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Similitude and Dimensional Analysis I

Hydromechanics VVR090

Motivation
Often difficult to solve fluid flow problems by analytical or
numerical methods. Also, data are required for validation.
The need for experiments

Difficult to do experiment at the true size (prototype),


so they are typically carried out at another scale
(model).

Develop rules for design of experiments and


interpretation of measurement results.

Fields of Application
aerodynamics
naval architecture
flow machinery (pumps, turbines)
hydraulic structures
rivers, estuaries
sediment transport

To solve practical problems, derive general


relationships, obtain data for comparison with
mathematical models.

Example of Model Experiments

Wind-tunnel

Spillway design

Towing tank

Sediment transport
facility

Model Experiments in Hydraulics I

Construction of model

Model Experiments in Hydraulics II

Model of dam with spillways

Discharge at
model spillway

Model Experiments in Hydraulics III

Traryd hydropower station


Model gates

Model Experiments in Hydraulics IV

surge chamber

pump intake

Hydraulic arrangements

Model Experiments in Hydraulics V

Lule lv

Lilla Edet

Water power plants

Lule lv

Terminology
Similitude: how to carry out model tests and how to transfer
model results to protype (laws of similarity)

Dimensional analysis: how to describe physical relationships in


an efficient, general way so that the extent of necessary
experiments is minimized (Buckinghams P-theorem)

Example: Drag Force on an Submerged Body


Drag force (D) depends on:
diameter (d)
velocity (V)
viscosity (m)
density ()

D = f ( d , V , , )

Dimensional analysis:

Vd
D
= f
= f (Re)
2 2
V d

Basic Types of Similitude


geometric
kinematic
dynamic

All of these must be obtained for complete similarity


between model and prototype.

Geometric Similarity
Ratios between corresponding lengths in model and
prototype should be the same.

dp
dm

lp
lm

d l
= p = p = 2
Am d m lm
Ap

Kinematic Similarity
Flow field in prototype and model have the same shape and
the ratios of corresponding velocities and accelerations are
the same.

V1 p
V1m

V2 p
V2 m

a1 p
a1m

a2 p
a2 m

Geometrically similar streamlines are kinematically similar.

Dynamic Similarity
To ensure geometric and kinematic similarity, dynamic
similarity must also be fulfilled.
Ratio between forces in prototype and model must be
constant:

F1 p
F1m

F2 p
F2 m

F3 p
F3m

M pap
M m am

(vector relationships)

Also, Newtons second law:

F1 p + F2 p + F3 p = M p a p
F1m + F2 m + F3m = M m am

Important Forces for the Flow Field


pressure (FP)
inertia (FI)
gravity (FG)
viscosity (FV)
elasticity (FE)
surface tension (FT)

Parameterization of Forces

FP = pA = pl 2
V2
= V 2 l 2
l
3
FG = Mg = l g
FI = Ma = l 3

dV
V
A = l 2 = Vl
dy
l
FT = l
FV =

FE = EA = El 2

(convective acceleration: V

dV
)
dx

Dynamic similarity: corresponding force ratios the same in


prototype and model

FI FI
V 2 V 2
=
=

FP p FP m p p p m
FI FI
Vl Vl
= =
=

FV p FV m p m
FI FI
V 2 Vl
= = =

FG p FG m gl p m
FI FI
V 2 V 2
=
=

FE p FE m E p E m
FI FI
lV 2 lV 2
=
=

FT p FT m p m

Dimensionless Numbers
Reynolds

Froude

Cauchy (Mach)

Weber

Euler

Vl
Vl
=
/
V
Fr =
gl
Re =

C=

V2
V2
= 2 = M2
E / c

lV 2

E =V
2 p
W=

Dimensionless numbers same in prototype and model


produces dynamic similarity.

Only four numbers are independent (fifth equation from


Newtons second law).

In most cases it is not necessary to ensure that four numbers


are the same since:

all forces do not act


some forces are of negligable magnitude
forces may counteract each other to reduce their effect

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Reynolds Similarity I
Low-speed flow around air foil (incompressible flow)

Vl
Vl
= Re p = Re m =
p
m

Osborne Reynolds

(also geometric similarity)

Same Re number yields same relative drag force:

D D
V 2l 2 = V 2l 2

p
m

Reynolds Similarity II
Flow through a contraction (incompressible flow)

Vl
Vl
= Re p = Re m =
p
m
(also geometric similarity)

Same Euler number yields same relative pressure drop:

p p
V 2 = V 2

p
m

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Froude Similarity I
Flow around a ship (free surface flow)
William Froude

V
V

= Frp = Frm =

gl p
gl m
(frictional effects neglected)

Same Re number yields same relative drag force:

D D
V 2l 2 = V 2l 2

p
m

Froude Similarity II
Flow around a ship, including friction

V
V

= Frp = Frm =

gl p
gl m
Vl
Vl
= Re p = Re m =
p
m
Fulfill both:

lp
=
m lm

3/ 2

(typically not
possible)

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Reynolds Modeling Rules


Same viscosity in prototype and model

Re p = Re m

Vp

Vm
Vp
Vm

lm
= 1
lp

lp / tp
lm / tm

tp

tm

= 2

Similarly:

Qp
Qm

l 3p / t p
3
m

l / tm

= 3

1
=
2

Froude Modeling Rules


Same acceleration due to gravity

Frp = Frm

1/ 2

lp

=
Vm lm
Vp

Vp
Vm

lp / tp
lm / tm

= 1/ 2

tp
tm

= 1/ 2

Similarly:

Qp
Qm

l p3 / t p
3
m

l / tm

= 3

1
= 5/ 2

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Summary of Different Model Rules

Distorted Scale
The vertical and horizontal scale is different (e.g., model of
an estuary, bay, lagoon).

lp
lm

= h ,

yp
ym

Froude rule:

Vp
Vm

lp / tp
lm / tm

= v
1/ 2

yp
=
Vm ym
Vp

tp
tm

Vml p
V p lm

= 1/v 2

h
v

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Movable-Bed Models
Model sediment transport and the effect on bed change:
General river morphology
River training
Flood plain development
Bridge pier location and design
Local scour
Pipeline crossings
Additional problem besides similarity for the flow
motion is the similarity for the sediment transport
and the interaction between flow and sediment.

Sediment Transport
Interaction between fluid flow (water or air) and its loose
boundaries.
Strong interaction between the flow and its boundaries.

Professor H.A. Einstein: my father had an early interest in


sediment transport and river mechanics, but after careful
thought opted for the simpler aspects of physics

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Movable-Bed Experiment (USDA)

Gravel

Cohesive
material

Important Features of Sediment Transport


initiation of motion
bed features
transport mode
transport magnitude
slope stability

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