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Chapter 2 Hydrostatics

Buoyancy, Floatation and Stability

Zerihun Alemayehu

Rm. E119B

AAiT

pressure on fully or partially floating body

Gravity

Archimedes Principle

Buoyancy

AAiT

the fluid in which it floats

Line of action passes through the centroid

of displaced volume

Hydraulics I

By Zerihun Alemayehu

11/6/2010

B

Fz

A

Fx

Fz

AAiT

Fx

FB = Fz Fz

FB = g Vol (ABCD)

Hydraulics I

By Zerihun Alemayehu

F1

F 1 + 1 V = W

F 2 + 2 V = W

V(1 - 2) = F1 F2

F2

1

FB1 = 1V

FB2 = 2V

=W/V

AAiT

Hydraulics I

By Zerihun Alemayehu

11/6/2010

Buoyant force

FB = weight of the hydrometer

must remain constant

Hydrometer floats deeper or

shallower depending on the specific

weight of the fluid

AAiT

Hydraulics I

By Zerihun Alemayehu

upper end that is cylindrical and 2.8 mm in diameter.

1

2

S = 0.821

alcohol of S=0.821?

S = 0.780

For position 2:

For position 1:

0.0216 0.821* 9810 *V1

V1 2.68 x10 6 m 3

AAiT

Hydraulics I

By Zerihun Alemayehu

0.0216 0.780 * 9810 * (V1 Ah )

0.780 * 9810 * [2.68 x10 6

(0.0028) 2 h]

h 0.0232 m 23.2 mm

11/6/2010

STABILITY

AAiT

FB

FB

B

W

G

FB

B

G

G, B

W

G

FB

x

FB

B

x

Stable Equilibrium:

B always below G

B and G

B always above G

(i) G and B must lie on the same vertical line in the undisturbed position

(ii) B must always be above G for stable equilibrium

AAiT

Hydraulics I

By Zerihun Alemayehu

11/6/2010

AAiT

Hydraulics I

By Zerihun Alemayehu

AAiT

Hydraulics I

By Zerihun Alemayehu

M = Metacenter

MG = Metacenteric height

11/6/2010

MG = MB - GB

AAiT

Hydraulics I

By Zerihun Alemayehu

RELATIVE EQUILIBRIUM

OF LIQUIDS

AAiT

11/6/2010

Uniform acceleration/Rotation Relative equilibrium

No relative motion between

the liquid particles and the container

Uniform Linear Acceleration

Uniform rotation about a vertical axis

AAiT

Hydraulics I

By Zerihun Alemayehu

y

z

Which reduces to

= ( + )

x

P xy

x

and

AAiT

g x y z

Hydraulics I

By Zerihun Alemayehu

11/6/2010

Lines of constant

pressure

Hydrostatic

pressure

Initial level

AAiT

Hydraulics I

By Zerihun Alemayehu

ax0 and ay =0

AAiT

Hydraulics I

By Zerihun Alemayehu

11/6/2010

p = -(g + ay)y

where h = -y

p = (g + ay)h

AAiT

Hydraulics I

By Zerihun Alemayehu

AAiT

Hydraulics I

By Zerihun Alemayehu

11/6/2010

AAiT

Hydraulics I

By Zerihun Alemayehu

projecting above the water surface. When placed in

glycerine of relative density 1.35, the block projects 75

mm above the surface of glycerine. Determine the

relative density of the wood.

AAiT

Hydraulics I

By Zerihun Alemayehu

10

11/6/2010

uptrust in glycerine =weight of the fluid displaced

W = gAh = w g A(h - 50 x 10-3) = GgA (h - 75 x 10-3)

The relative density of glycerine=

h = 146.43 x 10-3 m or 146.43 mm

Hence the relative density of wood,

/w=(146.43-50)/146.43 = 0.658

AAiT

Hydraulics I

By Zerihun Alemayehu

of a rectangular block of mass density b for a small

angle of tilt when it floats in a liquid of mass density 1.

The dimension a is greater than b.

b

AAiT

Hydraulics I

By Zerihun Alemayehu

11

11/6/2010

Weight of the block = weight of liquid displaced

bg x ab x 1 = 1 g x bh x 1

h = a x (b/1)

OB = h/2 = a x (b/1)/2

BG = OG OB

= a/2 (ba)/21 = a(1-b/1)/2

BM =

G

B

h/2

= (1/12 x 1 x b3)/(b x h x 1) = b2/12h

BM = (1b2)/(12a b)

For stability BM BG

AAiT

Hydraulics I

By Zerihun Alemayehu

floating in upright position. Its C.G. is 2.25 m above the

bottom, (a) what is its initial metacenteric height? (b)

If a 5 tone weight is shifted 4 m across the barge, to

what distance does the water line rise on the side?

Find the rightening moment for this lift.

AAiT

Hydraulics I

By Zerihun Alemayehu

12

11/6/2010

7m

(a) BM = I/V

= [1/12 x 20 x 73/(20 x 7 x 2)]

A

2m

= 2.045 m

OB = x 2 = 1

BG = OG OB = 2.25 1.0 = 1.25 m

MG = BM BG = 2.045 1.25 = 0.795 m

AAiT

C

2.25m

B

O

Hydraulics I

By Zerihun Alemayehu

= moment due to the shifting of G to G

= W x GG'

But GG' = GM sin

2m

sin = 196.2/(9.81 x 20 x 7 x 2 x 0.795)

= 0.0904 = 5o12

Rise of water line on one side = 3.5 tan

= 3.5 tan 5o12 = 0.318 m

Rightening moment = W x MG tan

= 9.81 x 20 x 7 x 2 x 0.795 x tan 5o12

=197.1 kNm

AAiT

7m

M

A

C

2.25m

B

O

Hydraulics I

By Zerihun Alemayehu

13

11/6/2010

density 900 kg/m3 to a depth of 1 m. Determine the maximum

horizontal acceleration that can be given to the tanker such

that the oil just reaches its top end.

If this tanker is closed and completely filled with the oil and

accelerated horizontally at 3 m/s2 determine that total liquid

thrust (i) on the front end, (ii) on the rear end, and (iii) on one

of its longitudinal vertical sides.

AAiT

Hydraulics I

By Zerihun Alemayehu

10m

ax

2m

1m

ax, the maximum horizontal acceleration = 9.81/5

ax = 1.962 m/s2

AAiT

Hydraulics I

By Zerihun Alemayehu

14

11/6/2010

g x 22 x 3 = 58.86 kN

(ii) total thrust on rear end CD:

h = 10 x tan = 10 x ax/g

= 10 x 3/9.81 = 3.06 m

g(h+2)

gh

10m

B

ax

2m

3m/s2

A

= 239 kN

AAiT

Hydraulics I

By Zerihun Alemayehu

containing water to the top of a construction

scaffold with a varying speed of 2 m/s per second. If

the water depth is 2m, calculate the total hydrostatic

trust on the bottom of the tank.

If this tank of water is lowered with an acceleration

equal to that of gravity, what are the thrusts on the

floor and sides of the tank?

AAiT

Hydraulics I

By Zerihun Alemayehu

15

11/6/2010

AAiT

Hydraulics I

By Zerihun Alemayehu

filled with water and rotated about its vertical axis at

an angular speed of 33.5 rad/s. Determine (i) the

depth of water in the cylinder when it is brought to

rest, and (ii) the volume of water that remains in the

cylinder if the speed is doubled.

AAiT

Hydraulics I

By Zerihun Alemayehu

16

11/6/2010

AAiT

Hydraulics I

By Zerihun Alemayehu

AAiT

Hydraulics I

By Zerihun Alemayehu

17

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