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Hydromechanics VVR090

Motivation

Often difficult to solve fluid flow problems by analytical or

numerical methods. Also, data are required for validation.

The need for experiments

so they are typically carried out at another scale

(model).

interpretation of measurement results.

Fields of Application

aerodynamics

naval architecture

flow machinery (pumps, turbines)

hydraulic structures

rivers, estuaries

sediment transport

relationships, obtain data for comparison with

mathematical models.

Wind-tunnel

Spillway design

Towing tank

Sediment transport

facility

Construction of model

Discharge at

model spillway

Model gates

surge chamber

pump intake

Hydraulic arrangements

Lule lv

Lilla Edet

Lule lv

Terminology

Similitude: how to carry out model tests and how to transfer

model results to protype (laws of similarity)

an efficient, general way so that the extent of necessary

experiments is minimized (Buckinghams P-theorem)

Drag force (D) depends on:

diameter (d)

velocity (V)

viscosity (m)

density ()

D = f ( d , V , , )

Dimensional analysis:

Vd

D

= f

= f (Re)

2 2

V d

geometric

kinematic

dynamic

between model and prototype.

Geometric Similarity

Ratios between corresponding lengths in model and

prototype should be the same.

dp

dm

lp

lm

d l

= p = p = 2

Am d m lm

Ap

Kinematic Similarity

Flow field in prototype and model have the same shape and

the ratios of corresponding velocities and accelerations are

the same.

V1 p

V1m

V2 p

V2 m

a1 p

a1m

a2 p

a2 m

Dynamic Similarity

To ensure geometric and kinematic similarity, dynamic

similarity must also be fulfilled.

Ratio between forces in prototype and model must be

constant:

F1 p

F1m

F2 p

F2 m

F3 p

F3m

M pap

M m am

(vector relationships)

F1 p + F2 p + F3 p = M p a p

F1m + F2 m + F3m = M m am

pressure (FP)

inertia (FI)

gravity (FG)

viscosity (FV)

elasticity (FE)

surface tension (FT)

Parameterization of Forces

FP = pA = pl 2

V2

= V 2 l 2

l

3

FG = Mg = l g

FI = Ma = l 3

dV

V

A = l 2 = Vl

dy

l

FT = l

FV =

FE = EA = El 2

(convective acceleration: V

dV

)

dx

prototype and model

FI FI

V 2 V 2

=

=

FP p FP m p p p m

FI FI

Vl Vl

= =

=

FV p FV m p m

FI FI

V 2 Vl

= = =

FG p FG m gl p m

FI FI

V 2 V 2

=

=

FE p FE m E p E m

FI FI

lV 2 lV 2

=

=

FT p FT m p m

Dimensionless Numbers

Reynolds

Froude

Cauchy (Mach)

Weber

Euler

Vl

Vl

=

/

V

Fr =

gl

Re =

C=

V2

V2

= 2 = M2

E / c

lV 2

E =V

2 p

W=

produces dynamic similarity.

Newtons second law).

are the same since:

some forces are of negligable magnitude

forces may counteract each other to reduce their effect

10

Reynolds Similarity I

Low-speed flow around air foil (incompressible flow)

Vl

Vl

= Re p = Re m =

p

m

Osborne Reynolds

D D

V 2l 2 = V 2l 2

p

m

Reynolds Similarity II

Flow through a contraction (incompressible flow)

Vl

Vl

= Re p = Re m =

p

m

(also geometric similarity)

p p

V 2 = V 2

p

m

11

Froude Similarity I

Flow around a ship (free surface flow)

William Froude

V

V

= Frp = Frm =

gl p

gl m

(frictional effects neglected)

D D

V 2l 2 = V 2l 2

p

m

Froude Similarity II

Flow around a ship, including friction

V

V

= Frp = Frm =

gl p

gl m

Vl

Vl

= Re p = Re m =

p

m

Fulfill both:

lp

=

m lm

3/ 2

(typically not

possible)

12

Same viscosity in prototype and model

Re p = Re m

Vp

Vm

Vp

Vm

lm

= 1

lp

lp / tp

lm / tm

tp

tm

= 2

Similarly:

Qp

Qm

l 3p / t p

3

m

l / tm

= 3

1

=

2

Same acceleration due to gravity

Frp = Frm

1/ 2

lp

=

Vm lm

Vp

Vp

Vm

lp / tp

lm / tm

= 1/ 2

tp

tm

= 1/ 2

Similarly:

Qp

Qm

l p3 / t p

3

m

l / tm

= 3

1

= 5/ 2

13

Distorted Scale

The vertical and horizontal scale is different (e.g., model of

an estuary, bay, lagoon).

lp

lm

= h ,

yp

ym

Froude rule:

Vp

Vm

lp / tp

lm / tm

= v

1/ 2

yp

=

Vm ym

Vp

tp

tm

Vml p

V p lm

= 1/v 2

h

v

14

Movable-Bed Models

Model sediment transport and the effect on bed change:

General river morphology

River training

Flood plain development

Bridge pier location and design

Local scour

Pipeline crossings

Additional problem besides similarity for the flow

motion is the similarity for the sediment transport

and the interaction between flow and sediment.

Sediment Transport

Interaction between fluid flow (water or air) and its loose

boundaries.

Strong interaction between the flow and its boundaries.

sediment transport and river mechanics, but after careful

thought opted for the simpler aspects of physics

15

Gravel

Cohesive

material

initiation of motion

bed features

transport mode

transport magnitude

slope stability

16

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