central force motion

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central force motion

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Examples:

F1,2 ( r ) = G

8.01

W14D1

m1m2

r

r2

F1,2 ( r ) = kr r

of Mass Coordinates

Problem

Center of mass

R cm

m r + m2r2

= r1 1 1

m1 + m2

Divide by mass

r = r1 r2 = r1 r2

F1,2

m1

Subtract:

Reduced Mass

= m1m2 / (m1 + m2 )

F1,2 r = m1

r =

F1,2

m1

d 2r1

dt 2

d 2r1

dt 2

F2,1

m2

F2,1

m2

)r =

r =

d 2r2

dt 2

d 2r2

dt 2

d 2 (r1 r2 ) d 2r

= 2

dt 2

dt

r = r1 r2

Use Newtons Third Law (in components)

m r + m2r2 m2 ( r1 r2 )

r1 = r1 R cm = r1 1 1

=

= r

m1 + m2

m1 + m2

m1

F2,1 r = m2

r2 =

m2

Summary

1

1

d 2r

+

) F1,2 r = 2

m1 m2

dt

F1,2 = F2,1

F1,2 r =

d 2r

dt 2

Knowledge of r = r1 r2

determines the motion of

each object about center of

mass with position.

body of reduced mass moving

about a central point O under the

influence of gravity with position

vector corresponding to the

relative position vector from

object 2 to object 1

Solving the problem means

finding the distance from the

origin r(t) and angle (t) as

functions of time

Interpretation of Solution:

Motion about Center of Mass

r1 ==

2

d r

F1,2 = 2

dt

m1

r2 =

m2

function of angle

Momentum

The angular momentum about the point

O of the reduced body

Torque about O:

= rO F1,2 (r ) = rr F1,2 (r )r = 0

1. is constant.

2. changes throughout the motion

because the speed changes.

3. changes throughout the motion

because the distance from O changes.

4. changes throughout the motion

because the angle changes.

5. Not enough information to decide.

6. We had the angular momentum quiz

last Friday so I dont need to think

about it anymore.

Velocity

v=

dr

d

r + r

dt

dt

Angular Momentum

d

dr

LO = r v = rr r + r

dt

dt

d

LO = r 2

k

dt

2 d

L Lz = r

dt

2

Key Relation:

L2

1 2 d

1 d

=

r

= r

2 2

dt

2 dt

Find an expression for the potential energy of the system

consisting of the two objects interacting through the central

forces given by

F1,2 =

a) Gravitational force

b) Linear restoring force

F1,2 = krr

r = rf

Gravitation:

U grav =

Gm1m2

r

r2

r = r0

r = rf

1 1

Gm1m2

Gm1m2

r dr =

dr = Gm1m2

2

rf ri

r

r2

r = r0

r = rf

Linear restoring:

U spring =

krr dr =

r = r0

energy is constant.

2

K=

E=

1. is constant.

2. changes throughout the motion

because the speed changes.

3. changes throughout the motion

because the distance from O

changes.

4. is not constant because the orbit is

not zero hence the central force

does work.

5. Not enough information to decide.

Effective Potential Energy

1 d

1 dr

L2

1 dr

+ r = +

2

2 dt

2 dt

2 dt

2

Mechanical Energy

1

k (rf2 r02 )

2

Effective Potential Energy

Kinetic Energy

1 dr 1 L

+

+ U (r ) K effective + U effective

2 dt 2 r 2

U effective =

L2

+ U (r)

2 r 2

K effective =

1 dr

2 dt

U eff =

Frep =

Repulsive Force

Effective Force

d L2

L2

= 3

2

r

dr 2 r

Fr =

Central Force

L2

+ U (r)

2r 2

Feff =

dU eff ( r )

dr

dU (r)

dr

L2 dU ( r )

r = 3

r

dr

r

Motion

Reduce the one body problem in two dimensions to a one

body problem moving only in the radial direction but under

the action of two forces: a repulsive force and the central

force

constants of the motion

Total mechanical energy E is conserved because the force

is radial and depends only on r and not on

Angular momentum L is constant because the torque about

origin is zero

The force and the velocity vectors determine the plane of

motion

Feff =

dU eff (r )

dr

L2 dU (r )

d 2r

r = 3

r = 2

dr

dt

r

F1,2 = krr

Central Force

Energy

Angular Momentum

1 dr 1 L2 1 2

E = +

+ kr = K effective + U effective

2 dt 2 r 2 2

d

L = r2

dt

Kinetic Energy

Effective Potential Energy

K effective =

U effective =

Repulsive Force

Frepulsive =

1 dr

2 dt

Effective Potential Energy vs.

Relative Separation

For

E > 0 , the relative

separation oscillates

varies between

rmin r rmax

L2

1

+ kr 2

2r 2 2

has a minimum at r0

d L2 L2

=

dr 2 r 2 r 3

Fspring =

dU spring

dr

= kr

Energy Solution

The effective

potential energy is

U effective =

L2

1

+ kr 2

2 r 2 2

the energy for the

lowest energy orbit.

What type of motion

is this orbit?

Harmonic Oscillator

A special solution of the equation of

motion for a linear restoring force

d 2r

= kr r

dt 2

is given by r (t ) = x(t ) i + y (t ) j

with

x(t) = x0 sin( t)

Energy Orbit Solution

The lowest energy state corresponds to a circular

orbit where the radius can be found by finding the

minimum of the effective potential energy

0=

dU effective

dr

L2

+ kr0

r03

r = r0

L2

r0 =

Emin = U effective

r = r0

1/ 4

L2 k

=

1/ 2

=

Reduced Mass

Energy

E=

Angular Momentum

1 dr 1 L2 Gm1m2

+

= K effective + U effective

2 dt 2 r 2

r

2 d

L=r

Kinetic Energy

K effective =

U effective =

y(t) = y0 cos( t)

where for the case shown in the

figure with

rmax = x0

rmin = y0

y0 < x0

Repulsive Force

centered at the origin

Gravitational force

m1m2

m1 + m2

Fcentrifugal =

Fgravitational =

dt

2

1 dr

2 dt

L2

Gm1m2

r

2 r 2

d L2 L2

=

dr 2 r 2 r 3

dU gravitational

dr

Gm1m2

r2

Problem

E > 0, >1

r=

r0

1 cos

Eccentricity

Emin =

= 1 +

E = 0 , =1

2

Gm1m2

1 (Gm1m2 )

2

L2

2EL2

1/ 2

E

= 1

Emin

r0 =

1/ 2

L2

Gm1m2

Energy Orbit

The effective potential

energy is

U effective =

Gm1m2

L2

r

2 r 2

Energy Diagram

Emin < E < 0 , 0 < < 1

Case 4: Circular Orbit

E = Emin, =1

L2

Gm1m2

r

2 r 2

Energy Orbit Solution

The lowest energy state corresponds to a circular

orbit where the radius can be found by finding the

minimum of the effective potential energy

0=

effective potential energy

as a function of the

relative separation. Find

the radius and the energy

for the lowest energy

orbit. What type of motion

is this orbit?

U effective =

dU effective

dr

=

r = r0

L2 Gm1m2

+

r03

r02

r0 =

L2

Gm1m2

Emin = U effective

r = r0

(Gm1m2 )

2L

Keplers Laws

1. The orbits of planets are ellipses; and the center of

sun is at one focus

of Angular Momentum

Change in area

A = (1 / 2)rv t

per time

equal time

3. The period T is proportional to the length of the

major axis A to the 3/2 power T A3/ 2

A 1

= v r

t 2

Angular

momentum

L = r v

L

A

=

t 2

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