block diagram representation of mechanical systems

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You are on page 1of 74

of Dynamic systems

Engineering (MSc students)

2016

Introduction

Block diagram is a shorthand, graphical

representation of a physical system, illustrating

the functional relationships among its

components.

OR

A Block Diagram is a shorthand pictorial

representation of the cause-and-effect

relationship of a system.

Introduction

The simplest form of the block diagram is the single block,

with one input and one output.

The interior of the rectangle representing the block usually

contains a description of or the name of the element, or the

symbol for the mathematical operation to be performed on

the input to yield the output.

The arrows represent the direction of information or signal

flow.

d

dt

Introduction

representation.

The block becomes a small circle, called a summing point,

with the appropriate plus or minus sign associated with the

arrows entering the circle.

Any number of inputs may enter a summing point.

The output is the algebraic sum of the inputs.

Some books put a cross in the circle.

a Linear Time Invariant System

System components are alternatively called

elements of the system.

Block diagram has four components:

Signals

System/ block

Summing junction

Pick-off/ Take-off point

more than one block or summing point, a takeoff point is

used.

Distributes the input signal, undiminished, to several

output points.

This permits the signal to proceed unaltered along several

different paths to several destinations.

Example-1

Consider the following equations in which x1, x2, x3, are

variables, and a1, a2 are general coefficients or

mathematical operators.

x3 a1 x1 a2 x2 5

Example-1

Consider the following equations in which x1, x2, x3, are

variables, and a1, a2 are general coefficients or

mathematical operators.

x3 a1 x1 a2 x2 5

10

Example-2

Consider the following equations in which x1, x2,. . . , xn, are

variables, and a1, a2,. . . , an , are general coefficients or

mathematical operators.

xn a1 x1 a2 x2 an1 xn1

11

From Blackboard

Integration

Closed loop system

Closed loop transfer function

12

Example-3

Draw the Block Diagrams of the following equations.

(1)

( 2)

dx1 1

x2 a1

x1dt

dt

b

x3 a1

d 2 x2

dt 2

dx1

3

bx1

dt

13

We will now examine some common topologies

for interconnecting subsystems and derive the

single transfer function representation for each

of them.

These common topologies will form the basis for

reducing more complicated systems to a single

block.

14

CASCADE

Any finite number of blocks in series may be

algebraically combined by multiplication of

transfer functions.

That is, n components or blocks with transfer

functions G1 , G2, . . . , Gn, connected in cascade

are equivalent to a single element G with a

transfer function given by

15

Example

commutative; that is,

GiGj = GjGi

for any i or j .

16

Cascade:

Figure:

a) Cascaded Subsystems.

b) Equivalent Transfer Function.

is

17

Parallel Form:

Parallel subsystems have a common input and

an output formed by the algebraic sum of the

outputs from all of the subsystems.

18

Parallel Form:

Figure:

a) Parallel Subsystems.

b) Equivalent Transfer Function.

19

Feedback Form:

The third topology is the feedback form. Let us derive the

transfer function that represents the system from its input

to its output. The typical feedback system, shown in figure:

summing junction is negative and positive feedback if the sign

is positive.

20

Feedback Form:

Figure:

a) Feedback Control System.

b) Simplified Model or Canonical Form.

c) Equivalent Transfer Function.

transfer function is

21

CCharacteristic Equation

The control ratio is the closed loop transfer function of the

system.

C( s )

G( s )

R( s ) 1 G( s )H ( s )

characteristic equation of the system.

Which is usually determined as:

1 G( s )H ( s ) 0

22

System

The system is said to have negative feedback if the sign at the summing

junction is negative and positive feedback if the sign is positive.

23

1. Open loop transfer function

B( s )

G( s )H ( s )

E( s )

C( s )

G( s )

R( s ) 1 G( s )H ( s )

3. control ratio

4. feedback ratio

5. error ratio

C( s )

G( s )

E( s )

G(s )

B( s )

G( s )H ( s )

R( s ) 1 G( s )H ( s )

E( s )

1

R( s ) 1 G( s )H ( s )

C( s )

G( s )

R( s ) 1 G( s )H ( s )

7. characteristic equation 1 G( s )H ( s ) 0

8. closed loop poles and zeros if K=10.

H (s )

24

Characteristic Equation

25

26

Reduction techniques

1. Combining blocks in cascade

G2

G1

G1G2

G1

G2

G1 G2

27

Reduction techniques

3. Moving a summing point behind a block

G

G

28

Reduction techniques

3. Moving a summing point ahead of a block

G

1

G

1

G

G

G

29

Reduction techniques

6. Eliminating a feedback loop

G

1 GH

G

H

G

1 G

G

H 1

7. Swap with two neighboring summing points

30

Y, Z denote any transformed signals.

31

32

33

34

Form.

35

Example-4: Continue.

36

37

Example-5: Continue.

38

39

Example-6: Continue.

40

41

Example-7: Continue.

42

following block diagram determine:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

Feed Forward Transfer function

control ratio

feedback ratio

error ratio

closed loop transfer function

characteristic equation

closed loop poles and zeros if K=10.

43

Example-8: Continue

form

K

s 1

44

Example-8: Continue

K

s 1

K

G

s 1

K

1 GH

1

s

s 1

45

Example-8: Continue

1. Open loop transfer function

B( s )

G( s )H ( s )

E( s )

C( s )

G( s )

E( s )

C( s )

G( s )

3. control ratio

R( s ) 1 G( s )H ( s )

G(s )

4. feedback ratio B( s ) G( s )H ( s )

R( s ) 1 G( s )H ( s )

E( s )

1

5. error ratio

R( s ) 1 G( s )H ( s )

6. closed loop transfer function

C( s )

G( s )

R( s ) 1 G( s )H ( s )

7. characteristic equation1 G( s )H ( s ) 0

8. closed loop poles and zeros if K=10.

H (s )

46

block diagram determine:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

Feed Forward Transfer function

control ratio

feedback ratio

error ratio

closed loop transfer function

characteristic equation

closed loop poles and zeros if K=100.

47

function. (from Nise:page-243).

48

Example-10: Continue.

49

Example-10: Continue.

50

close-loop transfer function C(S)/R(S). (from Ogata:

Page-47)

51

Example-11: Continue.

52

H2

C

R

+_

G1

H1

G2

G3

53

Example-12:

H2

G1

_

R

+_

G1

H1

G2

G3

54

Example-12:

H2

G1

_

R

+_

G1G2

H1

G3

55

Example-12:

H2

G1

C

R

+_

G1G2

H1

G3

56

Example-12:

H2

G1

_

R

+_

G1G2

1 G1G2 H1

C

G3

57

Example-12:

H2

G1

_

R

+_

G1G2G3

1 G1G2 H1

58

Example-12:

R

+_

G1G2G3

1 G1G2 H1 G2G3 H 2

59

Example-12:

G1G2G3

1 G1G2 H1 G2G3 H 2 G1G2G3

60

block diagrams.

R(s)

G1

G2

H1

H2

H3

Y (s)

61

Solution:

1. Eliminate loop I

R(s)

G1

H1

G2

G2

1 GH2 H

2

2

Y (s)

Y (s)

H3

2. Moving pickoff point A behind block

R(s)

G1

H1

G2

1 G2 H 2

G2

1 G2 H 2

1 G2 H 2

G2

H3

II

1 G2 H 2

H 3 H1 (

)

G2

62

3. Eliminate loop II

R(s)

G1G2

1 G2 H 2

H3

Y (s)

H1 (1 G2 H 2 )

G2

G1G2

Y (s)

63

64

output C due to inputs R and U using the Superposition

Method.

65

Example-14: Continue.

66

Example-14: Continue.

67

output C due to inputs R, U1 and U2 using the

Superposition Method.

68

Example-15: Continue.

69

Example-15: Continue.

70

Determine C1 and C2 due to R1 and R2.

71

Example-16: Continue.

72

Example-16: Continue.

When R1 = 0,

When R2 = 0,

73

74

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