Copyright 2013
American Institute of Steel Construction
Copyright 2013
American Institute of Steel Construction
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The American Institute of Steel Construction 2013
Course Description
June 3, 2013 Fundamentals of Stability for Steel Design: Course
Introduction and Behavior of Compression Members
This lecture will begin with a brief overview of the 8lecture course. The
behavior of compression members will then be covered. The assumptions in
the solution to the Euler column problem will be used as a basis for
systematically moving from the theoretical solution presented in 1757 to the
modern day methods of design and analysis of compression members.
Emphasis will be placed on the effects of material yielding accentuated by the
presence of residual stresses, initial imperfections and end conditions. The
flexural buckling strength of members without slender elements will be
covered and ultimately presented in the form of column curves.
Copyright 2013
American Institute of Steel Construction
Learning Objectives
Gain familiarity with stability and steel structures.
Learn and understand the assumptions in the Euler column
solution.
Become familiar with the effects of bending on the strength of a
column.
Learn and understand the effects due to residual stresses, initial
imperfections and end conditions.
Presented by
Ronald D. Ziemian, Ph.D., P.E.
Professor
Bucknell University, Lewisburg, PA
Copyright 2013
American Institute of Steel Construction
Fundamentals of
Stability for
Steel Design
Session 1
Course Introduction and
Behavior of Compression
Members
Ronald D. Ziemian, P.E., Ph.D.
5
Course
Overview
Session
Topics
Compression
Members
(1
&
2)
Flexural
Members
(3
&
4)
Systems
/
BeamColumns
(5
&
6)
Bracing
(7
&
8)
Copyright 2013
American Institute of Steel Construction
Copyright 2013
American Institute of Steel Construction
Fundamentals of
Stability for Steel
Design
Session 1
Course Introduction and
Behavior of Compression
Members
Ronald D. Ziemian, P.E., Ph.D.
9
Copyright 2013
American Institute of Steel Construction
Full Yielding
Tensile test
Elas
yield
_c
= P/A
Perfectly Plas_c (E = 0)
= /L
11
Pn
Acceptable?
L
What
about:
member
instability
???
(tonight!)
cross
sec_on
instability
(local
buckling)
???
June 3, 2013: Session 1  Introduction
and Behavior of Compression Members
12
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American Institute of Steel Construction
Flexural
Buckling
Types
of
Member
Instability
y
x
y
y
x x
x x
y
x x
Torsional Buckling
Flexural
torsional
Buckling
y
x
x
x
z
x
13
Flexural
Buckling
Eulers
column
solu_on
assump_ons
Column
curves
AISC
others
14
Copyright 2013
American Institute of Steel Construction
Euler
Buckling
Leonhard
Euler,
1744
and
1757
Assump_ons!
prisma_c
member
(I
=
constant)
small
deec_ons
aaer
buckling
no
bending
prior
to
bifurca_on
perfectly
straight
concentrically
loaded
P < PE
P = PE
15
P = PE
F.B.D.
Equilibrium:
M* = 0
M(x) + PEv(x) = 0
v(x)
Momentcurvature:
*
M(x)
PE
d 2v(x)
M(x) = EI
dx 2
16
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American Institute of Steel Construction
P = PE
F.B.D.
M* = 0
M(x) + PEv(x) = 0
v(x)
Momentcurvature:
*
M(x)
PE
EI
Equilibrium:
d 2v(x)
M(x) = EI
dx 2
Solu_on:
PE
PE
dv
+
P
v
=
0##
##v(x)
=
C
cos(
x)
+
C
sin(
x)
1
2
EI
EI
dx 2 E
2
wolframalpha.com
a2*y"(x)+a1*y(x)=0
17
v(x) = C1 cos(
P = PE
PE
EI
x) + C2 sin(
PE
EI
PE
EI
x)
x)
v(x = L) = 0
18
Copyright 2013
American Institute of Steel Construction
PE
EI
x)
PE
EI
L)
1)##C2 = 0###"trivial#solution"
n2 2EI
PE = 2
PE
PE
L
2)##sin(
L) = 0## ##
L = n ## ##
EI
EI
n = 1,2,3,
n = 3
PE =
9 2EI 2EI
=
2
L2
L 3
( )
n
=
2
4 2EI 2EI
PE = 2 =
2
L
L2
( )
n
=
1
n2 2EI
PE = 2 """"n = 1,2,3,
L
Thoughts:
Bifurca_on
=
0
=
unbounded
1st
mode
(n
=
1)
controls!
Interest
in
higher
modes?
Think
bracing!
2EI
PE = 2
L
19
20
Copyright 2013
American Institute of Steel Construction
10
= Pn /A
Full
yield
E =
Acceptable?
E
2
(L r )
"
L/r
21
Euler
Buckling
Leonhard
Euler,
1744
and
1757
Assump_ons
prisma_c
member
(I
=
constant)
small
deec_ons
aaer
buckling
no
bending
prior
to
bifurca_on
perfectly
straight
concentrically
loaded
P < PE
P = PE
22
Copyright 2013
American Institute of Steel Construction
11
Bending
Bending
can
be
produced
by:
2.
Axial
load
not
concentrically
applied
(eo
is
small,
but
not
zero!)
1.
Prior
to
loading,
column
is
not
perfectly
straight
eo
M=eo x P
vo (x) = o sin
23
Bending (2)
x
L
Ini_al
imperfec_on
at
midlength
e.g.
o
=
L/1000
24
Copyright 2013
American Institute of Steel Construction
12
Bending (3)
P
x
=
0
vo (x) = o sin
x
L
vP (x)
v(x) = vo (x) + vP (x)
M(x,P)
x = L
25
Bending (4)
P
x
=
0
x
vo (x) = o sin
x
L
vP (x)
v(x) = vo (x) + vP (x)
M(x,P)
Equilibrium
Dieren_al
Equa_on:
M(x,P) + Pv(x) = 0
x
=
L
EI
EI
d 2vP
dx 2
d 2vP
dx 2
+ P vo (x) + vP (x) = 0
+ PvP (x) = Pvo (x) = P o sin
x
L
26
Copyright 2013
American Institute of Steel Construction
13
Bending (5)
P
v
vo (x) = o sin
vP (x)
x
L
wolframalpha.com
a2*y"(x)+a1*y(x)=a1*a3*sin(a4*x)
EI
x
=
L
vp=0
d 2vP
dx 2
vP (x) =
o sin
x
L
x
1
x
=
o sin
L
PE
L
1
P
P
v
vo (x) = o sin
vP (x)
Bending (6)
x
L
x
=
L
vp=0
27
v(x) = o sin
1
PE
1
P
o sin
x
L
x
1
x
1
x
+
o sin = (1 +
) o sin
L PE
L
PE
L
1
1
P
P
28
Copyright 2013
American Institute of Steel Construction
14
P
v
vo (x) = o sin
vP (x)
x
L
1
PE
P
v(x) =
Bending (7)
v(x) = (1 +
x
=
L
vp=0
1
P
1
PE
) o sin
o sin
x
L
x
' 'v(x) =
L
1
P
1
PE
vo (x)
29
Bending (8)
v
x
L/2
vo (x = L / 2) = o
!v(x) =
v(x = L / 2) = (P)
(P) =
1
P
1
PE
1
1
P
PE
vo (x)
30
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American Institute of Steel Construction
15
P
v
Bending (9)
P
PE
(P)
L/2
(P) =
1
P
1
PE
P
v
x
L/2
31
Bending (10)
P
PE
(P)
P < PE
P = PE
max
Prevent
excessive
deec_ons
by
limi_ng
P
to
some
propor_on
of
PE,
i.e.
P
<
PE
o
32
Copyright 2013
American Institute of Steel Construction
16
P
!!
!!
!! !! E
E
A
A
P
Column
Curve
Take
3
n
= Pn /A
Full yield
E =
Acceptable?
2E
(L r )
"
L/r
33
Euler
Buckling
Leonhard
Euler,
1744
and
1757
Assump_ons!
prisma_c
member
(I
=
constant)
small
deec_ons
aaer
buckling
no
bending
prior
to
bifurca_on
perfectly
straight
concentrically
loaded
P < PE
P = PE
34
Copyright 2013
American Institute of Steel Construction
17
Inelas_c
(1a)
y
Par_al
Yielding
E=0
y
My=Sy
E I<<(E I)elas_c +y
E=0
E
I<(E
I)elas_c
+y
y
(E I)elas_c
+y
35
Par_al
Yielding
My=Sy
y
E=0
E=0
E
E
I<<(E
I)elas_c
+y
E I<(E I)elas_c +y
y
(E I)elas_c
+y
36
Copyright 2013
American Institute of Steel Construction
18
Par_al
Yielding
My=Sy
E=0
y
E=0
E I<<(E I)elas_c +y
E I<(E I)elas_c +y
P M
+ =y
A S
y
(E I)elas_c
MP
+y
37
Mp=Zy
E=0
E
+y
E
I<<(E
I)elas_c
My=Sy
y
Par_al Yielding
E=0
E
+
y
E
I<(E
I)elas_c
y
(E
I)elas_c
June 3, 2013: Session 1  Introduction
and Behavior of Compression Members
+y
P M
+ =y
A S
MP
38
Copyright 2013
American Institute of Steel Construction
19
Inelas_c (4)
Mp=Zy
My=Sy
y
y
P M
+ =y
A S
E=0
(E I)elas_c
+y
E
+y
E
I<<(E
I)elas_c
MP
My=Sy
Inelas_c (5)
P M
+ =y
A S
y
y
(E I)elas_c
39
E=0
+y
E
+y
E
I<<(E
I)elas_c
MP
A
40
Copyright 2013
American Institute of Steel Construction
20
Inelas_c (6)
vo (x) = o sin
v(x) =
x
L
1
P
1
PE
vo (x)
M(x,P)
Equilibrium:
M(x,P) + Pv(x) = 0
M(x,P) = Pv(x)
1
x
M(x,P) = P
o sin
P
L
1
PE
M(x,P) =
x
P o sin
P
L
1
PE
1
1st
nd
2 order
eects
P
E
Inelas_c (7)
L/2
M(x,P) =
P
x
o sin
P
L
1
PE
L
P
M( ,P) =
2
P o
1
PE
41
P M(x,P)
+
<y
A
S
But,
yielding
will
occur
when
P M(L 2,P)
+
=y
A
S
or,
an
axial
load
P
that
sa_ses:
P o
P
1
+
=y
A
P S
1 P
42
Copyright 2013
American Institute of Steel Construction
21
Inelas_c
(9)
P
P
v
x
L/2
Elas_c Response
PE
Pn
Inelas_c Response
(P)
Ini_al yielding
Notes:
1. Inelas_c
instability
occurs
below
the
Euler
cri_cal
load,
i.e.
Pn<PE
2. The
smaller
the
column
slenderness
L/r,
the
further
Pn
is
below
PE
(L r ""PE )
44
Copyright 2013
American Institute of Steel Construction
22
Inelas_c
(10)
P
Only
two
Py
P
E
op_ons:
Py
Pn
Py
>
PE
or
Pn
<
Py
<PE
Inelas_c
Response
Ini_al
yielding
Notes:
1. Because
of
bending,
Pn
cannot
exceed
Py
2. The
larger
the
column
slenderness
L/r,
the
more
bending,
and
the
further
Pn
is
below
Py
45
Full yield
cr
Acceptable?
E =
2E
"
(L r )
2
L/r
46
Copyright 2013
American Institute of Steel Construction
23
Residual
Stresses
Occurs
in
structural
shapes
Uneven
cooling
of
hotrolled
shape
aaer
rolling
Welding
of
plates
for
fabricated
or
builtup
shapes
Cold
bending
during
fabrica_on
48
Copyright 2013
American Institute of Steel Construction
24
Copyright 2013
American Institute of Steel Construction
25
Mild
Steel
Welded
Shape
51
ft
fc
bf t f + tw( d(6)
2t f )
Residual
Stresses
t
c


 
+
+
f c
tf = 0.3F
f res
tt
ft =
52
bf t f
fc
bf t f + tw( d  2t f )
Copyright 2013
fc
American Institute of Steel
Construction
ft
26
ft
fc
fc
bf t f + tw( d  2t f )
f ct = 0.3Fy
ff ccres
fres,c
= 0.3 y
c
f res,t
t
bf t f
ft =
ft
f f
f c = 0.3Fy
f
+res
bf t
tw( d  2t f )
f =
fc
bf t f res

bf t f
bf t f
f =
f
f tt = b t + t ( d  2t ) f cc
bf t f + t w( d  2t f )
y
y
c
c
f t = 0.3F
f fcres
t
tf
+
+
res,c
ft ct = 0.3Fy
f res
f = 0.3F


= tf
fc
) 2t
( dt  (d
bb
t t+ tw
2t f
f f
f f
tb
bf t fb f t f
+
++
f f
res,tf t ==
cf
tf
yF3.0 = c f


) t2  d ( t + t b
f
w
f f
res,c
f c = 0=.30.3
Fy y
res,t
ft
ECCS
c
bf t f
f =
Sec_oning
=
P/A y
Cross%sec(on%without%
residual%stresses%
no
line
ar%
nl
nli
ne
ar%
Cross%sec(on%with%
residual%stresses%
res = E L/L
Cross%sec(on%
begins%to%yield%
53
= L/L
Py=Ay
Par_al
Yielding
ne
ar
nli
no
E
A<<(E
A)elas_c
E=0
E A<(E A)elas_c
line
ar
Pl:n
E=0
(E A)elas_c
res + Pl:n/A = y
res = y Pn:l/A
L
54
Copyright 2013
American Institute of Steel Construction
27
E=0
res
no
nli
ne
ar
(E
A)e
(EA)eff = Et A####with##Et = E
=4
line
ar
0.5y
1.0
##for##0.5 <
y y
y
= 1.0##for## 0.5
y
= L/L
55
"" "" E ,t =
E =
= 4 1 ##for##0.5 <
1.0
2
2
L
r
L
r
#
( )
( )
= 1.0##for## 0.5
= Pn /A
y
0.5y
Pn
Full
yield
Acceptable?
E ,t =
2Et
(L r )
L/r
56
Copyright 2013
American Institute of Steel Construction
28
195070s
Bending
without
residual
stresses?
(no!)
Bri_sh
Standard
AISC
No
bending
with
residual
stress?
(no!)
Bending
with
residual
stresses?
(yes!)
Note:
M
is
due
to
ini_al
imperfec_on
and/or
E
E=0
nonconcentric
l
oading
Par_al
yielding
=
loss
of
exural
s_ness,
EI<<EIelas_c
57
/y
Euler
o
=
L/1000
and
res
(G&K)
o
=
L/1000
and
no
res
Pn
L/r
58
Copyright 2013
American Institute of Steel Construction
29
/y
Euler
o
=
L/1000
and
res
(G&K)
Pn
o
=
L/1000
and
no
res
L/r
59
/y
Euler
Major
Axis
Pn
Minor Axis
o
=
L/1000
and
res
(G&K)
L/r
60
Copyright 2013
American Institute of Steel Construction
30
Addi_onal
thoughts
Strength
curves
for
Wshapes
are
func_on
of
dimensions,
and
thus
will
vary
depending
on
Wshape
Other
shapes
(e.g.,
HSS,
Cs,
and
builtup
shapes)
will
also
have
dierent
compressive
strength
curves
61
(15)
(30)
(45)
Bjorhovde, 1972
(60)
(75)
(90)
(105)
(120)
(L/r
for
A992)
62
Copyright 2013
American Institute of Steel Construction
31
!Elastic!Buckling:
L
E
! > 4.71
r
y
!Inelastic!Buckling:
!!!!!!! cr = 0.877 E
L
E
! 4.71
r
y
y
E
!!!!!!! cr = 0.658 y
(15)
(30)
(45)
(60)
(75)
(90)
(105)
(120)
(L/r
for
A992)
Bjorhovde,
1972
64
Copyright 2013
American Institute of Steel Construction
32
/y
Euler
AISC
Pn
FEA:
o
=
L/1000
and
res
(G&K)
L
E
= 4.71
r
Fy
L/r
65
Eurocode 3
66
Copyright 2013
American Institute of Steel Construction
33
/y
Euler
Pn
Major Axis
Minor Axis
o
=
L/1000
and
res
(G&K)
L/r
67
Eurocode 3
Major
Axis
W14x145
Minor
Axis
68
Copyright 2013
American Institute of Steel Construction
34
Euler
Buckling
Leonhard
Euler,
1744
and
1757
Assump_ons
prisma_c
member
(I
=
constant)
small
deec_ons
aaer
buckling
no
bending
prior
to
bifurca_on
P < PE
perfectly
straight
concentrically
loaded
P = PE
69
16.1511
TABLECCA7.1
Support
ondi_ons
Comm. 7.2.]
16.1511
((a)
a)
((b)
b) Values
((c)
c)
((d)
d)
((e)
e)
Approximate
of Effective
Length Factor, K
((f)
f)
((a)
a)
((b)
b)
((c)
c)
((d)
d)
((e)
e)
((f)
f)
Theoretical
T
heoretical K vvalue
a lu e
0.5
0 .5
0
0.7
.7
1
1.0
.0
1
1.0
.0
2
2.0
.0
2
2.0
.0
Recommended design
Recommended
d e s ig n
vvalue
a lu e w
hen ideal
id e a l
when
cconditions
onditions are
a re
a
phperoorxeitm
approximated
Theoretical
T
icaatleKd vvalue
a lu e
0
.6 5
0.65
0.5
0 .5
0
0.7
.7
Recommended design
Recommended
d e s ig n
vvalue
a lu e w
hen ideal
id e a l
when
cconditions
onditions are
a re
a
p p r o x im a te d
approximated
End
E
nd condition
condition code
code
0
.6 5
0.65
0 .8 0
0.80
Buckled shape
Buckled
shape of
of
ccolumn
olumn is
is sshown
hown by
by
d
ashed line
lin e
dashed
Buckled shape
Buckled
shape of
of
ccolumn
olumn is
is sshown
hown by
by
d
ashed line
lin e
dashed
Euler
Buckling
0 .8 0
1 .2
0.80
1.2
1
.0
1.0
2
.1
2.1
2
.0
2.0
1
1.0
.0
1
1.0
.0
2
2.0
.0
2
2.0
.0
1 .2
1.2
1
.0
1.0
2
.1
2.1
2
.0
2.0
70
Copyright 2013
American Institute of Steel Construction
(7) Joint restraint is distributed to the column above and below the joint in proportion to EI/L for the two columns.
(8) All columns buckle simultaneously.
35
mm. 7.2.]
16.1511
((b)
b)
Pe
x
=
L
uckled
uckled shape
shape of
of
lumn is
is sshown
hown by
by
lumn
shed line
lin e
shed
x
v(x)
mm. 7.2.]
((d)
d)
((e)
e)
((f)
f)
Support
Condi_ons
(2)
((c)
c)
x = 0
eoretical
eoretical K vvalue
a lu e
ecommended
ecommended design
d e s ig n
lu e w
hen ideal
id e a l
lue
when
nditions
nditions are
a re
p r o x im a te d
proximated
16.1511
0.5
0 .5
0
0.7
.7
1
1.0
.0
1
1.0
.0
2
2.0
.0
2
2.0
.0
0
.6 5
0.65
0 .8 0
0.80
1 .2
1.2
1
.0
1.0
2
.1
2.1
2
.0
2.0
TABLE CA7.1
Approximate Values of Effective
Length Factor, K
nd
nd condition
condition code
code
((a)
a)
((b)
b)
Pe
71
((d)
d)
((e)
e)
((f)
f)
Support
Condi_ons
(3)
((c)
c)
x
=
0
2 tan ( / 2 K )
G AG B
G
G
K
+
/
v(x = 0) = 0,%
= 0,%v(x = L) = 0
1v=(x
0 = 0)(CA71)
( / K )2 + A B 1
+
x
=
L
tan ( / K )
( / K )
Pe CA7.2
The alignment chart for sidesway uninhibitedframes
EI shown in Figure
E is
P
=
%%
%%
=
=
%%with%K
e
e
following equation:
2
2
eoretical
eoretical K vvalue
a lu e
ecommended
ecommended design
d e s ig n
based
lu e w
hen ideal
ideon
al the
lue
when
nditions
nditions are
a re
p r o x im a te d
proximated
0.5
0 .5
0
0.7
.7
1
1.0
.0
1
1.0
.0
2
2.0
.0
0
.6 5
0.65
0 .8 0
0.80
1 .2
1.2
(0.70L)
1
.0
1.0
2
.1
2.1
G AGB ( / K ) 36
( / K )
=0
6 ( G A + GB )
tan ( / K )
2
June 3, 2013:
Session
1  Introduction
Specification
for Structural
Steel Buildings, June 22, 2010
AMERICAN
INSTITUTE OF SMembers
TEEL CONSTRUCTION
and Behavior
of Compression
nd
nd condition
condition code
code
2
2.0
2.0
(KL r )
= 0.70
2
.0
2.0
(CA72)
72
Copyright 2013
American Institute of Steel Construction
36
Comm. 7.2.]
16.1511
TABLE CA7.1
Approximate Values of Effective
Length Factor, K
((a)
a)
((b)
b)
((c)
c)
((d)
d)
((e)
e)
((f)
f)
Elas_c
Buckling
Stress:
2E
e =
2
KL r
Buckled shape
Buckled
shape of
of
ccolumn
olumn is
is sshown
hown by
by
d
ashed line
lin e
dashed
Theoretical
T
heoretical K vvalue
a lu e
0.5
0 .5
0
0.7
.7
1
1.0
.0
1
1.0
.0
2
2.0
.0
2
2.0
.0
Recommended design
Recommended
d e s ig n
vvalue
a lu e w
hen ideal
id e a l
when
cconditions
onditions are
a re
a
p p r o x im a te d
approximated
0
.6 5
0.65
0 .8 0
0.80
1 .2
1.2
1
.0
1.0
2
.1
2.1
2
.0
2.0
End
E
nd condition
condition code
code
73
(7) Joint restraint is distributed to the column above and below the joint in proportion to EI/L for the two columns.
(8) All columns buckle simultaneously.
(9) No significant axial compression force exists in the girders.
Comm.
7.2.]
EFFECTIVE
LENGTH
METHOD
The
alignment
chart for sidesway
inhibited
frames
shown in Figure CA7.1 16.1511
is based
on the following equation:
G AG B
G +G
/ K 2 tan ( / 2 K )
CA7.1
1 = 0
+
( / K )2 + A B 1TABLE
4
2
tan ( / K )
( / K )
(CA71)
((b)
b)
((c)
c)
((d)
d)
((e)
e)
G AGB ( / K ) 36
( / K )
=0
6 ( G A + GB )
tan ( / K )
2
((f)
f)
(CA72)
0.5
0 .5
0
0.7
.7
0.5L
0.7L
Theoretical
T
heoretical K vvalue
a lu e
Recommended design
Recommended
d e s ig n
vvalue
a lu e w
hen ideal
id e a l
when
cconditions
onditions are
a re
a
p p r o x im a te d
approximated
0
.6 5
0.65
0 .8 0
0.80
1L
Elas_c
Buckling
Stress:
2E
e =
2
KL r
1
1.0
.0
1
1.0
.0
1L
2
2.0
.0
1 .2
1.2
1
.0
1.0
2
.1
2.1
2L
2
2.0
.0
2L
2
.0
2.0
(7) Joint restraint is distributed to the column above and below the joint in proportion to EI/L for the two columns.
(8) All columns buckle simultaneously.
(9) No significant axial compression force exists in the girders.
74
The alignment chart for sidesway inhibited frames shown in Figure CA7.1 is based
on the following equation:
G AGB ( / K ) 36
( / K )
=0
6 ( G A + GB )
tan ( / K )
2
(CA72)
37
Comm. 7.2.]
16.1511
TABLE CA7.1
Approximate Values of Effective
Length Factor, K
((a)
a)
((b)
b)
((c)
c)
((d)
d)
((e)
e)
((f)
f)
Elas_c
Buckling
Stress:
2E
e =
2
KL r
Buckled shape
Buckled
shape of
of
ccolumn
olumn is
is sshown
hown by
by
d
ashed line
lin e
dashed
Theoretical
T
heoretical K vvalue
a lu e
0.5
0 .5
Recommended design
Recommended
d e s ig n
vvalue
a lu e w
hen ideal
id e a l
when
cconditions
onditions are
a re
a
p p r o x im a te d
approximated
0
.6 5
0.65
0
0.7
.7
1
1.0
.0
1
1.0
.0
2
2.0
.0
2
2.0
.0
1 .2
1.2
1
.0
1.0
2
.1
2.1
2
.0
2.0
End
E
nd condition
condition code
code
(7) Joint restraint is distributed to the column above and below the joint in proportion to EI/L for the two columns.
(8) All columns buckle simultaneously.
(9) No significant axial compression force exists in the girders.
75
The alignment chart for sidesway inhibited frames shown in Figure CA7.1 is based
on the following equation:
G AG B
G +G
/ K 2 tan ( / 2 K )
1 = 0
+
( / K )2 + A B 1
4
2
tan ( / K )
( / K )
(CA71)
The alignment chart for sidesway uninhibited frames shown in Figure CA7.2 is
based on the following equation:
G AGB ( / K ) 36
( / K )
=0
6 ( G A + GB )
tan ( / K )
2
Pn
(CA72)
Degree
of
column
endrestraint
Whats
KL?
Possible
solu_ons:
Copyright 2013
American Institute of Steel Construction
38
Pn
Full
yield
Acceptable?
YES!!!
e =
2E
(KL r )
"
cr = 0.658 e y cr = 0.877 e
KL/r
KL r 4.71 E y
77
Euler
Buckling
Leonhard
Euler,
1744
and
1757
Assump_ons!
prisma_c
member
(I
=
constant)
small
deec_ons
aaer
buckling
no
bending
prior
to
bifurca_on
perfectly
straight
concentrically
loaded
P < PE
P = PE
78
Copyright 2013
American Institute of Steel Construction
39
Summary
Course
introduc_on
and
stability
concepts
Limit
states
of
compression
members
with
focus
on
exural
buckling
Euler
Buckling
Maximum
Compressive
Strength
Column
Curve
Column
curve
accounts
for:
full
yielding
bending
due
to
ini_al
imperfec_on
(outof
straightness)
par_al
yielding
accentuated
by
presence
of
residual
stresses
degree
of
end
restraint
79
Summary(2)
AISC
and
other
column
curves
Other
ideas
introduced,
including
moment
amplica_on
factor
(2ndorder
eects)
s_ness
reduc_on
factor
Diculty
in
compu_ng
Kfactors
80
Copyright 2013
American Institute of Steel Construction
40
Up Next
Session 2: June 10
Design of Compression Members
by P.S. Green, PE, PhD
Initially, an overview of flexural, torsional, and
flexuraltorsional resistance of individual column
members will be provided. Emphasis then will be
placed on defining and assessing the AISC LRFD
and ASD strengths of various structural shapes,
including wide flange, round and square HSS,
cruciform, equal and unequal single and double
leg angles, WT, channel, and builtup shapes.
81
Copyright 2013
American Institute of Steel Construction
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Copyright 2013
American Institute of Steel Construction
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American Institute of Steel Construction
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