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016 Hydrodynamics

Prof. Alex Techet

Fall 2005

HW #1

Out: 13 Sept 2005

Due: 20 Sept 2005

Problem 1:

Which of the following are isotropic? Why or why not?

a)

Temperature

b) Pressure

c)

Shear stress

d) Dynamic viscosity

Problem 2:

At a particular point in the Pacific Ocean, the density of sea water increases non-linearly with depth according to

! = ! o + mz 2

where

! o is the density at the surface, z is the depth below the surface, and m is a constant. Develop an algebraic

Problem 3:

a)

Determine the horizontal and vertical forces acting on a wall sloped at angle, , to the horizontal seafloor as

a function of z. Assume that the water is h deep and that atmospheric pressure acts everywhere.

Extend the results you found in problem 3 to the case of a V shaped vessel floating on the surface of the ocean to

show that the resulting pressure acting on the hull balances the weight of the water displaced by the vessel.

Problem 5:

A rectangular barge floats in water, w. When it is empty it is immersed at depth D below the surface. Oil with

density, o, is poured into the barge until it is about to sink. Find a relationship for the depth of the oil at this point in

terms of the initial depth, D, the total height of the barge H and the barge width W.

Problem 6:

You are asked to design an underwater laboratory at the bottom of the Gulf of Mexico, in order to study the habits of

Migrating Whale Sharks. After attending a lecture given by Samuel Raymond, founder of Benthos, you realize that

a spherical structure would be ideal for this project. So you have decided that the laboratory will be built as a hemisphere off the sea floor and sketch the following concept design:

g

H

D/2

a)

What is the distribution of pressure over the wetted surface of the laboratory?

b)

What are the total fluid force and moment vectors exerted on the laboratory by the surrounding

fluid?

2.016 Hydrodynamics

Prof. Alex Techet

Fall 2005

HW #2

Out: September 20, 2005

Due: September 27, 2005

Problem 1: Buoyancy (3 pts.)

An AUV is designed as shown below. It has three, hollow, cylindrical canisters arranged

in an upside down triangle. The cylindrical canisters are constructed out of aluminum,

specific gravity of 2.7, and have a wall thickness of 1 cm, length 2 meters, and an inner

diameter 14 cm. What is the maximum load (kg) this vehicle can carry without sinking,

ignoring the additional weight and buoyancy of the struts? (Think neutrally buoyant!)

Assume the vehicle will be operating in SALT water ( ! = 1025 kg / m3 ).

AUV Design.

Problem 2: Basic Fluids & Math (3 pts.)

a) Although fluids, such as water, are really made up of discreet molecules, we can

describe their behavior by differential equations by virtue of the ________ hypothesis.

b) Discuss the difference between a pathline and a streamline. Under what conditions

are they the same?

r r r 1r r r

c) Show by expanding and collecting terms that (V " )V = " V V for irrotational

2

r r & $w $ v ) & $u $ w ) & $v $ u )

flow. (Hint: " # V = ( % +i + ( % + j + ( % +k = 0i + 0 j + 0 k for

' $y $ z * ' $z $ x * ' $x $ y *

!

irrotational flow.)

r

a) A velocity field is given by V = (x 2 " y 2 )i " 2xyj . Is this a valid velocity field for an

incompressible fluid? (Hint: It must satisfy the Continuity Equation.)

b) Is the flow steady?

!

c) Sketch arrows depicting the velocity vectors at each point on the graph below. (Hint:

There is no flow across the dashed lines.)

d) Sketch the streamlines on your graph.

e) Determine the angle " . (Recall, streamlines are everywhere tangent to the flow, so

dy v

= along a streamline.)

dx u

!

r r & $v $ u )

f) Is the flow irrotational? (Hint: " # V = ( % +k for this 2-D flow.)

' $x $ y *

g) Sketch Bob the Fluid Blob at four different points along his path through this flow.

Sketch his acceleration vector for each point.

!

h) If we assume that pressure is the only force acting on Bob, then where is the pressure

the highest?

The largest artery in the body is the one that supplies blood to the legs. As it comes down

the body it splits into a Y-junction, as shown in the figure below. Blood with specific

gravity of 1.05 is pumped into the junction at speed V1= 1.5 m/s. The diameter of the

entrance is d1=20 mm. The two branches have diameter d2 = 15 mm and d3 = 12 mm. If

the mass flow rates at stations 2 and 3 are equal, find the velocities V2 and V3.

a) Write down Bernoullis Equation for steady flow.

Fluid passes through a fan placed in a constant diameter duct shown in the figure

below. Assume the density is constant.

FAN

c) Is the volume flow rate at station 1, the same as at station 2? Why?

d) Can Bernoullis equation be applied between stations 1 and 2? Why?

2.016 Homework #3

Prof. A. Techet; Fall 2005

Issued: September 27, 2005

Due: October 4, 2005

Problem 1: Unsteady Potential Flow and Added Mass

a. Derive added mass around a sphere. Hint: if you print out the Added Mass

Derivation handout, the math is all done for you, and you can hand that worksheet in.

All you have to do is draw a picture on the page illustrating

r howr to set up the integral

(i.e. a picture of a sphere showing the coordinate system, F, p, dA, R, r and " , and

r

r

another picture showing how to calculate dAx from dA .

b. In this derivation, are we integrating the static pressure or the dynamic pressure?

What happens if we include the other pressure term as well?

!

!

c. The equation sheet says that the potential function

for

flow

around

a stationary sphere

!

!

3 '

$

R

is " = U cos# &r + 2 ) , but the potential function given in the derivation is

% 2r (

$ R3 '

" = U cos# & 2 ) . What is the difference between these two potential functions?

% 2r (

What type of flow does this correspond to? Why would we not include that in the

!

derivation? (Hint: think about the answer to part d.)

$ R3 '

!

d. True or false, " = U cos# & 2 ) corresponds to flow around a moving sphere in

% 2r (

quiescent fluid?

!

!

e. Derive added mass around a cylinder. Just draw a picture on the page illustrating

how!to set

r

r up the

r integral (i.e. a picture of a sphere showing the coordinate

r

system, F, p, dA, R, r and " , and another pic showing how to calculate dAx from dA .

f. In this derivation, are we integrating the static pressure or the dynamic pressure?

What happens if we include the other pressure term as well?

g. In class, we learned that the potential function for flow around a stationary

! cylinder is

!

!

!

$ R2 '

" = U cos# &r + ), but the potential function given in the derivation is

r (

%

$ R2 '

" = U cos# & ) . What is the difference between these two potential functions?

% r (

What type of flow does this correspond to? Why would we not include that in the

derivation? (Hint: think about the answer to part d.)

$ R2 '

h. True or false, " = U cos# & ) corresponds to flow around a moving cylinder in

% r (

quiescent fluid?

!

$ R2 '

a. The potential function for flow around a stationary cylinder is " = U cos# &r + ),

r (

%

where U is the free-stream velocity far away from the cylinder. Find the velocity

r

#$

1 #$

field V (r," ) = er +

e" .

#r

r #"

b. Find the pressure at the surface of the cylinder, (r = R!) , using Bernoullis equation,

making use of the fact that the pressure at the stagnation points (where V=0) is the

stagnation pressure, ps .

!

p " p#

c. Show that the coefficient of pressure,!c p =

, can be expressed in the form

1 $U 2

2

V 2!

c p = 1" 2 .

U

d. Plot the coefficient of pressure

! using Matlab or Excel for 0 < " < 2 # .

!

Calculate the added mass coefficients m33 and m44 for a circular cylinder of radius

R = 1cm and length L = 1m whose axis is along the 1 axis.

!

In lab, we discussed how added mass affects the natural frequency of a cylinder bobbing

up and down under water.

a. Write the equation for the natural frequency for this underwater spring-mass

system.

b. What do you expect to happen if the cylinder has a square cross section?

A buoy consists of a large sphere of radius, a, under a circular cylinder of radius, r:

The added mass of the cylinder is negligible compared to that of the sphere:

a. Write the equation of motion for heave. (Note: there is a force that increases

linearly with depth.)

b. What is the buoys natural frequency in heave.

Problem 6: Buoyancy and Added Mass

An offshore platform has the configuration shown:

The diameter of the uprights is 10 m, and that of the pontoons is 10 m. The length of the

pontoons is 100 m. The added mass of the uprights is negligible compared to that of the

pontoons.

a. Write the equation of motion for heave.

b. What is the platforms natural frequency in heave.

2.016 HW #4

Out: October 4, 2005

Due: October 18, 2005

1) A sphere of volume V in a fluid of density is located at a point (0, L, 0) with respect

to a certain coordinate system. In terms of this coordinate system, identify whether

each of the 6x6 added mass coefficients are zero (0), or non-zero (x) (do not work out

any values).

z

(0, L, 0)

x

2) A positively buoyant cone with length L, and maximum radius Ro is placed with the

apex at the origin of a coordinate system as shown below.

b) Determine which added mass coefficients are zero or non-zero. You can fill out a

6x6 matrix with X for non-zero and 0 for zero.

c) Use Strip Theory to calculate M55, M11, M44, M66, M51, and M22. Hint: first

consider any symmetry that might make these calculations easier.

d) Write the equation of motion of the cone in roll, and calculate the natural

frequency.

3) A new class of submarine can be modeled by a cylinder of length L and radius R, with

a vertical sail and horizontal elliptical wings of major and minor axis radii a and b

and length h, as shown.

Assuming that these main members are slender so that their longitudinal added mass may

be ignored, and neglecting also the interactions among the members, determine

a) M33

b) M35

c) M55

v

v

d) Find the instantaneous force and moment, F and M , on the submarine at an

instant when its 6 degree-of-freedom motions are: velocity [1,2,3,1,2,3] and

acceleration [3,2,1,3,2,1]. You may leave your answers in terms of Mij.

4) Housing for certain underwater sensor equipment has a geometry shown below. The

sphere has radius 2a, and the cylinders have radius rc = a/2 and length lc=4a. The

density of the device can be assumed to be uniform and have a value of twice that of

water. (ASSUME NON-VISCOUS FLOW ONLY!)

a) To get it to the sea floor, the device is lowered into the water and then is released,

find its initial acceleration for (i) a vertical orientation; and (ii) a horizontal

orientation.

b) Assuming deep water, calculate the terminal drop velocity for the device falling in

a horizontal orientation for (i) very small a; and (ii) large a.

c) If the instrument is dropped horizontally with initial generalized velocity (0, -U2, U3,

0, 0, 0). Find the moments (M1, M2, M3) on the cylinder at the instant the cylinder is

dropped in terms of a, , U2, U3.

vertical orientation, the device may become

unstable and reach the bottom in an

unpredictable manner. If the equipment is

falling with steady downward velocity U, at a

small angle from its vertical position, estimate,

based on potential (non-viscous) flow effects

only, the overturning moment M2 on the device

as a function of U and 5.

5) 2D Deep Water Waves can be described by a velocity potential function (x, z,t).

a! kz

e sin(kx # !t )

k

The relationship between frequency, , and wave number, k, is given by the dispersion

relationship for deep water waves:

" ( x, z , t ) = #

! 2 = gk

Assuming deep water wave of amplitude a = 2.5ft, wavelength = 120ft

( ! = 2" / k ) and

frequency, , dictated by the dispersion relation. Use the expressions for a linear wave,

a. Plot the dynamic pressure, the horizontal velocity and acceleration, the vertical

velocity and acceleration as a function of the variable x, for a fixed value of the

time t, all quantities can be evaluated at z = zn, where zn = /8.

You can calculate the velocities and accelerations based on the relationship

between potential function and velocity for fundamental potential flow theory.

Align all plots so that the relative phase can be deduced, and plot the wave

elevation, also as a function of x, for comparison.

b. Plot the same quantities as in the first question as a function of time t (at a fixed

value of x and for z = zn).

c. The inviscid force is proportional to the fluid acceleration. When is the horizontal

inviscid force maximum: under the wave crest, the wave trough, or the wave

nodal point? Answer the same question for the vertical inviscid force.

d. The viscous force is proportional to the fluid velocity squared. When is the

horizontal viscous force maximum: under the wave crest, the wave trough, or the

wave nodal point? Answer the same question for the vertical viscous force.

e. Calculate the TOTAL pressure under a plane progressive wave at some depth H1

that you should find under the wave crest, the wave trough, and the wave nodal

point. Explain from where you measure the vertical distance z used in the

hydrostatic pressure.

2.016 HW #5

Out: October 18, 2005

Due: October 25, 2005

1) Expand the following for i=1,2,3, j=1,2,3, and k=1,2,3, and write them in vector

notation. Recall for tensor notation, letters that appear only once imply expansion r

into a vector, and repeated letters imply summation. For example: ui = [u1 ,u2 ,u 3 ] = u

a. ui

b. ui vi

"u i

!

c.

"

x

i

!

"v

!

d. ui k

"xi

#u

!

e. " ijk k

#x j

!

2) Consider a submarine built very poorly, such that the axis of the propeller makes an

! angle " with the axis of the cylindrical submarine fuselage, as shown. If the

propeller generates thrust, T, to drive the sub at steady-state speed, U, use inviscid

flow theory (e.g. added mass) to find the trim angle, " . (Note: despite my misleading

artwork, " # $ ) Assume the length of the sub is much greater than the radius,

!

(R<< L) .

!

!

3) The equation, " = a cos(kx # $t) , is for a plane progressive wave moving to the [left]

[right]. Draw a picture of the wave at time t = 0 sec and time t = 1 sec, and label the

distance and direction one of the peaks has traveled in that time.

!

4) You run several experiments in a 100 m long, 3 m wide, 2 m deep towing tank in

order to investigate the shallow- and deep-water approximations to the dispersion

relationship. In each experiment, plane progressive waves are sent down the length

of the tank using a wave paddle. For each wavelength given, calculate the frequency

" using the dispersion relationship and again using the appropriate approximation.

#

exact " approx &

What is the error of the approximation %error =

(?

$

'

exact

a. " = 125 m

b. " = 21 m

c. " = 12.6 m

!

d. " = 6.28 m

!

e. " = 2.1 m

!

!

I suggest making a table in Excel for this exercise, because you will use some of

!

the stuff in the table to do the next problem, and because the hyperbolic trig

!

functions are a pain to do by hand. Write down the equations you use at the top

of each column, so I know how you calculated each value.

5) Now compare the exact phase speed with the phase speed youd calculate using the

approximate frequencies. What is the percent error?

6) Finally, compare the exact group speed with the group speed you would approximate

using the group speed approximations and the approximate phase speeds you found

using the approximate frequencies. (Geez, that a lot of approximates!) What is the

percent error?

7) Sketch the orbits of particles at various heights for the 21 m wavelength wave.

0.47

0.4

Smooth Surface

0.3

0.2

Rough

Surface

0.1

0

40 102

103

104

105

106

107

squares. Estimate the horsepower required to tow a 300 ft2 of this netting at 3

knots in seawater. Assume that the net plane is normal to the direction of towing

(flow). Assume the string can be modeled as a cylinder with drag coefficient 1.2,

consider only viscous drag force.

3) A spar buoy is essentially a cylinder floating vertically in the water. The buoy is

free to heave in the z-direction and has a heave period, T, which depends on the

waterline cross-sectional area A, buoy mass m, and fluid density r.

How does the period change if we double the mass? Double the water plane area?

Oceanographic instrument buoys should have long heave periods to avoid wave

resonance. Sketch a possible long period heave buoy design.

4) An offshore riser can be modeled as a long rigid cylinder with diameter 0.25

meters. Determine the vortex shedding frequency for a current of 1.0 m/s. What

is the frequency of the unsteady component of the lift force? The unsteady drag

force?

5) An overhead power line is humming on a windy day. You are with a friend

who has a very good ear and determines that the power line is vibrating at a

frequency of 100 Hz. The wind is quite strong and is blowing at 8 m/s. Determine

the diameter of the power line.

2.016 Hydrodynamics

Fall 2005

Prof. A. Techet

Out: November 29, 2005

Due: December 6, 2005

1) Consider the following control volume around a propeller where we have defined a

slipstream boundary, such that the streamline that separates the flow going through the

propeller from the free stream is taken to be the CV boundary. Assume that the flow is

essentially one dimensional and is parallel in the streamwise direction at the inlet and

outlet; also that the pressure along the slipstream boundary is equal to the ambient

pressure.

P

P

a) Determine the thrust, T, and velocity of the flow across the propeller, V, in

terms of the inlet and outlet speeds, Vi and Ve, and the area of the propeller, A,

and the fluid density, .

b) Determine the power required to drive the propeller to generate the above

thrust.

c) Show that efficiency of the propeller is equal to the ratio of the inlet velocity

to the velocity across the propeller.

Efficiency here is defined as the power required to drive the propeller divided

by the rate of change of Kinetic Energy of the slipstream between the inlet and

outlet:

1

PKE = m (Vi 2 "Ve2 ) .

2

P

Vi

=

PKE Vp

!

d) Is the efficiency less than or greater than one? Explain.

!=

operate in an area of the Atlantic Ocean with strong currents around U = 3 m/s. In

order to determine the thrust needed for the vehicle a smaller scale model is tested in

the propeller tunnel. The model is 10th the size of the real AUV. The model is 75

centimeters long and diameter is 7.5 cm. The front of the torpedo is a hemisphere and

the aft is tapered to the propeller.

The full scale AUV will need enough thrust to maintain position in a 3 m/s

current.

In order to determine the thrust needed to overcome the current the model will be

hooked up to a force balance and the drag on the hull measured at a certain towing

speed (analogous to incoming current).

a) What speed should the model be tested at to determine the necessary thrust on

the full-scale vehicle?

b) If the drag measured on the model at this design speed is 10N, then what is the

maximum thrust needed to overcome the 3 m/s current for the full-scale

AUV?

c) List the most important non-dimensional parameters.

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