Related Rates

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You are on page 1of 11

Lecture Notes

page 1

Sample Problems

1. A city is of a circular shape. The area of the city is growing at a constant rate of 2

mi2

(square miles per

y

m

2. A sphere is growing in such a manner that its radius increases at 0:2

(meters per second). How fast is its

s

volume increasing when its radius is 4 m long?

m3

3. A sphere is growing in such a manner that its volume increases at 0:2

(cubic meters per second). How

s

fast is its radius increasing when it is 7 m long?

4. A cube is decreasing in size so that its surface is changing at a constant rate of

volume of the cube changing when it is 27 m3 ?

0:5

m2

. How fast is the

min

p ft

5. A ladder 20 ft long leans against a vertical building. If the top of the ladder slides down at a rate of 3 ,

s

how fast is the bottom of the ladder sliding away from the building when the top of the ladder is 10 ft above

the ground?

6. A tank, shaped like a cone shown on the picture, is

being lled up with water. The top of the tank is

a circle with radius 5 ft, its height is 15 ft. Water is

ft3

added to the tank at the rate of V 0 (t) = 2

. How

min

fast is the water level rising when the water level is 6

ft high? (The volume of a cone with height h and

r2 h

base radius r is V =

.)

3

light completes one rotation every 5 seconds. Find

the rate at which the light projected onto the wall

is moving along the wall when the lights angle is 5

degrees from perpendicular to the wall.

8. The altitude of a triangle is increasing at a rate of 2:2 centimeters/minute while the area of the triangle is

increasing at a rate of 1:5 square centimeters/minute. At what rate is the base of the triangle changing when

the altitude is 11 centimeters and the area is 87 square centimeters?

9. The area of a rectangle is kept xed at 100 square meters while the legths of the sides vary. Express the rate

of change of the length of the vertical side in terms of the rate of change in the length of the other side when

a) the horizontal side is 18 meters long

Lecture Notes

Related Rates

page 2

1 1

+ = 1:

p q

4

b) At a certain moment, p (t0 ) = and p0 (t0 ) = 2: Find q (t0 ) and q 0 (t0 ) :

3

11. The base radius and height of a cylinder are constantly changing but the volume of the cylinder is kept at a

constant 600 in3 .

in

a) At a time t1 the base radius is r (t1 ) = 10 in and its rate of change is r0 (t1 ) = 0:2 : Compute the rate

s

of change of the height of the cylinder h (t) at time t1 .

in

b) At a time t2 the height is h (t2 ) = 12 in and its rate of change is r0 (t2 ) = 0:5 : Compute the rate of

s

change of the radius of the cylinder r (t) at time t2 .

12. An object, dropped from a height of h has a location

of y (t) = 16t2 + h feet after t seconds. We dropped

a small object from a height of 60 feet.

a) Where is the object and what is its velocity after

1:5 seconds?

b) Suppose there is a 30 feet tall street light 10 feet

away from the point where the object will land. How

far is the shadow of the object from the base of the

street light at t = 1:5?

c) How fast is the obejcts shadow moving at t = 1:5?

Related Rates

Lecture Notes

page 3

1.)

1 mi

15 y

4.)

0:375

m3

min

0:24

5.) 1

25 0

h (t)

81

9.) a) v 0 (t) =

11.) a)

m3

s

2.) 12: 8

in

s

b)

ft

s

6.)

b) v 0 (t) =

5 p in

2

48

s

1 ft

2 min

7.)

h0 (t)

0:147 314

48

m3

s

1 m

980 s

3.)

36

ft

sec2 (5 )

5

s

22: 7926

p2 0

q

q2

10.) a) p0 =

3: 248 06

b)

ft

s

10

8.)

m

s

2:89091

cm

min

18

in

s

ft

s

b) 50 ft

c)

400

ft

s

1. A city is of a circular shape. The area of the city is growing at a constant rate of 2

mi2

(square miles per

y

Solution: The area of a circle with radius r is A = r2 : Only this time, both A and r are functions of time:

mi2

A (t) = r2 (t) : It is also given that A0 (t) = 2

: We dierentiate both sides of A (t) = r2 (t) with respect

y

to t.

A (t) =

r2 (t)

Let t1 be the time when r (t1 ) = 15 mi: Then

A0 (t1 ) = 2 r (t1 ) r0 (t1 )

A0 (t

1)

2 r (t1 )

= r0 (t1 )

mi2

1 mi

y

1)

=

=) r0 (t1 ) =

=

2 15 mi

15 y

2 r (t1 )

A0 (t

m

2. A sphere is growing in such a manner that its radius increases at 0:2

(meters per second). How fast is its

s

volume increasing when its radius is 4 m long?

V (t) =

V 0 (t) =

4 3

r (t)

3

4

3r2 (t) r0 (t) = 4 r2 (t) r0 (t)

3

V 0 (t1 ) = 4 r2 (t1 ) r0 (t1 ) = 4 (4 m)2 0:2

c Hidegkuti, Powell, 2009

m

m3

= 12:8

s

s

m3

s

Related Rates

Lecture Notes

page 4

m3

3. A sphere is growing in such a manner that its volume increases at 0:2

(cubic meters per second). How

s

fast is its radius increasing when it is 7 m long?

4 3

r (t)

3

4

3r2 (t) r0 (t)

V 0 (t) =

3

V 0 (t) = 4 r2 (t) r0 (t)

V 0 (t)

r0 (t) =

4 r2 (t)

V (t) =

4 3

r

3

4

V0 =

3r2 r0

3

V 0 = 4 r2 r0

V0

r0 =

4 r2

or

V =

m3

V 1)

s

r0 (t1 ) =

=

4 r2 (t1 )

4 (7 m)2

0:2

0 (t

0:00032481

m

s

0:5

m2

. How fast is the

min

Solution: Let s (t) denote the length of the edges of the cube at a time t. Let A (t) denote the surface area

of the cube at a time t, and V (t) denote the volume of the cube. Recall the formulas A = 6s2 and V = s3 .

A (t) = 6s2 (t)

A0 (t) = 6 2s (t) s0 (t)

A0 (t)

= s0 (t)

12s (t)

V (t) = s3 (t)

V 0 (t) = 3s2 (t) s0 (t) = 3s2 (t)

A0 (t)

s (t) A0 (t)

=

12s (t)

4

Let t0 be the time at which the volume is 27 m3 . At that time, the edges are 3 m long.

V 0 (t0 ) =

s (t0 ) A0 (t0 )

=

4

3m

0:5

m2

min

0:375

m3

min

p ft

5. A ladder 20 ft long leans against a vertical building. If the top of the ladder slides down at a rate of 3 ,

s

how fast is the bottom of the ladder sliding away from the building when the top of the ladder is 10 ft above

the ground?

Solution: Let x (t) and y (t)denote the horizontal and vertical position of the endpoints of the ladder. With

p ft

this notation , y 0 (t) =

3 : By the Pythagorean theorem, x (t)2 + y (t)2 = 400. We dierentiate both

s

sides and solve for x0 (t) :

x (t)2 + y (t)2 = 400

or

x0 (t) =

c Hidegkuti, Powell, 2009

y (t) y 0 (t)

x (t)

x2 + y 2 = 400

2xx0 + 2yy 0 = 0

yy 0

x0 =

x

Last revised: November 2, 2015

Related Rates

Lecture Notes

page 5

x0 (t1 ) =

) y 0 (t

y (t1

1)

=

x (t1 )

p ft

3

s

(10 ft)

q

(20 ft)2

(10 ft)2

p ft2

10 3

s = 1 ft

p

2

s

300 ft

being lled up with water. The top of the tank is

a circle with radius 5 ft, its height is 15 ft. Water is

ft3

. How

added to the tank at the rate of V 0 (t) = 2

min

fast is the water level rising when the water level is 6

ft high? (The volume of a cone with height h and

r2 h

.)

base radius r is V =

3

Solution: Let h (t) and r (t) denote the height and The two triangles shown on the picture above are simradius of the surface. There is a simple connection ilar. r = h and so r = h .

5

15

3

between these two:

1 2

1

h (t) 2

1

r (t) h (t) =

h (t) =

h3 (t)

3

3

3

27

1

1 2

3h2 (t) h0 (t) =

h (t) h0 (t)

27

9

1 2

h (t) h0 (t)

9

V (t) =

V 0 (t) =

V 0 (t) =

9V 0 (t)

h2 (t)

= h0 (t)

h0 (t1 ) =

0 (t

9V 1 )

=

h2 (t1 )

ft3

min

(6 ft)2

9 2

1 ft

2 min

Related Rates

Lecture Notes

page 6

light completes one rotation every 5 seconds. Find

the rate at which the light projected onto the wall

is moving along the wall when the lights angle is 5

degrees from perpendicular to the wall.

Solution: Let x denote the distance one the wall between the location of the light and the perpendicular

distance. Let denote the angle from the perpendicd

ular. Using this notation, we are given

and we are

dt

dx

asked

. We need to nd how the two quantities,

dt

(t) and x (t) are related to each other. It is given

2 rad

that 0 (t) =

for all t.

5 s

tan ( (t)) =

x (t)

18 ft

We dierentiate both sides with respect to t. In the left-hand side, we apply the chain rule:

sec2 ( (t))

(18 ft) sec2 ( (t))

x0 (t)

18 ft

0

(t) = x0 (t)

0

(t) =

x0 (t0 ) = (18 ft) sec2 ( (t0 ))

The exact value of the answer is

36

ft

sec2 (5 ) .

5

s

2 rad

5 s

ft

s

8. The altitude of a triangle is increasing at a rate of 2:2 centimeters/minute while the area of the triangle is

increasing at a rate of 1:5 square centimeters/minute. At what rate is the base of the triangle changing when

the altitude is 11 centimeters and the area is 87 square centimeters?

1

Solution: The formula for the area of a triangle is A = bh. In this case, these quantities are functions of

2

time, i.e. they are A (t), b (t), and h (t). We solve for b.

1

bh

2

2A = bh

2A

2A (t)

b =

or rather b (t) =

h

h (t)

A =

Related Rates

Lecture Notes

page 7

b0 (t) = 2

A0 (t) h (t)

1:5

A (t) h0 (t)

=2

h2 (t)

cm2

min

87 cm2

(11 cm)

(11 cm)

2:2

cm

min

2:89091

cm

min

The negative sign indicates that at the time indicated, the side b is becoming shorter at a rate of 2:89091

centimeters per minute.

9. The area of a rectangle is kept xed at 100 square meters while the legths of the sides vary. Express the rate

of change of the length of the vertical side in terms of the rate of change in the length of the other side when

a) the horizontal side is 18 meters long b) the rectangle is a square

Solution: Let v and h denote the length of the horizontal and vertical sides, respectively. Then clearly

vh = 100. We dierentiate both sides of this with respect of time, and then solve for v 0 in terms of h0 .

h (t) v (t) = 100

0

or

vh = 100

v h + vh0 = 0

h0 v

v0 =

h

v 0 (t) =

a) When h = 18, then v =

h0 (t) v (t)

h (t)

100

50

=

and so

18

9

h0 (t) v (t)

v 0 (t) =

h (t)

h0 (t)

=

50

9

25 0

h (t)

81

18

h0 (t) v (t)

=

h (t)

v 0 (t) =

h0 (t) (10)

=

10

h0 (t)

1 1

+ = 1:

p q

a) Express p0 in terms of q 0 .

1 1

+ =0

p q

b) At a certain moment, p (t0 ) =

q0

=0

q2

p0 =

=)

p2 0

q

q2

4

and p0 (t0 ) = 2: Find q (t0 ) and q 0 (t0 ) :

3

1

1

+

=1

p (t0 ) q (t0 )

q0 =

p0

p2

=)

=)

q2 0

p =

p2

1

1

+

=1

4

q (t0 )

3

42

4

3

2=

=)

q (t0 ) = 4

18

Related Rates

Lecture Notes

page 8

11. The base radius and height of a cylinder are constantly changing but the volume of the cylinder is kept at a

constant 600 in3 .

in

a) At a time t1 the base radius is r (t1 ) = 10 in and its rate of change is r0 (t1 ) = 0:2 : Compute the rate

s

of change of the height of the cylinder h (t) at time t1 .

V

Solution: V = r2 h

h= 2

r

V

r2 h

2rr0 h + r2 h0

0 =

0 = 2rr0 h + r2 h0

2rr0 h

r2

= h0

2r0 h

h0 =

V

r2

2r0

=

2r0 V

r3

2 0:2

=

in

600 in3

s

=

(10 in)3

change of the radius of the cylinder r (t) at time t2 .

r

V

2

Solution: V = r h

r=

h

V

0 =

in

s

in

: Compute the rate of

s

r2 h

2rr0 h + r2 h0

0 = 2rr0 h + r2 h0

r0 =

0:5

0:24

r 2 h0

rh0

V

h

h0

=

=

2rh

2h

2h

p

in

5 2 in 0:5

5 p in

s

=

2

24 in

48

s

600 in3

(12 in)

0:147 314

2 (12 in)

0:5

in

s

p

=

50 in2

0:5

in

s

24 in

in

s

of y (t) = 16t2 + h feet after t seconds. We dropped

a small object from a height of 60 feet.

a) Where is the object and what is its velocity after

1:5 seconds?

Solution: we substitute t = 1:5 into the formula

y (t) = 16t2 + 60 and get y (1:5 s) = 24 ft

For the velocity, we dierentiate y (t) with resepct to

t and evaluate the derivative at t = 1:5 s.

y 0 (t) =

So y 0 (1:5 s) =

y 0 (1:5) =

32t

48

32 (1:5) =

48

ft

s

Related Rates

Lecture Notes

page 9

b) Suppose there is a 30 feet tall street light 10 feet away from the point where the object will land. How

far is the shadow of the object from the base of the street light at t = 1:5?

Solution: Let us denote by y (t) the vertical position of the object and by x (t) the horizontal position of its

shadow.

y (t)

30

=

clear denominators

x (t) 10

x (t)

x (t) y (t) = 30 (x (t) 10)

We use this equation rst to solve for x (t)

x (t) y (t) = 30x (t)

300 = 30x (t)

300 = x (t) (30

300

= x (t)

30 y (t)

In particular, x (1:5) =

300

x (t) y (t)

y (t))

300

300

=

= 50.

30 y (1:5)

30 24

Solution: To compute x0 (1:5), we dierentiate x (t) y (t) = 30 (x (t)

y (t) x (t) = 30 (x (t)

0

10)

10)

x (t) y 0 (t) = 30x0 (t)

x0 (t) y (t)

x (t) y 0 (t)

= x0 (t)

30 y (t)

y (t))

So x0 (1:5) is

ft

ft

s

= 400

x0 (1:5) =

30 ft 24 ft

s

The negative sign indicates that the shadow is traveling toward the left.

(50 ft)

48

Related Rates

Lecture Notes

page 10

13. Two boats leave a port at the same time, one traveling west at 20 mi/hr and the other traveling southwest at

15 mi/hr. At what rate is the distance between them changing 30 min after they leave the port?

Solution: Let (x1 ; y1 ) denote the location of the car moving to the west. Let (x2 ; y2 ) denote the location of

the car moving southwest.

15

15

dx1

dy1

20t, y1 (t) = 0 and x2 (t) = p t and y2 (t) = p t. And then

= 20,

= 0,

dt

dt

2

p

p2

dx2

15

15 2

dy2

15

15 2

= p =

and

= p =

.

dt

2

dt

2

2

2

First we will express the distance between the cars. For that, we will use the Pythagorean theorem.

Then x1 (t) =

x1 )2 + ( y2 )2

s2 = (x2

We dierentiate both sides with respect to t and solve for

2s

ds

dt

ds

dt

ds

dt

After 30 minutes, x1 =

= 2 (x2

2 (x2

=

(x2

=

dx2

dt

x1 )

q

10 y1 = 0 and x2 =

ds

=

dt

(x2

dx1

dy2

+ 2 ( y2 )

dt

dt

dx1

dy2

+ 2y2

dt

dt

2s

dx1

dy2

+ y2

dt

dt

x1 )

x1 )2 + ( y2 )2

(x2

time,

dx2

dt

dx2

x1 )

dt

15

p

2

1

2

dx2

dt

x1 )

q

ds

dt

(x2

=

dx1

dt

15 p

2 and y2 (t) =

4

+ y2

15

p

2

1

2

p

15 2

. At that

4

dy2

dt

x1 )2 + ( y2 )2

Related Rates

Lecture Notes

(x2

ds

dt

dx2

dt

x1 )

q

dx1

dt

+ y2

page 11

dy2

dt

x1 )2 + ( y2 )2

!

p

p !

15 2

15 2

( 10)

( 20) +

2

4

v

u

p !2

2

u

15 2

15 p

t

2 ( 10) +

4

4

(x2

15 p

2

4

ds

dt

p

p

225

3:75 2 + 10

7:5 2 + 20 +

4

s

2

p

15

2

3:75 2 + 10 + 2

4

15

p

2

Or:

Let a be the disance from the origin of one car and b the distance of the origin from the other car. Then

s2 = a2 + b2

2ab cos 45

0

2ss

s0

p !

2

= 2aa + 2bb 2

a0 b + ab0

2

p !

2

(a0 b + ab0 )

aa0 + bb0

2

=

=

s

!

p

2

(20 (7:5) + 10 (15))

10 (20) + 7:5 (15)

2

p

=

102 + 7:52 2 (10) (7:5) cos 45

0

For more documents like this, visit our page at http://www.teaching.martahidegkuti.com and click on Lecture

Notes. E-mail questions or comments to mhidegkuti@ccc.edu.

c Hidegkuti, Powell, 2009

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