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Related Rates

Lecture Notes

page 1

Sample Problems
1. A city is of a circular shape. The area of the city is growing at a constant rate of 2

mi2
(square miles per
y

year). How fast is the radius growing when it is exactly 15 mi?


m
2. A sphere is growing in such a manner that its radius increases at 0:2
(meters per second). How fast is its
s
volume increasing when its radius is 4 m long?
m3
3. A sphere is growing in such a manner that its volume increases at 0:2
(cubic meters per second). How
s
fast is its radius increasing when it is 7 m long?
4. A cube is decreasing in size so that its surface is changing at a constant rate of
volume of the cube changing when it is 27 m3 ?

0:5

m2
. How fast is the
min

p ft
5. A ladder 20 ft long leans against a vertical building. If the top of the ladder slides down at a rate of 3 ,
s
how fast is the bottom of the ladder sliding away from the building when the top of the ladder is 10 ft above
the ground?
6. A tank, shaped like a cone shown on the picture, is
being lled up with water. The top of the tank is
a circle with radius 5 ft, its height is 15 ft. Water is
ft3
added to the tank at the rate of V 0 (t) = 2
. How
min
fast is the water level rising when the water level is 6
ft high? (The volume of a cone with height h and
r2 h
base radius r is V =
.)
3

7. A rotating light is located 18 feet from a wall. The


light completes one rotation every 5 seconds. Find
the rate at which the light projected onto the wall
is moving along the wall when the lights angle is 5
degrees from perpendicular to the wall.

8. The altitude of a triangle is increasing at a rate of 2:2 centimeters/minute while the area of the triangle is
increasing at a rate of 1:5 square centimeters/minute. At what rate is the base of the triangle changing when
the altitude is 11 centimeters and the area is 87 square centimeters?
9. The area of a rectangle is kept xed at 100 square meters while the legths of the sides vary. Express the rate
of change of the length of the vertical side in terms of the rate of change in the length of the other side when
a) the horizontal side is 18 meters long

c Hidegkuti, Powell, 2009

b) the rectangle is a square

Last revised: November 2, 2015

Lecture Notes

Related Rates

10. Two quantities p and q depending on t are subject to the relation

page 2
1 1
+ = 1:
p q

a) Express p0 (t) in terms of q 0 (t).


4
b) At a certain moment, p (t0 ) = and p0 (t0 ) = 2: Find q (t0 ) and q 0 (t0 ) :
3
11. The base radius and height of a cylinder are constantly changing but the volume of the cylinder is kept at a
constant 600 in3 .
in
a) At a time t1 the base radius is r (t1 ) = 10 in and its rate of change is r0 (t1 ) = 0:2 : Compute the rate
s
of change of the height of the cylinder h (t) at time t1 .
in
b) At a time t2 the height is h (t2 ) = 12 in and its rate of change is r0 (t2 ) = 0:5 : Compute the rate of
s
change of the radius of the cylinder r (t) at time t2 .
12. An object, dropped from a height of h has a location
of y (t) = 16t2 + h feet after t seconds. We dropped
a small object from a height of 60 feet.
a) Where is the object and what is its velocity after
1:5 seconds?
b) Suppose there is a 30 feet tall street light 10 feet
away from the point where the object will land. How
far is the shadow of the object from the base of the
street light at t = 1:5?
c) How fast is the obejcts shadow moving at t = 1:5?

c Hidegkuti, Powell, 2009

Last revised: November 2, 2015

Related Rates

Lecture Notes

page 3

Sample Problems - Answers


1.)

1 mi
15 y

4.)

0:375

m3
min

0:24

5.) 1
25 0
h (t)
81

9.) a) v 0 (t) =
11.) a)

m3
s

2.) 12: 8

in
s

b)

ft
s

40: 212 385 965 949 4

6.)

b) v 0 (t) =
5 p in
2
48
s

1 ft
2 min

12.) a) y (1:5) = 24 ft and y 0 (1:5) =

7.)

h0 (t)

0:147 314
48

m3
s

1 m
980 s

3.)

36
ft
sec2 (5 )
5
s

22: 7926

p2 0
q
q2

10.) a) p0 =

3: 248 06

b)

ft
s

10

8.)

m
s
2:89091

cm
min

18

in
s

ft
s

b) 50 ft

c)

400

ft
s

Sample Problems - Solutions


1. A city is of a circular shape. The area of the city is growing at a constant rate of 2

mi2
(square miles per
y

year). How fast is the radius growing when it is exactly 15 mi?


Solution: The area of a circle with radius r is A = r2 : Only this time, both A and r are functions of time:
mi2
A (t) = r2 (t) : It is also given that A0 (t) = 2
: We dierentiate both sides of A (t) = r2 (t) with respect
y
to t.
A (t) =

r2 (t)

A0 (t) = 2 r (t) r0 (t)


Let t1 be the time when r (t1 ) = 15 mi: Then
A0 (t1 ) = 2 r (t1 ) r0 (t1 )
A0 (t

1)

2 r (t1 )

= r0 (t1 )

mi2
1 mi
y
1)
=
=) r0 (t1 ) =
=
2 15 mi
15 y
2 r (t1 )
A0 (t

m
2. A sphere is growing in such a manner that its radius increases at 0:2
(meters per second). How fast is its
s
volume increasing when its radius is 4 m long?
V (t) =
V 0 (t) =

4 3
r (t)
3
4
3r2 (t) r0 (t) = 4 r2 (t) r0 (t)
3

Let t1 be the time when r (t1 ) = 4 m: Then


V 0 (t1 ) = 4 r2 (t1 ) r0 (t1 ) = 4 (4 m)2 0:2
c Hidegkuti, Powell, 2009

m
m3
= 12:8
s
s

40: 212 386

m3
s

Last revised: November 2, 2015

Related Rates

Lecture Notes

page 4

m3
3. A sphere is growing in such a manner that its volume increases at 0:2
(cubic meters per second). How
s
fast is its radius increasing when it is 7 m long?
4 3
r (t)
3
4
3r2 (t) r0 (t)
V 0 (t) =
3
V 0 (t) = 4 r2 (t) r0 (t)
V 0 (t)
r0 (t) =
4 r2 (t)
V (t) =

4 3
r
3
4
V0 =
3r2 r0
3
V 0 = 4 r2 r0
V0
r0 =
4 r2

or

V =

Let t1 be the time when r (t1 ) = 7 m: Then


m3
V 1)
s
r0 (t1 ) =
=
4 r2 (t1 )
4 (7 m)2
0:2

0 (t

0:00032481

m
s

4. A cube is decreasing in size so that its surface is changing at a constant rate of

0:5

volume of the cube changing when it is 27 m3 ?

m2
. How fast is the
min

Solution: Let s (t) denote the length of the edges of the cube at a time t. Let A (t) denote the surface area
of the cube at a time t, and V (t) denote the volume of the cube. Recall the formulas A = 6s2 and V = s3 .
A (t) = 6s2 (t)
A0 (t) = 6 2s (t) s0 (t)
A0 (t)
= s0 (t)
12s (t)
V (t) = s3 (t)
V 0 (t) = 3s2 (t) s0 (t) = 3s2 (t)

A0 (t)
s (t) A0 (t)
=
12s (t)
4

Let t0 be the time at which the volume is 27 m3 . At that time, the edges are 3 m long.

V 0 (t0 ) =

s (t0 ) A0 (t0 )
=
4

3m

0:5

m2
min

0:375

m3
min

p ft
5. A ladder 20 ft long leans against a vertical building. If the top of the ladder slides down at a rate of 3 ,
s
how fast is the bottom of the ladder sliding away from the building when the top of the ladder is 10 ft above
the ground?
Solution: Let x (t) and y (t)denote the horizontal and vertical position of the endpoints of the ladder. With
p ft
this notation , y 0 (t) =
3 : By the Pythagorean theorem, x (t)2 + y (t)2 = 400. We dierentiate both
s
sides and solve for x0 (t) :
x (t)2 + y (t)2 = 400

or

2x (t) x0 (t) + 2y (t) y 0 (t) = 0


x0 (t) =
c Hidegkuti, Powell, 2009

y (t) y 0 (t)
x (t)

x2 + y 2 = 400
2xx0 + 2yy 0 = 0
yy 0
x0 =
x
Last revised: November 2, 2015

Related Rates

Lecture Notes

page 5

Let t1 denote the time when x (t1 ) = 10 ft:

x0 (t1 ) =

) y 0 (t

y (t1
1)
=
x (t1 )

p ft
3
s

(10 ft)
q
(20 ft)2

(10 ft)2

p ft2
10 3
s = 1 ft
p
2
s
300 ft

6. A tank, shaped like a cone shown on the picture, is


being lled up with water. The top of the tank is
a circle with radius 5 ft, its height is 15 ft. Water is
ft3
. How
added to the tank at the rate of V 0 (t) = 2
min
fast is the water level rising when the water level is 6
ft high? (The volume of a cone with height h and
r2 h
.)
base radius r is V =
3

Solution: Let h (t) and r (t) denote the height and The two triangles shown on the picture above are simradius of the surface. There is a simple connection ilar. r = h and so r = h .
5
15
3
between these two:
1 2
1
h (t) 2
1
r (t) h (t) =
h (t) =
h3 (t)
3
3
3
27
1
1 2
3h2 (t) h0 (t) =
h (t) h0 (t)
27
9
1 2
h (t) h0 (t)
9

V (t) =
V 0 (t) =
V 0 (t) =
9V 0 (t)
h2 (t)

= h0 (t)

Let t1 denote the time when h (t1 ) = 6 ft:

h0 (t1 ) =

c Hidegkuti, Powell, 2009

0 (t

9V 1 )
=
h2 (t1 )

ft3
min
(6 ft)2

9 2

1 ft
2 min

Last revised: November 2, 2015

Related Rates

Lecture Notes

page 6

7. A rotating light is located 18 feet from a wall. The


light completes one rotation every 5 seconds. Find
the rate at which the light projected onto the wall
is moving along the wall when the lights angle is 5
degrees from perpendicular to the wall.

Solution: Let x denote the distance one the wall between the location of the light and the perpendicular
distance. Let denote the angle from the perpendicd
ular. Using this notation, we are given
and we are
dt
dx
asked
. We need to nd how the two quantities,
dt
(t) and x (t) are related to each other. It is given
2 rad
that 0 (t) =
for all t.
5 s

tan ( (t)) =

x (t)
18 ft

We dierentiate both sides with respect to t. In the left-hand side, we apply the chain rule:
sec2 ( (t))
(18 ft) sec2 ( (t))

x0 (t)
18 ft
0
(t) = x0 (t)
0

(t) =

Let t0 be the time when (t0 ) = 5 . Then


x0 (t0 ) = (18 ft) sec2 ( (t0 ))
The exact value of the answer is

36
ft
sec2 (5 ) .
5
s

(t0 ) = (18 m) sec2 (5 )

2 rad
5 s

The approximate value is 22: 7926

ft
s

8. The altitude of a triangle is increasing at a rate of 2:2 centimeters/minute while the area of the triangle is
increasing at a rate of 1:5 square centimeters/minute. At what rate is the base of the triangle changing when
the altitude is 11 centimeters and the area is 87 square centimeters?
1
Solution: The formula for the area of a triangle is A = bh. In this case, these quantities are functions of
2
time, i.e. they are A (t), b (t), and h (t). We solve for b.
1
bh
2
2A = bh
2A
2A (t)
b =
or rather b (t) =
h
h (t)
A =

c Hidegkuti, Powell, 2009

Last revised: November 2, 2015

Related Rates

Lecture Notes

page 7

We dierentiate both sides. We will use the quotient rule.

b0 (t) = 2

A0 (t) h (t)

1:5

A (t) h0 (t)

=2

h2 (t)

cm2
min

87 cm2

(11 cm)

(11 cm)

2:2

cm
min

2:89091

cm
min

The negative sign indicates that at the time indicated, the side b is becoming shorter at a rate of 2:89091
centimeters per minute.
9. The area of a rectangle is kept xed at 100 square meters while the legths of the sides vary. Express the rate
of change of the length of the vertical side in terms of the rate of change in the length of the other side when
a) the horizontal side is 18 meters long b) the rectangle is a square
Solution: Let v and h denote the length of the horizontal and vertical sides, respectively. Then clearly
vh = 100. We dierentiate both sides of this with respect of time, and then solve for v 0 in terms of h0 .
h (t) v (t) = 100
0

or

vh = 100

v h + vh0 = 0
h0 v
v0 =
h

h (t) v (t) + h (t) v (t) = 0


v 0 (t) =
a) When h = 18, then v =

h0 (t) v (t)
h (t)

100
50
=
and so
18
9
h0 (t) v (t)

v 0 (t) =

h (t)

h0 (t)
=

50
9

25 0
h (t)
81

18

b) When the rectangle is a square, then v = h = 10.


h0 (t) v (t)
=
h (t)

v 0 (t) =

h0 (t) (10)
=
10

10. Two quantities p and q depending on t are subject to the relation

h0 (t)

1 1
+ = 1:
p q

a) Express p0 in terms of q 0 .
1 1
+ =0
p q
b) At a certain moment, p (t0 ) =

q0
=0
q2

p0 =

=)

p2 0
q
q2

4
and p0 (t0 ) = 2: Find q (t0 ) and q 0 (t0 ) :
3

1
1
+
=1
p (t0 ) q (t0 )

q0 =

c Hidegkuti, Powell, 2009

p0
p2

=)

=)

q2 0
p =
p2

1
1
+
=1
4
q (t0 )
3
42
4
3

2=

=)

q (t0 ) = 4

18

Last revised: November 2, 2015

Related Rates

Lecture Notes

page 8

11. The base radius and height of a cylinder are constantly changing but the volume of the cylinder is kept at a
constant 600 in3 .
in
a) At a time t1 the base radius is r (t1 ) = 10 in and its rate of change is r0 (t1 ) = 0:2 : Compute the rate
s
of change of the height of the cylinder h (t) at time t1 .
V
Solution: V = r2 h
h= 2
r
V

r2 h

2rr0 h + r2 h0

0 =

0 = 2rr0 h + r2 h0
2rr0 h
r2

= h0
2r0 h

h0 =

V
r2

2r0
=

2r0 V
r3

2 0:2
=

in
600 in3
s
=
(10 in)3

b) At a time t2 the height is h (t2 ) = 12 in and its rate of change is r0 (t2 ) =


change of the radius of the cylinder r (t) at time t2 .
r
V
2
Solution: V = r h
r=
h
V

0 =

in
s

in
: Compute the rate of
s

r2 h
2rr0 h + r2 h0

0 = 2rr0 h + r2 h0

r0 =

0:5

0:24

r 2 h0

rh0

V
h

h0

=
=
2rh
2h
2h
p
in
5 2 in 0:5
5 p in
s
=
2
24 in
48
s

600 in3
(12 in)

0:147 314

2 (12 in)

0:5

in
s

p
=

50 in2

0:5

in
s

24 in

in
s

12. An object, dropped from a height of h has a location


of y (t) = 16t2 + h feet after t seconds. We dropped
a small object from a height of 60 feet.
a) Where is the object and what is its velocity after
1:5 seconds?
Solution: we substitute t = 1:5 into the formula
y (t) = 16t2 + 60 and get y (1:5 s) = 24 ft
For the velocity, we dierentiate y (t) with resepct to
t and evaluate the derivative at t = 1:5 s.
y 0 (t) =
So y 0 (1:5 s) =

y 0 (1:5) =

32t
48

32 (1:5) =

48

ft
s

c Hidegkuti, Powell, 2009

Last revised: November 2, 2015

Related Rates

Lecture Notes

page 9

b) Suppose there is a 30 feet tall street light 10 feet away from the point where the object will land. How
far is the shadow of the object from the base of the street light at t = 1:5?
Solution: Let us denote by y (t) the vertical position of the object and by x (t) the horizontal position of its
shadow.

By similar triangles, we have that


y (t)
30
=
clear denominators
x (t) 10
x (t)
x (t) y (t) = 30 (x (t) 10)
We use this equation rst to solve for x (t)
x (t) y (t) = 30x (t)
300 = 30x (t)
300 = x (t) (30
300
= x (t)
30 y (t)
In particular, x (1:5) =

300
x (t) y (t)
y (t))

300
300
=
= 50.
30 y (1:5)
30 24

c) How fast is the obejcts shadow moving at t = 1:5?


Solution: To compute x0 (1:5), we dierentiate x (t) y (t) = 30 (x (t)
y (t) x (t) = 30 (x (t)
0

10)

10)

Solve for x0 (t)

x (t) y (t) + x (t) y (t) = 30x (t)


x (t) y 0 (t) = 30x0 (t)

x0 (t) y (t)

x (t) y 0 (t) = x0 (t) (30


x (t) y 0 (t)
= x0 (t)
30 y (t)

y (t))

So x0 (1:5) is
ft
ft
s
= 400
x0 (1:5) =
30 ft 24 ft
s
The negative sign indicates that the shadow is traveling toward the left.
(50 ft)

c Hidegkuti, Powell, 2009

48

Last revised: November 2, 2015

Related Rates

Lecture Notes

page 10

13. Two boats leave a port at the same time, one traveling west at 20 mi/hr and the other traveling southwest at
15 mi/hr. At what rate is the distance between them changing 30 min after they leave the port?
Solution: Let (x1 ; y1 ) denote the location of the car moving to the west. Let (x2 ; y2 ) denote the location of
the car moving southwest.

15
15
dx1
dy1
20t, y1 (t) = 0 and x2 (t) = p t and y2 (t) = p t. And then
= 20,
= 0,
dt
dt
2
p
p2
dx2
15
15 2
dy2
15
15 2
= p =
and
= p =
.
dt
2
dt
2
2
2
First we will express the distance between the cars. For that, we will use the Pythagorean theorem.

Then x1 (t) =

x1 )2 + ( y2 )2

s2 = (x2
We dierentiate both sides with respect to t and solve for
2s

ds
dt
ds
dt
ds
dt

After 30 minutes, x1 =

= 2 (x2
2 (x2
=
(x2
=

dx2
dt

x1 )
q

10 y1 = 0 and x2 =

ds
=
dt

(x2

dx1
dy2
+ 2 ( y2 )
dt
dt
dx1
dy2
+ 2y2
dt
dt
2s
dx1
dy2
+ y2
dt
dt

x1 )

x1 )2 + ( y2 )2

(x2

time,

c Hidegkuti, Powell, 2009

dx2
dt
dx2
x1 )
dt

15
p
2

1
2

dx2
dt

x1 )
q

ds
dt

(x2

=
dx1
dt

15 p
2 and y2 (t) =
4
+ y2

15
p
2

1
2

p
15 2
. At that
4

dy2
dt

x1 )2 + ( y2 )2

Last revised: November 2, 2015

Related Rates

Lecture Notes

(x2

ds
dt

dx2
dt

x1 )
q

dx1
dt

+ y2

page 11

dy2
dt

x1 )2 + ( y2 )2
!
p
p !
15 2
15 2
( 10)
( 20) +
2
4
v
u
p !2
2
u
15 2
15 p
t
2 ( 10) +
4
4

(x2

15 p
2
4

ds
dt

p
p
225
3:75 2 + 10
7:5 2 + 20 +
4
s
2
p
15
2
3:75 2 + 10 + 2
4

15
p
2

14: 168 131

Or:
Let a be the disance from the origin of one car and b the distance of the origin from the other car. Then
s2 = a2 + b2

2ab cos 45

we dierentiate both sides:


0

2ss

s0

p !
2
= 2aa + 2bb 2
a0 b + ab0
2
p !
2
(a0 b + ab0 )
aa0 + bb0
2
=
=
s
!
p
2
(20 (7:5) + 10 (15))
10 (20) + 7:5 (15)
2
p
=
102 + 7:52 2 (10) (7:5) cos 45
0

14: 168 131

For more documents like this, visit our page at http://www.teaching.martahidegkuti.com and click on Lecture
Notes. E-mail questions or comments to mhidegkuti@ccc.edu.
c Hidegkuti, Powell, 2009

Last revised: November 2, 2015