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NPE 1986, assigned a special role to NCERT in preparing and promoting NCF.

Yash Pal Committee Report, Learning without Burden (1993) observes that
learning has become a source of burden and stress on children and their parents.

Considering these observations, Executive Committee of NCERT decided at its

meeting of July 14, 2004, to revise the National Curriculum Framework.

The process of development of NCF was initiated in November, 2004 by setting up

various structures like National Steering Committee Chaired by Prof. Yash Pal and
twenty-one National Focus Groups on themes of curricular areas, systemic reforms
and national concerns.

Wide ranging deliberations and inputs from multiple sources involving different
levels of stakeholders helped in shaping the draft of NCF.

The draft NCF was translated into 22 languages listed in the VIII Schedule of the
Constitution. The translated versions were widely disseminated and consultations
with stakeholders at district and local level helped in developing the final draft.

The NCF was approved by Central Advisory Board on Education in September,


Vision and Perspective

To uphold values enshrined in the Constitution of India

To reduce of curriculum load

To ensure quality education for all

To initiate certain systemic changes

Guiding Principles

Connecting knowledge to life outside the School

Ensuring that learning is shifted away from rote methods

Enriching curriculum so that it goes beyond Text Book

Making Examination more flexible and non-threatening

Discuss the aims of education

Building commitment to democratic values of equality, justice, secularism and


Focus on child as an active learner

1. Primacy to childrens experience, their voices and participation
2. Needs for adults to change their perception of children as passive receiver of
3. Children can be active participants in the construction of knowledge and every
child come to with pre-knowledge
4. Children must be encouraged to relate the learning to their immediate
5. Emphasizes that gender, class, creed should not be constraints for the child
6. Highlights the value of Integration

7. Designing more challenging activities

Curricular areas, school stages and Assessment

Recommends significant changes in Maths, Natural Sciences, Social Sciences

Overall view to reduce stress, make education more relevant, meaningful

1. Languages

To implement 3-language formula

Emphasis on mother tongue as medium of instruction

Curriculum should contain multi-lingual proficiency only if mother tongue is

considered as second language

Focus on all skills

2. Mathematics

Teaching of Mathematics to focus on childs resources to think and reason, to

visualize abstractions and to solve problems.

3. Sciences

Teaching of science to focus on methods and processes that will nurture thinking
process, curiosity and creativity.

4. Social Sciences

Social sciences to be considered from disciplinary perspective with rooms for:

Integrated approach in the treatment of significant themes

Enabling pedagogic practices for promoting thinking process, decision making and
critical reflection.

5. Draws attention on four other areas

a. Art Education: covers music, dance, visual arts and theatre which on interactive
approaches not instruction aesthetic awareness and enable children to express
themselves in different forms.
b. Health and Physical Education: Health depends upon nutrition and planned
physical activities.
c. Education for Peace: As a precondition to snub growing violence and intolerance
f. Work and Education: As it can create a social temper and agencies offering work
opportunities outside the school should be formally recognized.
6. School and Classroom environment

Critical pre-requisites for improved performance minimum infrastructure and

material facilities and support for planning a flexible daily schedule

Focus on nurturing an enabling environment

Revisits tradition notions of discipline

Discuss needs for providing space to parents and community

Discuss other learning sites and resources like Texts and Books, Libraries and
laboratories and media and ICT

Addresses the need for plurality of material and Teacher autonomy/professional

independence to use such material.

7. Systemic Reforms

Covers needs for academic planning for monitoring quality

Teacher education should focus on developing professional identity of the Teacher

Examination reforms to reduce psychological stress particularly on children in class

X and XII

Examination reforms highlight:

Shift from content based testing to problem solving and competency based

Examinations of shorter duration

Flexible time limit

Change in typology of questions

No public examination till class VIII

Class X board exam to be made optional (in long term)

Teacher Education Reforms emphasize on preparation of teacher to

1. View learning as a search for meaning out of personal experience, and knowledge
generation at a continuously evolving process of reflective learning.
2. View knowledge not as an external reality embedded in textbooks, but as
constructed in the shared context of teaching-learning and personal experience.
Guidelines for Syllabus Development
1. Development of syllabi and textbooks based on following considerations

Appropriateness of topics and themes for relevant stages of childrens


Continuity from one level to the next

Pervasive resonance of all the values enshrined in the constitution of India the
organization of knowledge in all subjects

Inter-disciplinary and thematic linkages between topics listed for different school
subjects, which falls under different discrete disciplinary areas.

Linkage between school knowledge and concern in all subjects and at all levels

Sensitivity to gender, caste, class, peace, health and need of children with

Integration of work related attitudes and values in every subject and all levels

Need to nurture aesthetic sensibility and values

2. Linkage between school and college syllabi, avoid overlapping

3. Using potential of media and new information technology in all subjects
4. Encouraging flexibility and creativity in all areas of knowledge and its construction
by children.
Development of Support Material

Audio/video programmes on NCF-2005 and textbooks

Source-book on learning assessment

Exemplar problems in Science and Mathematics

Science and Mathematics kits

Teachers handbooks and manuals.

Teacher Training Packages.

Developed syllabi and textbooks in new areas such as Heritage Craft, Media
Studies, Art Education, Health and Physical Education, etc.

Taken various initiatives in the area of ECCE (Early Childhood Care Education),
Gender, Inclusive Education, Peace, Vocational Education, Guidance and
Counseling, ICT, etc.

Overall Evaluation
NCF 2005 highlights the following aspects:

The value of Interaction with environment, peers and older people to enhance

That learning task must be designed to enable children to seek knowledge other
than text books.

The need to move away from Herbartian lesson plan to prepare plans and
activities that challenge children to think and try out what they are learning.

National Curriculum Framework(NCF) 2005

The National Curriculum Framework is one of four National Curriculum Frameworks
published in 1975, 1988, 2000 and 2005 by the National Council of Educational
Research and Training NCERT in India. The document provides the framework for
making syllabi, textbooks and teaching practices within the school education
programmes in India.

As per the directions of the Human Resource development Minister, the NCERT took
up the assignment of reviewing the National Curriculum framework for school
Education in the light of the report Learning without Burden (1993). A National
steering Committee under the Chairmanship of Professor Shri. Yash Pal formed 21
National focus groups. Members of these committees included representatives of
institutions of advanced learning, NCERTs own faculty, school teachers and nongovernmental organisations. Deliberations at National and state level and public
opinions were invited by giving wide advertisements.
The NCF-2005 begins with a quotation from Tagores essay Civilisation and Progress
in which the poet reminds us that a creative spirit and generous joy are key in
childhood, both of which can be distorted by an unthinking adult world. Seeking
guidance from the constitutional vision of India as a secular, egalitarian and
pluralistic society, founded on the values of social justice and equality, certain
broad aims of education have been identified in this document NCF-2005. These
include independence of thought and action, sensitivity to others well-being and
feelings, learning to respond to new situations in a flexible and creative manner,
predisposition towards participation in democratic process, and the ability to work
towards and contribute to economic processes and social change. For teaching to
serve as a means of strengthening our democratic way of life, it must respond to
the presence of first generation school-goers, whose retention is imperative owing
to the constitutional amendment that has made elementary education a
fundamental right of every child. The fact that learning has become a source of
burden and stress on children and their parents is an evidence of a deep distortion
in educational aims and quality. To correct this distortion, the present NCF
proposes five guiding principles for curriculum development:

Connecting knowledge to life outside the school

Ensuring that learning shifts away from rote methods
Enriching the curriculum so that it goes beyond textbooks
Making examinations more flexible and integrating them with classroom life and
Nurturing an overriding identity informed by caring concerns within the democratic
polity of the country.

The NCF-2005 was framed keeping the above mentioned guiding principles as to
implement many good ideas that have already been articulated in the past.

Strengthening a national system of education in a pluralistic society.
Reducing the curriculum load based on insights provided in Learning without
Burden. Systemic changes in tune with curricular reforms
Curricular practices based on the values enshrined in the constitution, such as
social justice, and equality and secularism. Ensuring quality education for all
Building a citizenry committed to democratic practices, values, sensitivity towards
gender justice, problems faced by the scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes,
needs of the disabled, and capacities to participate in economic and political
Reorientation in our perception of learners and learning
Holistic approach in the treatment of learners development and learning

Meeting learning disability needs through data based and need specific
programmes. Learner engagement for construction of knowledge and fostering
Active learning through experiential mode
Adequate room for voicing childrens thinking, curiosity and questions in curricular
Connecting knowledge across disciplinary boundaries to provide a broader frame
for insightful construction of knowledge. Forms of learner engagement-observing,
exploring, discovering, analysing, critical reflection, etc.-are as important as the
content of knowledge.
Activities for developing critical perspectives on socio-cultural realities need to find
space in curricular practices. Local knowledge and childrens experiences are
essential components of textbooks and pedagaogic practices.
School years are a period of rapid development with changes and shifts in
capabilities, attitudes and interests that have implications for choosing and
organising the content and process of knowledge.
Language skills-speech and listening, reading and writing-cut across school
subjects and disciplines. Their foundational role in childrens construction of
knowledge right from elementary classes through senior secondary senior
secondary classes needs to be recognised.
A renewed effort should be made to implement the three language formula,
emphasising recognition of childrens mother tongue(s) as the best medium of
instruction. These include tribal languages.
Success in learning English is possible only if it builds on sound language
pedagogy in the mother tongue.
The multilingual character of Indian society should be seen as a resource for
enrichment of school life.
Mathematization (ability to think logically, formulate and handle abstractions)
rather than knowledge of mathematics(formals and mechanical procedures) is
the main goal of teaching mathematics.
The teaching of mathematics should enhance the childs ability to think and
reason, to visualise and handle abstractions, to formulate and solve problems.
Access to quality mathematics education is the right of every child.
Content, process and language of science teaching must be commensurate with
learners age range and cognitive reach. Science teaching should engage the
learner in acquiring methods and processes that will nurture their curiosity and
creativity, particularly in relation to the environment.
Science teaching should be placed in the wider context childrens environment to
equip them with the requisite knowledge and skills to enter the world of work.
Awareness of environmental concerns must permeate the entire school curriculum.
Social Sciences:
Social science teaching should aim at equipping children with moral and mental
energy so as to provide them the ability to think independently and reflect
critically on social issues.
Interdisciplinary approaches, promoting key national concerns such as gender
justice, human rights and sensitivity to marginalised groups and minorities.

Civics should be recast as political science, and significance of history as a shaping

influence on the childs conception of the past and civic identity should be
Work should be infused in all subjects from the primary stage upwards
Agencies and settings offering work opportunities outside the school be formally
Design of Vocational Education and Training programme is based on the
perspective of 10-12 years of work-centred education with in-built features of:
Flexible and modular courses of varying durations
Multiple entry and exit points
Accessibility from the level of village clusters ti district levels.
Decentralised accreditation and equivalence mechanism for agencies located
outside the school system.
Arts (folk and classical forms of music and dance, visual arts, puppetry, clay work,
theatre, etc.) and heritage crafts should be recognised as integral components of
the school curriculum
Awareness of their relevance to personal, social, economic and aesthetic needs
should be built among parents, school authorities and administrators.
The art should comprise a subject at every stage of school education.
Peace-oriented values should be promoted in all subjects throughout school years
with the help of relevant activities. Peace education should form a component of
teacher education.
Health and physical education.
Health and physical education are necessary for the overall development of
learners. Through health and physical education programmes (including yoga), it
may be possible to handle successfully the issues of enrolment, retention and
completion of school.
Availability of minimum infrastructure and material facilities, and support for
planning a flexible daily schedule are critical for improved teacher performance.
A school culture that nurtures childrens identities as learners enhances the
potential and interests of each child. Specific activities ensuring participation of all
children-able and disabled- are essential conditions for learning by all. The value
of self discipline among learners through democratic functioning is as relevant as
Participation of community members in sharing knowledge and experience in a
subject area helps in forging a partnership between school and community.
Reconceptualization of learning resources in terms of:
Textbooks focussed on elaboration of concepts, activities, problems and exercises
encouraging reflective thinking and group work.
Supplementary books, workbooks, teachers handbooks etc. based on fresh
thinking and new perspectives. Multimedia and ICT as sources for two way
interaction rather than one way reception.
School library as an intellectual space for teachers, learners and members of the
community to deepen their knowledge and connect with the wider world.
Decentralised planning of school calendar and daily schedule and autonomy for
teacher professionalism practices are basic to creating a learning environment.

Quality concern a key feature of systemic reform, implies the systems capacity to
reform itself by enhancing its ability to remedy its own weaknesses and to develop
new capabilities.
A broad framework for planning upwards, beginning with schools for identifying
focuses areas and subsequent consolidation at
the cluster and block levels could form a decentralised planning strategy at the
district level.
Meaningful academic planning has to be done in a participatory manner by
Headmasters and teachers.
Monitoring quality must be seen as a process of sustaining interaction with
individual schools in terms of teaching-learning processes.
Professional training of teachers can be strengthened by linking it to: Postgraduate studies in different subjects.
Provisions for integrated undergraduate studies in teacher education.
Inclusion of a course on language proficiency as an integral component.
Engaging the trained with the larger context of education, interacting with
children in real contexts and critically questioning their own beliefs about
knowledge and learning, gender, caste, equity and justice.
Shifting the focus from pure disciplinary knowledge to the learner and his/her
In-service education needs to become a catalyst for change in school practices.
Panchayat Raj system should be strengthened by evolving a
Mechanism to regulate the functioning of parallel bodies at the village level so that
democratic participation in development can be realised.
Reducing stress and enhancing success in examination necessitate:
Shift from content-based testing to problem-solving and understanding. For this
to happen the present typology of the question paper must change.
Shift toward shorter examinations
Setting up of a single nodal agency for coordinating the design and conduct of
entrance examinations.
Availability of multiple textbooks to widen teachers choices and provide for the
diversity in childrens needs and interests. Sharing of teaching experiences and
diverse classroom practices to generate new ideas and facilitate innovation and
Development of syllabi, textbooks and teaching learning resources could be
carried out in a decentralised and participatory manner involving teachers, experts
from universities, NGOs and teachers organisations.
This framework for curriculum presents a vision of what is desirable for our children.
It seeks to enable those who are involved with the bases on which they can make
choices that determine the curriculum. This provides an understanding of issues
relating to childrens learning, the nature of knowledge and the school as an
institution. This approach to the curriculum draws attention to the importance of the
school ethos and culture, the classroom practices of teachers, learning sites outside
the school, and learning resources, as much as to the dimensions of the system that
exert direct and indirect influence.
The National Policy on Education (NPE, 1986) AND THE Programme of Action (POA,
1992) assigned a pivotal role to NCERT in preparing a National Curriculum
Framework (NCF). Preparation of NCF, 2005 was accomplished with the help of a

National Steering Committee, chaired by Professor Yash Pal and 21 National Focus
Groups on the following themes:

Aims of Education
Systematic Reforms for Curriculum Change
Teaching of Indian Languages
Teaching of English Teaching of Mathematics Teaching of Science Teaching of
Social Sciences Habitat and Learning
5. Art, Music, Dance and Theatre
6. Heritage Crafts
7. Work and Education
8. Health and Physical Education Early Childhood Education Problems of SC & ST
Children Gender Issued in Education Educational Technology
9. Education of Groups with Special Needs
10.Education for Peace
11.Curriculum, Syllabus and Textbooks Teacher Education of Curriculum Renewal
Examination Reforms
12.Approved by CABE on 7 September 2005, NCF derives its objective of student
learning an development from the values enshrined in the Constitution and
contemporary concerns for strengthening unity and national identity in a
multi=cultural context and enabling the nation to face future challenges.
Affirmation of the primacy of an active learner and a distinctive focus on the
nature of knowledge given NCF the potential to put the Indian system of
education at par with international practices.

Strengthening of a National System of Education with special focus on

Values enshrined in the Constitution of India; Reduction of curriculum load;
Ensuring quality Education For All (EFA); Systemic changes;
Common school system.
Guiding Principles of Curriculum Dev elopment
Connecting knowledge to life outside school;
Ensuring that learning is shifted away from rote methods;
Enriching the curriculum to provide for overall development of children rather
than remain textbook centric; Making examinations more flexible and integrated
with classroom life; and
Nurturing an overriding identity informed by caring concerns within the democratic
polity of the country.
Learning and Knowledge
Correspondence between learner development and learning is intrinsic to
curricular practices; Knowledge is different from information;
Organizing learning experiences for construction of knowledgeand fostering
creativity; Connecting knowledge across disciplinary boundaries for insightful
construction of knowledge; Learning experiences for developing critical
perspectives on social issues;
Plurality of textbooks and other material incorporating local knowledge mediated
through Constitutional values and principles.
Curricular Areas
Implementation of three language formula with renewed efforts;
The idea that home language / mother tongue as the best to medium to build a
foundation for education applies to tribal languages as well;
Multi-lingual character of Indian society is a resource for promoting language

Teaching mathematics to focus on developing childs resources to think and

reason, to visualize abstractions and to formulate and solve problems;
Teaching of Science to be recast to enable learners to acquire methods and
processes that will nurture thinking process, curiosity and creativity;
Social Sciences to be considered from disciplinary perspective
emphasizing integrated approach in the treatment of significant themes;
Enabling pedagogic practices are critical for developing thinking process, decision
making and critical reflections on social issues;
The arts and heritage crafts, and health and physical education to form critical
components of school curriculum.
National Concerns
Professional planning and significant expansion of early childhood care and
Concerns and issues pertaining to environment, peace oriented values, and
sensitivity towards gender parity and towards SC
and ST, and minorities must inform all subjects and school experiences.
Systemic Reform
Teaching is a professional activity;
Availability of minimum infrastructure and material facilities for mproved teacher
performance; Locally planned, flexible school calendars and time tables;
Reconceptualisation of textbooks, teachers handbooks and other material based
on new perspectives and access to interactive technologies;
Strengthening the Panchayati Raj Institutions and encouraging community
participation for enhancing quality and accountability;
Teacher education programmes to be recast to reflect professionalism in the
process of training and teaching; Productive work as pedagogic medium in the
school curriculum from pre-primary to senior secondary stages; Vocational
education and training to be conceived and implemented in a mission mode;
Examination reforms highlight
o shift from content based testing to problem solving and competency based
assessment, examinations of shorter duration, and
o flexible time limit;


Keralas effort to develop a curriculum framework is a turning point in the history of
the state. It is for the first time that the state is making such an exercise and it is
rooted on the ideas articulated in the National Curriculum Framework (NCF) -2005.
Whenever curriculum reforms were taken up at the national level, the state
responded to them in the past.
After the formation of NCERT in 1961, Kerala has been following all the curriculum
reform efforts initiated at the national level. For instance, the state initiated the
process for reforming its curriculum following the National Curriculum Framework
-1975. The state also took steps to implement NPE- 1986 and the Programme of
Action (1992). It was in 1997, that an effort for the formulation of a comprehensive
curriculum focusing on the process of teaching and learning was attempted in Kerala.
Rooted in the emerging methodology and strategies, an integrated method of
learning, a process- oriented-activity-based approach, viewing learner as a
constructor of knowledge, recognising the role of society in knowledge construction
and the idea of continuous and comprehensive evaluation came into effect. However,
the states curriculum reform effort gained further impetus with the formulation of
the National Curriculum Framework (NCF) -2005. NCF-2005 and the position papers
provided grounds for introspection and formulation of the Kerala Curriculum
Framework (KCF)-2007.
National Curriculum Framework -2005 and Kerala
Kerala society by and large recognized the relevance of the new curriculum initiated
by the state in 1997. NCF-2005 gives us deeper insight to address the problems
Kerala encounters in the present educational scenario. NCF-2005 has incorporated
the theoretical, ideological and historical approach that we had assimilated in our
curriculum. This could be treated as a sign of recognition to Keralas vision of
education. Our classrooms in the past reflected the features of an undemocratic
power structure. The prevailing classroom practices then promoted the culture of
passive listening. They were dominated by the voice of the teacher and the learners
did not have an opportunity to raise questions or enquire. On the other hand, the
new curriculum gives the learner more space than ever before for co-operative and
collaborative learning. The rights of the learners have been recognised and the
crucial role of learners in acquiring knowledge has been established. This paved the
way for creating a democratic atmosphere in classrooms. Thus, the construction of
knowledge and its social dimensions have become complementary. In the context of
globalisation, Kerala is facing serious issues in the field of education arising from
privatisation of education, mushrooming of self-finance institutions and the craze for
market- oriented courses. Globalisation has also exerted its influence on
environment, health and resource management. Likewise, a range of issues
emanating from dehumanisation of society, religious intolerance, indifference towards
democratic process, increasing inequalities, growing violence, market-oriented
approach, disintegrating familties, deteriorating gender relations, desire to

accumulate wealth, craze for drugs among youths and tendency to commercialise
and communalise education and culture pose serious threats to a democratic society.
A curriculum that doesnt address these issues can never lead us forward. On deeper
analysis, the wide range of issues we confront can be identified as:
absence of a vision of universal humanism
lack of human resource development
lack of understanding of the specificities of cultural identity and its need to develop
inability to see agriculture as a part of culture
lack of a scientific approach to health and public health
lack of due consideration towards marginalised groups
lack of scientific management of land and water
lack of eco-friendly industrialization and urbanization
The Vision on the Future Society
Reforms in education need to be formulated in tune with the vision of our society. We
need to create a future society that ensures creative and collective involvement of all
people. This is based on progressive ideas, lessons learned and experiences gained.
Discrimination based on caste, creed, financial status and gender does not find any
place in such a society. We dream of building a society that:
values nationalism, self sufficiency, cultural identity, democratic rights and
focuses on the welfare of the poor and the downtrodden and highlights a
development model that utilizes resources in order to get the best results
envisions a social system that taps human energy for sustainable development
ensures collective and cooperative efforts of all. A society that provides for a
justifiable and effective distribution of wealth
accepts knowledge as wealth for all and realises quest for knowledge and critical
thinking as the foundation for the construction of knowledge
fights against discrimination towards historically and socially marginalised
sections of the society and accords equal status to both men and women
respects the cultural diversity of different groups and protects their identity
stands against the tendencies of a consumerist culture
joins hands against social evils and shows readiness to lead movements for social
Aims of Education
While formulating the aims of education of the state, we must envision a society that
is capable of nurturing and strengthening the democratic and secular nature of India.
Such a society envisages an educational system that provides for the fullest
development of all without any form of discrimination. Every individual should
develop within him/her the perception that his/her prosperity results in the prosperity
of his/her family as well as the society he/she is a part of. In such a society the aims
of education (should cover) can be stated as:

Social justice :The education system that is envisaged should be capable of

promoting a social order based on equality and justice. This is more so when we
think of the liberation of a society where disparities in terms of religion, caste,
wealth, gender and region exist. Education in such a society should help in building
up a culture of living co- existence.
Awareness on environment : A comprehensive awareness on the need to protect
environment is the need of the hour. Keeping in mind the vision of sustainable
development, we need to develop an attitude in our learners to see meaning in all
developmental activities in tune with the environment. They should also develop a
sense in preserving all available resources in nature and to utilize them judiciously.
Citizenship : There is a need for empowering each child to grow up and develop
as a responsible citizen of the society. The civic sense should ideally include historical
awareness and a balanced political vision.
Nationalism : Creating a generation upholding nationalism rooted in a universal
vision is the need of the times. Human progress and universal love form the basic
dimensions of such a vision. While recognising the plurality of Indian society the
nationalistic vision should help in capturing the meaning of unity in diversity.
Awareness of ones rights
Realizing the rights accorded to every individual by our constitution is of great
significance. Education needs to actualize the rights ensured in our constitution and
also the rights enumerated in UN conventions on children's rights (CRC-Convention
on the Rights of Children), women's rights (CEDAW The Convention on the
Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women) and human rights (UNCHRUnited Nations Commission on Human Rights). All children need to develop an
awareness of one's own rights and the rights of others.
Awareness of Science and Technology
All learners should get opportunity to acquire current developments in the field of
science and technology and apply the same in real life situations. They need to enrich
their knowledge and skills in tune with such developments. The process of education
should have scope for this.
Scientific temper
There is a need to differentiate between science and pseudo-science. Learners should
approach a problem based on cause and effect relationship. An education that
develops logical reasoning in children is crucial in this context. They should play a key
role in freeing the society from superstitions and prejudices and should propagate the
need for a scientific outlook in life.
Cultural identity
Regional and traditional forms of knowledge (related to agriculture, irrigation,
resource management, art and handicraft) can be utilised for the development of the
society. The process of education we envision should help the learners to identify
such sources and preserve what is useful and relevant.
Vocational skills
Knowledge and labor are complementary. We must realize the value of labor in
developing and transforming the society. In this context education should focus on
the development of a positive attitude to labour and inculcate in all children the
ability to work.
Democratic values
Education should help the learner in imbibing democratic values - equality, justice,
freedom, concern for others' well-being, secularism and respect for human dignity

and rights. This should be done in such a way that the learner gains a better insight
into democracy.
Strength to resist all sorts of invasions (cultural, economic, geographical) and
undesirable tendencies triggered by globalisation is vital for a democratic society.
Education needs to recognise this reality and develop the required strength among
the learners to address the challenges posed by globalisation.
Construction of knowledge
Knowledge is a common good. Any attempt to hide or mystify it must be questioned.
The process of constructing knowledge has its unique features. Knowledge is never
viewed as a finished product. It is refined in every act of sharing. The process of
education must develop in learners, the ability to construct knowledge through
interaction and sharing.
Critical approach
The education we envision should have the space for learners to engage in critical
dialogue. The practice of passive listening has to be discarded and in its place
learners need to become active participants in the process of constructing
knowledge. They should view their experiences in a critical manner and should
question all social evils. Efforts to resist temptations, obstinacy and prejudices are
equally important. Looking at different ideas and generating an integrated view is
crucial. Learners must be able to analyse the ideas in vogue at social, political and
cultural levels, discern errors and take positions by responding to them. The
educational system should prepare the learners to shift from the position of passive
listeners to active constructors of knowledge.
Higher Secondary Level
The Higher Secondary level is the terminal stage of general education. Education at
this level should be diversified so as to form a foundation for those who go for higher
studies and those who opt for employment. We must retain the students who are
forced to discontinue their studies at the completion of class X by providing them
opportunities to join higher secondary courses. They should have options for gaining
vocational skills that would enable them to contribute to the society. It is not
desirable in a progressive society to have a section of students as unskilled and
unemployed after the completion of conventional higher secondary courses. Further,
a situation wherein students are denied the opportunity for higher studies because of
social and economic reasons, is also not desirable.
The learners who complete general education should possess the competency to
enter the employment sector directly. Those who wish to pursue their studies further
should not be denied of the opportunity. They should have opportunities either to
work while studying or enter jobs for a certain period and join higher studies later
on. For this, the present division of courses into higher secondary and vocational
higher secondary streams should be done away with. Instead, the higher secondary
stage of general education should provide opportunity and freedom for the learners
to select subject combinations that have both vocational and academic components.
The National Curriculum Framework opines thus in this regard: The possibilities of
choosing optional courses of study for exploring and understanding different areas of
knowledge, both in relation to ones interest and ones future career, is integral to this
stage. Exploring disciplines and approaching problems and issues from rich
interdisciplinary perspectives are possible at this stage. There is a need to allow for
such investigations to take place between and outside the subjects chosen for study.
Most boards of study offer a variety of subject areas in addition to the compulsory
language courses. There is a concern about the formal or informal restrictions that
operate to narrow the choice of subjects of study for

students. Several boards restrict the combinations in the form of the science stream,
the arts stream and the commerce stream. The CBSE does not restrict the
possibility of combinations that students can choose, but in view of the increasing
popularity of some combinations of subjects of study, and also because of a
perception of status of subjects in relation to each other, many such options are now
foreclosed to students. Further, universities also need to review their admission
criteria as they currently restrict admission based on the kinds and combinations of
courses studied at the +2 stage.
As a consequence, many significant and meaningful combinations of study, such as,
for example, Physics, Mathematics and Philosophy, or Literature, Biology and History,
are closed to students. Recent trends of school tailoring their classes to medical and
engineering courses have led to an artificial restriction on the courses they offer at
school, arguably on grounds of popularity and timetabling. In many parts of the
county, students who want to study the arts and liberal subjects are left with very
few options. Schools also discourage students from opting for unconventional
combinations, often on account of timetabling considerations. We believe it is
essential to keep all options open for students. In case there are not enough students
in a school opting for a particular subject, schools could consider working out
arrangements with other schools in the neighborhood so that they could employ a
resource teacher together. Such resource teachers could also be employed at the
block level to teach such special subjects that would not otherwise be available in a
school. School boards may also consider a more active role in promoting subjects and
streams of study.
But the higher secondary education in Kerala maintains a difference in this regard.
Our aim is to make this stage of education accessible to everyone. However, we
cannot frame the higher secondary curriculum and the subject streams to meet the
needs of those who prefer higher studies. The problem of unemployment that the
Kerala society faces is mostly among youths in the age group of 18 and 25. It is only
when a child who completes his/her higher secondary ,gets equipped to plunge into
the field of employment, that we can solve the problem of lack of skilled labourers
and unemployment of the educated. We need to reform the higher secondary
curriculum to address this concern.
What is desirable at present is a unified higher secondary curriculum. Efforts are
needed to break the boundaries of prevailing streams of studies-Science, Humanities
and Commerce that are formulated solely for higher studies. The subject combination
at higher secondary stage can be Science, Social Sciences, Commerce, Culture and
Vocational studies. Each subject combination provides the learner a deep learning
experience in three subjects. As the fourth subject, the learner can have a subject of
his/her choice. For instance, a student who selects science stream can have History,
Dance, Hindi or Music as his/ her fourth optional.
The number of languages to be taught is to be decided based on the aims of
language learning. This should also be based on the available working days and
working hours. At present institutions such as Navodaya Vidyalayas, which follow a
centralised syllabus, have only English as a compulsory language. Taking into
consideration the conditions prevailing in Kerala, there should be opportunity to study
languages including the mother tongue. The details of this have to be worked out
later through discussions. The learners who complete their higher secondary course
get trained in a vocation of their choice. For example, a learner who takes up
science can study one of the related vocations (Community Medical Service, Lab
Technicians, Architecture, Draftsmen, Farming, Dairy, Fisheries etc.) and can gain
practical experience and expertise in it. Vocational education must be provided
through local centres. During this period it is advisable for all learners to gain
experience as apprentices. For this, job clusters are created at the Block level and
quality training centres are recognised and authorised to impart training.

Learners will be given opportunity to get trained in vocations that are useful to
society such as draftsmen, farmers, dairy farmers, horticulturists, plumbers,
architects, electricians, automobile repairers, mechanics, computer hardware
technicians, repairers of electronic equipments and mobile phones, lab technicians,
community workers, carpenters, hotel managers, caterers, cooks, masons, sculptors
etc. at different training centres.
Along with the higher secondary certificate, there will be certification on the skill of
the learner in any particular vocation. On completion of higher
secondary, those who opt for academic pursuit can continue in their respective
discipline while for those who seek job, the certificate will give scope for employment.
Higher Secondary Level
This stage can be looked at in two dimensions.
In the case of a few learner, this stage is the final phase of formal education. It helps
them enter the job market. It also develops in them the ability to interact with the
society. For some others, the higher secondary is the spring board for higher studies.
These learners should acquire the basic skills to pursue the study of a subject of their
own interest. Along with that, the learner should get an opportunity to acquire social
skills. Both these groups of learners should get a chance to select subjects according
to their interests and develop the ability to handle abstract ideas. They should go
through different learning methodologies. Learning experiences have to be arranged
in such a way as to facilitate learners from all regions and social classes. The self
esteem of all the learners should be elevated. Different subjects have different modes
of approach in the learning process. Still, we must ensure a link between all these to
the extent possible. Along with that, we must develop learning materials that can
provide a variegated experience to the learner.
The learners at this level are able to interact with the society in a more
accomplished way and they must be able to apply knowledge that they create in real
social situations. The activities taken up by the learners should be approved as valid
learning activities. Within the school atmosphere, there should be practical situations
to utilize knowledge that the learners create. For instance, the history museum
created by learners as part of learning history or a co-operative society led by the
students as a part of learning economics should be considered as learning activities.
The learning experience of all levels should be organized by considering the
curriculum objectives of social sciences. Apart from the information a learner acquires
by learning Social Sciences the knowledge to be constructed by the learner must be
clearly defined. The learning objectives need to be fixed in accordance with it. It must
be born in mind that the development of different levels of learning of Social Sciences
get exemplified in making absolute knowledge a dynamic social praxis.
Higher Secondary Level
The higher secondary level, which is a continuation of class 10, combines the
academic and vocational streams and becomes a single structure. The learners at
this level have chosen their optional subjects according to their aptitudes and
preferences at the secondary level itself. The following combinations can be
considered as main core subjects at this level:
1.Science - Mathematics/Biology, Physics, Chemistry.
2. Social Sciences - History, Political Science/Sociology, Geography/ Economics.
3.Commerce - Accountancy, Economics, Business Studies.
4. Culture - Kerala Culture/Indian Culture, any one language and one of the art

5. Vocational Proficiency - Theory and practical of the selected vocation,

Practical/Marketing, Proficiency in Computers, General Foundation Course.
( The course material will enable the learner to gain expertise in a particular
production or services sector. Regional specialities, availability of institutions for
practical experience are factors that should be considered for introducing a vocational
courses. ) Geology, Statistics, Islamic History, Computer Application, Journalism,
Psychology, Computer Science, Computerised Accounting, Co-operation, Gandhian
Studies, Social Work, Anthropology, Sociology, Philosophy, Home Science, Vocational
Education, other core subjects, languages etc. can be one of the subjects chosen as
the fourth
The three subjects in the five combinations mentioned are mandatory but a learner
can opt for one of the subjects from the list as the fourth option. For example, a
student studying in science combination can also learn computer application and a
student studying in vocational group can study economics or psychology. Thus it is
ensured that a student learns a total of four subjects. There will be two levels for the
study of languages. One, as complementary to the study of core subjects and the
other as a focused study in literature and culture as an optional subject. The
instructional hours proposed at this level is thirty hours spanning five days a week
and on the sixth working day, students carry out independent learning with the help
of teachers. This activity need not necessarily be conducted in schools. Any topic
from the vocational subjects or music or painting or sports can be learnt on the sixth
day. A student can also learn independently from a recognized industrial unit or
under a local educator as well. It can also be effectively utilized by the student
engaging in library work, seminars, educational visits or group studies or
collaborative studies under the guidance of teachers. The nature of the sixth working
day will differ from school to schools and subject to the availability of local production
centres. There will be provision for issuing certificates to the learners who attain
proficiency in a particular vocation within a time span of two years. This will be
compulsory for all students.
Schools should make newer arrangements considering the availability
of resources. It must be done considering the possibilities of different options for
learners in future. The approach we have to adopt is to keep the diversity of higher
secondary education without sacrificing the spirit of general education. Discussions
need to be conducted in this regard for obtaining further suggestions.
Yashpal Committee Report
All universities must be teaching cum research universities. All research
bodies must connect with universities in their vicinity and create teaching
opportunities for their researchers. (p14)
We must prevent isolation of study of engineering or management. We should
look forward to the day when IITs and IIMs also produce scholars in areas like
literature, linguistics and politics. Institutions must be given the freedom to
expand and diversify as they see fit rather than thrusting an uniform diktat on all
institutions. (p15)
All syllabi should require teachers and students to apply what they have learnt
in their courses, on studying a local situation, issue or problem. There should be
sufficient room for the use of local data and resources to make the knowledge
covered in the syllabus come alive as experience. (p18)


Minimum set of occupational exposure to be made compulsory for all

students, irrespective of discipline, in the form of summer jobs or internships,
with evaluation of the students on this front. (p19)
Need to expose students at the undergraduate level to various disciplines like
humanities, social sciences, aesthetics, irrespective of the discipline they would
like to specialise in subsequently. (p21)
Teacher training for all levels of school education (from primary to higher
secondary) must be carried out by institutions of higher educations. The absence
of university-level interest in teacher training has resulted in poor academic
quality. (p21-22)
We need to build strong bridges between different fields of professional
education and the disciplines of science, social sciences and humanities, All
professional institutions must be part of a comprehensive university in a
complete administrative and academic sense. We must abolish intermediary
bodies that have been set up solely to issue licenses to professional colleges
alone and inspect them. This will also help new interdisciplinary courses and
research to evolve in the comprehensive universities. (p23)
All vocational institutions must also be part of universities. (p24)
It should be mandatory for all universities to have undergraduate programes.
All teachers in universities must teach at the undergraduate level. (p26)
Universities must take steps to reduce gender, class and caste asymmetries.
Universities must study areas that are relevant in their immediate social and
natural milieu and create knowledge bases in those areas. (p28)
Universities must be motivated to identify and prioritise areas for reform and
initiate and implement the reform themselves from within rather than having the
reform thrust on them top-down by a national or state-level body. This will be
true autonomy. (p28)
There should be no discrimination between Central and State funded
universities. All benefits extended to Central Universities must also be extended
by State Governments to the state universities and the Centre must incentivise
the States to do so. (p30)
There is an optimum size for a University in terms of the number of affiliated
colleges, which must be maintained. (p31-32)
The inability of the state to drastically increase capacity in higher education
has led to growth of the private sector in higher education. To double higher
education capacity, we need all three kinds of universities: state-funded and run
universities, private universities and those funded and run by public-private
partnerships. All of them should work efficiently overseen by a transparent
regulatory mechanism. (p32-34)
All private universities must submit to a national accreditation system. Private
degree-granting universities must not be confined to select areas like technology,
medicine, management, finance etc.. They must be required to be
comprehensive universities covering the arts and social and natural sciences too.
There must be tight regulation of private universities in terms of auditing of
accounts, payment of minimum salaries to teachers, certain percentage of seats
reserved for meritorious students who are to be provided scholarships etc.. (p35)
Granting of Deemed University status to be put on hold. All existing Deemed
Universities to be given three years to shape up (to have strong research

programmes, and become a comprehensive university as defined in this report)

failing which their Deemed University status is to be withdrawn. (p37)
Education must be made affordable for all through scholarships or loans
provided by the State. Every student who gains admission must get an assured
loan or a scholarship (for the needy) from the State. (p39)
Do we need foreign universities? Can the best learning experiences not be
provided to our students by opening our doors to foreign scholars? p(40)
If the best of foreign universities (amongst the top 200 in the world) want to
come to India, they should be welcomed. Such institutions should award an
Indian degree and be subject to all the rules and regulations that would apply to
any Indian university. (p40)
State funding, though increasing, will not be enough to expand supply and
progress towards excellence. Complementary sources of funding will have to be
found even for state funded universities. Philanthropy from society and alumni as
a source of funding needs to be encouraged, with appropriate changes in
regulation. Universities must be able to hire professional fundraisers and
professional investors to attract funding from non-government sources. (p41)
Universities must be freed from the constraints imposed by funding agencies
to obtain approvals for every single post. Funding agencies must provide block
grants against a plan and universities must be allowed to spend them according
to their priorities, subject to the plan. (p42)
There are a large number of students who can afford to pay for their
education. Absence of differential fees has led to subsidising students who can
actually afford to pay. Those who can afford to pay must pay higher fees for
which they will be offered guarateed student loans. Free education will be
provided only to those who cannot afford it. (p42)
National tests like the GRE must be organised round the year. Students from
all over India must be allowed to take the tests as many times as they like and
their best score can be sent to the universities for admission. Currently the CBSE
and the State Board exams are a means of normalising school level
competencies - this can be done by the National tests. We must seriously think of
reviving our faith in each school and its teachers to credibly evaluate their own
students. (p42-43)
India can provide affordable higher education to foreign students, if we
remove systemic impediments. It will also enrich the ethos of our universities.
Urgent measures are needed to attract good people who enjoy teaching and
research back to the university and offer them a positive and motivating
environment. Resources in terms of libraries, laboratories and research
assistance as well as competitive remuneration will need to be provided to retain
good people. (p43-44)
Student assessment of teachers needs to be instituted. Students can provide
an experiential assessment of the quality of teaching. Parameters of student
feedback can be drawn up to avoid distorted assessments by students. Teachers
whose feedback record remains poor in successive years should be required to
face formal precedures which might allow a university or college to shed them.
We need to improve governance of universities by developing expertise in
educational management, and avoid burdening good academics with
administrative chores. We must have a separation between academic
administration and overall management (including fund raising). State

governments must abandon the trend of appointing civil servants as university

administrators. (p45)
Teachers and students must have autonomy. In academic matters, the teacher
should have the autonomy to frame his/her course and the way he/she would
like to assess his/her students. Students should be allowed to take courses of
their choice from different universities and then be awarded a degree on the
basis of credits earned. (p46)
We should not blame private initiative, political interference, and other forces
for the loss of autonomy of universities. There was no rigorous resistance, indeed
there was willing abdication, from the academic community to the subversion in
matters of policy implementation, appointments and day-to-day functioning of
the universities. Education was made subservient to ideological compulsions,
which led to its loss of respect. (p49)
We need a De Novo regulatory body - the National Commission for Higher
Education and Research (NCHER) under which the various functions of the
existing regulatory agencies would be subsumed. The new body would also take
over the powers vested in the existing regulatory bodies in terms of creation of
new institutions as well as their content/sylallbi. (p52)
The 13 existing professional councils created under various acts of Parliament
may after divesting their existing regulatory functions to NCHER look at
conducting tests for practicisng professionals affiliated to the councils, prescribing
syllabi for such tests and leave it to the universities to design their curriculum
based on such syllabi. (p55).
The NCHER would not interfere with academic freedom and institutional
autonomy. It would not follow the current inspection-based approval method, it
but would use move to a verification and authentication system. Universities will
put out mandatory self-declarations in the public domain.
Given the federal nature of our country and the role of states in education,
there must be Higher Education Councils (HECs) in the states which will coordinate with the NCHER, to allow different institutions created and funded by
the Centre and States to grow on equal footing. These HECs would also insulate
the State universities from outside interference. (p57).
There should be a fast-track statutory mechanism in place for the adjudication
of disputes between teachers, employees and management of institutions and
universities in respect of matters concerning service conditions, as well as in
matters of disputes relating to fee, admissions etc. A suitable law should be
enacted to establish a National Education Tribunal along with State Education
Tribunals or appropriate number of Benches of the Apex Tribunal in place for such
adjudication. This would be in line with the observations of the Supreme Court of
India in the TMA Pai matter, where such Tribunals were recommended. (p 60)
Any agency whose intention is to protect students from sub-par education is
better off by providing information on the programmes and univerisites to the
student rather than walk the slippery path of establishing minimum standards of
quality (for education is about academic over-reach rather than reaching the
minimum). (p63)
Curricular reform to be the topmost priority of the newly created NCHER which
would create a curricular framework based on the principles of mobility within a
full range of curricular areas and integration of skills with academic depth. (p64)
The NCHER should galvanize research in the university system through the
creation of a National Research Foundation. (p64)


The NCHER should identify the best 1,500 colleges across India to upgrade
them as universities, and create clusters of other potentially good colleges to
evolve as universities. (p66)
The NCHER too should be subject to external review once in five years. (p66)
The NCHER should prepare and present a Report on the State of Higher
Education in India annually to Parliament. (p68)
The NCHER shall establish transparent norms and process for entry and exit of
institutions. The need is to make the process easy for good and serious proposals
for setting up new institutions. (p68)
The NCHER would be an autonomous body created by making a suitable
amendment to the Constitution, accountable only to the Indian parliament and
drawing its budgetary resources from the Ministry of Finance. It would have a
seven-member board with a full-time Chairperson. Of the seven members, one
would be an eminent professional from the world of industry and one with the
background of a long and consistent social engagement. All other five members
would be academic people of eminence, representing broad areas of knowledge.
The status of the Chairperson of the commission should be analogous to that of
the Chief Election Commissioner and that of the members should be comparable
to the Election Commissioners. The Commission will be independent of all
ministries of the Government of India. It will have the autonomy to hire talent at
various levels within and outside the government. It will also have the autonomy
to define the compensation of its employees.
45. The NCHER may initially consist of five divisions: (p70)

Future Directions: Developing global benchmarks on student

performance; university performance; salaries, potential programmers; new
research directions; and articulation of needs of the government in terms of
manpower etc.


Accreditation Management: Creating norms for accreditation and

certifyingmultiple accreditation agencies which would be independent of the
government .Institutions and universities may like to get accreditation from
one or more than one agencies depending on their reputation. They would be
also providing annual feedback to universities, and organizing workshops etc.


Funding & Development: Developing funding needs of universities,

developing mechanisms for funding institutions, helping universities with
development of corpus and good endowment management, managing the
guaranteed student loan/scholarship programme, and funding the
requirements of universities etc.


New Institutions & Incubation: Including training workshops for

first-time VCs as well as on themes like accounting, investing the corpus,
communication within & outside the university, negotiations & managing
vendors, good office practices, human resource management etc.


Information & Governance: This division will focus on managing the

data needs of the commission, display of information on universities, develop
performance parameters on the governance of universities, support other
divisions with information as well as provide students with information on each

university. This division w ill also inform the Accreditation and Funding &
Development divisions of the performance or lack thereof, for each university,
each year.


India has made considerable progress in school education since independence with
reference to overall literacy, infrastructure and universal access and enrolment in
schools. Teacher quality is a function of several factors: teacher's status,
remuneration and conditions of work, teacher's academic and professional education.
The teacher education system through its initial and continuing professional
development program expects to ensure adequate supply of professionally competent
teachers to run the nation's schools. The locus of the functions of teacher educators
lies in the role perceptions of teachers with regard to educational objectives,
practices and processes of the school.
NCTE undertook a major exercise of developing a new National Curriculum
Framework for Teacher Education, which is both contextual, and in tune with the
emerging concerns and imperatives of the fast changing canvas of education both
nationally and globally.
Teacher education is not a prescriptive endeavor. It should be open and flexible. It
highlights an integrative and eclectic approach to teacher education. There is an
emphasis on changing context.
The concern is to make teacher education liberal, humanistic and responsive to the
demands of inclusive education.
It acknowledges the diversity of learning spaces and curriculum sites apart from
the classroom.
It also appreciates diversity in learning styles that children exhibit and the learning
contexts in which teachers have to function.

Pedagogical knowledge has to constantly undergo adaptation to meet the needs of

diverse contexts through critical reflection by the teacher on his/her practice
Teacher education is a continuum - Pre-service teacher education, in-service
teacher education and continuing professional development of the teachers are
inseparable part of this continuum.
A shift towards constructivist insights as well as critical pedagogy.
Concerned with integrating theory with practice by providing appropriate
weightage for theory and practice.
Need for enhancing language competence and communication skills language
cuts across the entire curriculum. The role of language as a medium and tool of
communication assumes great importance.
Highlights the processes of education and training such as observation, story
telling, analysis, critical enquiry, self-learning, reflection on practices, linking
practices to concepts, etc.
Emphasis on teacher as a reflective practitioner.
Identified broad areas of evaluation/ assessment indicator of each area and
criteria for each indicator.
Both qualitative and quantitative evaluation and assessment procedures are
Collaborative evaluation as one of the evaluation mechanisms may be
conceptualized by making student teacher an important partner in the process of
Needs to make functional all laboratories related to teacher preparation such as IT
laboratory, educational technology, educational testing and language learning
Move towards a longer duration course (4/5 years after +2 schooling or 2 years
after a bachelor's degree. Adequate rationale worked out for suggested duration of
the program by taking into consideration time matrix/time on task details.
Four modern teaching approaches such as constructivism, comprehensive
learning, contextual pedagogy and ICT integration needs to be highlighted.


A road map has been identified highlighting how curriculum framework will be
implemented for teacher education program at various levels. As a follow-up, NCTE
has already initiated a status study on existing syllabi of teacher education programs
at various levels. Based on the exercises NCTE intends to develop model curricula,
syllabi and textual materials for teacher education programs at different levels.
Stakeholders will be oriented with new demands of NCFTE.
University Education Departments, SCERT, IASE/CTE/DIET, etc. would recognize
their teacher education programs by reformulating their curriculum and syllabus.
Faculty of teacher training institutions will acquire new skills in pedagogy and
evaluation in order to address the demands of new NCFTE.
Teaching-learning materials and the learning sites will be redesigned.
Teacher educators and teachers will look for continuous professional development.
Mass orientation of teachers and teacher educators on various aspects of
NCFTE(2009) such as :
o Evaluation of developing teachers
o Formulation of innovative teacher education programs

o Study on impact of new curriculum/syllabus at state-level.

The profile and role of teacher educator are to be conceived primarily with reference
to the philosophy and principles that govern the various aspects of school education
aims of education, curriculum, methods and materials and the socio-cultural context
in which the school functions and the role of the teacher- educators in translating
educational intents into practical action. The teacher educator should share the
underlying educational philosophy and possess the needed understanding and
professional competencies to develop desired behaviors in his/ her charges

Engage teachers with children in real contexts than teach them about children
through theories


Bring into the TE curriculum and discourse trainees' own assumptions about
children and beliefs about knowledge and processes of learning


Help teachers to reflect upon their own positions in society gender, caste, class,
poverty, linguistic and regional variation, community, equity and justice


Focus on the developmental aspects of children with constant reference to the

socio-economic and cultural contexts of children


Engage with theory along with field experiences to help trainees to view
knowledge not as external to the learner but as something that is actively
constructed during learning


Provide opportunity for trainees for reflection and independent study without
packing the training schedule with teacher directed activities


Integrate academic knowledge and professional learning into a meaningful whole


View learning as a search for meaning out of personal experiences and

knowledge generation as a continuously evolving process of reflective learning


View knowledge not as an external reality embedded in textbooks but as

constructed in the shared context of teaching - learning and personal experience

10. Provide opportunities to the student teacher to critically examine curriculum,

syllabi and textbooks
11. Change perception of child as a receiver of knowledge and encourage its capacity
to construct knowledge

The Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act, 2002 inserted Article 21-A in the
Constitution of India to provide free and compulsory education of all children in the
age group of six to fourteen years as a Fundamental Right in such a manner as the
State may, by law, determine. The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory
Education (RTE) Act, 2009, which represents the consequential legislation envisaged
under Article 21-A, means that every child has a right to full time elementary
education of satisfactory and equitable quality in a formal school which satisfies
certain essential norms and standards.

Article 21-A and the RTE Act came into effect on 1 April 2010. The title of the RTE Act
incorporates the words free and compulsory. Free education means that no child,
other than a child who has been admitted by his or her parents to a school which is
not supported by the appropriate Government, shall be liable to pay any kind of fee
or charges or expenses which may prevent him or her from pursuing and completing
elementary education. Compulsory education casts an obligation on the appropriate
Government and local authorities to provide and ensure admission, attendance and
completion of elementary education by all children in the 6-14 age group. With this,
India has moved forward to a rights based framework that casts a legal obligation on
the Central and State Governments to implement this fundamental child right as
enshrined in the Article 21A of the Constitution, in accordance with the provisions of
the RTE Act.
The RTE Act provides for the:

Right of children to free and compulsory education till completion of elementary

education in a neighbourhood school.

It clarifies that compulsory education means obligation of the appropriate

government to provide free elementary education and ensure compulsory
admission, attendance and completion of elementary education to every child in
the six to fourteen age group. Free means that no child shall be liable to pay
any kind of fee or charges or expenses which may prevent him or her from
pursuing and completing elementary education.

It makes provisions for a non-admitted child to be admitted to an age

appropriate class.

It specifies the duties and responsibilities of appropriate Governments, local

authority and parents in providing free and compulsory education, and sharing of
financial and other responsibilities between the Central and State Governments.

It lays down the norms and standards relating inter alia to Pupil Teacher Ratios
(PTRs), buildings and infrastructure, school-working days, teacher-working

It provides for rational deployment of teachers by ensuring that the specified

pupil teacher ratio is maintained for each school, rather than just as an average
for the State or District or Block, thus ensuring that there is no urban-rural
imbalance in teacher postings. It also provides for prohibition of deployment of
teachers for non-educational work, other than decennial census, elections to local
authority, state legislatures and parliament, and disaster relief.

It provides for appointment of appropriately trained teachers, i.e. teachers with

the requisite entry and academic qualifications.

It prohibits (a) physical punishment and mental harassment; (b) screening

procedures for admission of children; (c) capitation fee; (d) private tuition by
teachers and (e) running of schools without recognition,

It provides for development of curriculum in consonance with the values

enshrined in the Constitution, and which would ensure the all-round development
of the child, building on the childs knowledge, potentiality and talent and making
the child free of fear, trauma and anxiety through a system of child friendly and
child centred learning.

The Teacher Education Policy in India has evolved over time and is based on
recommendations contained in various Reports of Committees/Commissions on
Education, the important ones being the Kothari Commission (1966), the
Chattopadyay Committee (1985), the National Policy on Education (NPE 1986/92),
Acharya Ramamurthi Committee (1990), Yashpal Committee (1993), and the
National Curriculum Framework (NCF, 2005). The Right of Children to Free and
Compulsory Education (RTE) Act, 2009, which became operational from 1st April,
2010, has important implications for teacher education in the country.
Legal and Institutional Framework
Within the federal structure of the country, while broad policy and legal framework on
teacher education is provided by the Central Government, implementation of
various programmes and schemes are undertaken largely by state governments.
Within the broad objective of improving the learning achievements of school
children, the twin strategy is to (a) prepare teachers for the school system (preservice training); and (b) improve capacity of existing school teachers (in-service
For pre-service training, the National Council of Teacher Education (NCTE), a
statutory body of the Central Government, is responsible for planned and
coordinated development of teacher education in the country. The NCTE lays down
norms and standards for various teacher education courses, minimum
qualifications for teacher educators, course and content and duration and
minimum qualification for entry of student-teachers for the various courses. It also
grants recognition to institutions (government, government-aided and selffinancing) interested in undertaking such courses and has in-built mechanism to
regulate and monitor their standards and quality.
For in-service training, the country has a large network of government-owned
teacher training institutions (TTIs), which provide in-service training to the school
teachers. The spread of these TTIs is both vertical and horizontal. At the National
Level, the National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT), along
with its six Regional Institutes of Education (REIs) prepares a host of modules for
various teacher training courses and also undertakes specific programmes for
training of teachers and teacher educators. Institutional support is also provided
by the National University on Education al Planning and Administration (NUEPA).
Both NCERT and NUEPA are national level autonomous bodies. At the state level,
the State Councils of Educational Research and Training (SCERTs), prepares
modules for teacher training and conducts specialised courses for teacher
educators and school teachers. The Colleges of Teacher Education (CTEs) and
Institutes for Advanced Learning in Education (IASEs) provide in-service training
to secondary and senior secondary school teachers and teacher educators. At the
district level, in-service training is provided by the District Institutes of Education
and Training (DIETs). The Block Resource Centres (BRCs) and Cluster Resource
Centres (CRCs) form the lowest rung of institutions in the vertical hierarchy for
providing in-service training to school teachers. Apart from these, in-service
training is also imparted with active role of the civil society, unaided schools and
other establishments.
Reforms in Regulatory Framework
The National Council for Teacher Education (NCTE) was constituted under the
National Council for Teacher Education Act, 1993 for achieving planning and
coordinated development of teacher education in the country, for regulation and
proper maintenance of norms and standards in the teacher education system. In
the recent past the NCTE has undertaken various steps for systemic improvements
in its functioning and in improving the teacher education system, as under :

Based on the study of demand and supply of teachers and teacher educators of
the various states, the NCTE has decided not to receive further applications
for several teacher education courses in respect of 13 States. This has led to
substantial rationalisation in the demand-supply situation across States;
The Regulations for grant of recognition and norms and standards for various
teacher education courses were revised and notified on 31st August, 2009.
The applications for grant of recognition are now processed strictly in
chronological order. The new Regulations make the system more transparent,
expedient and time bound, with reduction in discretionary powers of the
Regional Committees;
e-Governance system has been introduced by way of providing online facility for
furnishing of applications and online payment of fees. MIS has been developed
to streamline the process of recognition;
The National Curriculum Framework for Teacher Education has been developed
keeping in view NCF, 2005;
Academic support is being provided through preparation of Manual for the
teacher education institutions and publication and dissemination of Thematic
Papers on Teacher Education.
Various quality control mechanisms have been developed, including recomposition of the Visiting Teams, periodical monitoring of the teacher
education institutions and de-recognition of institutions not conforming to the
Norms and Standards prescribed by the NCTE.