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Title: Assignment5

Author: Shruthi Thota
Class: IE655
Date: 12-16-2016
eLearning Pack ID: IE655-Fall 2016-33-05
Collaborative Companies:
1. SAE INTERNATIONAL AUTOMOTIVE ENGINEERING
2. SAE INTERNATIONAL AEROSPACE & DEFENSE
TECHNOLOGY
3. FORCE BEYOND
4. INDO-MIM
Statement:
The assignment work was finished and submitted by Shruthi
Thota.
Content:
1) Introduction and Objectives of the Project
2) Part 0: Assignment Rework
3) Part 1:
1. Innovative Green PLM Design
2. Product / Process Innovation, Introduction Methods and
Processes.
3. Green Product Innovation Introduction (NPI & I)
4. CORA
5. PFRA
6. Further Work Needed or Proposed
4) Part 2:
1. PLM/Digital Design, Digital Manufacturing & Sustainable
Green Transition plan
2. Transition Strategy including Implementation and Test
Plan
3. Implementation of Transition Plan
4. ROI Plan

5) Part 3 - Video Conference
1. Social Networking Content
2. Summary
3. References and Bibliography.
Introduction and Objectives of the Project:
Our company “Automotive Web Services” is one of the highly
exclusive band of engineering companies which provides a website for
the desktops and application for the mobiles and ipad that helps the
customers to benefit from dual advantage cost effectiveness and
enhanced machining capabilities. Its vast machine pool and an expert
engineering team with the highest level of technical and professional
competence produce products that are complex and meet the high
quality standard of its customers. Its Product portfolio encompasses
components ranging from 15gms-12kgs such as to crank shaft
assemblies, Rocker arms, Gear shifter forks, Common Rail, Connecting
rods etc. Some components have been manufactured in our firm such as
connecting rod, rocker arms and crankshafts.
Our Mission is to contribute towards Green and Sustainable
Environment. We do this by constructing Green buildings in our
premises. The engineering division and corporate office are platinum
rated buildings. We installed solar water heater on all buildings along
with a huge water treatment plant built to treat water that is polluted
from our machining processes. There is also scrap yard to make sure the
rejected components are either reworked or given new shape so that
metals are not wasted.
Part 0: Assignment Rework
Assignment 0:
Based on your submission I can offer you the following grade:
Assignment 0: 10/10

Assignment 1:
Based on your submission I can offer you the following grade:
Assignment 1: 10/10
Assignment 2:
Grades for Assignment 2: 20/20
Assignment 3:
Grades for Assignment 3: 20/20
Assignment 4:
Based on your submission, I can offer you the following grade for this
assignment:20/20
Part 1:
1. Innovative Green PLM Design:
Current Process: The current process predominantly uses
conventional process. It includes stamping, drawing, piercing,
trimming and flanging operations. The metal forming uses the
metal contact between the tools and dies. This process became
increasingly difficult because the new materials have increased
strength and hardness. This process uses significantly huge amount
of material because they cannot produce every thing through
automotive panels that compromises an intricate structure.
New Process: Electro Hydraulic Forming (EHF) is a high rate
forming process based on the high-voltage discharge of capacitors
between two electrodes positioned in a fluid filled chamber. This
process is extremely fast, uses low-cost, single-sided tooling and

potentially derives increased formability from many sheet metal
materials because it involves elevated strain rates.
Industrial Application: Electro Hydraulic Forming (EHF) is
highly viable manufacturing technology because it can be used to
form all types of sheet materials. This multi material capability
allows vehicle manufactures and their suppliers in order to make
necessary investments that bring EHF into commercial
applications because they don’t limit their capabilities to a single
family of materials, such as steel or aluminum.
Green Sustainable benefits of the EHF Process: The thin
automobile panels can be manufactured with the best features that
enhances the aerodynamic design and also improves the overall
efficiency of the automobile.
It requires less energy that directly reduces the requirement of
energy.
It reduces the stress on metals and thereby increases the longevity
of the materials.
Reduced friction leads to better components.
This process leads to decrease the metal requirement that ensures
the mining of such metals are reduced which is beneficial to
nature.
2. Product and Process Innovation:
CORA: CORA is a Team Oriented Problem Solving (TOPS)
method aimed at minimizing dissatisfaction, financial loss due to
inadequate requirement specification and poor communication
between customers and providers.
It is applied during the electronic support system planning stages
of a product / process development project, as well as for TQM /
TQC and other purposes, and then updated on a regular basis to
document changes in requirements and / or best engineering

practice and management solutions. It is an iterative technique that
promotes systematic engineering team thinks when new process,
product or system design is developed.
By applying this method in our company, it has enhanced the
quality of manufactured components, increased the customer
satisfaction and took the company towards the goal of achieving
100% quality and also created a platform to promote innovation.
PFRA: We will implement Process Failure Risk Analysis (PFRA)
method and software tool during the planning stages of a process.
PFRA is a Team Oriented Problem Solving (TOPS) method, aimed
at minimizing dissatisfaction and financial loss for process related
failure risks.
By applying this method in our company, it has enhanced the
quality of manufactured components, increased the customer
satisfaction and took the company towards the goal of achieving
100% quality and also created a platform to promote innovation.
TQM: Total Quality Management is an approach by a company to
improve the quality of its products and services continuously by
utilizing all the available resources in an economical way. It is an
ever ending improving process that urges the organization to find
new ways to achieve better products and services. The importance
lies on how the company uses its entire arsenal to produce a
product with a continuous improvement in quality of their
products, that increases the customer satisfaction.
Employee Empowerment: An employee has the responsibility of
a particular process. Anything that happens in that particular
process, the empowered employee is responsible for the
happenings. This responsibility or ownership of the process brings
in urgency and also tendency to continually improve the processes,
products and services to strive for customer delight which is

nothing but empowering the employee with the responsibility of
the entire process. This makes the employee as much responsible
as CEO of the organization.
QFD: QFD is a specialized method in order to make customers as
part of the product development cycle. The purpose of QFD is to
identify customer needs and ensure that they have been effectively
accommodated in a product design. It is a system that allows
designers to focus on the attributes of a product from the
perspective of customers.
POKA YOKE: Poka-Yoke is a technique that avoids simple
human errors and aims for zero defects at all levels of work. The
fundamental concept of Poka-Yoke is to respect the intelligence,
knowledge and experience of machine operators, assembly line
workers, designers and manufacturing engineers who try to
eliminate the possibility of failure, defects through design and
sound practices.
Advanced Simulation Software: With the development of new
advanced system, computer simulation methods become more
precise. Simulation software can replace lot of prototyping and
many important design decisions can be made at very low cost by
compiling a lot of data at computer desk. It decreased defects and
reduces prices at early stages of PLM.
3D Printing: One of the biggest news in the manufacturing
technology sector in last few years is the proliferation and
application of 3D printing technology. It has caught the
imagination of the general public and the manufacturing
community since the invention of personal computer and internet.
Within few years, the technology has evolved so much that it is
now capable to produce almost any component using metal,
plastic, mixed materials and even human tissue. It forced engineers
and designers to think differently about product development. As

the core manufactures adopt and use 3D printing technology, there
will be a little doubt that 3D printing will change the face of
manufacturing forever.
3.New Green Product Innovation and Introduction (NPI&I):
Advanced Laser Based Sensors for Industrial Process
Control:
To capture the potential of real-time monitoring and
overcome the challenges of harsh industrial environments,
researchers will fabricate, deploy and commercialize advanced
laser-based gas sensors for industrial process control monitoring in
electric arc furnaces. These sensors can achieve improvements in
process control, leading to enhanced productivity, improves
product quality, and reduces energy consumption and emissions.
The first sensor will utilize both mid-infrared and near-infrared
lasers to make rapid in-situ measurements of industrial gases and
associated temperatures in the off-gas of an EAF. The second
sensor will make extractive measurements of process gases.
Researchers will manufacture three of each sensor type and deploy
them at domestic EAF steelmaking facilities to evaluate their
effectiveness for real-time control of the EAF process.
The Internet of Things (IoT):
The Internet of Things (IoT) is a revolutionary manufacturing
technology that allows electronic devices connected to each other,
within the existing Internet infrastructure, to communicate with
one another without human intervention. An IoT device connects
to the internet and is capable of generating and receiving signals.
As such, the use of this technology is going to have a profound
impact on the manufacturing industry. IoT enables connected
devices to “talk” to each other, sending and receiving critical
notifications. An example of a critical notification is a defect or
damaged ping. Once the device detects failure, the IoT connected
device sends a notification to another device or user. This type of

small, but critical application of IoT in manufacturing results in
reduces downtime, increases quality, reduces waste and lowers
overall costs.
Cloud Computing:
Cloud Computing is the practice of using a network of
Internet-connected remote services along various points to store,
manage and process data. Many companies are already using cloud
computing, although the manufacturing industry is still taking time
to warm up the technology due to connectivity and security
concerns. Overtime, to the present day, cloud computing grows
more stable and reliable. Manufacturers are increasingly
implementing cloud computing software in manufacturing plants
spread out in various geographic areas in order to share data
quickly and efficiently. In implementing cloud computing,
manufacturers reduce costs, gain greater quality control, and
increase the speed of production. In the future, it is feasible that all
manufacturing facilities will have a connection to the cloud.
Big Data and Predictive Maintenance Technology:
Manufacturing industries can significantly increase their
efficiency and productivity with the technologies that allow them
to collect, process and measure big data in real time. These
technologies include electronic devices that connect factories
through the internet and web pages that double as dashboards for
controlling the processes. Predictive maintenance technology helps
predict snags and defects and thus cuts downtime and costs. In the
future, manufacturers will implement big data and predictive
maintenance technologies in every area of manufacturing. IoT is a
part of big data and predictive technology that manufacturers are
already using with remarkable success.
V2V Communications:

In February, US National Highway Traffic Safety
Administration announced that it will begin taking steps to enable
vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication technology for light
vehicles. This technology would allow vehicles to “talk” to each
other and ultimately avoid many crashes altogether by exchanging
basic safety data, such as speed and position, ten times per second,
to improve safety.
Pre Collision Technology:
Top carmakers such as Ford and Hyundai have developed a
pre-collision assist and pedestrian detection technology. Besides
helping the driver detect blind spots, this technology also alerts the
driver when he/she is not paying attention on the road. And if the
driver falls asleep and does not respond to the warning, then the
system applies the brakes on its own. The driver assist system has
two types of sensors. One is millimeter-wave radar located inside
the front grille, and the other is a monocular camera mounted on
the upper, inside part of the windshield. Its collision mitigation
braking system delivers an audio and visual warning when there is
a risk of a head-on collision. If the driver fails to react, the car will
automatically begin breaking itself to prevent or reduce the
severity of a crash.
Mega scale Desalination Plant:
On a Mediterranean beach 10 miles south of Tel Aviv, Israel,
a vast new industrial facility hums around the clock. It is the
world`s largest modern seawater desalination plant, providing 20%
of the water consumed by the country`s households. Built for the
Israeli government by Israel Desalination Enterprises or IDE
Technologies, at a cost of around $500 million, it uses a
conventional desalination technology called Reverse Osmosis
(RO). Thanks to a series of engineering and materials advances,

however, it produces clean water from the sea cheaply and ata a
scale never before achieved.
Chainless Bike:
Dealing with a rusty bicycle chain can be a messy affair, but
an innovative new bike from Ikea solves that pesky problem. The
furniture retail giant recently introduced its new “Sladda” bike,
which uses an oil-free and corrosion-resistant drive belt rather than
a metal chain.
The drive belt is designed to last about 9,320(15,000 kilometers),
which is about two to three times longer than a typical steel chain,
according to Ikea. Moreover, the unisex Sladda bike has a “Click
System” that lets the rider snap on accessories, such as a basket, a
bike bag rack and a towing trailer, the company said.
Distributed Manufacturing:
The factory of the future is online-and on your doorstep
Distributed manufacturing turns on its head the way we make and
deliver products. In traditional manufacturing raw materials are
brought together, assembled and fabricated in large centralized
factories into identical finished products that are then sent to the
customer. In distributed manufacturing the raw materials and
methods of fabrication are decentralized and the final product is
manufactured very close to the final customer.
Fuel cell Vehicles:
Fuel-cell vehicles have long promised several major
advantages over those powered by electricity or hydrocarbons. The
technology has only now begun to reach the stage where
automotive companies are planning launches for consumers,

however, Initial prices are likely to be in the range of $70,000 but
should come down significantly as volumes increase within the
next couple of years.
4.CORA Analysis and Summary for New Process:
The 3 important aspects in CORA are:
Define scope, function and Purpose:
Meaning, that the team should define the system or sub-system, or
any product, process, or service system design to be analyzed.
(When ‘greening’ a product, one should find a suitable candidate.)
Identify user / customer requirements:
This means that the team should collect all realistic and accurate
user requirements and enter them in the left hand side of our
CORA spreadsheet.
Prioritize potential requirements:
This activity means, that all requirements should be ranked
depending on their importance, by the cross-functional team as
early as possible. In order to achieve the highest level of customer
satisfaction with the end product, this activity focuses on the key
issues and provides a traceable path from the customer down to the
most detailed processes, throughout each stage of the product
development cycle.
The List of Customer Requirement for the new EMF process are:
High Efficiency
Affordability
High Quality Products
Safety of the components

High Impact Strength
Durability of the components
Non Corrosive Components
Waste Reduction during manufacturing

The List of Engineering Solutions are:
High Quality Materials
Six Sigma Quality Standards
Non Corrosive materials
CAE Analysis
Test for corrosion
Temperature Control Sensors
Automate Assembly Line
Cost Analysis
Summary for the CORA Analysis:
The most important engineering solution is high quality materials
with AIR 143 and RIR 16.27. This is quite obvious because a high
quality material can deliver the desired result may it be in terms of
customer satisfaction and also for the manufacturer of the
automobile.

The next important solution is CAE Analysis with AIR 132 and
RIR 15.02. Better CAE simulation can give a better product with
desired features and long lasting service for the customer.
The third important solution is temperature control sensors with
AIR 129 and RIR 14.68. EMF carried out under proper
temperature settings gives the best component which shows the
importance of temperature control.
5. PFRA Analysis and Summary:
There are seven basic steps that should be applied when working
with the PFRA template. The PFRA spreadsheet is attached along
with this. They are:
Inspection of raw materials received
Inspection of DC generator and High-Longevity Bearings
Casting of Automobile parts
Threading
Frame Assembly
Welding of different components
Painting of the product
Aerodynamics analysis of each component
Product packaging
Final Quality Control before packaging
Application of label and specification sheet
Storage of ready-to-ship products

1. Highest RPN and associated corrective actions:
Threading: Max RPN- 400 and Accumulated RPN – 887.04
This has the highest RPN which shows that immediate attention is
required. To rectify this, the operators are subjected to more
workshops, better equipments are provided. Also, the quality
engineers on the floor are asked to test the threading more frequently.
Also the equipments are subjected to destructive testing to check the
strength of the threads on the components.
2. Final Quality Control before packaging: Max RPN- 320 and
Accumulated RPN- 511.10
This has the second highest RPN which requires immediate
attention. The quality department has adopted a more stringent
quality checks before sending to the packing. Also the earlier
quality check are made more frequent. Also workshops are
organized to enlighten the operators and engineers about the value
of 100% quality and also certain easy but very important steps to
increase the quality of each component.

3. Storage of ready to ship products: Max RPN-288 and
Accumulated RPN
This has the third highest RPN which requires immediate attention.
The maintenance department has decided to enhance the
warehouse facilities by using the latest weather control for the
components. Also, the sales department is frequently updated about
the stock in the warehouse so that the sales can increase when there
in increase of finished goods in the warehouse.
6. Further Work needed or proposed:

The other method which can be integrated is the 3D printing
technology which is used for manufacturing. It is one of the
biggest news in the manufacturing technology sector in the last few
years is the proliferation and application of 3D printing technology.
It has caught the imagination of the general public and the
manufacturing community like nothing since the invention of the
personal computer and the internet. Within a few years, the
technology has evolved so much that it is now possible to produce
almost any component using metal, plastic, mixed materials and
even human tissue. It has forced engineers and designers to think
very differently when thinking about product development. As this
more manufacturers adopt and use 3D printing technology, there is
little doubt that 3D Printing will change the face of manufacturing
forever.
Part 2:
1. PLM /Digital Design Manufacturing and Sustainable
Transition Plan
Many companies have been utilizing the traditional engineering
approach for design which involves a sequential approach where
marketing obtains the requirements which are passed to the design
team. Once the design is complete this is passed manufacturing,
testing, and then production. When errors or changes occur it must
go back to the phase that needs rework and then back through the
sequential phases. This method is characterized by a lot of risk and
often leads to longer product lead times and added waste.
Furthermore, when a new product is launched with the traditional
approach but it similar to a certain degree to an existing product
the tradition approach often requires a start from scratch.
Companies have started to transition to a CE/PLM based approach
which involves the collaboration of all of the groups, marketing,
design, manufacturing, maintenance, quality, etc early on from
conception. More importantly there is a heavy collaborative effort

during design to reduce the changes of rework and errors. To go
further this approach has also evolved into PLM/ Digital Design
and Manufacturing. This is a similar concept as CE/PLM but it
occurs on a digital platform. Software packages allow for
management of the entire PLM in addition to digital modeling and
designing of the product and process. Product and process
information is stores in an object format which can be manipulated
and modified. This type of plat form allows for quick collaboration
and faster design and modifications. Furthermore, the information
is stores and can be retrieved when a similar new product has to be
developed.
Implementation of PLM / Digital Design and Manufacture leads to
shorter lead time of products. It engages the resources early during
the design phase to ensure errors are reduced. In addition, it allows
for iterative product changes and less rework and newer but similar
products need to be developed. This is something Toyota has
mastered and has shown for it to be profitable and results in high
quality products. Therefore, although the current method works
there is always a need to do it better because eventually companies
will find it hard to meet the customer’s need. When the reduction
of waste and faster lead times are realized the ROI is favorable
therefore the time and money invested is well worth it. Lastly, with
the proper implementation plan and software choice existing files
and projects can be transitioned over or may not need to be brought
over depending on the company strategy.
2. Transition Strategy including Implementation and Test Plan
In order to develop transition strategy for an organization utilizing
the traditional approach to a CE/ PLM/Digital and Design based
organization a system modeling tool called CIMpgr was used.
CIMpgr was developed by Ranky et al. CIMpgr is a set of
diagrams which show object to object relationships, their inputs,
controls, requirements, and outputs. CIMpgr has been used to show

the processes/phases involved with the transition of a traditional
organization to a modern PLM organization.
CIMpgr Model for – Transition and Implementation
The Strategy is focused around the following processes.
Definition – Management’s direction is translated into a standard
operating procedure which will service as a guideline of how
PLM’s should be managed and will serve as a blue print for the
organization
Assess and Analyze – This SOP will be analyzed from a gap and
risk perspective for future projects with Quality Assurance
oversight to ensure all conformance standards and regulatory
guidelines are adhered to. A review of existing 2-D,3-D CAD files
will be performed to ensure feasibility of transfer to new PLM
software.
Pilot and Educate – Software and required hardware will be
installed. An internal team along with the software vendor will
work to establish the new Digital PLM software and validate it per
vendor protocol and QA approval. A three wave training blitz will
be launched. The first wave will include overview training for all
and in depth training for those who will be involved with the pilot
projects as well as any support groups such as IT. A second
training blitz will involve retraining of the SOP for those involved
with the Pilot development projects right before kick off. The
execution of the projects will be reviewed by QA and senior
management for final approval to implement.
Implement and Transfer – Once pilot testing is complete, the
SOP will be rolled out to all employees and formal training of all
employees will be performed. For a member to have access to the
digital PLM system and be a part of any PLM team training on the
current version of the SOP shall be maintained.

The recommended education plan is stated in the above four
processes but it can be altered based on the size of the company.
With larger companies and more individual it is important to
realize more training sessions may be required to get all
individuals and to ensure the were able to understand their role and
responsibility in the procedure. The reason for converting the PLM
approach to an SOP is because the guidelines are documented,
agreed to by management, and makes everyone’s role and
responsibility clear. Medium to Large sized companies should
expect to perform numerous training sessions during the pilot to
ensure people are familiar and then at implementation to ensure
people know exactly what they should be doing. In a smaller
company fewer training sessions might be required and my not
need to be as formalized.
Process Model

Layer 0:

The Layer 0 is also called as the Parent Layer as it is the top most
layer in the CIMpgr model. The graphical representation of this
layer is shown above. It displays a high level description of the
entire system and the boundaries of the system are decided here.
When we move on to the next layers, the same process is explained
in more details. In this layer 0, the input, resources, controls and
output required for designing and functioning of Assembly unit are
shown. This layer depicts the functioning of all the undergoing
processes in the system. The customer requirements and system
requirements are very important; the success of the project highly
depends on their understanding. Simultaneously, technical
knowledge, time constraint, budget constraint, machinery and raw
materials are of equal importance.

Layer 1:

The Layer 1 is the Child layer of Layer 0. It elaborates on the
processes depicted in the layer 0 within the same boundaries, and
explains the processes in more details. The graphical representation
of the layer 1 is shown below. The figure below represents Layer 2
which is the break down of the process A3 further into three
different sub-process namely A3.1, A3.2, A3.3. This process tells
the companies requirements. Following the right plan and
requirements will lead to the success in delivery of the final quality

product eventually leading to the success of the company. The
device is designed using the appropriate design
specifications under trained design engineers. Our product will be
tested thoroughly before it is released in the market. Quality
standards will be maintained. Products will be constantly tested
using quality engineering tests. The company will focus on our
customers, keep a constant check whether the customers are
satisfied. To achieve this, the marketing and the sales team will
have an account of the budget and the financial limit and will work
on the promotion and advertising aspects of our product. This team
will also help in finding new collaborations.
Layer 2:

Layer 2 is the Child layer of Layer 1. It elaborates on the Assembly
Unit Operation in Layer 1. Layer 2 is divided in three processes.
The fan is cut and shaped properly according to the needs of the
customer and a special type of coating is given for a attractive
look. These are being produced under proper design specifications.
Since the product should reach the customers in a safe manner (i.e.
without breaking), the packaging is done with packaging safety
standards. The packaging is done using proper tools and automated
robots. The goal of our company is to produce quality products to
the customers, we accomplish that by following time to time
scheduled processes. Promoters and distributors take charge in
looking after the sales and orders from the customers.
3. Implementation of Transition Plan:
1.Build digital architecture and framework of the integrated PLM
system
2.Upload Master Data from legacy systems
3.Verify Master Data is accurate and make changes where it is not
4. Upload software into Product Development, Manufacturing, and
Marketing systems
5. Verify functionality of equipment with new software.
6. Establish criteria for integrated user testing.
7. Training for integrated user testing.
8. Execute integrated user testing
9. Verify user testing met criteria and fix bugs where found.
10.

Education Plan:

For small-medium size companies (up to 400 employees) –
training can be conducted by 1 or 2 trainers – preferably one
company subject matter expert (SME) and one software SME
For larger companies (more than 400 employees) – a team of
trainers consisting of company SMEs will be educated first on the
software, and the company SME trainers will conduct training
sessions of up to 40 people per session
Conduct trial run.
Conduct end-user training for all functions and update SOPs.
Execute go-live of green integrated PLM system and obsolete
legacy systems.
11.Instant on-site Support through first three months following
system go-live, feedback for any errors/problems.
12.External virtual support afterwards.
13.Document project closeout.
11.

Return on Investment (ROI):

Total Investment = $746,400.
Total Gain =$1,773,696
ROI in 3 years = 232%

PART 3: VIDEO CONFERENCING:

I did the video conferencing with Khyati Patel who is also a
student of IE655.

1. What was the purpose of the Video Conference?
The purpose of this video conference was about the exchange of
ideas. We discussed about the new products being built in our
companies and their sustainability, efficiency and also the
contribution towards conservation of nature through the new
product.
2. What were the most important steps in your product design
review process?
Initially we discussed about the traditional methods that are
currently being used in industries and then went about discussing

how the new idea was born and also about the feasibility of the
new product.
3. What software did you use for VC and how?
The software used for the video conference was Skype. This is an
excellent platform for video conference.
4. What did you discuss and achieve during the VC session?
We discussed about the feasibility of the new product and the way
it changes the working in industry. Also the increase in profit that
results by the use of this new product.
5. How do you like this video-conferencing approach for
collaborative CE/PLM problem solving?
This approach is more user friendly which saves time and also fuel
required for travelling the distance. Also this session can be
arranged within a short span of time.
6. What were the main challenges?
The main challenge was the video lag and video quality associated
with respect to video conferencing. The video quality can certainly
be better and also the video lag should be avoided.
7. What worked well, and what did not, and why?
I did not find any problem in the Video Conferencing Session. The
VC made the conversations seem more like face to face discussion.
Not having to travel saved time, energy and money. It was
interesting to learn from each other’s projects. I think that actually
meeting up in person would have created the same impact on
our communication. So I think video conferencing is a good tool in
order to reduce overhead time for the meetings.

8. In comparison to a face-to-face visit, versus VC, what is the
estimated carbon footprint saving to the environment?
Using a very good carbon foot print calculator following results
were obtained. Instead of driving to Khyati’s place to see her
project and review about it I used my own home to carry out the
video conferencing. According to the daily consumption of gas and
electricity for our house in Edison. Our yearly carbon
footprint8,621 lbs CO2 per year i.e. 23.62/day
If I use a car to drive to drive to NJIT for meeting, then my total
carbon footprint annually is 18,325 lbs CO2 per year i.e.50.2
lb/day. So totally I am saving 50.2-23.62= 26.58 lbs CO2.
Social Networking Articles:

Curiosity snaps stunning 360 panorama of Earth-like
rock formations on Mars
Some day in the distant future, homesick Mars colonists in need of
comfort might take a quick jaunt up Mt. Sharp to soak up a view that
looks just like desert rock formations on Earth. A stunning new 360degree color image taken on Mars on Aug. 5 by NASA's Mars rover,
Curiosity, looks at first glance like it could have been taken in parts of
the US southwest, Australia, Africa, Spain or India.
The mosaic of photos transmitted by Curiosity are of a Martian region
informally called the Murray Buttes, named nearly three years ago in
honor of Caltech planetary scientist Bruce Murray, a former director of
NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, which
manages the Curiosity mission for NASA.

Americans increasingly turned toward healthier options

In a January 20, 2015 article by USA Today reporter Bruce Horowitz
which surveyed more than 30,000 consumers in more than 60 nations
revealed that more younger consumers are far more concerned about
everything from food ingredients, genetically modified food to organic
foods than previous generations. Indeed, an obsession with healthy and
clean eating seems to be the order of the day. The most health-centric
group of consumers is Generation Z. These are the men and women
younger than 20 years old. More than four out of ten individuals polled
in this group indicated that they they would be willing to spend more
money for healthier products as opposed to 32 percent of millennials,
and 21 percent of baby boomers.

Yellen, In speech friday could send signal about next hike
The job market is humming, and so are the U.S. financial markets, with
major stock indexes near record highs.
All that would normally trigger a green light for the Federal Reserve to
raise interest rates — especially when they're barely above all-time lows.
Yet the Fed, still casting a wary eye on the economy, has yet to signal
that it will resume raising rates soon.
That signal, though, could come as soon as Friday, when Fed Chair Janet
Yellen will address the annual meeting of the world's central bankers in
Jackson Hole, Wyoming.
Fed leaders have sometimes used the Jackson Hole event to announce
major policy shifts. In 2010, for example, Chairman Ben Bernanke
signaled that the Fed was considering a new round of bond purchases to
try to help a struggling economy emerge from the wreckage of the Great
Recession. The Fed's purchases were intended to shrink long-term loan
rates to spur borrowing and spending.

SUMMARY:
This assignment has the introduction of several technologies in the
processes that were being used for manufacturing of our products. These
technologies were introduced in all the tools that were discussed in the
previous assignments. The implementation of CIMpgr Models, CORA
and PFRA demonstrated a significant benefit of these Technology. At the
last stage of the assignment, quality tests were performed in order to
ensure continuous improvement of the company as well as better
customer satisfaction and greener sustainability. The complete process
was then passed through a quality test to see that all the procedures are
being followed to be a sustainable organization. Application of the
course tools such as CIMpgr diagrams, CORA charts, Control Charts,
and PFRA charts have been employed in the company’s production
processes. These techniques help reduce to defects and errors. Through
Process modeling everyone in the company understands the processes
that are followed during the manufacture of the product. The
CORA method, helped improve the design of the service process by
understanding and meeting the requirements of the customer. Lastly, the
PFRA method was used to identify potential risk failures and
process failures that could affect the product once it is released to endusers. By the implementation of all these techniques and technologies,
the organization will continue to strive for new industrial standards
and produce high quality products for total customer satisfaction.

REFERENCES:
1. http://energy.gov/eere/amo/next-generation-manufacturingprocesses
2. http://energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2013/11/f4/lehigh_fs.pdf

3. http://cerasis.com/2015/01/13/manufacturing-technology/
4. Concurrent / Simultaneous Engineering An e-book by Dr..Paul G
Ranky
5. “Quality Management for Organizational Excellence by
David.L.Goetsch and Stanely.B.Davis”