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You are on page 1of 15

4a,b,c,d,e,f,g,h,i

Chapter 4

Oscillations

Worksheet

Worked examples

Practical 1: Simple harmonic motion of a tethered trolley

Practical 2: Investigating resonance

End-of-chapter test

Marking scheme: Worksheet

Marking scheme: End-of-chapter test

Worksheet

Intermediate level

1

a

the period;

[1]

the frequency.

[1]

The graph of displacement against time for an object executing simple harmonic

motion (s.h.m.) is shown here.

x

0

0.2

a

b

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

t (s)

Suggest a time at which the object has maximum speed. Explain your

answer.

[2]

maximum. Explain your answer.

[2]

The apple is pulled to one side and then released. It executes 12 oscillations in a

time of 13.2 s. For this oscillating apple, calculate:

a

its period;

[2]

its frequency.

[2]

The diagram shows the displacement against time graph for an oscillating object.

x (m)

0.10

0.05

0

2.0

4.0

6.0

t (102 s)

0.05

0.10

a

[1]

the period;

[1]

[2]

[2]

4 Oscillations

35

Two objects A and B have the same period of oscillation. In each case a and b

below, determine the phase difference between the motions of the objects A and B.

A

x

A

+

B

0

5

10

t (s)

15 t (s)

10

[2]

[2]

A mass at the end of a spring oscillates with a period of 2.8 s. The maximum

displacement of the mass from its equilibrium position is 16 cm.

a

[1]

[2]

ii

[3]

Higher level

7

A small toy boat is floating on the waters surface. It is gently pushed down and

then released. The toy executes simple harmonic motion. Its displacement against

time graph is shown here.

x (102 m)

+3.0

0

1

t (s)

3.0

36

[2]

[3]

its displacement after a time of 6.7 s, assuming that the effect of damping

on the boat is negligible.

[3]

4 Oscillations

8 The diagram shows the displacementtime graph for a particle executing simple

harmonic motion.

x

+

t (s)

a

velocitytime graph;

[2]

accelerationtime graph;

[2]

[2]

[2]

of the piston is related to its displacement x by:

a = 6.4 105x

a

[3]

The piston has a mass of 700 g and a maximum displacement of 8.0 cm.

Calculate the maximum force on the piston.

[2]

Extension

10 The diagram shows a trolley of mass m attached

to a spring of force constant k. When the trolley

is displaced to one side and then released, the

trolley executes simple harmonic motion.

a

is given by:

a=

equilibrium

position

x

trolley

m

k

( mk ) x

b

Use the expression in a to show that the frequency f of the motion is given by:

f=

1

2

k

m

[2]

The springs in a cars suspension act in a similar way to the springs on the

trolley. For a car of mass 850 kg, the natural frequency of oscillation is 0.40 s.

Determine the force constant k of the cars suspension.

[3]

Total: Score:

55

4 Oscillations

[3]

37

Worked examples

Example 1

A loudspeaker cone oscillates with simple harmonic motion at a frequency of 2.0 kHz.

Calculate the period and the angular frequency of these oscillations.

f=

1

T

T=

1

= 5.0 104 s

2000

or T =

1

f

Do not forget to convert

frequency into hertz.

2

= 2f

T

Tip

frequency. Frequency is measured in hertz

and angular frequency is measured in

radians per second.

Example 2

A stone is attached to one end of a long spring.

The other end of the spring is fixed to a metal rod.

The stone is displaced a distance of 12 cm from its

equilibrium position and then released (see diagram).

rod

Calculate the maximum acceleration of the

oscillating stone and determine its displacement

after a time of 2.0 s.

spring

equilibrium

position

T=

12 cm

45

= 1.5 s

30

2

a = (2f)2x or a =

T

stone

oscillations

( )x

the motion, which is 12 cm. Therefore the magnitude of the maximum acceleration is:

2

a = 1.5

( ) 12 10

= 2.11 m s2 2.1 m s2

after 2.0 s is given by:

x = A cos (2ft)

x = 12 102 cos 2

1

2.0 = 0.06 m

1.5

6 cm above the equilibrium position.

38

at t = 0. Hence the displacement x must be given by

the cosine relationship.

Tips

It is vital that you work in radians when

calculating the displacement x.

Read the question carefully to determine

whether the displacement is given by

x= A cos (2ft) or x = A sin (2ft).

4 Oscillations

Practical 1

Simple harmonic motion of a tethered trolley

Safety

There are not likely to be any hazards in carrying out this experiment. However,

teachers and technicians should always refer to the departmental risk assessment before

carrying out any practical work.

Apparatus

ticker-timer

supply for ticker-timer

trolley

1 kg mass

clamp stands

metre rule

stopwatch

connecting leads

Introduction

The displacement x of a simple harmonic oscillator released from its maximum

displacement at time t = 0 is given by:

x = A cos (2ft)

The equations of s.h.m. are given on page 41 of Physics 2. In this experiment you will

measure the displacement of a tethered trolley using ticker-tape and compare it with

the equation above. The trolley is secured to the springs as shown in the diagram.

equilibrium

position

stand

ticker-tape

stand

1 kg

to d.c.

supply

Procedure

1

2

3

4

5

Place a 1.0 kg mass on the trolley.

Pull the trolley to a distance of 15 cm from its equilibrium position.

Start the ticker-timer and release the trolley.

Use the dots on the ticker-tape to measure the displacement of the trolley at times

0 s, 0.02 s, 0.04 s, 0.06 s, etc. (Remember that the time interval between successive

dots on the ticker-tape is 0.02 s.)

0.02 s

4 Oscillations

39

7 Use your table to plot a graph of x against t.

8 Use the graph to determine the time taken for one quarter

Hint: f =

1

T

x = A cos (2ft)

where A in this experiment is equal to 15 cm.

10 For the first quarter of the oscillation, does your graph show this to be the case?

Guidance for teachers

For the first quarter of an oscillation, the energy losses are small enough for there to be

an agreement within 10% between the experimental results and the theory.

40

4 Oscillations

Practical 2

Investigating resonance

Safety

There are not likely to be any hazards in carrying out this experiment. However,

teachers and technicians should always refer to the departmental risk assessment before

carrying out any practical work.

Apparatus

stopwatch

metre rule

signal generator

imaging pin

100 g mass

slotted base holder

clamp stand

cardboard disc of radius 15 cm

connecting leads

stand

metre rule

imaging pin

100 g mass

to signal

generator

slotted-base

holder

vibrator

Introduction

The phenomenon of resonance is described on pages 45 to 48 of Physics 2. In this

experiment you will investigate how the amplitude of the motion of a mass attached to

some springs is affected by the forcing frequency, and whether a small amount of

damping has any significant effect on the resonant frequency.

The experiment is set up as shown in the diagram.

Procedure

With the signal generator switched off, displace the 100 g mass and then release it.

Measure the time taken for 10 oscillations. Calculate the natural frequency f0 of the

oscillator.

Switch on the signal generator. Note the output voltage; you must keep this

constant throughout the experiment.

Measure the amplitude of the oscillations at a frequency of 0.2 Hz. Repeat for

frequencies in steps of 0.2 Hz up to 5.0 Hz.

4

5

6

fixed onto the mass. Does the damping introduced

by the cardboard affect the resonant frequency of

the oscillator?

Use your graph to determine the resonant frequency. How does this compare with

your value for the natural frequency f0?

oscillations

card

100 g mass

The natural frequency f of oscillations for a mass m oscillating at the end of a spring of

force constant k is given by:

f=

1 k

2 m

4 Oscillations

41

End-of-chapter test

Answer all questions.

oscillator.

[1]

[2]

of acceleration a against displacement

x for an object executing simple

harmonic motion.

[2]

A metal strip is clamped to the edge of a table and a mass is attached to its free end.

The mass is gently pushed down and then released. A graph of the position of the

mass measured from the floor against time is shown below.

Position (m)

1.20

metal strip

1.10

1.00

oscillating mass

0.90

0.80

a

b

c

42

0.2

0.4

0.6

On the graph above, mark with a letter X the point at which the oscillating

mass has maximum speed.

[1]

Use the graph of position against time to determine the maximum speed

of the mass.

[3]

t (s)

i

its frequency;

[2]

ii

[2]

The atoms in a solid may be assumed to vibrate with simple harmonic motion.

a

acceleration a in terms of its displacement x from its equilibrium position.

the frequency is 2.0 1014 Hz. Calculate:

11

[1]

m and

ii

the maximum force acting on the atom given that its mass is 1.1 1025 kg.

[2]

[2]

4 Oscillations

x

+

0

t

Ek

+

0

t

Show the corresponding variation with time of the kinetic energy Ek of the

oscillating atom.

The other end of the spring is fixed to a

mechanical vibrator.

With the mechanical vibrator switched

off, the stone is displaced from its

equilibrium position and then released.

The stone executes 25 oscillations in

1 minute.

[2]

to signal

generator

vibrator

spring

stone

The mechanical vibrator is switched on and the amplitude A of the motion of the

stone is measured for a range of values of the forcing frequency f.

A

0

0

On the axes above, show how the amplitude A of the motion of the stone is affected

by the frequency f of the vibrator.

[3]

Total: Score:

23

4 Oscillations

43

Marking scheme

Worksheet

1

The period of an oscillator is the time for one complete oscillation. [1]

per unit time (or per second). [1]

The magnitude of the velocity (speed) is a maximum at 0 s or 0.4 s or 0.8 s. [1]

The magnitude of the acceleration is maximum when the displacement is equal

to the amplitude of the motion. [1]

The magnitude of the acceleration is a maximum at 0.2 s or 0.6 s or 1.0 s. [1]

a

b

T=

13.2

[1]; T = 1.1 s [1]

12

f=

1 1

=

[1];

T 1.1

f=

= 2f = 2 25 [1];

Phase difference = 2

1

1

=

[1];

T 0.04

f = 25 Hz [1]

= 157 rad s1 160 rad s1 [1]

( Tt )

where T is the period and t is the time lag between the motions of the two

objects.

T = 10 s and t = 2.5 s

phase difference = 2

( Tt ) = 2 ( 2.5

10 )

[1]

b

T = 10 s and t = 5.0 s

phase difference = 2

( Tt ) = 2 ( 5.0

10 )

[1]

A = 16 cm [1]

= 2f =

ii

2 2

=

[1];

T 2.8

a = 2 1

2.8

16 102 [1]

44

4 Oscillations

b

a = (2f )2 x or a = 2x [1]

a = 3.142 3.0 102 m s2 [1];

a 0.30 m s2 [1]

x = 3.0 102 cos (3.14 6.7) [1];

8

a

Velocity

Gradient from xt

graph = velocity

[2]

t (s)

Gradient from vt

graph = acceleration

Acceleration

+

t (s)

Kinetic

energy

acceleration

displacement

Kinetic energy

1

= mv2 v2

2

[2]

[2]

t (s)

Potential

energy

Potential energy

= total energy

kinetic energy [2]

t (s)

9 a a = (2f)2 x [1]

Therefore (2f)2 = 6.4 105 [1]

f=

b

6.4 105

= 127 Hz 130 Hz [1]

2

F = ma

Acceleration is maximum at maximum displacement, so magnitude of

maximum force is given by:

F = ma = 0.700 (6.4 105 0.08) [1];

4 Oscillations

45

(The minus sign shows that the force is directed towards the equilibrium

position.)

From Newtons second law: F = ma [1]

Equating, we have: ma = kx [1]

Hence: a =

b

( mk ) x

Hence: (2f)2 =

Therefore: f =

f=

k

[1]

m

1

2

k

m

1 1

=

= 2.5 Hz [1]

T 0.4

2.5 =

1

2

k

[1]

850

46

4 Oscillations

Marking scheme

End-of-chapter test

1

from its equilibrium position. [1]

proportional to its displacement from a fixed point [1]

and is directed towards this point. [1]

origin. [1]

slope (because a x). [1]

a = (2 f )2 x

+A

(0.1 s or 0.3 s or 0.5 s or 0.7 s). [1]

Maximum speed = maximum gradient from position against time graph [1]

A tangent drawn and numbers substituted to determine the gradient. [1]

maximum speed = 1.6 m s1 (Allow a tolerance of 0.2 m s1.) [1]

1 1

=

[1];

T 0.4

f=

ii

2 2

= 2f = T = 0.4 [1];

f = 2.5 Hz [1]

= 15.7 rad s1 16 rad s1 [1]

a = 1.9 1019 m s2 [1]

ii

c

x

+

0

t

Ek

+

0

t

The kinetic energy is shown to have only positive values (Ek v2). [1]

Correct shape and phase for the kinetic energy against time graph. [1]

4 Oscillations

47

(f0 =

25

0.42 Hz) [1]

60

0

0

48

0.42 Hz

4 Oscillations

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