fewer and fewer workshops were they are produced.

were politically separated or had major physical barriers. So, Stone, board, andra (auxiliary product resulted from turning

many elements were transmitted in this way from one region joists into boards) and beams are used for fences.

to another. Of course, the varied geography of regions- from


mountain to hill, from plain to delta and even semi desert - The houses were heated with an unenclosed fireplace. In time,

determined the use of various construction materials. the fireplace was separated from the walls, and later started to
have arches and chimneys, such as the fireplaces in the middle

Transylvania region ages. Ceramic and faience vessels were placed on the heating
area, increasing the aesthetic value as well as the efficiency. The

which includes Transylvania, Criana, Banat and Maramure - the bread ovens were built near the houses.

north-west area is very rich in nature, resources, flora, this is


why the raw materials used in traditional architecture are quite Wallachia region (ara Romneasc)

diverse. Stone is generally used for foundations. Raw stone was


used in the centre of Transylvania (Clata, Transylvanian plane) which includes Muntenia, Oltenia and Dobrogea regions -

and in the southern part - were the majority of inhabitants are represents southern Romania. The influence of the continental

94
and temperate-continental climate can be seen on the various straws.
landscapes, from mountains, hills and hillocks to planes (in Taking into consideration the diversity of the landscape, the
Muntenia and Oltenia), semi-deserts and delta and seaside architectural typologies are slightly different in the north and in
landscape (in Dobrogea). Underground resources which can the south - the houses in the northern mountain area, Bucovina,
be used in construction are stone, limestone, plaster stone, being similar to the Russian ones, and the ones in the southern
clay, gravel, sand and others. Wood resources are also diverse, plane area being similar to the ones in Muntenia. However,
such as breech, oak and lime tree species. Straws, common regarding the similarity, one of the common characteristic are
hemp, common reed and cane are plants which are used in the building materials used. The morphology of the vernacular
construction materials. houses is given by elements such as the socket, the walls which
separate one to three, four rooms, the small mound of earth (the
Human settlement structures are dispersed, linear in mountain exterior space covered with or without wooden poles) round up
areas, developed along rivers in planes, and gathered in hill to three sides of the house and the roof in two to four sloping
and plane villages, and have irregular planimetric shapes. The sides. The annexes, the pit houses and the pantries - food storage
traditional planimetric building type is similar in most of the sub spaces, are built of clay, and the doors of wood.
regions, with one or more rooms (when there are more built in
a symmetrical manner on the lateral parts of the central room). Stone and brick is used to build socles and foundations. The
The small mound of earth round a traditional house, (Romanian walls are made of different compositions in different areas. So,
- prisp) and the veranda (Romanian - cerdac) are the spaces the brick walls are plastered with clay and painted with white
ones has to walk through when coming from the inside and lime and adorned with colourful ornaments. The walls can also
the outside of the house. The household annexes have different be made of timber work and covered with short shingles, or
functions around the house, according to the organisation of the the massive wooden beams can be exposed. The binder for the
divider. brick or stone walls is made of lime-sand or clay. Throughout
the Moldavia region, in the past, buildings were built from the
The foundations - whether there is a basement or not - are materials that are nowadays considered environmentally-friendly
entirely made from stone or are just covered in stone - or from - of soil (construction material made of crumbled clay mixed
brick or local materials. The walls raised on these foundations, with minced straws and some minerals (Romanian - ceamur) -
which usually form houses with one, two or three rooms, with houses and household annexes, public buildings (school, cultural
delimiting small mound of earth, are made of: stone, wood, club, inn), of wood - especially religious buildings, or of stone,
brick, clay, the binding material being lime-sand or clay. The rarely houses and household annexes, and more frequently
natural materials are environmentally-friendly, and allow the churches. When building soil houses (construction material
walls to breathe. The connection to the roof, namely the ceiling, made of crumbled clay mixed with minced straws and some
is made of wooden joists, covered by boards and lined with minerals (Romanian - ceamur)), the clay roll technique was used,
cane, which is plastered with a construction material made of building on a fork and lath structure, by fixing the construction
crumbled clay mixed with minced straws and some minerals material made of crumbled clay mixed with minced straws and
(Romanian - ciamur). The roof on a wooden framework is simple some minerals (Romanian - ceamur) in multiple layers, or, at the
with 2 to 4 sloping sides, two small and two large (with the beginning of the twentieth century, adobe buildings.
exception of the eighteenth century halls in Oltenia region), with
the ridge parallel with the long side, with or without tower; Of The oldest types of roofs were the vegetal ones, cereal (rye)
course, the slope increases proportionally with the altitude of straws, common reed, shingle and shorter shingles, and starting
the landscape. The roofs are made from wood, short shingles, with the twentieth century, metal sheets. The structure of the
shingles, ceramics - tiles, hollow tile (in Dobrogea region) - roof was made of fir tree wood and, especially of spruce fir tree
straws and common reed. wood, having very interesting types of joining notches (straight,
round or the swallow tail and others).
Moldavia region
Connecting professions:
which includes Moldavia and Bucovina - is situated in the east.
It has a diverse landscape, from mountains to hills and plateaus, Brick workshops and brick production, Blacksmiths work, Cane
to plains and flood plains, temperate-continental climate, weaving, Wood processing, joinery, carpentry, turning, Stone
which means that the winters are usually without snow and processing, stone carving and fountain drilling, Shingle splitter
the summers are droughty. The mineral building resources are and short shingle splitter, Stove building, Reed Thatcher, Glazier,
limestone, clay, gravel, sand and the vegetal ones are wood - Tinsmithing, metal modelling, Building painting, plastering,
beech, oak, poplar, willow- and plants such as cane and residual pargeting and lime burning and Masonry.

95
Italy Presence of fountains inside the patio, whose water evaporate
or is squirted on the walls and the curtains to cool.
In the Venician area before the Serenissima Republic the Massive walls with few small windows keep the solar radiation
typicalhouse was called Casone. Simple buildings descended outside and the cool air inside
from the primaveral hut made by raw earth and straw. The
walls are short and thick built in raw earth bricks, instead the Trulli - These typical mediterrean rural buildings were built
sloped roof has a wood main structure and is covered by marsh originally as seasonal stone structures that, after their use,
reeds. When Venice became rich, the nobles started to build new could be demolished. After a while the trulli became permanent
typologies around the island. The tradition developed the rural residential buildings and recently they are built using new
house made in cooked bricks and designed to hold animals and technologies as bricks and concrete
harvest. The big porch is the main design feature: it allows to
collect, work, dry and store the harvest (especially corn) and The trulli work as underground building: the huge massive stone
protects from the hot or cold climate. It consists of a covered is usually joint to a big subterraneus basin to collect rainwater
space ground floor that opens to the field through many round used to decrease of 6-7C the interior temperature in summer.
archs (they are bigger in front of the house and smaller in front This allows the natural ventilation through the dome holes and
of the stable or the storage). is improved by the white color of the exterior surface made in
lime .
The building orientation follows the east-west axis to face the
long facade to the south: this to receive more solar radiation The plan is compact and almost square-shaped, instead the roofs
in winter. The long facade to the north characterizes few little are cone-shaped: these allow to collect the solar radiation heat
windows to limit the heat loss. The porch allows the solar in the domes during the day in winter to be transmitted during
radiation passage inside the building in winter and stops it in the night inside the building. The whole shape of the trullo is
summer. Often to improve the porch function in summer theres a mix between a cube and a cone where the walls are 1 or 2
a pergola in the southern, eastern and western sides. m thick. The roos fcan be called false-dome, its so light and
its thickness decreases from the base to the top, where usually
The mediterrean house is the typical building we can find all there is a sphere. The central space is the living room and the
around the Mediterrean sea. The climate in this region is so hot service spaces are placed around it in smaller rooms. The interior
and dry and the vegetation consists of little shrubs, so the wood is really dark because the only opening is the entrance door.
is not a good material to build from. The main features of this
typology are: Hungary

Walls made in raw earth bricks, cooked bricks, stone or tuff. Little & Great Hungarian Plain
50 cm - 100 cm thick walls accordingly to the construction
materials. The two main plain regions of Hungary have very similar
Roof charactecrized by light wood structure, more often in characteristics regarding their vernacular architectural traditions,
bricks and lime. which can be noticed in the houseforms and floor plans, as well
Closed volumes, few and little windows. in the used building materials and building technology. The
There isnt roof projection, but often there are stairs outside to two regions together cover more than two-third of the countrys
reach the flat terraced roof. area. The older house types were built exclusively from earthen
Floors in hard court mixed to cooked oil and resin or in clay structure types: wattle and daub or clay bricks. Burnt bricks
tiles. gradually changed the ratio of houses with earthen walls, as
the number of brick houses raised - especially where the owners
To avoid the strong solar radiation all year long there were some could afford it, so usually in the case of richer houses. The
features developed: appearance of brick walls was much more noticable and quicker
on the Little Great Plain situated close to the Western borders
White color for both walls and roofs (sometimes also for the and being a bit wealthier. While materials of earthen walls could
streets, which are more narrow in hot climate) because this be gained nearly anywhere in these regions, so it was produced
colour reflects the 70% of the solar radiations. locally nearly everywhere, brick factories were also quite wide-
Houses placed around little central courts (patios) and small spread based on the quality adobe material. Regarding roof
spaces between the houses: these spaces create big shadows, coverings the most popular solutions were reed and straw
often increased by the curtains on the courts. These spaces also thatches till the 19th century. Similarly to bricks, ceramic tiles
keep cool air, especially during the night. became more and more popular later.

96
Upper Tisza Region Spain
Though timber structures were widerspread in the area of Andaluca
country as a whole in Medieval times, Upper Tisza Region is one
of those where this phenomenon could still noticeable until the In Andalusian architecture we can clearly distinguish two
late 19th century. Log and timber-framed solutions were used mayor raw earth materials used in different construction
quite often arriving from the presence of good quality oak wood techniques, the domestic residential and the monuments. On
which was provided in the closest neighbourhood. Beside timber residential buildings, the solutions are directly excavated on
earthen wall structures were also used and often mixed with the rock mass with adobe. These buildings can be found primarily
timber framed technology. These were mainly wattle and daub in medium and high areas of Alpujarra, between Jaen, Almeria
systems. The region is especially famous of its wooden belfries, and Granada. In contrast, throughout Andalusia the solutions
timber framed constructions which stood next to the towerless are made on rammed earth or adobe which is dispersed and
churches. Among coverings we mainly find shingles and hay almost undiscovered. This kind of systems we can see mostly
thatched roofs. on towns which have buildings more than 100 years old. The
rammed earth is always used in structural load bearing walls
Western Transdanubia or dividing walls and adobe in the inner divisions. However, in
monumental architecture, the rammed earth is mainly used in all
Another small region where timber appears as the main forms of buildings. These buildings reflect the use of traditional
constructional material. Building technology was mainly carried raw earth material, which was mostly available and closest to
out with log constructions, often in a plastered, white-washed the construction place, especially in the case of the clay soils
form. Roofing was mainly realised with thatched straw. characteristic for the Guadalquivir valley. Differences are created
by iconographic traces according to the techniques employed in
Southern Transdanubia a particular historical periods. In Andaluca very often we can
find combinations of basements, chained stones and ceramic
While in the 17th-18th century timber framing was the most bricks which shows the Roman and Arabic cultural influence.
often used wall-building technology, later it almost completely
disappeared from the traditions. By the appearance of modern Murca
architectural solutions and styles the latest vernacular traditions
used mainly earthen wall technologies with straw thatched In the Murcia region there is interesting architecture which
roofs. highlights a flat roof covered by lguenas. Lguena is the
magnesium clay which after it is mixed with water creates a
Balaton Highlands homogenous impermeable paste which was used to cover roofs
and terraces. It is important to mention some building with
One of the regions where stone, especially limestone was widely vernacular values such as flour mills, and water extraction mills
or nearly exclusively used for the purpose of house building. as well as pigeon houses. Usage of general type of house is
Stone walls were mainly combined with reed thatched roofs. common all over this region. This general type consist of two
Houses of the region are remarkable of their porches built with bays juxtaposed by its longer side and a lateral enclosed area.
a series of vaults towards the courtyard and with gable walls In the first bay there is a tripartite space with rooms to the right
towards the street. and left sides and hall-salon in the central part with a door to
the dining room in the second bay. On the other side of the
Upper Hungary dining room there is a kitchen and storage room. The dwelling
dispose of thick wall of masonry, covered with a mortar layer. The
A mixed usage of materials for walls is characteristic: stone with interior walls are also usually made by masonry or some of them
adobe, timber with adobe, wattle and daub etc. Roof coverings were from stew bricks or adobes. The cover system of lguena
were mainly of shingles and straw. can be found in whole area of Murcia region.

Connecting professions: Valencia

Thatcher, Adobe (cob) brick maker, Shingle Roofer, Carpenter, Walls, slabs, roofing and constructive details consist of a
Bricklayer, Stonecutter, Bricklayer combination of masonry and gypsum pillars that support the
wood structure of the slabs. The walls that fill the spaces
between pillars are made of masonry with mud mortar on the

97
ground floor and vertical flat stones with the same gypsum the Mudjar style was spread and the particular forms adopted
mortar on the upper floors. The houses are usually covered with and the exceptional techniques and materials of construction
a one- or two-hipped tiled roof. The interior walls are made from employed are evidence of the characteristics specific to the
gypsum plasters, which were periodically given a coat of gypsum Mudjar architecture of Aragon. For the Mudjar buildings were
wash, which ensured their maintenance and revived their natural typical structural condition of the buildings (supporting beams,
local soil colour. The wood from Spanish juniper was habitually roofing, foundations, etc.), as well as the decorative elements
used for building in the area. (frescos, plaster etchings and carvings, ceramic mouldings, etc.),
and the fixtures and fittings in each building. The decoration of
Castilla La Mancha y Madrid these monuments is an additional documentation of Aragonese
Mudjar art, as the vast majority of Aragonese Mudjar roofs
The traditional architecture of Castillo La Mancha y Madrid conserved are adorned with paintings.
is a live sample of a great variety of nuances, diversity and
expressive ability, resulting from the countless variables of our La Rioja
territories: terrain, climate, materials, history, technologies, uses,
powers, symbols, etc. For the construction in this area they were La Rioja region and specifically the part corresponding to the
mostly using wood and clay. In the pottery and ceramics include Ebro Valley, is an area in stone material is scarce and in which
the production of tiles and bricks, as well as the materials of the traditional construction was to use materials that are
construction with clay. perhaps more modest but also more versatile. In the town Alfaro
were found archaeological places with several quarries and
Extremadura gypsum kilns which had operated during the 19th century and
the first half of the 20th.
Typical for the houses were thick stone walls, tiled floors, old
timbers and vaulted ceilings. Navarra

Castilla y Leon Its vernacular architecture is characterised by houses with white


walls and red ashlar decoration, taken from the nearby quarries
The traditional building in Castilla y Leon region are called of Almandoz, pitched roofs, wooden balconies along the top
chozos and casetas, and they have been erected with domed floor and coats of arms with the shield of the valley. In Navarra
solutions using the autochthonous materials: the mud in the region there were 2 mainly used sandstones-stone Estella or
region of Tierra de Campos and the stone in the region of Pitillas, as well as the reddish Baztan.
Montes Torozos. The adobe constructions are very typical for this Basque Country
region. The techniques which have been developed within this
area are varied and characteristic: adobe, rammed earth, half- A baserri is a traditional half-timbered or stone-built type of
timber filled with adobe, rammed earth walls and many more. housebarn farmhouse found in the Basque Country in Northern
Spain. The Baserri buildings consisted of timbered structures
Catalonia that are barely reminiscent of dwellings, most have three floors
with stables within the building and a gently sloping roof, stone
The elements used in its construction have been changing with supporting walls and internal constructions made largely from
the passage of time; in addition, the location of the farmhouses wood.
has influenced also the type of material chosen. As well, in
mountain areas, the most common material used has been the Cantabria
unfinished stone. In the lintels of doors and windows stone was The oldest peasant houses in Cantabria belong to the end of
used minced. During the middle Ages, the stones were joined by the medieval period, as before that time houses were made of
clay, a material that was replaced later by the lime or cement. wood. The newer type of houses was mainly built from stone
In the places where the stone was scarce was resorted to adobe and access to the house was often through an outside stairway
for the construction. or landing, and the materials used might include brick or rough
Aragon adobe. The traditional mountain architecture in Cantabria
region is a cultural heritage that has been preserved over time.
In Aragon regions the main building materials used to be Including its typical vernacular architecture, the Cantabrian
mainly brick masonry with gypsum-lime based mortars-filled house stands out as the most traditional. Cantabrian houses
joints. The mountain areas were characterized by large use of range from humble shepherd huts to the palaces and mountain
charcoal and wood, especially acorn wood. Also in this region mansions of the higher classes and from traditional mountain

98
homes to the modest huts of the Pas valley. Interior walls were typically made by single skin brickwork and
the roofs were normally constructed with the same block and
Asturias beam to make a concrete plate method. In Galician region we
can wind also larger traditional building, the two most notable
The traditional vernacular building in region of Asturias adapts types of house being Pazos (Manor houses) and casas Indianas
to climate conditions and integrally respects the wooded (a 1920s/30s art deco style).
area. Horreos and Granaries, are a common form of vernacular
architecture in Asturias. Balearic Islands

Galicia All this enchantment appears in its architecture, houses with


a Roman flavour and many Arabic remains. The soberness of
Galicia has an abundance of different types of granite. In the stone is what dominates in Majorca. In Minorca it is the colonial
past this region was covered eucalyptus plantations and also style, and in Ibiza and Formentera it is enchanting white
had prodigious chestnut forests. Therefore, without any surprise, limestone. This architecture include houses and other utilitarian
the traditional Galician building is stone walled and has upper constructions: storage rooms, wine cellars, stables, etc. These are
floors and a roof structure made from chestnut wood (castao). usually constructed of stone held by mud, sometimes covered by
Buildings were still being built in the traditional way right up a lime plaster, with wooden structures and roofs usually covered
into the 1980s in some rural areas, and these old buildings by round ceramic tiles. Other coverings used are flat roofs, with
are valued for their character, charm and restoration potential. mud or lime plaster, and roofs covered with French ceramic tile,

99
BEST PRACTICES
IN EDUCATION OF
OLD PROFESSIONS
OUTSTANDING VOCATIONAL EDUCATION & TRAINING INSTITUTIONS

I
NTBAU (The International Network Germany, India, Iran, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Nigeria, the
Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Scandinavia,
for Traditional Building, Architecture
Spain, the UK and the USA.
& Urbanism)
Centro Albayzn - Centro de Formacin,
The International Network for Traditional Building, Architecture
& Urbanism, INTBAU, is an international educational charity Restauracin y Rehabilitacin del
that works under the Patronage of HRH the Prince of Wales to Patrimonio Histrico, Artstico y Cultural
promote traditional architecture, urbanism and building arts.
The Secretariat of the organization is based in London, United The Albayzn Center - Andalusian Restoration School emerges as
Kingdom. 24 national Chapters of INTBAU are established as a consortium-school with the idea of creating a Craft Training
independent, affiliated charities in countries around the world. Center of Crafts, Restoration and Rehabilitation of the historical,
artistic and cultural heritage. Sponsored and funded by the
INTBAU is a worldwide organization dedicated to the support Ministry of Economy, Innovation, Science and Employment of the
of traditional building, the maintenance of local character and Board of Andaluca and the city council of Granada.
the creation of better places to live. We are creating an active
network of individuals and institutions who design, make, The Albayzn center is currently recognized as National Model
maintain, study or enjoy traditional building, architecture and Center in the areas of Traditional Crafts (Centro de Referencia
places. Nacional en las reas de Artesana Tradicional ARTA). It also
holds the qualification of Manufacturing and Maintenance
INTBAUs architecture and urban design workshops bring of Musical Instruments (Fabricacin y Mantenimiento de
together practitioners, artisans and students. By education and Instrumentos Musicales - ARTG), Glass and Ceramics Crafts
training in traditional architecture, urbanism and the building (Vidrio y Cermica Artesanal - ARTN) and Artistic Recovery, Repair
crafts, we encourage people to maintain and restore traditional and Maintenance (Recuperacin, Reparacin y Mantenimiento
buildings and to build new buildings and places that contribute Artsticos - ARTR).
to traditional environments and improve the quality of life in
cities, towns and villages around the world. It offers courses and training related to the heritage restoration:
gold application and its restoration, Mudejar coffered ceilings,
INTBAUs 5,000 members are a global force for the continuity lime and stucco, decorative painting, stone carving etc.
of tradition in architecture and building and the promotion of
traditional urban design, working to develop programs tailored
Vanaajamaja
to local needs on every continent. National chapters have been
formed in Afghanistan, Australia, Canada, Cuba, Cyprus, Estonia,
Vanaajamaja is an accredited training and consultancy provider

101
dedicated to Estonian built heritage. We provide training courses - elements of terittories.
related to traditional log building and historical renovation. We
regularly host master carpenters from all over the world to share Professional requirements: to know the basics of immovable
their knowledge and skills. cultural heritage protection, to know the techniques of
performing, materials, products, and structures, to be able to read
Vanaajamaja Training Centre for Traditional Building is located drawings / schemes and execute works, to distinguish valuable
in the small village of Mooste, in southern Estonia. We have properties of an object, etc. Short courses are organized to gain
renovated an old grain drying kiln in Mooste manor and in all this special knowledge. Traditional building techniques are
this cosy historic stone building we organise several courses of not taught, the skills are acquired while working.
Estonian traditional building. Our building consists of a broad
workshop with enormous two-storey heritage protected kiln PI Academy of Cultural Heritage
oven, a small kitchenette for coffee breaks and a Finish sauna
with showers and wardrobes. Academy (non-governmental organization) organizes training
courses according to the applications of construction and
Slow Tech Campus (Rahovitza) designing companies submitted to the Department of Cultural
Heritage under the Ministry of Culture for getting a sertificate of
Rahovitza is a mountain retreat, a place for experimentation, the specialist of immovable cultural heritage. The main training
learning and exchange. Local materials and traditional objective is to examine qualification, practice, and experiences
techniques, enriched with the latest science and design for low- of professionals whose professional performance and decisions
carbon, healthy and beautiful living spaces: this is what the slow determine the remains, valuable properties and authenticity of
technology of building naturally is all about. immovable cultural heritage, and to determine their assessed
activities, areas of specialization, and to promote professional
Earth building seminar (from June to November) trainings, also to protect immovable cultural heritage from
Teacher: Varvara Valtchanova consequences of incompetent and unqualified activities.

During this seminar participants can learn about the Training courses for representatives of ancient architecture
characteristics of earth as a building material, the field tests professions in both theory and practice are held at ethno-
that enable to identify the right soil for building and the main architecture objects while implementing trainings or projects
earth building techniques. Participants will have a practical (usually on the basis of the project as one of the projects
experience on adobe making, straw-earth infill and plastering. activities).
A guided excursion to nearby villages gives the opportunity
to further explore traditional building techniques and their Academy is constantly implementing projects in subjects of
possible adaptation to modern requirements. preservation and actualization of Lithuanian wooden heritage.
21st 25th May, 2012. Theoretical and practical trainings were

Assessment of Artisans by Department organized at parish of St. Mark the Evangelist in ateikiai (Plung
region municipality, ateikiai eldership, Bukant steading).
of Cultural Heritage under the Ministry Theoretical part was dedicated to the law acts of immovable
of Culture (Lithuania) cultural heritage protection and their adaptation, and analysis
of themes in methods of management (conservation and
Committee made by Deparment assesses artisans working restoration). Practical part was dedicated to the management
at immovable cultural heritage objects. Specializations of works of Bukant chapel built in 1863. Totally 28 professionals
regulative heritage protection works are assessed by these of different fields (old crafts artisans, architects, building
activities: executives) from West Lithuania were working on this chapel.
During these trainings artisans restored walls, windows, faade,
- stone masonry, natural stone, and brick masonry; cross and recovered the roof with shingles.
- wooden constructions;
- products of joiners and wooden decorations;
Fine Crafts Association of Vilnius
- metal products and metal constructions;
- clay construction, ceramic products and constructions;
This non-governmental organization implemented the project
- decorative coverings, decorative plastering, painted and
Preservation of Lithuanian wooden heritage and actualization
plastered surfaces;
of trainings for representatives of old crafts professions. Project
- roof coverings;
is partly funded by Department of Cultural Heritage under the

102
Ministry of Culture.
Edinburgh College is the largest college in Edinburgh region
25th 29th May, 2009. Training courses according to the with around 20,000 students and 4 campuses in Edinburgh and
applications of organizations of construction and heritage Lothians. It is a highly successful educational institution - 96%
protection submitted to the Department of Cultural Heritage of its successful full time graduates move on to work or further
under the Ministry of Culture subdivision of Teliai for getting a study within six months. The College offers entry (pre-apprentice)
sertificate of the specialist of immovable cultural heritage were level courses to people interested in craft occupations such as:
held at the parish of emaii Kalvarija (Teliai district, Plung plasterwork, roofing, stone masonry, trowel trades, carpentry
municipality, emaii Kalvarija town) organizes. Duration of and joinery, and other. The majority of qualifications we offer at
theoretical and practical trainings was 5 days. During practical Edinburgh College are from the Scottish Qualifications Authority,
trainings chapels of Sorai and Kalvarijos were managed. Logs, as well as: the Business and Technology Council; City and
ceiling, windows, doors and crucifix were restored at Sorai Guilds; the Vocational Training Charitable Trust; Scottish Wider
chapel; also roofing with shingles and fencing were performed. Access Programme; Degree Programmes in partnership with
Roofing with tiles was done at Kalvarijos chapel. a number of Scottish Universities; Advanced Highers, Highers
and Intermediates; Scottish Vocational Qualifications; National

Scottish Lime Centre Trust Qualifications; Higher National Qualifications.

The SLCT provides a wide range of training courses focused Scottish Traditional Training Centre at
on traditional building skills, building repair and conservation. Fyvie Castle (Aberdeenshire)
They are tailored to different audiences encompassing:
building professionals, site managers and students of the A charity set up in 2006 to address the issue of disappearing
built environment courses, contractors, homeowner, people knowledge and skills required in building conservation,
responsible for traditional buildings. On top of that the Trust regeneration and maintenance of historic buildings. The
organises special Built Environment Seminars, free training centre offers a wide range of training programmes depending
courses for people living and working in the Townscape on interests, level of knowledge, and requirements of its
Heritage Initiative areas. The SLCT is accredited by the Scottish clients. Areas of training include: external building repair,
Qualification Authority (both as a training centre and, specifically, maintenance and preservation; internal building repair; built
to deliver the National Units in Conservation Masonry) and is a heritage architecture, fabric, design and engineering; landscape
branded Learn Direct Centre within the umbrella of the Scottish management - design, maintenance and repai; built heritage and
University for Industry (SUfI) and most of our training courses landscape awareness; secondary schools training programme.
eligible for ILA Scotland funding. Course qualification follow ICOMOS Guidelines for Education
and Training for the Conservation of Monuments, Ensembles and
Construction Industry Training Board Sites, and they include: National Vocational Qualification (NVQ)/
Scottish Vocational Qualifications (SVQ) in Construction Site
CITB is a national charity and social enterprise set up to build Management (conservation) Level 4, Conservation Control Level
capacity of the construction industry through training. The 4, Conservation Consultancy Level 5; the National Occupational
organisation provides support and funding to help companies Standards; NVQ/SVQ in Heritage Skills (Construction) Level 3;
with raising their qualifications, increase competitiveness and National Progression Award for the Conservation of Masonry.
ensure that they stay up to date with changing practices. CITB
offers outstanding (rated by Ofsted) apprenticeships, which Historic Scotland (HS) Training and Skills
small companies and mastercraftsmen find very difficult to
offer to potential young professionals. Training is also delivered
Development Programme
through CITBs National Construction College (NCC) and National
Historic Scotland, as a governmental organisation responsible
Specialist Accredited Centre (NSAC). CITB is approved by the
for preservation and heritage management in Scotland, provides
Office of Qualifications and Examinations Regulation (Ofqual).
a great deal of support for the sector directly and indirectly.
It is also a member of the Institute of Customer Service (ICS)
Directly, HS offers Fellowship and Internship programmes to
and accredited with the mark of service excellence Service Mark.
support particularly important and vulnerable skills areas. The
training courses last between 12 to 24 months depending on
programmes include: craft, teaching and research fellowships;
a module and grant graduates with professional diplomas and
research internships; traditional skills bursary schemes; the
certificates.
Skills for the Past and Future Project; Conservation of Masonry
Bursary Scheme.
Edinburgh College

103
first tile workshop being already built in Apo, Sibiu County, with
On top of that, HS is leading development of the Engine Shed, the intervention of His Royal Highness The Prince of Wales, who
which is going to become a building-conservation hub to raise supports some of the projects in which the association is part
standards in the care of traditional buildings, promote greater of). His Royal Highness, who opened his home in Viscri village
understanding and interest of them. The Engine Shed is due for visitors, also helped launch, in 2014, the project Veni.vidi.
to be open in 2016 in a reused shed in the central Stirling. It Viscri, an education intervention in the heritage domain for 1000
will be an interactive and modern venue where people will owners of historical buildings.
have a chance to engage with traditional methods of building
conservation. Monumentum Association apart from opening a tile workshop
(Apo) and planning to open three more in the southern area of

The St Marys Cathedral Workshop Transylvania, also owns a traditional joinery workshop in Valea
Hrtibacului (Hrtibac valley). 14 types of traditional historical

The Workshop was set up in 1987 to undertake repairs and tiles from Transylvania will be produced. The project will

restoration works on the St. Marys Cathedral in Edinburgh. The also include the Hungarian community from inutul Secuiesc

restoration project includes the Young Hands for Old Skills (Szeklers area). The handmade tiles will successfully compete

programme, which offers apprenticeships to young professionals. with the industrial produced ones, both with the price, and

The apprentices serve a four year apprenticeship and achieve a quality.

Scottish Vocational Qualification. Over the years, 22 apprentices


have completed their training with the Workshop. A similar There are two theoretical workshops, a do it yourself guide

workshop was set up at the Culzean castle. for owners of rural traditional buildings who want to restore the
house by themselves, as well as an implementation/insertion
manual of the boarding houses in this historical and cultural
The Monumentum Association valuable context.

The Monumentul Association, represented by architect Eugen


Arhitectur. Restaurare. Arheologie (Architecture, Restoration,
Vaida, is a non-governmental organisation, founded in 2012 to
Archaeology) Association
help protect the built heritage from the rural area in Romania.
http://www.simpara.ro/activitati-108.htm
Shortly after being founded in 2012, the association made
Arhitectur. Restaurare. Arheologie (Architecture, Restoration,
important steps against the inadequate intervention process on
Archaeology) Association became, in the last years, known for
the traditional buildings in southern Transylvania and also to
the archaeological site which was proposed to be included in
support the traditional crafts through projects, many of which
the UNESCO heritage, site which lies in the mining city of Roia
took place in collaboration with the Ministry of Culture. An
Montan, Alba County (Transylvania), but not exclusively for this
information and photo archive of the buildings was created,
site. Apart from this basic activity, summer schools/camps took
more than 18000 being documented in Sibiu, Mure and Braov.
place in the Danube Delta (Nufru city, Dobrogea region) and
Another initiative of the Association was to inform 11000 owners
experimental archaeology in Covasna County (Transylvania).
of traditional buildings, by recorded mail, about the obligations
they have in the historical monument protection area, on the
Organisation of conferences, symposiums, seminars, exhibitions,
basis of the Romanian Law no. 422/2001. Having the same
contests, stages, all kinds of activities which help promote the
objective in mind, the association, together with the Ministry of
heritage. Apart from owning a publishing house, publishing
Culture, installed 71 informative billboards in the Transylvanian
books, albums, various publications, tape, audio, video, CD
villages. The organisation offers free consultancy for some
recordings and translations, the association also supports the
County culture departments, in order to give information
establishment of information, documentation, research centres,
about the urbanism regulations in the rural area. Since it was
libraries, bookshops etc. Another goal is granting prises and
founded, Monumentum Association launched, together with the
scholarships for students and specialists in various domains who
Global Heritage Fund and Anglo Romanian Trust for Traditional
are involved in the activity of the Association.
Architecture collaborators, the integrated project, Daia, in a
village near Sighioara city. During the project, more than 150
interventions will be made on buildings, and at the end of the Transylvania Trust Foundation
project, the site will be proposed to be included in the world
heritage. In order to preserve the historical roofs in Transylvania, Transylvania Trust Foundation is an organisation established in

Monumentum Association launched many exhibitions and, at 1996 by professionals and volunteers in the conservation and

the same time, intends to build four traditional tile workshops restoration domain. As stated in its name, the area concerned

in Transylvania for the local communities and craftsmen (the is Transylvania, with its diverse dowry of heritage buildings

104
belonging to the various ethnic groups who live together in synchronises with international organisations in this domain,
Transylvania. The purpose of the organisation, which is presided through its mobility programmes, it coordinates collaborations
by Mr PhD. Eng. Blint Szab, is to protect the built heritage in with US/ICOMOS or with the Heritage Protection Office in
Transylvania, to organise the protection activity and to develop Slovakia or other associations/organisations/foundations in this
an integrated protection strategy. The foundation is active in domain. The particularity of Transylvania Trust foundation is its
almost all the heritage protection domains: data collection idea of integrated protection of the heritage. Through the active
and inventory, documentation, conservation, restoration, programmes, it is tried to promote the entire Transylvanian
rehabilitation and maintenance, as well as in the scientific area to a storage area of the vernacular heritage values.
research domain. Through professional training programmes, Conclusive examples are the protection programme of the
it contributes to the increase of the number of specialists, and heritage in Rimetea commune or the intervention centre of the
through publications and symposiums, it shapes the societys foundation, specialised in the rehabilitation of the built heritage
perception and mentality regarding the protection of the in BnffyBonida castle, Cluj County. The foundation takes part
built heritage. The background and applied research of the in supporting the local communities in the intervention areas,
built heritage tries to create an inventory and to document counting also on the important contribution of the volunteers.
the elements of the built environment - from interiors, to
entire towns, rural ensembles etc. The research covers the Transylvania Trust Foundation annually organises a summer
durability of the historical buildings, consisting also of feasibility school/camp which has an international training program for
studies. Scientific gatherings take place simultaneously for the the restoration of the built heritage. This program is intended
information to be widely-spread in the built heritage domain, for architecture students, civil engineers, landscape artists,
and with a view to improve the professional level and to educate archaeologists, as well as for others who are interested. The
the general public. In this regard, speciality education for the courses - which take place at Bnffy castle in Bonida commune,
built heritage is promoted, in collaboration with acknowledged Cluj County (Transylvania) are also addressed to construction
and accredited education institutions (postgraduate education, workers who want to specialise in the domain. All the subjects
guidance and writing of doctoral theses, but also specialised which are annually discussed can be found in the syllabus -
training of workers). The organisation also offers consultancy, masonry, arch restoration, pargeting (including 2 days of mural
technical or legal advice to the owners of historic monuments, techniques), respectively furniture and old joinery restoration.
in order to protect the built heritage. Also, the foundation

105
ARTS & CRAFTS
AS HISTORIC BASIS
FORMER ARCHITECTURAL MOVEMENTS & TRENDS

Estonia national Romanian specific, only partially in the rural areas. In


the south and east, Wallachia and Moldavia, the secular Turkish
Despite the extinction of many original craft traditions - or, government has impregnated to some extent the buildings from
ironically, rather because of that our and national have the urban areas, bringing along the Byzantine and Islamic ways
become, during the last one hundred years or so, a true fashion of building.
of its own in Estonia. Among the most prominent examples of
the trend are the Arts and Crafts influenced manifestations of In the north-western region of Transylvania Transylvania,
the early 20th century Estonian National Romanticism - inspired Banat, Criana and Maramure during the Austro-Hungarian
by the examples of Finland and Scandinavia and adopted to Empire, a great attention was given to the so-called home
compensate for the lack of shining heroes in the nations history. industry (e.g. weaving, production of ceramic articles, sculpture
http://www.estinst.ee/issues/63_arts_and_crafts.pdf and woodworking) or to the learning of industrial crafts within
school (joinery, masonry, the creation of plaster and stucco
National Romanticism flourished in the end of 19th and in the ornaments, the painting of rooms, the processing of metals etc.).
beginning of 20th century. It has also links with Art Noveau That is the reason why, in the late nineteenth century and early
search for new forms and symbols. NR is characterized by local twentieth century, the urban and provincial constructions have
traditional materials and building skills which are formalized been built by a large number of skilled workers. In architecture,
and developed. the Secession movement in the Central and Eastern Europe
was expressed through the magic of the national past romance,
Karl Burman (1882-1965) was one of the firsts architect of present in ornaments or mural paintings and stained glass, there
national romanticism who rise the question of characteristics being presented numerous elements of bygone eras. Between
of Estonian national architecture. Kalevi Clubhouse (built 1911 1890 and 1900, the architecture has essentially not changed;
- 1912, ruined) designed by him has remained the symbolic actually, the organisation of the eclectic architecture space has
building of Estonian architecture. Edgar Velbri (1902 - 1977) is been carried on, with new style ornaments by Lechner dn and
characterized as most fruitful designer of private houses of his his successors, the brothers Vg, Jakab Dezs and Komor Marcell,
own time who was inspired by peasants architecture. August Blint Zoltn and Jmbor Lajos, Zrumetzky Dezs, Medgyaszay
Volberg (1896 - 1983) was known as continuator of national Istvn etc. They intensively used ornamental ceramic for the
rural architectural traditions. He designed rural buildings using coating of buildings, ceramic which was generally produced
many typical traditional elements of peasants buildings in a in the world-famous ceramic factory Zsolnay in Pcs. The most
modern way in his works. famous Transylvanian ensemble of this concept is the Palace of
Culture and the City Hall of Marosvsrhely, designed in tandem
by the architects Komor - Jakab. This quite sterile concept has
Transylvania
been changed on the one hand by the authentic and systematic
collections of ethnography and folk art (Malonyai Dezs: A
Due to the historical and political separations and to the
magyar np mvszete/Arta poporului maghiar/The art of the
geographical delimitations of the historical regions of Romania
Hungarian people, I-V., 19071922), and on the other hand, by
and Transylvania, the influences of the Arts & Crafts movement
the modern concept of young architects (The young people) from
because we cannot talk about a total equivalence gave
the Technical University Viceroy Jzsef from Budapest, who were
rise to quite varied outcomes in different areas. In the north,
passionate about the Arts & Crafts English, American and Finnish
i.e. Transylvania, Banat, Criana and Maramure, the Austro-
architectural image, respectively about the pre-modernist image,
Hungarian influence is decisive in cities, we cannot talk about a

107
early organic. A world-famous creator of this group is Ks Kroly, Ks has also been active in literature, in the organization
who studied the folk architecture of Kalotaszeg, of the Szkelys of society and education; for example, in 1950 he was a
and of other regions of Transylvania, and who was inspired teacher at the University of Agricultural Sciences in Cluj-Napoca,
by the shape and structure of the space and by the technical where he taught the design of buildings for animal husbandry
solutions of folk architecture and assembled building materials (characteristic of that period, he did not taught at the Department
made with the industrial technology of that time, for modern of architecture). An architect with a similar view, but with fewer
spaces or solutions (e.g. glass for the edge). Another important works and less successful, was Toroczkai Wigand Ede (one of his
source of inspiration was the medieval architecture. During the important works is the project for the stained glass from the
execution of the works, it was very important to him to use local Palace of Culture in Tg. Mure). The architect Lszl Debreczeni
materials and craftsmen. was also a faithful successor of Ks Kroly. Because of their
activities, the Transylvanian architecture of today cherishes the

form of the folk architecture and the culture of folk houses, and and beyond are valid inspirational sources worth being
this is present even today in the activity of traditional architects reinvestigated in the new contemporary eclecticism.
(e.g. the architect Mller Csaba).

Spain
In conclusion, one can say that the eclecticism specific for the
Arts in 1900, and implicitly for the Art & Crafts movement, has
Neo-Mudjar Style - In the late 19th century a new architectural
found its diverse expression in the varied stylistic conglomerate
movement was created in Madrid as a revival of the Mudjar
of vernacular origins of Romania and especially of Transylvania.
architecture. The Neo-Mudjar style soon spread to all regions
Of course, the vernacular reference is more or less visible,
of Spain. Such architects as Emilio Rodrguez Ayuso perceived
some examples relate more to the urban environment,
the Mudjar art as characteristical and exclusive Spanish style.
affirming cultivated searches, while others seek inspiration in
They started to construct buildings using some of the features
a very romantic, even dark, past. There are sometimes stylistic
of the ancient style, as horse-shoe arches and the use of the
disjunction between the elements of some buildings or even
abstract shaped brick ornamentations for the faades. It became
splits between the interior and the exterior. Being one of the
a popular style for bull rings and for other public constructions,
first reactions to the capitalist and industrial society, the Arts &
but also for housing, due to its cheap materials, mainly brick for
Crafts movement re-appropriates the crafts and the traditional
exteriors.
building methods, but incorporating the industrial stylistics
as well. The various synthesis products that will gradually
During the Industrial Revolution, the new use of iron and glass
sublimate into modernism represent authentic architectures
as the main materials for building construction was, as in the
in the plural whose visual virtuosity and poetic meanings
rest of Europe, applied specially in train stations, winter houses,

108
industrial buildings and pavilions for exhibitions. The architects the history with social science, geography, mathematics, sci-
who most developed this style were Ricardo Velzquez Bosco ence, and hygiene. Special subjects were taught, too: drawing,
and Alberto del Palacio, although glass for faades and iron draughtsmanship, accountancy and correspondence, and craft
for structures were used to some extent by other architects, as theory. After finishing the secondary school the name of a crafts-
Antonio Palacios, Enrique Mara Repulls y Vargas or Narciso man was gained. After 5 years of practice a person could take
Pascual y Colomer. exams under Committee of Education Ministry in order to get
the name of master (meisteris; the highest craftsman category).
Catalan Modernism - The 20th Century saw the rise of Catalan Weekly magazine Amatininkas (Artisan) was being published
Modernism, a style that incorporated more natural and organic during 19341940.
elements. When the city of Barcelona was allowed to expand
beyond its historic limits in the late 19th century, the resulting Most interesting Interwar buildings of national style:
Eixample (extension: larger than the old city; by Ildefons Tulip cooperative building (by Antanas Maciejauskas, 1925)
Cerd), became the site of a burst of architectural energy known Perhaps it the most vividly represented national style where
as the Modernisme movement. Modernisme broke with past the spirit of nationalism was tried to convey through the folk art
styles and used organic forms for its inspiration in the same way ornaments, and traditional historicism details were replaced by
as the concurrent Art-Nouveau and Jugendstil movements in the Lithuanian stylized folk motifs. Sandriks, cornices, window and
rest of Europe. door surrounds are created by an original architect nationality
understanding of the formula.
Most famous architect of this style is with no doubts Antoni
Gaud, whose works in Barcelona and spread in other parts of Rims of cornice, windows and doors were created according to
Catalonia, Len and Cantabria mixing traditional architectural individual formula of architecs nationalism understanding.
styles with the new, were a precursor to modern architecture. Central Post Office Palace (by Feliksas Vizbaras, 1930-1932)
Perhaps the most famous example of his work is the still-
unfinished cathedral La Sagrada Famlia. The other very famous It is one of the most important representational buildings in
architecture made by Gaud are Park Gell, Palau Gell, Casa interwar period Kaunas. This is one of the most organic mixes
Batll and Casa Mil in Barcelona. of two ideological powers in interwar architecture, i.e. modernity
and nationalism, with a combination of textile inspired floors
This cultural movement was filled with all the arts and sought and wood carving resembling decoration of the faade. Architect
to recover Catalan culture and modernise the country. Other perceived his own building as an example of national style in
artistic expressions were undertaken by such important figures the first place, for which decoration, by the way, was used a tie
as the painters Santiago Rusiol and Ramon Casas, the sculptors woven by one unknown prude weaver. At the written sources
Eusebi Arnau and Josep Llimona, the cabinetmaker Gaspar we find an interesting remark that some main walls are partly
Homar or the glassmaker Llus Rigalt. made out of original ancient bricks.

Lithuania Officers Club in Kaunas (by Stasys Kudokas, Elmark Lohk,


Herbert Johanson, Vladimiras Dubeneckis, Jonas Kriiukaitis,

Arts and Crafts movement began in 1918 in Lithuania after Kazys Kriiukaitis, Mykolas Songaila, John Kova-Kovalskis, 1931

the restoration of Independence. Mission of craft recovery was - 1937)

conducted by the Chamber of Agriculture; the program was


based on the Swedish model. The survey of fine crafts artisans It was one of the solemnest objects in the late interwar

was conducted in villages and according to those results it was Lithuania. One of the most impressive rooms was a representa-

intended to act in several directions: to support financially for tive room of the President which was intended to be created

purchasing better tools (to give allowance), to promote, record, as far as possible in the Lithuanian character using Lithuanian

collect and describe local folk art. Lots of trainings for artisans materials, i.e. Lithuanian motifs as in furniture so in decoration

were organized in 3rd decade of 20th century (mainly weaving, and if possible even in the inner structures. The works were

sewing, ceramics, etc.). conducted by artisans graduated from Marijampol craftsman-


ship school with a leading teacher V. sas. Mainly Lithuanian

According to the Law of Craft Education, schools or courses could materials, oak and oilcloth were used at constructions. Surfaces

be established for one or several crafts. Duration of lower school of doors and panels were covered with Caucasian walnut with

was 2 or 3 years and duration of secondary school was 4 years. junipers inlays. Inlays of Lithuanian folk art motifs, i.e. stylized

General educational subjects were taught in craft schools, such tulip and spruce, were outlined with metal inlays. Ceilings were

as religion, Lithuanian language, and language of instruction, made of solid oak. Parquet was made out of oak with patterns of
Lithuanian woven fabric.

109
Scotland Charles Rennie Mackintosh

The Scottish movement occurred in the late 1880s and 90s, The life and work of Rennie Mackintosh, like William Morris was
more than 20 years after Morris had established his first shop in of enormous significance in the development of the Arts and
London. The Glasgow School of Art (GSA) was the centre of the Crafts style, and too expansive a subject to cover here. (Please
Arts and Crafts movement in Scotland. Four key figures, Charles see the GSA website for more information). For his work in
Rennie Mackintosh, Herbert MacNair, Margaret and Frances architecture he is known particularly for the extension to the
MacDonald were known as The Four who together created the Glasgow School of Art which was started in 1898, and for houses
vision which became world famous as the Glasgow Style. such as the Hill House and Windyhill. His interior design and fur-
Mackintosh attended the Glasgow School of Art in 1883 and niture is perhaps best known for his designs for the Tea Rooms
became a trainee architect in the following year. In 1884 Francis in Glasgow which he did for Catherine Cranston in Buchanan
Newberry took over as the headmaster of GSA and became a vital Street in 1896 ( see design above), Argyle Street in 1897 and the
influence in the development of the movement. Newberry had Willow Tea Rooms in 1900. His furniture and his interiors show
recently moved from London and brought with him an interest a unique and beautiful vision and are revered throughout the
in Arts and Crafts and an admiration of William Morris. Newberry world. It is hard to identify anyone before or since Mackintosh
provided leadership for the development of the Glasgow School who has shown the same creative genius within the field of Arts
of Art, pushing it forward from its traditional role of formal and Crafts.
instruction in painting by introducing a range of crafts including
pottery, embroidery, metalwork, stained glass and woodcarving. The works of Mackintosh are beyond the realms of most collec-
He started the Art Club, organised exhibitions, and promoted tors though there are prints and replicas available as well as a
the work of his students who included Mackintosh, encouraging range of Mackintosh inspired copper, silver and pewter items,
them to be creative and to take an interest in the development sometimes referred to as Mockintosh.
Arts and Crafts in England and Europe. Important Scottish designers

George Walton who assisted Mackintosh in the design of the


Glasgow Style
tea rooms for Miss Cranston, and who also may have designed
for Liberty & Co is one of the most significant designers along
Working together The Four, with the support of Newberry,
with Earnest Archibald Taylor, George Logan and John Ednie who
compiled an exhibition of beaten metalwork panels, posters,
designed for the furniture company Wylie and Lochhead. Other
furniture and silverwork for the 1896 Arts and Crafts Exhibition
designers created artwork, illustrations, designs for furniture,
in London. Their work was not particularly well liked, but
jewellery, stained glass and their pieces are not uncommon in
one important critic, Gleeson White, editor of The Studio was
auction rooms and specialist dealers.
intrigued by the style and travelled to Glasgow to meet them,
in the following year he published two articles in The Studio
An important aspect of the Glasgow Style was the role played by
celebrating the Glasgow Style.
women the most notable being the sisters Frances and Margaret
MacDonald. Important designers include Jessie King illustra-
The style which The Four developed was not to everyones taste,
tor and designer, Margaret and Mary Gilmour who designed
being derided as The Spook School because of the ghostly
and crafted metalwork, and Ann MacBeth an embroiderer. The
ghoulish images portraying hobgoblins by misty moonlight. An
Glasgow Girls: by Jude Burkhauser is essential reading on the
important element of Glasgow style was the importance of Celtic
subject.
imagery, with motifs and style of lettering inspired by carvings
on seventeenth century tombstones. A very popular motif was a
cabbage like rose, the Glasgow Rose which was adapted from
Aubrey Beardsley and employed widely within Glasgow Style
design. The Glasgow Rose was also adopted by English design-
ers of stained glass, and furniture. Shapland and Petter, the
Barnstaple furniture manufacturers providing some particularly
good examples in marquetry, carving and in repousse copper
panels. See the examples shown in Collecting

110
111
GOOD EXAMPLES
IN MODERN
ARCHITECTURE
LOCAL IDENTITY SUCCESSFULLY COMBINED WITH MODERNITY

Hanul Muntelui (The Mountains Inn)


Location: Rnov, Braov County, Romania
Architecture: Mihai Nu (source: Mihai Nu)
Hanul Muntelui (The Mountains Inn)
Location: Rnov, Braov County, Romania
Architecture: Mihai Nu (source: Mihai Nu)

114
115
116
House Rauch
Location Schlins, Austria
Architecture: Martin Rauch (source: Martin Rauch) 117
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San Benedict Chapel
Location: Sumvitg, Graubnden, Switzerland
Architecture: Peter Zumthor (source: Archdaily)

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Facts Tkern Visitor Centre
Location: Glns, Sweden
Architecture: Wingrdh Arkitektkontor AB (source: Archdaily)

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