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Reliability and Monitoring

Reliability Definition
Maintenance Techniques
Condition Monitoring
Procurement
Preventive Maintenance Best Practices

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Reliability and Maintenance


What is Reliability?
The main objective of reliability is to achieve the
highest plant availability at the lowest possible
cost in order to maximize profit.

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Reliability and Maintenance


Critical

Equipment - Centrifugal
Compressors, Some pumps - Unspared
Continuous Monitoring System
Pumps, Reciprocating Compressors - Spared

Periodic Monitoring of Vibration Data Collect and Analyze


Root Cause Analysis

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Reliability and Maintenance


Equipment Specs and Standards
Vendor Selection
Design and Testing
Process Considerations
Installation
Operations and Monitoring
Maintenance & Repairs (QC/QA)

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Reliability and Maintenance


95% on-line availability for pumps, 5 year MTBR
MODE

RELIABILITY MAINT. $

Reactive

Low

High

Preventative

Moderate

High

Proactive

High

Low

1. Reactive Run to failure


2. Preventative Time-based maintenance
3. Proactive Condition-based maintenance

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Reliability and Maintenance


Reactive - Run to Failure

Process Interruption
No Opportunity for Diagnosis
Frequent Failures
Other Parts are Effected
Replace Good Parts

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Reliability and Maintenance


Preventative - Time-based Maintenance

No Opportunity for Diagnosis

Replace Good Parts

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Reliability and Maintenance


Proactive - Condition-based Maintenance

Repair Before Pump Fails

Replace Only Bad Parts

Diagnostics and Root Cause Analysis

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Portable Vibration Monitor


Proactive - Condition-based Maintenance

Repair Before Pump Fails

Replace Only Bad Parts

Diagnostics and Root Cause Analysis

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Reliability and Maintenance


Cause

Frequency

Unbalance RPM x 1
Bent Shaft RPM x 1 or 2,
Cavitation
Random
Misalignment RPM x 1 and 2
Parallel
Angular
Foundation, Unsteady RPM,
Vane Passing
Frequency
RPM x no of vanes

Amplitude
Steady
Axial high
Fluctuating
Radial
High Axial

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Reliability and Maintenance


Procurement

EPC during vendor/contractor proposal review


I am concerned with 3 things:
Price, price and price

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Reliability and Maintenance


Procurement

1. Price
2. Functionality
3. Utilities
4. Reliability

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Reliability and Maintenance


Procurement
Main Air Blower quits
Cost up to $500,000/day in lost production

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Procurement
1. Functionality
2. Reliability
3. Utilities
4. Price

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Reliability and Maintenance


Procurement

Initial Cost
Maintenance
Operation
Installation

Prior to
Startup

After 10 years
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Reliability and Maintenance


Life Cycle Costs
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

Maintenance
Utilities
Capital

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Reliability and Maintenance


Best Practices - Pump and System Design
Suction Specific Speed < 11000
L3/D4 < 60 (inches)
Design system for operation at or near BEP
5 foot NPSH margin
Minimum 5 pipe diameters straight pipe on
suction
Install API Flush Plan 23 if pumping
temperature > 140F (60C) per API 682

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Reliability and Maintenance


Best Practices - Pump Operation

Do not start and stop


often
Do not run pump dry
Operate at or near BEP
Visually inspect pump
often (once per shift)
Measure and record
vibrations

Check cooling water and seal


flush temps
Inspect and change bearing
oil (3-6 months)
Do not hose down pumps
Report problems
immediately
Training

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Reliability and Maintenance


Best Practices - Pump Reliability

Alignment
Balance
Bearings
Lube oil
Monitoring - trend analysis
Repeat

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Preventive Maintenance

Lube Oil Analysis


Stuffing Box Temps
Monitor process pressures and flows
Monitor motor amps
Monitor auxiliary systems

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Installation Standard
API RP 686

Foundations
Mounting Plate Grouting
Piping
Shaft Alignment
Lube Systems
Commissioning

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Reliability and Maintenance


Reliable Reciprocating Compressor Design

Limit Piston Speed


Limit Piston RPM
Limit Cylinder Size
Limit Discharge Temp (250F)
Lubricate Cylinders
Coat Piston Rod
Vibration and Temperature Monitor

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Reliability and Maintenance


Reliable Centrifugal Compressor Design

Limit Maximum Impeller Yield Strength


Dry Gas Seals
Report all Operating Cases
Voting Type Shutdown
Anti-surge controls (where required)

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Pump Reliability Exercise


Working in groups, discuss your units reliability
program (Preventive Maintenance, Predictive
Maintenance, KPIs monitored, etc)
How could it be improved? What questions do
you need to ask when you go back to your site?

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