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016 Hydrodynamics
Prof. Alex Techet
Fall 2005
HW #1
Out: 13 Sept 2005
Due: 20 Sept 2005

Problem 1:
Which of the following are isotropic? Why or why not?


b) Pressure

Shear stress

d) Dynamic viscosity
Problem 2:
At a particular point in the Pacific Ocean, the density of sea water increases non-linearly with depth according to

! = ! o + mz 2

! o is the density at the surface, z is the depth below the surface, and m is a constant. Develop an algebraic

equation for the relationship between pressure and depth.

Problem 3:


Determine the horizontal and vertical forces acting on a wall sloped at angle, , to the horizontal seafloor as
a function of z. Assume that the water is h deep and that atmospheric pressure acts everywhere.

b) Determine the total resulting force and center of pressure.

Problem 4: Archimedes Principle on a floating vessel

Extend the results you found in problem 3 to the case of a V shaped vessel floating on the surface of the ocean to
show that the resulting pressure acting on the hull balances the weight of the water displaced by the vessel.

Problem 5:
A rectangular barge floats in water, w. When it is empty it is immersed at depth D below the surface. Oil with
density, o, is poured into the barge until it is about to sink. Find a relationship for the depth of the oil at this point in
terms of the initial depth, D, the total height of the barge H and the barge width W.

Problem 6:

You are asked to design an underwater laboratory at the bottom of the Gulf of Mexico, in order to study the habits of
Migrating Whale Sharks. After attending a lecture given by Samuel Raymond, founder of Benthos, you realize that
a spherical structure would be ideal for this project. So you have decided that the laboratory will be built as a hemisphere off the sea floor and sketch the following concept design:



What is the distribution of pressure over the wetted surface of the laboratory?


What are the total fluid force and moment vectors exerted on the laboratory by the surrounding

2.016 Hydrodynamics
Prof. Alex Techet
Fall 2005
HW #2
Out: September 20, 2005
Due: September 27, 2005
Problem 1: Buoyancy (3 pts.)
An AUV is designed as shown below. It has three, hollow, cylindrical canisters arranged
in an upside down triangle. The cylindrical canisters are constructed out of aluminum,
specific gravity of 2.7, and have a wall thickness of 1 cm, length 2 meters, and an inner
diameter 14 cm. What is the maximum load (kg) this vehicle can carry without sinking,
ignoring the additional weight and buoyancy of the struts? (Think neutrally buoyant!)
Assume the vehicle will be operating in SALT water ( ! = 1025 kg / m3 ).

AUV Design.
Problem 2: Basic Fluids & Math (3 pts.)
a) Although fluids, such as water, are really made up of discreet molecules, we can
describe their behavior by differential equations by virtue of the ________ hypothesis.
b) Discuss the difference between a pathline and a streamline. Under what conditions
are they the same?

r r r 1r r r
c) Show by expanding and collecting terms that (V " )V = " V V for irrotational
r r & $w $ v ) & $u $ w ) & $v $ u )
flow. (Hint: " # V = ( % +i + ( % + j + ( % +k = 0i + 0 j + 0 k for
' $y $ z * ' $z $ x * ' $x $ y *
irrotational flow.)

Problem 3: Velocity Field (8 pts.)

a) A velocity field is given by V = (x 2 " y 2 )i " 2xyj . Is this a valid velocity field for an
incompressible fluid? (Hint: It must satisfy the Continuity Equation.)
b) Is the flow steady?
c) Sketch arrows depicting the velocity vectors at each point on the graph below. (Hint:
There is no flow across the dashed lines.)
d) Sketch the streamlines on your graph.
e) Determine the angle " . (Recall, streamlines are everywhere tangent to the flow, so

dy v
= along a streamline.)
dx u
r r & $v $ u )
f) Is the flow irrotational? (Hint: " # V = ( % +k for this 2-D flow.)
' $x $ y *
g) Sketch Bob the Fluid Blob at four different points along his path through this flow.
Sketch his acceleration vector for each point.
h) If we assume that pressure is the only force acting on Bob, then where is the pressure
the highest?

Problem 4: Control Volume Analysis (3 pts.)

The largest artery in the body is the one that supplies blood to the legs. As it comes down
the body it splits into a Y-junction, as shown in the figure below. Blood with specific
gravity of 1.05 is pumped into the junction at speed V1= 1.5 m/s. The diameter of the
entrance is d1=20 mm. The two branches have diameter d2 = 15 mm and d3 = 12 mm. If
the mass flow rates at stations 2 and 3 are equal, find the velocities V2 and V3.

Figure by MIT OCW.

Problem 5: Bernoullis Equation (3 pts.)

a) Write down Bernoullis Equation for steady flow.

b) Under what conditions does this equation hold?

Fluid passes through a fan placed in a constant diameter duct shown in the figure
below. Assume the density is constant.

c) Is the volume flow rate at station 1, the same as at station 2? Why?
d) Can Bernoullis equation be applied between stations 1 and 2? Why?

Figure by MIT OCW.

2.016 Homework #3
Prof. A. Techet; Fall 2005
Issued: September 27, 2005
Due: October 4, 2005
Problem 1: Unsteady Potential Flow and Added Mass
a. Derive added mass around a sphere. Hint: if you print out the Added Mass
Derivation handout, the math is all done for you, and you can hand that worksheet in.
All you have to do is draw a picture on the page illustrating
r howr to set up the integral
(i.e. a picture of a sphere showing the coordinate system, F, p, dA, R, r and " , and
another picture showing how to calculate dAx from dA .
b. In this derivation, are we integrating the static pressure or the dynamic pressure?
What happens if we include the other pressure term as well?
c. The equation sheet says that the potential function
a stationary sphere
3 '
is " = U cos# &r + 2 ) , but the potential function given in the derivation is
% 2r (
$ R3 '
" = U cos# & 2 ) . What is the difference between these two potential functions?
% 2r (
What type of flow does this correspond to? Why would we not include that in the
derivation? (Hint: think about the answer to part d.)
$ R3 '
d. True or false, " = U cos# & 2 ) corresponds to flow around a moving sphere in
% 2r (
quiescent fluid?


e. Derive added mass around a cylinder. Just draw a picture on the page illustrating
how!to set
r up the
r integral (i.e. a picture of a sphere showing the coordinate
system, F, p, dA, R, r and " , and another pic showing how to calculate dAx from dA .
f. In this derivation, are we integrating the static pressure or the dynamic pressure?
What happens if we include the other pressure term as well?
g. In class, we learned that the potential function for flow around a stationary
! cylinder is
$ R2 '
" = U cos# &r + ), but the potential function given in the derivation is
r (
$ R2 '
" = U cos# & ) . What is the difference between these two potential functions?
% r (
What type of flow does this correspond to? Why would we not include that in the
derivation? (Hint: think about the answer to part d.)
$ R2 '
h. True or false, " = U cos# & ) corresponds to flow around a moving cylinder in
% r (
quiescent fluid?

Problem 2: Pressure Distribution Around a Stationary Cylinder

$ R2 '
a. The potential function for flow around a stationary cylinder is " = U cos# &r + ),
r (
where U is the free-stream velocity far away from the cylinder. Find the velocity
1 #$
field V (r," ) = er +
e" .
r #"
b. Find the pressure at the surface of the cylinder, (r = R!) , using Bernoullis equation,
making use of the fact that the pressure at the stagnation points (where V=0) is the
stagnation pressure, ps .
p " p#
c. Show that the coefficient of pressure,!c p =
, can be expressed in the form
1 $U 2
V 2!
c p = 1" 2 .
d. Plot the coefficient of pressure
! using Matlab or Excel for 0 < " < 2 # .

Problem 3: Added Mass

Calculate the added mass coefficients m33 and m44 for a circular cylinder of radius
R = 1cm and length L = 1m whose axis is along the 1 axis.

Problem 4: Added Mass !


In lab, we discussed how added mass affects the natural frequency of a cylinder bobbing
up and down under water.
a. Write the equation for the natural frequency for this underwater spring-mass
b. What do you expect to happen if the cylinder has a square cross section?

Problem 5: Buoyancy and Added Mass

A buoy consists of a large sphere of radius, a, under a circular cylinder of radius, r:

The added mass of the cylinder is negligible compared to that of the sphere:
a. Write the equation of motion for heave. (Note: there is a force that increases
linearly with depth.)
b. What is the buoys natural frequency in heave.
Problem 6: Buoyancy and Added Mass
An offshore platform has the configuration shown:

The diameter of the uprights is 10 m, and that of the pontoons is 10 m. The length of the
pontoons is 100 m. The added mass of the uprights is negligible compared to that of the
a. Write the equation of motion for heave.
b. What is the platforms natural frequency in heave.

2.016 HW #4
Out: October 4, 2005
Due: October 18, 2005
1) A sphere of volume V in a fluid of density is located at a point (0, L, 0) with respect
to a certain coordinate system. In terms of this coordinate system, identify whether
each of the 6x6 added mass coefficients are zero (0), or non-zero (x) (do not work out
any values).

(0, L, 0)

2) A positively buoyant cone with length L, and maximum radius Ro is placed with the
apex at the origin of a coordinate system as shown below.

a) Calculate the center of buoyancy for the cone.

b) Determine which added mass coefficients are zero or non-zero. You can fill out a
6x6 matrix with X for non-zero and 0 for zero.

c) Use Strip Theory to calculate M55, M11, M44, M66, M51, and M22. Hint: first
consider any symmetry that might make these calculations easier.
d) Write the equation of motion of the cone in roll, and calculate the natural


3) A new class of submarine can be modeled by a cylinder of length L and radius R, with
a vertical sail and horizontal elliptical wings of major and minor axis radii a and b
and length h, as shown.

Assuming that these main members are slender so that their longitudinal added mass may
be ignored, and neglecting also the interactions among the members, determine
a) M33
b) M35
c) M55

d) Find the instantaneous force and moment, F and M , on the submarine at an
instant when its 6 degree-of-freedom motions are: velocity [1,2,3,1,2,3] and
acceleration [3,2,1,3,2,1]. You may leave your answers in terms of Mij.

4) Housing for certain underwater sensor equipment has a geometry shown below. The
sphere has radius 2a, and the cylinders have radius rc = a/2 and length lc=4a. The
density of the device can be assumed to be uniform and have a value of twice that of

a) To get it to the sea floor, the device is lowered into the water and then is released,
find its initial acceleration for (i) a vertical orientation; and (ii) a horizontal
b) Assuming deep water, calculate the terminal drop velocity for the device falling in
a horizontal orientation for (i) very small a; and (ii) large a.
c) If the instrument is dropped horizontally with initial generalized velocity (0, -U2, U3,
0, 0, 0). Find the moments (M1, M2, M3) on the cylinder at the instant the cylinder is
dropped in terms of a, , U2, U3.

d) An engineer is concerned that if dropped in a

vertical orientation, the device may become
unstable and reach the bottom in an
unpredictable manner. If the equipment is
falling with steady downward velocity U, at a
small angle from its vertical position, estimate,
based on potential (non-viscous) flow effects
only, the overturning moment M2 on the device
as a function of U and 5.

5) 2D Deep Water Waves can be described by a velocity potential function (x, z,t).
a! kz
e sin(kx # !t )
The relationship between frequency, , and wave number, k, is given by the dispersion
relationship for deep water waves:

" ( x, z , t ) = #

! 2 = gk
Assuming deep water wave of amplitude a = 2.5ft, wavelength = 120ft
( ! = 2" / k ) and
frequency, , dictated by the dispersion relation. Use the expressions for a linear wave,

derived in class, to plot:

a. Plot the dynamic pressure, the horizontal velocity and acceleration, the vertical
velocity and acceleration as a function of the variable x, for a fixed value of the
time t, all quantities can be evaluated at z = zn, where zn = /8.
You can calculate the velocities and accelerations based on the relationship
between potential function and velocity for fundamental potential flow theory.
Align all plots so that the relative phase can be deduced, and plot the wave
elevation, also as a function of x, for comparison.
b. Plot the same quantities as in the first question as a function of time t (at a fixed
value of x and for z = zn).
c. The inviscid force is proportional to the fluid acceleration. When is the horizontal
inviscid force maximum: under the wave crest, the wave trough, or the wave
nodal point? Answer the same question for the vertical inviscid force.
d. The viscous force is proportional to the fluid velocity squared. When is the
horizontal viscous force maximum: under the wave crest, the wave trough, or the
wave nodal point? Answer the same question for the vertical viscous force.
e. Calculate the TOTAL pressure under a plane progressive wave at some depth H1
that you should find under the wave crest, the wave trough, and the wave nodal
point. Explain from where you measure the vertical distance z used in the
hydrostatic pressure.

2.016 HW #5
Out: October 18, 2005
Due: October 25, 2005
1) Expand the following for i=1,2,3, j=1,2,3, and k=1,2,3, and write them in vector
notation. Recall for tensor notation, letters that appear only once imply expansion r
into a vector, and repeated letters imply summation. For example: ui = [u1 ,u2 ,u 3 ] = u
a. ui
b. ui vi
"u i
d. ui k
e. " ijk k
#x j

2) Consider a submarine built very poorly, such that the axis of the propeller makes an
! angle " with the axis of the cylindrical submarine fuselage, as shown. If the
propeller generates thrust, T, to drive the sub at steady-state speed, U, use inviscid
flow theory (e.g. added mass) to find the trim angle, " . (Note: despite my misleading
artwork, " # $ ) Assume the length of the sub is much greater than the radius,
(R<< L) .


3) The equation, " = a cos(kx # $t) , is for a plane progressive wave moving to the [left]
[right]. Draw a picture of the wave at time t = 0 sec and time t = 1 sec, and label the
distance and direction one of the peaks has traveled in that time.

4) You run several experiments in a 100 m long, 3 m wide, 2 m deep towing tank in
order to investigate the shallow- and deep-water approximations to the dispersion
relationship. In each experiment, plane progressive waves are sent down the length
of the tank using a wave paddle. For each wavelength given, calculate the frequency
" using the dispersion relationship and again using the appropriate approximation.
exact " approx &
What is the error of the approximation %error =
a. " = 125 m
b. " = 21 m
c. " = 12.6 m
d. " = 6.28 m
e. " = 2.1 m
I suggest making a table in Excel for this exercise, because you will use some of
the stuff in the table to do the next problem, and because the hyperbolic trig
functions are a pain to do by hand. Write down the equations you use at the top
of each column, so I know how you calculated each value.
5) Now compare the exact phase speed with the phase speed youd calculate using the
approximate frequencies. What is the percent error?
6) Finally, compare the exact group speed with the group speed you would approximate
using the group speed approximations and the approximate phase speeds you found
using the approximate frequencies. (Geez, that a lot of approximates!) What is the
percent error?
7) Sketch the orbits of particles at various heights for the 21 m wavelength wave.


Strouhal Number (S)

Smooth Surface



40 102




Reynolds Number (UD/)

Figure by MIT OCW.



2) A fishnet is made of 1mm-diameter strings knotted together into 2cm x 2cm

squares. Estimate the horsepower required to tow a 300 ft2 of this netting at 3
knots in seawater. Assume that the net plane is normal to the direction of towing
(flow). Assume the string can be modeled as a cylinder with drag coefficient 1.2,
consider only viscous drag force.
3) A spar buoy is essentially a cylinder floating vertically in the water. The buoy is
free to heave in the z-direction and has a heave period, T, which depends on the
waterline cross-sectional area A, buoy mass m, and fluid density r.
How does the period change if we double the mass? Double the water plane area?
Oceanographic instrument buoys should have long heave periods to avoid wave
resonance. Sketch a possible long period heave buoy design.

4) An offshore riser can be modeled as a long rigid cylinder with diameter 0.25
meters. Determine the vortex shedding frequency for a current of 1.0 m/s. What
is the frequency of the unsteady component of the lift force? The unsteady drag
5) An overhead power line is humming on a windy day. You are with a friend
who has a very good ear and determines that the power line is vibrating at a
frequency of 100 Hz. The wind is quite strong and is blowing at 8 m/s. Determine
the diameter of the power line.

2.016 Hydrodynamics
Fall 2005
Prof. A. Techet
Out: November 29, 2005
Due: December 6, 2005
1) Consider the following control volume around a propeller where we have defined a
slipstream boundary, such that the streamline that separates the flow going through the
propeller from the free stream is taken to be the CV boundary. Assume that the flow is
essentially one dimensional and is parallel in the streamwise direction at the inlet and
outlet; also that the pressure along the slipstream boundary is equal to the ambient

a) Determine the thrust, T, and velocity of the flow across the propeller, V, in
terms of the inlet and outlet speeds, Vi and Ve, and the area of the propeller, A,
and the fluid density, .
b) Determine the power required to drive the propeller to generate the above
c) Show that efficiency of the propeller is equal to the ratio of the inlet velocity
to the velocity across the propeller.

Efficiency here is defined as the power required to drive the propeller divided
by the rate of change of Kinetic Energy of the slipstream between the inlet and
PKE = m (Vi 2 "Ve2 ) .

d) Is the efficiency less than or greater than one? Explain.


2) An autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) shaped like a torpedo is being designed to

operate in an area of the Atlantic Ocean with strong currents around U = 3 m/s. In
order to determine the thrust needed for the vehicle a smaller scale model is tested in
the propeller tunnel. The model is 10th the size of the real AUV. The model is 75
centimeters long and diameter is 7.5 cm. The front of the torpedo is a hemisphere and
the aft is tapered to the propeller.
The full scale AUV will need enough thrust to maintain position in a 3 m/s
In order to determine the thrust needed to overcome the current the model will be
hooked up to a force balance and the drag on the hull measured at a certain towing
speed (analogous to incoming current).
a) What speed should the model be tested at to determine the necessary thrust on
the full-scale vehicle?
b) If the drag measured on the model at this design speed is 10N, then what is the
maximum thrust needed to overcome the 3 m/s current for the full-scale
c) List the most important non-dimensional parameters.