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Dyeingofpolyesterandits

blends

Dyeing of Hydrophobic fibres

DyeingofHydrophobicfibreslikepolyesterwithdispersedyesisacompletelydifferentdyetransfer
system

Theprocessinvolvesdyetransferfromliquid(water)toasolidorganicfibreandittakesasfollowing:

1.

Dispersionofthedyeinthesolidphaseintowaterbybreakingupintomolecules(dissolutionofthe
dye)

2.

Adsorptionofthedissolveddyefromthesolutionontothefibresurface

3.

Diffusionofthedyemoleculesfromthefibresurfaceintotheinteriorofthefibre

How does it happen

Thefirststepofdyedissolutioninthedyebath dependsonthedispersability andsolubilityof


thedyewiththehelpofdispersingagents

Thesecondstepistheadsorptionofthedyebythefibrewhichisturnisaffectedby
solubilition ofthedyeandfabricaffinity

Therateofdiffusionofthedyeintothefabric

Equilibrium in dyeing

Whenequilibriumisreachedineachofthesesteps,thedyeingactuallytakesplace

Iftheamountofdyepresentisnotsufficienttosaturatethefibreonlythefirsttwoequilibria
willbeestablished

Ifthefibreissaturated,thethirdequilibriumwillbeattainedanddyeingwillbecompleted

Thus Aqueoussolubilityofthedyeanddyedye diffusionarethetwomainfactorswhich


governthedyeingprocess

Impact of these factors

Therateofdyeing

Thepercentageofexhaustionofthedyebath

Theleveldyeingcharacteristicsofthedispersedye

For achieving good fastness

Additionofsmallamountsofdispersingagents

Leadstobetterexhaustion

Longerdyeingperiodensuresbetterrubbingfastness

Shorterdyeingtimesusuallycauselessleveldyeing

Function of the Dispersing agent

Thedispersingagentperformsmanyfunctionsindyeing

Itassiststheprocessofparticlesizereductionofthedye

Theyincreasesolubilityofthedispersedye

Thechoiceofdispersingagentisspecificforadye

Dye

Solubilityin
water

1.Cibacet Orange 9.5


2RD

60

90

26

2.Dispersol Fast
OrangeA

0.5

46

140

17

3. Duranol Violet
2R

17.0

57

17

34

A 0.5%Sodiumoleylpanisidine sulphonate
B 0.5%Castoroilethyleneoxidecondensate
C 0.5%Sodiumoleate

Dye solubility only helpful to an extend

Dyesolubilityonlyhelpfultoanextend,althoughdyeingrateincreaseswithincreasing
solubilitybutupto acertainvalueandwithfurtherincreaseinsolubilitythedyeingrate
actuallydecreases.

Eachdyehasafavorable dispersingagentandiseffectivewiththatagentbest

Fibre swelling

Fibreswellingtakeplaceinhydrophilicfibressuchascottonwithwatermoleculesoccupyingthe
amorphousregionsofthefibre

Thisimbibedwaterhelptranslocationtosomeextentoftheabsorbeddye

Howeverinthecaseofhydrophobicfibreslikepolyesterthefibrestructureissocompactthatwateris
notabletoswellfibresasaresultminimalamountofwaterisimbibedinthefibrestructure,soslow
diffusionofdyetakesplace

Carriers

Thefibre structuremaybeopenedupbytheuseofcarrierorbythermalenergy

Fordyeingpolyesterfibres attemperaturesupto100degreewithoutanycarrierthe
diffusionofdyeisaffected

Thereforeuseofcarrierisrecommended.Thisfacilitatesthediffusionofthedyemolecules

Selection of carrier
Whileselectingacarrierfortheuseinpolyesterdyeing,thefollowingfactorsshouldbeconsidered
1.Highcarrierefficiency
2.Availabilityatlowcost
3.Littleornoeffectonlightfastnessonthefinaldyedproduct
4.Absenceofunpleasantodour
5.Nontoxicity
6.Easeofremovalafterdyeing
7.Nodegradationordiscolorationofthefibre

Continued
8.Highstabilityunderthedyeingconditions
9.Compatabilitywiththedyestuff
10.Lowvolatility
11.Easeofdispersioninthedyebath
12.Uniformadsorptionbythefibre
Thesedyeassistantsalterthedispersionpropertiesofthedyesandthephysicalpropertiesofthefibre so
thatmoredyestuffcanbetransferredfromthedyebath tothefibres.

Mechanism of the role of the carriers


Carriersgenerallyswellthefibres
Swollenfibres permitthelargedyemoleculestodiffusemorerapidly
Someproductshavinghydrophilicgroupssuchasophenylshowrapiddiffusionrateinpolyesterfibres
Thediffusionrateishinderedbytheaffinityforceswhichbindthedyemoleculesonthewallsof
thefibre pores.

Good swelling agents


Phenol
Ophenylphenol
Pphenylphenol
Methylsalicylate,
Diphenyl
Mcresolareswellingagentsforpolyesterfibres
However,Thosewithionisable groupsarelesseffectivesuchasbenzoicacid,betanaphtholsulphonic acid,

Properties of carrier dyeing


1.

Possibilityofdyeinginmachinesoperatingatatmosphericpressure

2.

Reduceddyeingcycleduetoaccelerateddyeing

3.

Improvedfastnesspropertiesduetoincreasedpenetrationinthefibre

4.

Increasedlevelling andhenceabettercoverageofdyeonthesurfaceofthefibre

5.

Somecarriersreducethestainingofwoolwhiledyeingpolyester/woolblends

Disadvantages with carrier


1.

Increasedcost

2.

Decreasedlightfastnesswithsomecarrier

3.

Toxicityofsomecarrier

4.

Somehavelowemulsionstabilityandcancausecarrierspots

5.

Odour andairpollution

6.

Somearedyespecifichavingdifferentefficiencieswithdifferentdyes

Actual dyeing machines used


Inactualpracticethepolyestercomponentsaredyedbythecarriermethodin
1.
Jiggers
2.

Winchbeck

Wherethedyeusedistheoneswithhighdiffusioncoefficients,dyeswithlowdiffusioncoefficientsareless
suitable
HoweveruniformheatingofthefabricpresentsdifficultiesinJiggerduetolossofheatintheopen
systemeven whenitisheatedto100degreethetemperatureavailabletothefabricisonly8090degree
TheconditionswithWinchbeckdyeingaremorefavorable

Role of Dyeing Auxiliaries


Theroleofdyeingauxiliariessuchascarriersandlevelling agentsinthedyeingofpolyesterfibres with
dispersedyesinhightemperaturedyeingmachinesiswellknown.
Calculatedandoptimaldosageandapplicationoftheauxiliariesweredocumented bycalculatingthe
accelerationfactor=a
a=dyeexhaustedwithauxiliary/dyeexhaustedwithoutauxiliary

Levelling agents
Levelling agentsactinasimilarmannerasthecarrierswithrespecttotheinteractionwiththedye,
equilibriumeffectandmigrationeffect
Theydonotinteractwiththefibre,thushavenoroleinacceleratingthedyeingprocess
Theyalsohavelowereffectonmigrationascomparedtocarriers

High temperature dyeing


Polyesterfibres andtheirblendsmaybedyedunderhightemperatureconditionsabove125130degree.
Above100degrees,thefibre swellstoagreatextendandhencethereisrapidpenetrationofthedye
moleculesinthefibre structure
Thereisdecresed resistancetothediffusionofthedyemoleculesat130degreesthanat100degrees
Eventhedispersedyeismuchmoresolubleinwateratahighertemperature

Thermosol dyeing

DuPontintroducedthisdyeingmethodcalledThermosol dyeingfornylon,polyesterandorlon with


outtheuseofcarrier

Heretheadvantagetakenisthatsyntheticfibres areconsideredtobethermoplasticandwhenthese
fibres areheatedtoahightemperature,theysoften,theirinternalstructureisopenedupfacilitating
theentryofdispersedyeinthefibre

Thisplasticizingeffectofheatonthesefibres isresponsibleforrapidrateofdiffusionofthedye,
requiringonlyafewsecondstoafewminutes

Factors that matter in polyester dyeing


1.

Dyeselection

2.

Carrierselection

3.

Dyeingtemperatureandtime

4.

UseofGlaubers salt

5.

Prescouringbyanionicdetergentorliquorammonia

6.

Dyeing

7.

Afterscouringwithnonionicdetergentsandaceticacid