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AISC Night School:

Fundamentals of Stability for Steel Design

Lecturer: Ronald D. Ziemian, Ph.D., P.E.


Professor, Bucknell University

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June 3, 2013: Session 1 - Introduction


and Behavior of Compression Members

Copyright 2013
American Institute of Steel Construction

AISC Night School:


Fundamentals of Stability for Steel Design

Lecturer: Ronald D. Ziemian, Ph.D., P.E.


Professor, Bucknell University

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June 3, 2013: Session 1 - Introduction


and Behavior of Compression Members

Copyright 2013
American Institute of Steel Construction

AISC Night School:


Fundamentals of Stability for Steel Design

Lecturer: Ronald D. Ziemian, Ph.D., P.E.


Professor, Bucknell University

Copyright Materials
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The American Institute of Steel Construction 2013

Course Description
June 3, 2013 Fundamentals of Stability for Steel Design: Course
Introduction and Behavior of Compression Members
This lecture will begin with a brief overview of the 8-lecture course. The
behavior of compression members will then be covered. The assumptions in
the solution to the Euler column problem will be used as a basis for
systematically moving from the theoretical solution presented in 1757 to the
modern day methods of design and analysis of compression members.
Emphasis will be placed on the effects of material yielding accentuated by the
presence of residual stresses, initial imperfections and end conditions. The
flexural buckling strength of members without slender elements will be
covered and ultimately presented in the form of column curves.

June 3, 2013: Session 1 - Introduction


and Behavior of Compression Members

Copyright 2013
American Institute of Steel Construction

AISC Night School:


Fundamentals of Stability for Steel Design

Lecturer: Ronald D. Ziemian, Ph.D., P.E.


Professor, Bucknell University

Learning Objectives
Gain familiarity with stability and steel structures.
Learn and understand the assumptions in the Euler column
solution.
Become familiar with the effects of bending on the strength of a
column.
Learn and understand the effects due to residual stresses, initial
imperfections and end conditions.

Fundamentals of Stability for Steel Design


Session 1: Course Introduction and Behavior of
Compression Members
June 3, 2013

Presented by
Ronald D. Ziemian, Ph.D., P.E.
Professor
Bucknell University, Lewisburg, PA

June 3, 2013: Session 1 - Introduction


and Behavior of Compression Members

Copyright 2013
American Institute of Steel Construction

AISC Night School:


Fundamentals of Stability for Steel Design

Lecturer: Ronald D. Ziemian, Ph.D., P.E.


Professor, Bucknell University

Fundamentals of
Stability for
Steel Design
Session 1
Course Introduction and
Behavior of Compression
Members
Ronald D. Ziemian, P.E., Ph.D.
5

Course Overview
Session Topics
Compression Members (1 & 2)
Flexural Members (3 & 4)
Systems / Beam-Columns (5 & 6)
Bracing (7 & 8)

Topics in two parts


Behavior (1, 3, 5, 7)
Design (2, 4, 6, 8)

Lectures by members of the Structural Stability


Research Council (SSRC)
P.S. Green, T.A. Helwig, D.W. White, J.A. Yura, R.D. Ziemian
Great to join AISC in this eort!
6

June 3, 2013: Session 1 - Introduction


and Behavior of Compression Members

Copyright 2013
American Institute of Steel Construction

AISC Night School:


Fundamentals of Stability for Steel Design

Lecturer: Ronald D. Ziemian, Ph.D., P.E.


Professor, Bucknell University

Course Overview (2)


Focus of the course is on fundamentals!
Key Deni_ons
Stability: Under load, component returns to current
state aaer applying a small disturbance such as a
deec_on
Bifurca5on (cri5cal load): Theore_cal point at which
loading a component results in an instantaneous
change from current state to signicant deec_on
two op_ons: not buckled or buckled
Instability: Loading a component results in a realis_c
transi_on from small deec_on to signicant
deec_on buckling preceded by deec_on

Course Overview (3)


Steel as a structural material
Excellent strength to weight ra_o (Fy/Wt)
Excellent s_ness to weight ra_o (E/Wt)
More for less plus $$$ considera_ons oaen produces
slender (skinny) components
Inherent slenderness results in almost all strength limit
states needing to consider some form of instability

Course lectures (understand behavior then design)


Compression Members (columns), Flexural Members
(beams), Systems with combined compression and exure
(beam-columns)
Bracing to increase capacity of above members
8

June 3, 2013: Session 1 - Introduction


and Behavior of Compression Members

Copyright 2013
American Institute of Steel Construction

AISC Night School:


Fundamentals of Stability for Steel Design

Lecturer: Ronald D. Ziemian, Ph.D., P.E.


Professor, Bucknell University

Fundamentals of
Stability for Steel
Design
Session 1
Course Introduction and
Behavior of Compression
Members
Ronald D. Ziemian, P.E., Ph.D.
9

Limit States of Compression Members


Full yielding (tonight)
Instability
Along the member length
Flexural buckling (tonights emphasis!)
Torsional buckling
Flexural-torsional buckling
At the cross sec_on
local buckling
10

June 3, 2013: Session 1 - Introduction


and Behavior of Compression Members

Copyright 2013
American Institute of Steel Construction

AISC Night School:


Fundamentals of Stability for Steel Design

Lecturer: Ronald D. Ziemian, Ph.D., P.E.


Professor, Bucknell University

Full Yielding

Tensile test

Elas

yield

_c

= P/A

Perfectly Plas_c (E = 0)

= /L

Assume same response for compression


y,compression = y,tension = yield
Neglect strain hardening (assume elas_c-plas_c)

11

Full Yielding (2)


Column Curve Take 1
= Pn /A

Pn

Limit State: Full yield

Acceptable?
L

What about:
member instability ??? (tonight!)
cross sec_on instability (local buckling) ???
June 3, 2013: Session 1 - Introduction
and Behavior of Compression Members

12

Copyright 2013
American Institute of Steel Construction

AISC Night School:


Fundamentals of Stability for Steel Design

Lecturer: Ronald D. Ziemian, Ph.D., P.E.


Professor, Bucknell University

Flexural Buckling
Types of
Member
Instability

y
x
y

y
x x

x x
y

x x

Torsional Buckling

Flexural-
torsional
Buckling

y
x

x
x

z
x

(centroid = shear center)

(centroid shear center)

13

Flexural Buckling
Eulers column
solu_on
assump_ons

Undoing Eulers assump_ons


(approaching reality)
bending before bifurca_on
not fully elas_c (par_al yielding)
support condi_ons

Column curves
AISC
others

June 3, 2013: Session 1 - Introduction


and Behavior of Compression Members

14

Copyright 2013
American Institute of Steel Construction

AISC Night School:


Fundamentals of Stability for Steel Design

Lecturer: Ronald D. Ziemian, Ph.D., P.E.


Professor, Bucknell University

Euler Buckling
Leonhard Euler, 1744 and 1757
Assump_ons!
prisma_c member
(I = constant)
small deec_ons aaer buckling
no bending prior to bifurca_on
perfectly straight
concentrically loaded

P < PE

P = PE

linear elas_c behavior


(E = constant)
pinned-roller supports
(fric_onless)

15

Euler Buckling (2)


PE

P = PE

F.B.D.

Equilibrium:
M* = 0
M(x) + PEv(x) = 0

v(x)

Moment-curvature:
*

M(x)

PE

d 2v(x)
M(x) = EI
dx 2

16

June 3, 2013: Session 1 - Introduction


and Behavior of Compression Members

Copyright 2013
American Institute of Steel Construction

AISC Night School:


Fundamentals of Stability for Steel Design

Lecturer: Ronald D. Ziemian, Ph.D., P.E.


Professor, Bucknell University

Euler Buckling (3)


PE

P = PE

F.B.D.

M* = 0
M(x) + PEv(x) = 0

v(x)

Moment-curvature:
*

M(x)

PE
EI

Equilibrium:

d 2v(x)
M(x) = EI
dx 2

Solu_on:

PE
PE
dv
+
P
v
=
0##

##v(x)
=
C
cos(
x)
+
C
sin(
x)
1
2
EI
EI
dx 2 E
2

wolframalpha.com
a2*y"(x)+a1*y(x)=0

17

Euler Buckling (4)

v(x) = C1 cos(

P = PE

PE
EI

x) + C2 sin(

v(x = 0) = 0$$ $$C1 = 0$$ $$v(x) = C2 sin(


Boundary
Condi_ons!

PE
EI
PE
EI

x)

x)

v(x = L) = 0

18

June 3, 2013: Session 1 - Introduction


and Behavior of Compression Members

Copyright 2013
American Institute of Steel Construction

AISC Night School:


Fundamentals of Stability for Steel Design

Lecturer: Ronald D. Ziemian, Ph.D., P.E.


Professor, Bucknell University

Euler Buckling (5)


P = PE

v(x = 0) = 0$$ $$v(x) = C2 sin(


Boundary
Condi_ons!

PE
EI

x)

v(x = L) = 0$$ $v(x = L) = 0 = C2 sin(

PE
EI

L)

1)##C2 = 0###"trivial#solution"

n2 2EI
PE = 2
PE
PE
L
2)##sin(
L) = 0## ##
L = n ## ##
EI
EI
n = 1,2,3,

Euler Buckling (6)


PE

n = 3

PE =

9 2EI 2EI
=
2
L2
L 3

( )

n = 2

4 2EI 2EI
PE = 2 =
2
L
L2

( )

n = 1

n2 2EI
PE = 2 """"n = 1,2,3,
L
Thoughts:
Bifurca_on
= 0 = unbounded
1st mode (n = 1) controls!
Interest in higher modes?
Think bracing!

2EI
PE = 2
L

June 3, 2013: Session 1 - Introduction


and Behavior of Compression Members

19

20

Copyright 2013
American Institute of Steel Construction

10

AISC Night School:


Fundamentals of Stability for Steel Design

Lecturer: Ronald D. Ziemian, Ph.D., P.E.


Professor, Bucknell University

Euler Buckling (7)


Euler Buckling Stress

PE
2EI
2E
I
PE = 2 "" "" E = =
"""with"r =

2
A L r
A
L

( )
Column Curve Take 2
P
n

= Pn /A

Full yield
E =

Acceptable?

E
2

(L r )

"

L/r

What about those assump_ons?

21

Euler Buckling
Leonhard Euler, 1744 and 1757
Assump_ons
prisma_c member
(I = constant)
small deec_ons aaer buckling
no bending prior to bifurca_on
perfectly straight
concentrically loaded

linear elas_c behavior


(E = constant)
pinned-roller supports
(fric_onless)
June 3, 2013: Session 1 - Introduction
and Behavior of Compression Members

P < PE

P = PE

22

Copyright 2013
American Institute of Steel Construction

11

AISC Night School:


Fundamentals of Stability for Steel Design

Lecturer: Ronald D. Ziemian, Ph.D., P.E.


Professor, Bucknell University

Bending
Bending can be produced by:
2. Axial load not concentrically
applied (eo is small, but not zero!)

1. Prior to loading,
column is not
perfectly straight

eo

M=eo x P

Reality: Some combina_on of above exists

Lets consider a column with ini_al


out-of-straightness:
v

vo (x) = o sin

23

Bending (2)

x
L

Ini_al imperfec_on
at mid-length
e.g. o = L/1000

24

June 3, 2013: Session 1 - Introduction


and Behavior of Compression Members

Copyright 2013
American Institute of Steel Construction

12

AISC Night School:


Fundamentals of Stability for Steel Design

Lecturer: Ronald D. Ziemian, Ph.D., P.E.


Professor, Bucknell University

Bending (3)

Column with ini_al out-of-straightness:

P
x = 0

vo (x) = o sin

x
L

vP (x)
v(x) = vo (x) + vP (x)
M(x,P)

x = L

25

Bending (4)

Column with ini_al out-of-straightness:

P
x = 0
x

vo (x) = o sin

x
L

vP (x)
v(x) = vo (x) + vP (x)
M(x,P)
Equilibrium Dieren_al Equa_on:

M(x,P) + Pv(x) = 0
x = L

EI
EI

June 3, 2013: Session 1 - Introduction


and Behavior of Compression Members

d 2vP
dx 2
d 2vP
dx 2

+ P vo (x) + vP (x) = 0
+ PvP (x) = Pvo (x) = P o sin

x
L

26

Copyright 2013
American Institute of Steel Construction

13

AISC Night School:


Fundamentals of Stability for Steel Design

Lecturer: Ronald D. Ziemian, Ph.D., P.E.


Professor, Bucknell University

Bending (5)

Column with ini_al out-of-straightness:


x = 0
vp=0

P
v

vo (x) = o sin

vP (x)

x
L

wolframalpha.com
a2*y"(x)+a1*y(x)=-a1*a3*sin(a4*x)

v(x) = vo (x) + vP (x)

Dieren_al Equa_on Solu_on with BCs

EI
x = L
vp=0

d 2vP
dx 2

vP (x) =

+ PvP (x) = P o sin


1
EI 2
1
PL2

o sin

x
L

x
1
x
=
o sin
L
PE
L
1
P

Column with ini_al out-of-straightness:


x = 0
vp=0
x

P
v

vo (x) = o sin

vP (x)

Bending (6)

x
L

v(x) = vo (x) + vP (x)


vP (x) =

x = L
vp=0

27

v(x) = o sin

1
PE
1
P

o sin

x
L

x
1
x
1
x
+
o sin = (1 +
) o sin
L PE
L
PE
L
1
1
P
P
28

June 3, 2013: Session 1 - Introduction


and Behavior of Compression Members

Copyright 2013
American Institute of Steel Construction

14

AISC Night School:


Fundamentals of Stability for Steel Design

Lecturer: Ronald D. Ziemian, Ph.D., P.E.


Professor, Bucknell University

Column with ini_al out-of-straightness:


x = 0
vp=0

P
v

vo (x) = o sin

vP (x)

x
L

1
PE
P

v(x) =

Bending (7)

v(x) = vo (x) + vP (x)

v(x) = (1 +
x = L
vp=0

1
P
1
PE

) o sin

o sin

x
L

x
' 'v(x) =
L

Column with ini_al out-of-straightness:

1
P
1
PE

vo (x)
29

Bending (8)

v
x

L/2

vo (x = L / 2) = o

!v(x) =

v(x = L / 2) = (P)

(P) =

1
P
1
PE

1
1

P
PE

vo (x)

30

June 3, 2013: Session 1 - Introduction


and Behavior of Compression Members

Copyright 2013
American Institute of Steel Construction

15

AISC Night School:


Fundamentals of Stability for Steel Design

Lecturer: Ronald D. Ziemian, Ph.D., P.E.


Professor, Bucknell University

Column with ini_al out-of-straightness:

P
v

Bending (9)

P
PE

(P)

L/2

(P) =

1
P
1
PE

Elas_c instability occurs as compressive


force P approaches Euler cri_cal load PE

Column with ini_al out-of-straightness:

P
v
x

L/2

31

Bending (10)

P
PE

(P)

P < PE

P = PE



max
Prevent excessive deec_ons by limi_ng
P to some propor_on of PE, i.e. P < PE
o

32

June 3, 2013: Session 1 - Introduction


and Behavior of Compression Members

Copyright 2013
American Institute of Steel Construction

16

AISC Night School:


Fundamentals of Stability for Steel Design

Lecturer: Ronald D. Ziemian, Ph.D., P.E.


Professor, Bucknell University

Limit elas_c bending deec_ons


Bending (11)

PE
P
P

P
!!

!!

!! !! E

E
A
A

P
Column Curve Take 3
n

= Pn /A

Full yield

E =

Acceptable?

2E

(L r )

"

L/r

Consider yielding due to bending plus axial force?

33

Euler Buckling
Leonhard Euler, 1744 and 1757
Assump_ons!
prisma_c member
(I = constant)
small deec_ons aaer buckling
no bending prior to bifurca_on
perfectly straight
concentrically loaded

linear elas_c behavior


(E = constant)
pinned-roller supports
(fric_onless)
June 3, 2013: Session 1 - Introduction
and Behavior of Compression Members

P < PE

P = PE

34

Copyright 2013
American Institute of Steel Construction

17

AISC Night School:


Fundamentals of Stability for Steel Design

Lecturer: Ronald D. Ziemian, Ph.D., P.E.


Professor, Bucknell University

Review: Pure Bending


Mp=Zy (major axis)

Inelas_c (1a)
-y

Par_al Yielding
E=0

-y

My=Sy

E I<<(E I)elas_c +y

E=0

E I<(E I)elas_c +y
-y

(E I)elas_c

+y

35

Review: Pure Bending Inelas_c (1b)


M
Mp=Zy (minor axis)
-y

Par_al Yielding
My=Sy

-y

E=0

E=0

E
E I<<(E I)elas_c +y

E I<(E I)elas_c +y

-y

(E I)elas_c

June 3, 2013: Session 1 - Introduction


and Behavior of Compression Members

+y

36

Copyright 2013
American Institute of Steel Construction

18

AISC Night School:


Fundamentals of Stability for Steel Design

Lecturer: Ronald D. Ziemian, Ph.D., P.E.


Professor, Bucknell University

Small Axial plus Bending Inelas_c (2)


Mp=Zy
-y

Par_al Yielding
My=Sy
E=0

-y

E=0

E I<<(E I)elas_c +y

E I<(E I)elas_c +y

P M
+ =y
A S

-y

(E I)elas_c

MP

+y

37

Moderate Axial plus Bending Inelas_c (3)


-y

Mp=Zy
E=0

E +y
E I<<(E I)elas_c

My=Sy

-y

Par_al Yielding

E=0
E +
y
E I<(E I)elas_c

-y

(E I)elas_c
June 3, 2013: Session 1 - Introduction
and Behavior of Compression Members

+y

P M
+ =y
A S

MP

38

Copyright 2013
American Institute of Steel Construction

19

AISC Night School:


Fundamentals of Stability for Steel Design

Lecturer: Ronald D. Ziemian, Ph.D., P.E.


Professor, Bucknell University

Large Axial plus Bending

Inelas_c (4)

Mp=Zy

My=Sy
-y
-y

P M
+ =y
A S

E=0

(E I)elas_c

+y

E +y
E I<<(E I)elas_c

MP

Large Axial plus Bending


Mp=Zy

My=Sy

Inelas_c (5)

Small amount of bending can quickly lead


to a signicant amount of yielding in a
heavily loaded compression member!!!

P M
+ =y
A S

-y
-y

(E I)elas_c

39

E=0
+y

E +y
E I<<(E I)elas_c

MP
A

June 3, 2013: Session 1 - Introduction


and Behavior of Compression Members

40

Copyright 2013
American Institute of Steel Construction

20

AISC Night School:


Fundamentals of Stability for Steel Design

Lecturer: Ronald D. Ziemian, Ph.D., P.E.


Professor, Bucknell University

Inelas_c (6)

Closer look at that bending:

vo (x) = o sin

v(x) =

x
L

1
P
1
PE

vo (x)

M(x,P)

Equilibrium:
M(x,P) + Pv(x) = 0
M(x,P) = Pv(x)
1
x
M(x,P) = P
o sin
P
L
1
PE

M(x,P) =

x
P o sin
P
L
1
PE
1

1st

Note: amplica_on M(x,P) = 1 M(x,P)order


factor to account for
P
1

nd
2 -order eects
P
E

Inelas_c (7)

Closer look at that bending:


Elas_c M-diagram:
M
x

L/2

M(x,P) =

P
x
o sin
P
L
1
PE

L
P
M( ,P) =

2
P o
1
PE

41

All is goodas long as all is


elas_c, i.e. no yielding!

P M(x,P)
+
<y
A
S
But, yielding will occur when

P M(L 2,P)
+
=y
A
S
or, an axial load P that sa_ses:

Note: rela_vely simple


equa_on to compute axial
force that produces rst yield
(excludes res)

June 3, 2013: Session 1 - Introduction


and Behavior of Compression Members

P o
P
1
+
=y
A
P S
1 P

42

Copyright 2013
American Institute of Steel Construction

21

AISC Night School:


Fundamentals of Stability for Steel Design

Lecturer: Ronald D. Ziemian, Ph.D., P.E.


Professor, Bucknell University

Bnd (2) (8)


Inelas_c

And, once yielding occurs (ouch!):


P

1.Yielded por_on loses s_ness, EI



2.Increases in deec_on, v(x)
M(x,P)
3.Increases moment, M(x)

= P v(x)
4.Resul_ng in more yielding

5.If equilibrium, apply more P
6.Repeat above steps 1 to 4
7.Apply more P repea_ng steps 1 to 6
un_l instability!
43

Inelas_c (9) P
P

v
x

L/2

Elas_c Response

PE
Pn

Inelas_c Response

(P)

Ini_al yielding

Notes:
1. Inelas_c instability occurs below the
Euler cri_cal load, i.e. Pn<PE
2. The smaller the column slenderness L/r,
the further Pn is below PE (L r ""PE )

44

June 3, 2013: Session 1 - Introduction


and Behavior of Compression Members

Copyright 2013
American Institute of Steel Construction

22

AISC Night School:


Fundamentals of Stability for Steel Design

Lecturer: Ronald D. Ziemian, Ph.D., P.E.


Professor, Bucknell University

Inelas_c (10) P
Only two Py P
E
op_ons: Py
Pn
Py > PE
-or-
Pn < Py <PE

But, where is Py?

Inelas_c Response
Ini_al yielding

Notes:
1. Because of bending, Pn cannot exceed Py
2. The larger the column slenderness L/r,
the more bending, and the further Pn is
below Py

45

Axial plus bending may cause


Inelas_c (11)
yielding
= Pn !!!!!! L / r 0,! cr = y
cr

A
L / r ,! cr < y !!and!! cr < E

Pn
Column Curve Take 4
= Pn /A

Full yield

cr

Acceptable?

E =

2E

"

(L r )
2

L/r

What about residual stresses?


June 3, 2013: Session 1 - Introduction
and Behavior of Compression Members

46

Copyright 2013
American Institute of Steel Construction

23

AISC Night School:


Fundamentals of Stability for Steel Design

Lecturer: Ronald D. Ziemian, Ph.D., P.E.


Professor, Bucknell University

Residual Stresses
Occurs in structural shapes
Uneven cooling of hot-rolled shape aaer rolling
Welding of plates for fabricated or built-up shapes
Cold bending during fabrica_on

Magnitude and distribu_on of residual stresses depend


on the cross-sec_onal shape and dimensions
Residual stresses are usually independent of steel yield
strength
Thermal residual stresses occur in rolled wide ange
shapes because loca_ons with high surface area (e.g.,
ange _ps) cool well before loca_ons with smaller
surface area (ange-to-web intersec_ons)
47

Residual Stresses (2)

48

June 3, 2013: Session 1 - Introduction


and Behavior of Compression Members

Copyright 2013
American Institute of Steel Construction

24

AISC Night School:


Fundamentals of Stability for Steel Design

Lecturer: Ronald D. Ziemian, Ph.D., P.E.


Professor, Bucknell University

Residual Stresses (3)

1.En_re sec_on hot and starts to


coollengthwise contrac_on
with Eo << E
2.Flange _ps (surface area!) cool
rela_vely faster than ange-web
intersec_on (smaller surface) area, E E
3.Flange-web intersec_on (smaller surface area) now
cools and wants to contract, but ange _ps are already
set and do not want to contract.
4.Result loca_ons to cool last end up in tension and
equilibrium requires loca_ons that cooled rst to end
up in compression.
49

Residual Stresses (4)


From previous slide
C

Closer to actual distribu_on


50

June 3, 2013: Session 1 - Introduction


and Behavior of Compression Members

Copyright 2013
American Institute of Steel Construction

25

AISC Night School:


Fundamentals of Stability for Steel Design

Lecturer: Ronald D. Ziemian, Ph.D., P.E.


Professor, Bucknell University

Residual Stresses (5)


Mild Steel
Rolled
Shape

Mild Steel
Welded
Shape 51
ft
fc
bf t f + tw( d(-6)
2t f )
Residual Stresses
t
c

Residual Stresses pa{erns oaen


used in computa_onal studies:

--
-

- -

+
+

f c

tf = 0.3F
f res
tt

d b f 1.2$$ $$ res = 0.5 y


d b f > 1.2$$ $$ res = 0.3 y
+

June 3, 2013: Session 1 - Introduction


and Behavior of Compression Members

ft =

52

bf t f

fc
bf t f + tw( d - 2t f )

Copyright 2013
fc
American Institute of Steel
Construction
ft

26

ft

fc

fc
bf t f + tw( d - 2t f )

f ct = 0.3Fy
ff ccres

fres,c
= 0.3 y
c
f res,t
t

bf t f

ft =

ft

f f

f c = 0.3Fy

f
+res
bf t
tw( d - 2t f )
f =
fc
bf t f res
- bf t f
bf t f
f =
f
f tt = b t + t ( d - 2t ) f cc
bf t f + t w( d - 2t f )

y
y

c
c

f t = 0.3F
f fcres
t
tf

+
+

res,c

ft ct = 0.3Fy
f res
f = 0.3F

--
-

= tf

fc

) 2t
( dt - (d
bb
t t+ tw
2t f
f f
f f

tb

bf t fb f t f

+
++
f f

res,tf t ==

cf

tf

yF3.0 = c f

--
-

) t2 - d ( t + t b
f
w
f f

res,c
f c = 0=.30.3
Fy y
res,t
ft

ECCS
c

bf t f

Galambos and Ke{er

f =

AISC Night School:


Fundamentals of Stability for Steel Design

Lecturer: Ronald D. Ziemian, Ph.D., P.E.


Professor, Bucknell University

Residual Stresses (7)

Stub Column Test


P
P

Sec_oning

=
P/A y

Cross%sec(on%without%
residual%stresses%

no
line
ar%

nl

nli

ne
ar%

Cross%sec(on%with%
residual%stresses%

res = E L/L

Cross%sec(on%
begins%to%yield%

53

= L/L

Residual Stresses (8)

Py=Ay
Par_al
Yielding
ne
ar
nli
no

E A<<(E A)elas_c
E=0

E A<(E A)elas_c

line
ar

Pl:n

E=0

(E A)elas_c

res + Pl:n/A = y
res = y Pn:l/A

L
54

June 3, 2013: Session 1 - Introduction


and Behavior of Compression Members

Copyright 2013
American Institute of Steel Construction

27

AISC Night School:


Fundamentals of Stability for Steel Design

Lecturer: Ronald D. Ziemian, Ph.D., P.E.


Professor, Bucknell University

Simple expression to model


stub column response

Residual Stresses (9)

E=0

res

no

nli

ne
ar

(E A)e
(EA)eff = Et A####with##Et = E

=4

line
ar

0.5y

1.0

##for##0.5 <
y y
y

= 1.0##for## 0.5
y

= L/L

55

Euler -to- Inelas_c Buckling Stress Residual Stresses (10)


E = E

2Et
2E

"" "" E ,t =
E =
= 4 1 ##for##0.5 <
1.0
2
2

L
r
L
r
#
( )
( )

= 1.0##for## 0.5

Column Curve Take 5


t

= Pn /A

y
0.5y

Pn

Full yield
Acceptable?

E ,t =

2Et

(L r )

L/r

But wait! What about bending?


June 3, 2013: Session 1 - Introduction
and Behavior of Compression Members

56

Copyright 2013
American Institute of Steel Construction

28

AISC Night School:


Fundamentals of Stability for Steel Design

Lecturer: Ronald D. Ziemian, Ph.D., P.E.


Professor, Bucknell University

Residual Stresses (11)

Compression members include

1950-70s
Bending without residual stresses? (no!) Bri_sh Standard
AISC
No bending with residual stress? (no!)
Bending with residual stresses? (yes!)

Par_al yielding now occurs


P M
+
sooner when:
A S

P M
res
res + + = y
A
S



Note:
M is due to ini_al
imperfec_on
and/or

E
E=0
non-concentric
l
oading


Par_al yielding = loss of exural s_ness, EI<<EIelas_c

57

Minor Axis Compressive Strength by FEA


(W14x145, A992)

/y

Euler

o = L/1000
and res (G&K)

o = L/1000
and no res

Pn

L/r

June 3, 2013: Session 1 - Introduction


and Behavior of Compression Members

58

Copyright 2013
American Institute of Steel Construction

29

AISC Night School:


Fundamentals of Stability for Steel Design

Lecturer: Ronald D. Ziemian, Ph.D., P.E.


Professor, Bucknell University

Major Axis Compressive Strength by FEA


(W14x145, A992)

/y

Euler

o = L/1000
and res (G&K)

Pn

o = L/1000
and no res

L/r

59

Comparison of Compressive Strengths by FEA


(W14x145, A992)

/y

Euler
Major Axis

Pn

Minor Axis

o = L/1000
and res (G&K)

June 3, 2013: Session 1 - Introduction


and Behavior of Compression Members

L/r

60

Copyright 2013
American Institute of Steel Construction

30

AISC Night School:


Fundamentals of Stability for Steel Design

Lecturer: Ronald D. Ziemian, Ph.D., P.E.


Professor, Bucknell University

Compressive Strength Curves


Key observa_ons from FEA
Strength reduced for ini_al imperfec_on and further
reduced for residual stresses
All curves approach Euler, but are slightly below
Par_al yielding accentuated by residual stresses impact
minor axis strength more than major axis strength
Dierent strength curves for major and minor axis
bending

Addi_onal thoughts
Strength curves for W-shapes are func_on of dimensions,
and thus will vary depending on W-shape
Other shapes (e.g., HSS, Cs, and built-up shapes) will also
have dierent compressive strength curves
61

Maximum Compressive Strength Curves


for Many Dierent Column Types

(15)

(30)

(45)

Bjorhovde, 1972

June 3, 2013: Session 1 - Introduction


and Behavior of Compression Members

(60)

(75)

(90)

(105)

(120)

(L/r for
A992)

62

Copyright 2013
American Institute of Steel Construction

31

AISC Night School:


Fundamentals of Stability for Steel Design

Lecturer: Ronald D. Ziemian, Ph.D., P.E.


Professor, Bucknell University

Column Curves for Design


AISC employs a single curve t to experimental
and analy_cal data. Other codes use mul_ple
curves.
Background to AISC curve:
Bjorhovde, R. (1972), Determinis_c and Probabilis_c
Approaches to the Strength of Steel Columns, Ph.D.
Disserta_on, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA.
Tide, R.H.R. (2001), A Technical Note: Deriva_on of
the LRFD Column Design Equa_ons, Engineering
Journal, AISC, Vol. 38, No. 3, 3rd Quarter, pp. 137139.
Ziemian, R.D. (ed.) (2010), Guide to Stability Design
Criteria for Metal Structures, 6th Ed., John Wiley &
Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
63

AISC Column Curve:

!Elastic!Buckling:
L
E
! > 4.71
r
y

!Inelastic!Buckling:

!!!!!!! cr = 0.877 E

L
E
! 4.71
r
y
y
E

!!!!!!! cr = 0.658 y
(15)

(30)

(45)

(60)

(75)

(90)

(105)

(120)

(L/r for
A992)

Bjorhovde, 1972
64

June 3, 2013: Session 1 - Introduction


and Behavior of Compression Members

Copyright 2013
American Institute of Steel Construction

32

AISC Night School:


Fundamentals of Stability for Steel Design

Lecturer: Ronald D. Ziemian, Ph.D., P.E.


Professor, Bucknell University

Comparison of Compressive Strengths


(W14x145, A992)

/y

Euler
AISC

Major Axis (FEA)

Pn

Minor Axis (FEA)

FEA: o = L/1000
and res (G&K)

L
E
= 4.71
r
Fy

L/r

65

Mul_ple Column Curves:

Eurocode 3

66

June 3, 2013: Session 1 - Introduction


and Behavior of Compression Members

Copyright 2013
American Institute of Steel Construction

33

AISC Night School:


Fundamentals of Stability for Steel Design

Lecturer: Ronald D. Ziemian, Ph.D., P.E.


Professor, Bucknell University

Comparison of Compressive Strengths by FEA


(W14x145, A992)

/y

Euler

Pn

Major Axis

Minor Axis

o = L/1000
and res (G&K)

L/r

Mul_ple Column Curves:

67

Eurocode 3

Major Axis
W14x145
Minor Axis

68

June 3, 2013: Session 1 - Introduction


and Behavior of Compression Members

Copyright 2013
American Institute of Steel Construction

34

AISC Night School:


Fundamentals of Stability for Steel Design

Lecturer: Ronald D. Ziemian, Ph.D., P.E.


Professor, Bucknell University

Euler Buckling
Leonhard Euler, 1744 and 1757
Assump_ons
prisma_c member
(I = constant)
small deec_ons aaer buckling
no bending prior to bifurca_on

P < PE

perfectly straight
concentrically loaded

P = PE

linear elas_c behavior


(E = constant)
pinned-roller supports
(fric_onless)
Comm. 7.2.]

69

EFFECTIVE LENGTH METHOD

16.1511

TABLECC-A-7.1
Support
ondi_ons

Comm. 7.2.]

EFFECTIVE LENGTH METHOD

16.1511

Approximate Values of Effective


Length
TABLEFactor,
C-A-7.1K

((a)
a)
((b)
b) Values
((c)
c)
((d)
d)
((e)
e)
Approximate
of Effective
Length Factor, K

((f)
f)

((a)
a)

((b)
b)

((c)
c)

((d)
d)

((e)
e)

((f)
f)

Theoretical
T
heoretical K vvalue
a lu e

0.5
0 .5

0
0.7
.7

1
1.0
.0

1
1.0
.0

2
2.0
.0

2
2.0
.0

Recommended design
Recommended
d e s ig n
vvalue
a lu e w
hen ideal
id e a l
when
cconditions
onditions are
a re
a
phperoorxeitm
approximated
Theoretical
T
icaatleKd vvalue
a lu e

0
.6 5
0.65

0.5
0 .5

0
0.7
.7

Recommended design
Recommended
d e s ig n
vvalue
a lu e w
hen ideal
id e a l
when
cconditions
onditions are
a re
a
p p r o x im a te d
approximated
End
E
nd condition
condition code
code

0
.6 5
0.65

0 .8 0
0.80

Buckled shape
Buckled
shape of
of
ccolumn
olumn is
is sshown
hown by
by
d
ashed line
lin e
dashed

Buckled shape
Buckled
shape of
of
ccolumn
olumn is
is sshown
hown by
by
d
ashed line
lin e
dashed

June 3, 2013: Session 1 - Introduction


End
E
nd condition
condition code
codMembers
e
and Behavior of Compression

Euler
Buckling
0 .8 0
1 .2
0.80
1.2

1
.0
1.0

2
.1
2.1

2
.0
2.0

1
1.0
.0

1
1.0
.0

2
2.0
.0

2
2.0
.0

1 .2
1.2

1
.0
1.0

2
.1
2.1

2
.0
2.0

What about the others?

70

Copyright 2013
American Institute of Steel Construction

(7) Joint restraint is distributed to the column above and below the joint in proportion to EI/L for the two columns.
(8) All columns buckle simultaneously.

35

mm. 7.2.]

EFFECTIVE LENGTH METHOD

16.1511

AISC Night School:


TABLE C-A-7.1
Fundamentals of Stability for Steel Design

Lecturer: Ronald D. Ziemian, Ph.D., P.E.


Professor, Bucknell University

Approximate Values of Effective


Length Factor, K
((a)
a)

((b)
b)

Pe
x = L

uckled
uckled shape
shape of
of
lumn is
is sshown
hown by
by
lumn
shed line
lin e
shed

x
v(x)

mm. 7.2.]

((d)
d)
((e)
e)
((f)
f)
Support
Condi_ons
(2)

((c)
c)

Equilibrium Dieren_al Equa_on:


Mx
d 2v
M(x = 0) = Mo $$ $$EI 2 + Pev = o
L
dx
Solu_on:
P
P
Mx
v(x) = C1 cos( e x) + C2 sin( e x) + o
EI
EI
PeL
wolframalpha.com
a2*y"(x)+a1*y(x)=a3*x

x = 0

EFFECTIVE LENGTH METHOD

eoretical
eoretical K vvalue
a lu e

ecommended
ecommended design
d e s ig n
lu e w
hen ideal
id e a l
lue
when
nditions
nditions are
a re
p r o x im a te d
proximated

16.1511

0.5
0 .5

0
0.7
.7

1
1.0
.0

1
1.0
.0

2
2.0
.0

2
2.0
.0

0
.6 5
0.65

0 .8 0
0.80

1 .2
1.2

1
.0
1.0

2
.1
2.1

2
.0
2.0

TABLE C-A-7.1
Approximate Values of Effective
Length Factor, K

nd
nd condition
condition code
code
((a)
a)

((b)
b)

Pe

71

((d)
d)
((e)
e)
((f)
f)
Support
Condi_ons
(3)

((c)
c)

Equilibrium Dieren_al Equa_on:


Mo x
d 2v
(7) Joint restraint is distributed to the columnM(x
above=and
below
joint
0) =
Mo the
$$
$$EIin propor+
P
v
=
L
dx 2 e
tion to EI/L for the two columns.
uckled
uckled shape
shape of
of
buckle simultaneously. Solu_on:
lumn(8)
is sshown
hAll
owncolumns
by
lumn
is
by
shed(9)
line No significant axial compression force exists in the girders. P
shed
line
P
Mx
v(x) = C1 cos( e x) + C2 sin( e x) + o
The alignment chart for sidesway inhibited frames shown in FigureEIC-A-7.1 is based EI
PeL
x
on the following equation:
Boundary Condi_ons:
v(x)

x
=

0

2 tan ( / 2 K )
G AG B
G
G
K
+

/
v(x = 0) = 0,%
= 0,%v(x = L) = 0
1v=(x
0 = 0)(C-A-7-1)
( / K )2 + A B 1
+
x = L

tan ( / K )

( / K )

Pe C-A-7.2
The alignment chart for sidesway uninhibitedframes
EI shown in Figure
E is
P
=
%%

%%

=
=
%%with%K
e
e
following equation:
2
2

eoretical
eoretical K vvalue
a lu e

ecommended
ecommended design
d e s ig n
based
lu e w
hen ideal
ideon
al the
lue
when
nditions
nditions are
a re
p r o x im a te d
proximated

0.5
0 .5

0
0.7
.7

1
1.0
.0

1
1.0
.0

2
2.0
.0

0
.6 5
0.65

0 .8 0
0.80

1 .2
1.2

(0.70L)

1
.0
1.0

2
.1
2.1

G AGB ( / K ) 36
( / K )

=0
6 ( G A + GB )
tan ( / K )
2

June 3, 2013:
Session
1 - Introduction
Specification
for Structural
Steel Buildings, June 22, 2010
AMERICAN
INSTITUTE OF SMembers
TEEL CONSTRUCTION
and Behavior
of Compression

nd
nd condition
condition code
code

2
2.0
2.0

(KL r )

= 0.70

2
.0
2.0

(C-A-7-2)

72

Copyright 2013
American Institute of Steel Construction

36

AISC Night School:


Fundamentals of Stability for Steel Design

Lecturer: Ronald D. Ziemian, Ph.D., P.E.


Professor, Bucknell University

Support Condi_ons (4)

Comm. 7.2.]

EFFECTIVE LENGTH METHOD

16.1511

TABLE C-A-7.1
Approximate Values of Effective
Length Factor, K
((a)
a)

((b)
b)

((c)
c)

((d)
d)

((e)
e)

((f)
f)

Elas_c Buckling
Stress:
2E
e =
2
KL r

Buckled shape
Buckled
shape of
of
ccolumn
olumn is
is sshown
hown by
by
d
ashed line
lin e
dashed

Theoretical
T
heoretical K vvalue
a lu e

0.5
0 .5

0
0.7
.7

1
1.0
.0

1
1.0
.0

2
2.0
.0

2
2.0
.0

Recommended design
Recommended
d e s ig n
vvalue
a lu e w
hen ideal
id e a l
when
cconditions
onditions are
a re
a
p p r o x im a te d
approximated

0
.6 5
0.65

0 .8 0
0.80

1 .2
1.2

1
.0
1.0

2
.1
2.1

2
.0
2.0

End
E
nd condition
condition code
code

73

(7) Joint restraint is distributed to the column above and below the joint in proportion to EI/L for the two columns.
(8) All columns buckle simultaneously.
(9) No significant axial compression force exists in the girders.

Support Condi_ons (5)

Comm.
7.2.]
EFFECTIVE
LENGTH
METHOD
The
alignment
chart for sidesway
inhibited
frames
shown in Figure C-A-7.1 16.1511
is based
on the following equation:

G AG B
G +G
/ K 2 tan ( / 2 K )
C-A-7.1

1 = 0
+
( / K )2 + A B 1TABLE
4
2
tan ( / K )
( / K )

(C-A-7-1)

Approximate Values of Effective


The alignment chart for sidesway
uninhibited
frames
K shown in Figure C-A-7.2 is
Length
Factor,
based on the following equation:
((a)
a)

((b)
b)

((c)
c)

((d)
d)

((e)
e)

G AGB ( / K ) 36
( / K )

=0
6 ( G A + GB )
tan ( / K )
2

((f)
f)

(C-A-7-2)

Specification for Structural Steel Buildings, June 22, 2010


Buckled shape
Buckled
shape of
of
ccolumn
olumn is
is sshown
hown by
by
d
ashed line
lin e
dashed

AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

0.5
0 .5
0
0.7
.7
0.5L
0.7L

Theoretical
T
heoretical K vvalue
a lu e
Recommended design
Recommended
d e s ig n
vvalue
a lu e w
hen ideal
id e a l
when
cconditions
onditions are
a re
a
p p r o x im a te d
approximated

0
.6 5
0.65

0 .8 0
0.80

1L

Elas_c Buckling
Stress:
2E
e =
2
KL r

1
1.0
.0

1
1.0
.0
1L

2
2.0
.0

1 .2
1.2

1
.0
1.0

2
.1
2.1

2L

2
2.0
.0
2L
2
.0
2.0

Notes on eec_ve length KL:


Find the Euler column?!
Distance between inec_on points (M=0)
End
E
nd condition
condition code
code

(7) Joint restraint is distributed to the column above and below the joint in proportion to EI/L for the two columns.
(8) All columns buckle simultaneously.
(9) No significant axial compression force exists in the girders.

74

The alignment chart for sidesway inhibited frames shown in Figure C-A-7.1 is based
on the following equation:

June 3, 2013: Session 1 -G Introduction


Copyright
2013
G
G +G
/ K 2 tan ( / 2 K )
(C-A-7-1)
1 = 0
1
+
( / K ) +

4
2
tan ( / K )
( / K )
and Behavior of Compression
Members
American Institute of Steel Construction
The alignment chart for sidesway uninhibited frames shown in Figure C-A-7.2 is
A

based on the following equation:

G AGB ( / K ) 36
( / K )

=0
6 ( G A + GB )
tan ( / K )
2

Specification for Structural Steel Buildings, June 22, 2010

(C-A-7-2)

37

AISC Night School:


Fundamentals of Stability for Steel Design

Lecturer: Ronald D. Ziemian, Ph.D., P.E.


Professor, Bucknell University

Support Condi_ons (6)

Comm. 7.2.]

EFFECTIVE LENGTH METHOD

16.1511

TABLE C-A-7.1
Approximate Values of Effective
Length Factor, K
((a)
a)

((b)
b)

((c)
c)

((d)
d)

((e)
e)

((f)
f)

Elas_c Buckling
Stress:
2E
e =
2
KL r

Buckled shape
Buckled
shape of
of
ccolumn
olumn is
is sshown
hown by
by
d
ashed line
lin e
dashed

Theoretical
T
heoretical K vvalue
a lu e

0.5
0 .5

Recommended design
Recommended
d e s ig n
vvalue
a lu e w
hen ideal
id e a l
when
cconditions
onditions are
a re
a
p p r o x im a te d
approximated

0
.6 5
0.65

0
0.7
.7

1
1.0
.0

1
1.0
.0

2
2.0
.0

2
2.0
.0

Notes on eec_ve length KL:


Distance between inec_on points (M=0)
Func_on of degree of column end-restraint
Degree of column end-restraint can be dicult to
compute accurately in real structures (hmmm)
0 .8 0
0.80

1 .2
1.2

1
.0
1.0

2
.1
2.1

2
.0
2.0

End
E
nd condition
condition code
code

(7) Joint restraint is distributed to the column above and below the joint in proportion to EI/L for the two columns.
(8) All columns buckle simultaneously.
(9) No significant axial compression force exists in the girders.

75

The alignment chart for sidesway inhibited frames shown in Figure C-A-7.1 is based
on the following equation:
G AG B
G +G
/ K 2 tan ( / 2 K )
1 = 0
+
( / K )2 + A B 1
4
2
tan ( / K )
( / K )

Support Condi_ons (7)

(C-A-7-1)

The alignment chart for sidesway uninhibited frames shown in Figure C-A-7.2 is
based on the following equation:
G AGB ( / K ) 36
( / K )

=0
6 ( G A + GB )
tan ( / K )
2

Specification for Structural Steel Buildings, June 22, 2010

AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION

Pn

(C-A-7-2)

Degree of
column
end-restraint
Whats
KL?
Possible solu_ons:

Di. Eq./Eigenvalue FEA


Alignment charts (careful!)
Stay tuned for Lecture 6! 76
June 3, 2013: Session 1 - Introduction
and Behavior of Compression Members

Copyright 2013
American Institute of Steel Construction

38

AISC Night School:


Fundamentals of Stability for Steel Design

Lecturer: Ronald D. Ziemian, Ph.D., P.E.


Professor, Bucknell University

Support Condi_ons (4)


Degree of column end restraint accounted for
by use of eec_ve length KL (i.e., E e)
AISC Column Curve Final Take!
= Pn /A

Pn

Full yield
Acceptable?
YES!!!

e =

2E

(KL r )

"

cr = 0.658 e y cr = 0.877 e
KL/r

KL r 4.71 E y

77

Euler Buckling
Leonhard Euler, 1744 and 1757
Assump_ons!
prisma_c member
(I = constant)
small deec_ons aaer buckling
no bending prior to bifurca_on
perfectly straight
concentrically loaded

linear elas_c behavior


(E = constant)
pinned-roller supports
(fric_onless)
June 3, 2013: Session 1 - Introduction
and Behavior of Compression Members

P < PE

P = PE

78

Copyright 2013
American Institute of Steel Construction

39

AISC Night School:


Fundamentals of Stability for Steel Design

Lecturer: Ronald D. Ziemian, Ph.D., P.E.


Professor, Bucknell University

Summary
Course introduc_on and stability concepts
Limit states of compression members with
focus on exural buckling
Euler Buckling Maximum Compressive
Strength Column Curve
Column curve accounts for:
full yielding
bending due to ini_al imperfec_on (out-of-
straightness)
par_al yielding accentuated by presence of
residual stresses
degree of end restraint

79

Summary(2)
AISC and other column curves
Other ideas introduced, including
moment amplica_on factor (2nd-order eects)
s_ness reduc_on -factor
Diculty in compu_ng K-factors

80

June 3, 2013: Session 1 - Introduction


and Behavior of Compression Members

Copyright 2013
American Institute of Steel Construction

40

AISC Night School:


Fundamentals of Stability for Steel Design

Lecturer: Ronald D. Ziemian, Ph.D., P.E.


Professor, Bucknell University

Up Next
Session 2: June 10
Design of Compression Members
by P.S. Green, PE, PhD
Initially, an overview of flexural, torsional, and
flexural-torsional resistance of individual column
members will be provided. Emphasis then will be
placed on defining and assessing the AISC LRFD
and ASD strengths of various structural shapes,
including wide flange, round and square HSS,
cruciform, equal and unequal single and double
leg angles, WT, channel, and built-up shapes.
81

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June 3, 2013: Session 1 - Introduction


and Behavior of Compression Members

Copyright 2013
American Institute of Steel Construction

AISC Night School:


Fundamentals of Stability for Steel Design

Lecturer: Ronald D. Ziemian, Ph.D., P.E.


Professor, Bucknell University

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June 3, 2013: Session 1 - Introduction


and Behavior of Compression Members

Copyright 2013
American Institute of Steel Construction

AISC Night School:


Fundamentals of Stability for Steel Design

Lecturer: Ronald D. Ziemian, Ph.D., P.E.


Professor, Bucknell University

8-Session Registrants
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June 3, 2013: Session 1 - Introduction


and Behavior of Compression Members

Copyright 2013
American Institute of Steel Construction

AISC Night School:


Fundamentals of Stability for Steel Design

Lecturer: Ronald D. Ziemian, Ph.D., P.E.


Professor, Bucknell University

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June 3, 2013: Session 1 - Introduction


and Behavior of Compression Members

Copyright 2013
American Institute of Steel Construction