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Impact of Social Media and Its Effect on

Communication on todays Youth


I take this opportunity to express my profound gratitude and deep regards to my guide (Amit
Tripathi) for his exemplary guidance, monitoring and constant encouragement throughout the
course of this assignment. The blessing, help and guidance given by him time to time shall carry
me a long way in the journey of life on which I am about to embark.
I also take this opportunity to express a deep sense of gratitude to all friends, for their cordial
support, valuable information and guidance, which helped me in completing this task through
various stages.
I am obliged to staff members of FIeMITS, for the valuable information provided by them in
their respective fields. I am grateful for their cooperation during the period of my assignment.
Lastly, I thank almighty, my parents, brother, sisters and friends for their constant encouragement
without which this assignment would not be possible.




Background to Study

Communication is a basic human need and for that reason, man has always found a means of
meeting this need. The media, which is an umbrella term for various means of communication,
has become an integral part of human life around the world. The earliest forms of personal
media, speech and gestures, had the benefit of being easy to use and did not necessarily need
complex technology.
The weaknesses of not being able to communicate to large audiences led to the development of
mass media, such as writing. With these developments, the role of the media in the society
became more and more significant. John Dewey emphasized the role of media for education as
James Agee and Walter Lippmann also highlighted the functions of the media for entertainment
and information.

New Media
New technologies can lead to new types of media and the ability to use a given form of media is
related to the ability to use its related technology. Today, technology has made more universal,
the ability to produce media. Printing, radio and television are some examples of mass media in
that they are intended to reach vast audiences. But these forms of media previously could not be
produced readily by the average person. The advent of relatively inexpensive, personal media
technologies like blogging, podcasting and Internet video allowed the average literate person to
do what was theretofore restricted to media companies. These forms of media are still referred to
as new but they have become part of society even as much as the traditional media in some parts
of the world. In a few years, the term new media might not be very suitable because these

forms are becoming part of our daily lives and the fusion with traditional media might dilute the
fact that it is new. They are also referred to as alternative media, but if compared to the roles of
the media as defined by Walter Lippmann, John Dewey and James Agee, they satisfy the
definition of any other kind of media and some theories which apply to traditional media might
apply to new media as well.

Humanity has always lived through times of great change. Every age it has passed through has
been based on beliefs and (new) technologies, responding to the needs of individuals anxious to
adjust to new forms of socialization. A time of great change is a period in which society looks for
meaning. Information is already a tool, the principal tool, which people use to perceive and
understand their environment. Language and culture help people filter this information, while
communication tools help them process it.
Whenever a group of individuals have to process a larger quantity of information, they invent a
communication tool to assist with the transition from one period to another. When a great change
occurs, a society swings between innovation, which keeps its systems in motion, and stability,
which, in turn, prevents a descent into anarchy. Sociologists call this the edge of chaos;
psychologists use the term homeostasis. This function ensures that the system remains stable
by preserving what exists, while also incorporating the information likely to threaten its
equilibrium. There is also the issue of self-regulation, in which the system transforms itself to
adapt and remain stable.
At various periods in the past, a technical or technological innovation has contributed to the
evolution of society. We have thus passed from the printing age to the energy age, and thence to
the digital age. Means of communication are also means of speeding up access to knowledge.
Our communication tools (engraving, slate, print, television, computer, etc.) and our behaviors

when faced with these tools have not only modified time and space, but also the culture of
societies. Each stage in the use of tools has modified the filters of our perception and the
imagination of human beings.

Social Media
Social media is a form of electronic communication which facilitates interaction based on certain
interests and characteristics. Social media are media for social interaction, using highly
accessible and scalable publishing techniques. Social media use web-based technologies to
transform and broadcast media monologues into social dialogues. They support the
democratization of knowledge and information and transform people from content consumers to
content producers. Social media are elements of the new media and according to Danny Shea in
The Huffington Post accessed 20th June 2010 have become the highest activity on the internet.
The rapid growth of social media activities that has been observed over the last two to three
years is indicative of its entry into mainstream culture and its integration into the daily lives of
many people. In parallel with this, social media have also gained considerable attention from the
academic and business worlds.
History of Social Media
"Social media isnt really new. While it has only recently become part of mainstream culture
and the business world, people have been using digital media for networking, socializing and
information gathering almost exactly like now for over 30 years:"
-Sean Carton in his July 2009 blog posting: Defining social media, in ClickZ.

Social media started as a concept many years ago but has evolved into sophisticated technology.
The concept of social media can be dated back to the use of the analog telephone for social
interaction. The most recognizable use of social media was through innovative application, an
online dialogue framework, created by Ward Christensen, a former IBM employee and Randy
Suess. Initially, they envisioned a place where they could immediately contact their coemployees for announcements, i.e. meetings, reports, and other affairs, rather than making
multiple phone calls, distributing memos, and the like. They were looking into creating a
computerized bulletin board, which is why they named the program CBBS (Computerized
Bulletin Board System). Soon enough, more and more employees contributed their ideas and
comments in the said online community. That event was a momentous episode in the history of
computer and internet. It was the birth of online social networking.
The CBBS platform was made known to other companies and has been used for specific
purposes. The Bulletin Board System expanded largely and began breaking into the mainstream
much sooner than it was planned to. It was during the rise of the Internet Service Providers in the
early 1990s when social networking sites began to flourish. Along with the availability of
internet service to people, many people rummaged to have themselves acquainted with this new
technology. With the fast response of people to the budding internet community, the bulletin
boards which were usually used by companies have started to expand their roles by offering their
service to more people around the globe. More and more people joined the online community
with the innate goal of creating an identity in this space and at the same time exploring the vast
place that is the internet. Because of this, many internet-savvy companies gave what people
wanted- getting to know more people and sharing common interests and points of view; that is

through websites where they can socialize, websites which are now referred to as social
networking sites.
Social media attained a great measure of success with the launch of the then very popular Creator of Friendster, Jonathan Abrams concocted a perfect mix of popular
features from earlier social networking predecessors. Friendster became an instant success and
gathered about three million members who signed up in its early months of launch.
As years passed, Friendster reached an overwhelming hundred million users from all over the
globe. With much demand from its users, Friendster unfortunately got out of hand and suffered
from too many glitches in the server. Today, Friendster has been announced as a newly owned
entity of a Malaysian Company, and outshone by present social networking sites but still remains
to be patronized most especially in Asia.
The conception of opened the internet users to vast opportunities of selfexpression which include wide control over a users profile content. Practically different people
from all walks of life have dedicated pages in MySpace. In MySpace, users experienced the best
of creating unique identities to show to the online world.
MySpace remained as the uncontested favorite among all the social networking sites until 2005
when it met its future competitor in the market. Soon enough, MySpace created additional
features like mobile applications in order to keep up with the latest trends in the online
community; and at the same time be at par with the growing popularity of contemporary social
networking sites, more specifically the next thing in line.
How Social Media Work/Characteristics

Social media utilization is believed to be a driving force in defining the current period as what
psychologists call the Attention Age. A common thread running through all definitions of
social media is a blending of technology and social interaction for the co-creation of value. One
characteristic shared by both social media and industrial media is the capability to reach small or
large audiences; for example, either a blog post or a television show may reach zero people or
millions of people. The properties that help describe the differences between social media and
industrial media depend on the study. Some of these properties are:
1. Reach - both industrial and social media technologies provide scale and enable anyone to
reach a global audience.
2. Accessibility - the means of production for industrial media are typically owned privately
or by government; social media tools are generally available to anyone at little or no cost.
3. Usability - industrial media production typically requires specialized skills and training.
Most social media does not, or in some cases reinvent skills, so anyone can operate the
means of production.
4. Response time - the time lag between communications produced by industrial media can
be long (days, weeks, or even months) compared to social media (which is capable of
virtually instantaneous responses; only the participants determine any delay in response).
As industrial media are currently adopting social media tools, this feature may well not
be distinctive anymore in some time.
5. Permanence - industrial media, once created, cannot be altered (once a magazine article is
printed and distributed changes cannot be made to that same article) whereas social
media can be altered almost instantaneously by comments or editing.

Community media constitute an interesting hybrid of industrial and social media. Though
community-owned, some community radios, TV and newspapers are run by professionals and
some by amateurs. They use both social and industrial media frameworks.
In his 2006 book The Wealth of Networks: How Social Production Transforms Markets and
Freedom, Yochai Benkler analyzed many of these distinctions and their implications in terms of
both economics and political liberty. However, Benkler, like many academics, uses the
neologism network economy or "network information economy" to describe the underlying
economic, social, and technological characteristics of what has come to be known as "social
Andrew Keen criticizes social media in his book The Cult of the Amateur, writing, "Out of this
anarchy, it suddenly became clear that what was governing the infinite monkeys now inputting
away on the Internet was the law of digital Darwinism, the survival of the loudest and most
opinionated. Under these rules, the only way to intellectually prevail is by infinite filibustering.
Social media can take many different forms, including Internet forums, weblogs, social blogs,
microblogging, wikis, podcasts, pictures, video, rating and social bookmarking. By applying a
set of theories in the field of media research (social presence, media richness) and social
processes (self-presentation, self-disclosure) Kaplan and Haenlein created a classification
scheme for different social media types in their Business Horizons article published in 2010.
According to Kaplan and Haenlein there are six different types of social media: Collaborative
projects, blogs and microblogs, content communities, social networking sites, virtual game
worlds, and virtual social worlds. Technologies include: blogs, picture-sharing, vlogs, wallpostings, email, instant messaging, music-sharing, crowdsourcing, and voice over IP, to name a

few. Many of these social media services can be integrated via social network aggregation
Examples of social media based on their characteristics include:

Blogs: Blogger, LiveJournal, Open Diary, TypePad, WordPress, Vox, ExpressionEngine,


Micro-blogging / Presence applications: FMyLife, Jaiku, Plurk, Twitter, Tumblr,

Posterous, Yammer, Qaiku

Social networking: Facebook, MySpace, Cyworld

Events: Upcoming, Eventful,,


Wikis: Wikimedia, Wikia, PBworks, Wetpaint

Social bookmarking (or social tagging): Delicious, StumbleUpon, Google Reader,


Social news: Digg, Mixx, Reddit, NowPublic


Photography and art sharing: Deviantart, Flickr, Photobucket, Picasa, SmugMug,


Video sharing: YouTube, Viddler, Vimeo, sevenload


Livecasting:,, Stickam, Skype, OpenCU, Livestream

Music and audio sharing: MySpace Music, The Hype Machine,, ccMixter,
ShareTheMusic, ReverbNation

Presentation sharing: scribd

Reviews and opinions

Product reviews:,

Business reviews: Customer Lobby,

Community Q&A: Yahoo! Answers, WikiAnswers, Askville, Google Answers


Media and entertainment platforms: Cisco Eos

Virtual worlds: [Active Worlds], Second Life, The Sims Online, Forterra

Game sharing: Miniclip, Kongregate

Brand monitoring

Social media monitoring: Attensity Voice of the Customer, Attensity360, Sysomos


Social media analytics: Sysomos MAP


Information Aggregators: Netvibes, Twine (website)


Online Advocacy and Fundraising: Causes

Benefits and Concerns

Social media, although not used by everybody, have been noted for some benefits. This is
especially in the business field where the use has been seen as an affordable marketing tool. The
level of social interaction might also suggest that social media contributes much to the
socialization process by giving access to customers, old friends, new friends and relatives.
Various forms of social media have been used as learning tools in some institutions and have
proven to be of good use in assisting teaching techniques. Social media have also been used as
vehicles for political and humanitarian causes where the progression in interaction aids the
recruitment of supporters for a certain cause. However, these benefits do not erase the fears
associated with the usage of these forms of media. These fears range from privacy issues to the
fear that social media can be addictive, thereby eliminating interpersonal communication in its
most original form.
Socialization & Communication
Socialization is the process by which children and adults learn from others. Weidman, Twale and
Stein (2001) define socialization in a broad sense as the process by which persons acquire the
knowledge, skills and disposition that make them more or less effective members of the society.
People begin learning from others during the early days of life; and most people continue their
social learning all through life (unless some mental or physical disability slows or stops the
learning process). (John Weidman, Darla Twale & Elizabeth Stein, 2001).
John Baldwin and Janice Baldwin in the book, behavior principles in everyday life say natural
socialization occurs when infants and youngsters explore, play and discover the social world

around them. Planned socialization occurs when other people take actions designed to teach or
train others -- from infancy on. Natural socialization is easily seen when looking at the young of
almost any mammalian species (and some birds). Planned socialization is mostly a human
phenomenon; and all through history, people have been making plans for teaching or training
others. Both natural and planned socialization can have good and bad features: It is wise to learn
the best features of both natural and planned socialization and weave them into our lives.
The authors also define positive socialization as the type of social learning that is based on
pleasurable and exciting experiences. We tend to like the people who fill our social learning
processes with positive motivation, loving care, and rewarding opportunities. Negative
socialization occurs when others use punishment, harsh criticisms or anger to try to "teach us a
lesson;" and often we come to dislike both negative socialization and the people who impose it
on us.
There are all types of mixes of positive and negative socialization; and the more positive social
learning experiences we have, the happier we tend to be -- especially if we learn useful
information that helps us cope well with the challenges of life. A high ratio of negative to
positive socialization can make a person unhappy, defeated or pessimistic about life. The
socialization type can also have an effect, in turn, on the persons ability to fit into the society
and perform optimally as a member of the society. Socialization also plays a significant role in
the development of our lives, personally and professionally, generally as citizens. (John D
Baldwin, Janice I Baldwin, 2000)
Technology and Communication


New technologies can lead to new types of media and the ability to use a given form of media is
related to the ability to use its related technology. Throughout history, developments in
technology and communications have gone hand-in-hand, and the latest technological
developments such as the internet have resulted in the advancement of the science of
communication to a new level. The process of human communication has evolved over the years,
with many path-breaking inventions and discoveries heralding revolutions or a lift from one level
to another.
1. The invention of pictographs or the first written communication in the ancient world
heralded written communication. These writings were on stone, and remained immobile.
2. The invention of paper, papyrus, and wax, culminating in the invention of the printing
press in the 15th century made possible transfer of documents from one place to another,
allowing for uniformity of languages over long distances.
3. The latest revolution is the widespread application of electronic technology such as
electronic waves and signals to communication, manifesting in the electronic creation and
transfer of documents over the World Wide Web.
Speed and Costs of Communication
The most significant impact of technology on communication is the spread of the internet and the
possibility of sending emails and chatting. In the pre-information technology days, a document
often required re-typing on the typewriter before the final version. Sending the letter across to
someone else required a visit to the post office and a postage stamp. Faster methods such as
telegrams had severe limitations in text, and remained costly.


Computers and the internet have made easy the process of creating and editing documents and
applying features such as spell check and grammar check automatically. Email allows sending
the document to any part of the globe within seconds, making telegrams, and even ordinary
letters mostly obsolete. The internet has thus increased the speed of communications manifold,
and reduced the costs drastically.
Quality of Communication
The huge amount of knowledge accessible by a click of the mouse has helped improve the
quality of communication. Translating a text from an unfamiliar language to a familiar language,
seeking out the meaning of an unknown word, and getting follow up information on an
unfamiliar concept are all possible thanks to the internet.
Technology allows easy storage and retrieval of communication when needed, especially verbal
communication, the storage of which was very difficult before. It now becomes easier to rewind
and clear misconceptions rather than make assumptions, or contacting the person again to clear
Change in Communication Style
The invention of new gadgets such as mobile phones makes communication easier by allowing
people to communicate from anywhere. An underestimated impact of mobile gadgets is their
impact on the nature of communications. The nature of such impact includes the following:


The possibility of high quality communication from anywhere in the world to anywhere
else at low costs has led to a marked decline in face-to-face communications and to an
increased reliance on verbal and written communication over electronic mediums.

The small keyboards in mobile phone and other hand held devices that make typing
difficult has resulted in a radical shortening of words and increasing use of symbol and
shortcuts, with little or no adherence to traditional grammatical rules. Such change now
finds increasing acceptance in the business community.

Communication has become concise and short, and the adage brevity is the soul of wit
finds widespread implementation, though unintentionally.

Accessibility to Communication
The role of technology in the democratization of communication systems is one important way
that technology has changed communication. Technology has brought down the costs of
communication significantly and improved peoples access to communication. The proliferation
of online forums, live coverage of news, and other such media related initiatives have resulted in
world wide access and participation in news and information for almost everyone.
In the realm of business, access to communication or privileged information was hitherto a major
source of competitive advantage. Technology helps remove such barriers and ensure a level
playing field in this aspect for the most part.
Nature of Communication
The ease of communication and the spread of interactive communication methods such as instant
messengers and video conferencing has increased the volume of communications, but reduced

the average length of communications. People now communicate whatever comes up instantly,
and tend to break up different topics into different communications.
Finally, technologies such as the internet help spread the net of communication by tracking down
old friends, shedding light on new business opportunities, and the like.
History of Research on Social Media
Social media research has been a topic of interest in business and academic circles. The
dimensions that have been observed depend on the type of social media to the location where the
research is being carried out. Issues that have been researched into include:
A number of social media platforms require the submission of personal information. Many
reports indicate that the majority of social media users post risky information online, without
giving due diligence to privacy and security concerns. At the same time, cyber criminals are
targeting social network sites with increasing amounts of malware and online scams, honing in
on this growing user base.
According to Consumer Reports' 2010 State of the Net analysis more than half of social network
users share private information about themselves online, opening themselves up to a variety of
online dangers. This research was carried out online across users around the world.The key
findings of the report include the following:

25 percent of households with a Facebook account don't use the site's privacy controls or
weren't aware of them.

40 percent of social network users posted their full date of birth online, opening
themselves up to identity theft.

9 percent of social network users dealt with a form of abuse within the past year (e.g.,
malware, online scams, identity theft or harassment). (Consumer Report, 2010)
An online survey was conducted September 11-12, 2008 by Opinion Research Corporation
among 1,092 adults in America. According to the survey, 59 percent of American consumers who
use social media sites and tools are already interacting with businesses through social media.
Much of the researches in this area are based on the interface between social media and business
There has been some research into how social media affects internal corporate communication
and improve organizational culture.
The feeling of community and social interaction forms society and much research is being
carried out to analyze the possibility of any threat to the stability of the society. Such research
stems from the concern that electronic communication erodes the value of normal face to face
communication. Most of these researches also observe for attitudinal changes in the users of
these forms of media.
Politics and Active Citizenship


The use of social media by the presidential campaign team in the 2008 United States of America
has aroused interest and many scholars have studied this case and the possibilities within the use
of social media in politics and governance.


Self identity and Self Esteem

The concept of an online identity has raised many questions as to the possibility of a false sense
of self among the users of these media. Researches in America and other parts of the world have
also questioned the similarities or disparity between the online and offline identities.
The high level of usage of social media was perceived as a distraction and as a result a deterrent
from satisfactory academic performance. Research looks into how social media and education
can co-exist and be beneficial to the users, especially young people. Some researchers have also
looked into the relationship between the usage of social media and the grades of the users in


The purpose of this report is therefore to provide evidence-based insights into the social media
phenomenon which can be used to inform current understanding of usage and behaviour in India,
and to help identify some of the current and potential future issues around peoples use of social
media. It seeks to understand how people are using social networking sites as well as their
attitudes to this form of communication.
The objectives of this report are as follows:


To understand the use of social media by young people in India.

To understand the attitudes towards social networking sites and the wider issues that may

arise from this.

To explore any effect of this form of media on the social skills of the Indian youth

Fundamentally, the media is a tool and its uses are a reflection of the people who use it. So
understanding the media itself and its dynamics will help in using it and in mitigating its
downsides. The rapid growth of social media sites, their popularity among young people and
their relative success in retaining users, has ensured that social media is never far from the
news. It is clear from the development of social media to date that further evolution is uncharted
territory for stakeholders and it is difficult to accurately predict what impact this will have on
communications, ICT skills and social issues. As users, policy makers, businesses, educators and
parents seek to understand many-to-many communication such as social media, it is essential we
understand current usage and behaviour and identify potential problems so that they can be
addressed.This can be seen in the amount of academic studies on social media within the last
seven years. However, Danah Boyd has gathered a collection of research about social networking
sites that lists approximately one hundred and fifty research papers, three

books, and seven

research reports published in theyears 2003-2010. (Boyd, 2010) None of these papers covers
Africa.This shows a lack of research that concerns the African region and especially India where
this form of media is greatly used. Therefore the overall motivation for conducting this study is
to contribute to research about social media in India. This research should also create a platform
for further research in this field and how it affects business processes as well other spheres of
life. This research should provide useful data for market researchers, marketing and product
development professionals as well as educators as to how they can maximize social media for
optimum benefit in their various fields.

Statement of the Problem

It is recorded that at least one million, seven hundred and fourteen Indians are on Facebook, with
a good number of them being young. (Facebook statistics, 2010) However, there is no

comprehensive knowledge of their activities as well as how this form of media can impact on
various aspects of life
This thesis examines the relationship between social media and its usage by Indian youths. The
study specifically focuses on the usage habits of young Indians and how social media has
affected their communication and socialization habits.
The future of communication has been predicted to depend to a great degree on electronic
modes. Academics, business men and professionals in various fields propose various uses of
social media and new media generally. These and many more decisions will be made based only
on available data concerning these media.


Research Questions


How much time do youths spend on Facebook?

What are the reasons youths use Facebook in India?
What activities do youths engage in on Facebook?
What benefits do youths derive from Facebook?
What is the impact of Facebook on the lives of young people in India?
Operational Definition of Terms

For the purpose of this research report we have purposely focused on the social and
communications aspects of social networking sites. We have deliberately not included either
online networks dedicated to business networking, or only user-generated content (UGC) sites
(as the latters primary focus is on content creation and sharing rather than the development
of online social networks).


Social Media: A group of internet-based applications that build on the ideological and
technological foundations of web 2.0 and that allow the creation and exchange of user-generated
content. (Kaplan and Haenlein, 2010)
Social Skills: Any skills facilitating interaction and communication with others. Social rules and
relations are created, communicated and changed in verbal and nonverbal ways through a
process called socialization.
Cyberspace: This is the electronic medium of computer networks, in which online
communication takes place.
Web 2.0: web applications that facilitate interactive information sharing, interoperability, usercentered design, and collaboration on the world- wide web.
Blogs: A blog (a contraction of the term "web log") is a type of website, usually maintained by
an individual with regular entries of commentary, descriptions of events, or other material such
as graphics or video. Entries are commonly displayed in reverse-chronological order.
Vlogs: Video blogging, sometimes shortened to vlogging or vidblogging is a form of blogging
for which the medium is video, and is a form of Internet television. Entries often combine
embedded video or a video link with supporting text, images, and other metadata.
Instant Messaging: Instant messaging (IM) is a form of real-time direct text-based
communication between two or more people using shared clients. The text is conveyed via
devices connected over a network such as the Internet.


Music-sharing: File sharing is the practice of distributing or providing access to digitally stored
information, such as computer programs, multi-media (audio, video), documents, or electronic
books. It may be implemented in a variety of storage, transmission, and distribution models.
Crowdsourcing: Crowdsourcing is a compound of Crowd and Outsourcing for the act of taking
tasks traditionally performed by an employee or contractor, and outsourcing them to a group of
people or community, through an "open call" to a large group of people (a crowd) asking for
Voice Over IP: Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) is a general term for a family of transmission
technologies for delivery of voice communications over IP networks such as the Internet or other
packet-switched networks.
Microblogging: Microblogging is a form of blogging. A microblog differs from a traditional blog
in that its content is typically much smaller, in both actual size and aggregate file size. A
microblog entry could consist of nothing but a short sentence fragment, or an image or embedded


Scope of the study

This investigation focused specifically on the usage habits of users of in India
New Media Theory


The New Media Theory investigates both media and new media as a complex ecological and
rhetorical context. The merger of media and new media creates a global social sphere that is
changing the ways we work, play, write, teach, think, and connect. Because this new context
operates through evolving arrangements, theories of new media have yet to establish a rhetorical
and theoretical paradigm that fully articulates this emerging digital life.
Social Media and The Uses and Gratification Theory
Recent research explaining Internet usage has both extended and challenged the uses and
gratifications approach to understanding media attendance by discovering new gratifications
and introducing powerful new explanatory variables. The present research integrates these
developments into a theory of media attendance within the framework of Banduras (1986)
Social Cognitive Theory. Respondents from 2 Midwestern states in the United States of America
were recruited by mail to complete an online questionnaire. Structural equation modeling
techniques were used to test a new model of media attendance in which active consideration of
Internet use and gratifications, moderated by Internet self-efficacy, joins habitual behavior and
deficient self-regulation as determinants of media behavior. The model explained 42% of the
variance in Internet usage.
Of the many theories that aim to explain how mass media impact society, it might be difficult to
validate many of them today, when mass media is slowly metamorphosizing into social media.
Or, in other words, if there has been a shift from one-to-many, to many-to-many communication
systems, it is worth finding out if the theories that explained the former, such as media
dependency, agenda setting, or knowledge gap, are still applicable to the latter.




The study is a social scientific research focused on the young people in India. It is a study that
combines both quantitative and qualitative methods for revealing the empirical data which will
be interpreted to draw conclusions. Although there are many social media sites, the focus of the
study is based on users of due to its popularity at the moment and the presence of
a large number of Indians on the site. The scope of the study is therefore limited to users of and not necessarily conclusive for every social media site. The quantitative data
should provide unbiased, objective empirical data which will be supported by a qualitative
analysis of the usage online.
Scientific research as according to Aborishade (1997) is often used to imply the formalized
procedure for problem solving. The fact of the adoption of the formalized procedure in the social
sciences makes the endeavour scientific. However unlike in the natural sciences, social science
research does not always involve laboratory experiments. The formalized procedures include-:
1. Identifying and defining the problem
2. Reviewing existing literature
3. Formulating appropriate research questions
4. Collecting relevant data to answer the research questions
5. Analyzing the data to answer your research questions or test the hypotheses
6. Drawing necessary inference or conclusions based on the outcome of the analysis.


There are several types of research designs. The five major types are-:
1. Historical Research
2. Case Study Research
3. Causal comparative or Ex post Factor Research
4. Experimental Research
5. Survey Research
This thesis combined the case study and survey approach.
According to Aborishade (ibid), a case study research design is a type of research where the
researcher carries out an indepth study of a given social unit an individual or group of
individuals, a community or an institution. He notes that while a survey research covers several
units, case studies cover limited units and often involve only one unit. This is why case studies
are limited in terms of generalization. He defines the survey research as a type of research in
which the researcher is interested in studying certain characteristics, attitudes, feelings, beliefs,
motivations, behavior, opinions etc of a group of people or items.
This research being scientific and academic in nature, however, borrowed from the basic
principles that differentiate scientific research from all other types of research as outlined by
Wimmer and Domnick (2006) that it must:
1. Include information on sampling methods, measurements and data gathering procedures
for other researchers to verify or refute a given report.
2. Allow for correction and verification of previous research findings.


3. Be objective Researchers should deal with facts and not interpretations of fact.
4. Be empirical. Researchers are concerned with a world that is knowable and potentially
5. Be systematic and cumulative.
This research is designed to use observation and questionnaires which are under demographic
differences such as age, gender, occupation. All these were given strong considerations.
A pilot test with 10 questionnaires will be administered to ensure a high degree of
comprehension by the respondents from which adjustments can be made on the necessary
3.2 Population and Sampling Procedure
The population of young Indians on Facebook

according to Nielsen is one million, seven

hundred and fourteen thousand and according to Facebook research page, the number of users
between the ages of eighteen and thirty four is 1,340,120. Using a confidence interval of 10 and a
confidence level of 95%, the sample size to be assessed was 96. Therefore, 100 questionnaires
were distributed.
For the sample chosen to represent a typical population it had the following characteristics
A. Males i.e. Men and Boys
B. Females i.e. Women and Girls
C. By occupation i.e. employed, self employed, unemployed and student.


A purposive sampling method was used to collect the primary data and the questionnaire had
close ended questions. The questionnaire was constructed from the research questions and
Specifically, variables based on Uses and gratification theory are considered the antecedents of
attitude toward the web, while Web usage (e.g., the number of hours spent per week on the
Internet) and satisfaction are modeled as the consequences of attitude toward the Web


A research instrument is a device used in collecting data (ibid 94). This study will make use of
questionnaire and observation. A questionnaire is a research instrument conducted such that
respondents answer questions about their opinions, attitudes, preferences, activities in a written
form. A questionnaire is usually structured based on scale adequate enough to obtain quantitative
analysis. Questionnaire can be open ended or close ended. Observation is the act of watching
individuals, events or situations, behaviors, etc, the way they occur in nature in order to collect
data. The need arises because there are some situations that cannot be studied using questionnaire
or other methods of data collection (Femi Aborisade, 1997)
However, having clearly defined the two instruments to be used in the course of the study, it is
pertinent to point out that the questionnaire was distributed to users online and offline.50% were
to users online while 50% were used for users offline. The observation had been carried out for a
period of four months. Participant observation was done and analyzed using the rating scale.
Jensen and Jankwoski (1991), note that data collection in qualitative research involves a variety
of techniques: in-depth interviewing, document analysis and unstructured observation. While
Montello and Sutton (2006) view quantitative data as consisting of numerical values measured at

least on ordinal or metric level while qualitative data are non numerical consisting of words,
drawings, photographs etc.
The method used is a questionnaire as well as observation. The questionnaire was distributed
both offline and online and the analysis was an observation of the accessible user profiles. The
observation was carried out on 20 random users.

Data collected

Secondary data
The secondary data was the profiles of the users whose profiles were accessible on Facebook and
therefore whose activities I have access to.
Primary data
The secondary data is the data gathered from the questionnaire based on the various attitudes and
usage patterns.
The questionnaire is below:
I am a Masters student at the School of Media and Communication, Pan African University,
Lagos. I am conducting a survey on the usage of Facebook among Indian youths. These
questions will help me with data to understand the usage patterns as well as other important
factors. Please endeavor to fill it by ticking the corresponding responses. Thank you as you do so
candidly and quickly.



Observation of secondary data
Rating Scale









Played games

business or cause






Posted vulgar or

Logged on for
more than hour

Occasionally =3

Validity and reliability of instruments

The instruments used was designed cover the areas addressed by the research questions and
objectives highlighted at the beginning of this report. The instrument was also designed to cover
other areas which will support the responses for the main issues. The pilot study helped to ensure
that the questions were sufficient to cover all dimensions of the study and also that there was a
consistency in terms of responses.




Data analysis

The research questions posed at the beginning of the study were explored by administering the
questionnaire to the 100 respondents. The nature of the questions was such that it avoided
ambiguous responses from the respondents and it also helped in quick analysis of the data
collected. The analysis was done by treating each question, based on the research question, table
by table. Responses were coded as 1 for the first response, 2 for the second, 3 for the third, etc.
Table 1 for question 1
Gender Male (1) Female (2)








The females were 52% of this sample while the males formed 48
Although this was a random sampling of young Facebook users, it is important to note the
distribution among the sexes. The number of females is just a little above the male. This is not a
core issue to be examined by this study but it can help us examine some issues and if there are

differences between the attitudes of one gender and the other. The difference in number is not
significant and therefore cannot give deep insights into any differences between the uses by each
Age range








From the results obtained, the respondents within the ages of 25-\ to 30 were of the highest
number. The ages 31 to 35 were 28% of the group while the lowest among this number were
between the ages of 18 and 24. In a study conducted by Facebook, this age group had the highest
registered users. The responses obtained from other questions in the instrument can be said to be
a reflection of this majority.





self-employed 6



Due to the environment in which the questionnaire was distributed, 45% of the respondents were
students while 41% were employees from various walks of life. Only 6 % were self employed
and 8 % were unemployed. Facebook as a media form seems to be used by people irrespective of
their occupation. If eight unemployed people out of hundred use Facebook, then it can be said to
be an indicator that Facebook has become mainstream.
Question 4
How long have you been registered on Facebook?
less than a year
more than a year
2 years and above


From the table above, it is clear that a good number of young people in India have been using
Facebook for more than two years and it can be said to be a medium they are very familiar with.
This is quite clear from the 46% who have been registered for more than two years and also the
number of Indians on Facebook in the first place.
Based on gender: male



From the results, 52% of males have joined Facebook for more than two years while 38% of the
females have joined it for more than two years. This may suggest that some females might have
been slower to join the network.

How many friends do you have on Facebook?











Based on gender


Based on how long they have been registered:


From the table above, 7% have friends over one thousand even though 46% have been registered
for more than two years. 39% have between 1 and 200 friends while 34% indicated that they
have between 200 and 500 friends. This means than at least 73% of the sample have between 100
and 500 friends. The Facebook statistics page reports that the average user has 130 friends. This
suggests that the Indian user does not necessarily have fewer friends on Facebook than the
average user around the world.
Based on gender, 35% of the males have between 1 and 200 friends while 47% of the females
have between 200 and 500 friends. While 8% of the females have between 500 and 1000 friends,
27% of the males have this same number of friends. This may suggest that males tend to have
more friends than females.
In attempting to see if there is any relationship between the number of friends one has and the
number of years one has been a user; the charts show that the highest number were those who
have been registered for more than two years and have between 200 and 500 friends. The

collective number of friends is higher in those who have been registered for more than two years
although a few users who have been registered for less than two years also have this high
number. The results suggest that the more one is registered on Facebook, the more you are likely
to add new friends.


How many new friends do you think you made through Facebook?
New friends







1000 +

don't know



From the table above, 8% have made no new friends on Facebook while 52% have made
between 1 and 200 friends. The results show a tendency towards adding new friends. This also
supports the uses and gratification theory in which case the gratification here is socialization.


How many friends do you think you have been able to reunite with through Facebook?







1000 +

don't know



From the results above, more people have been able to reunite with existing friends than find
new friends. This gives us insights into the reasons young people use Facebook and what they
spend time doing.

These results also confirm what previous research discovered in other

countries. (Mesch and Talmud 2007, Ellison, Steinfield and Lampe 2007)
How many hours do you spend on Facebook?



10 <14









The results above indicate that even though many young people in India are registered on
Facebook, they are not logged in most of the time. However, on a larger scale, one hour a day
will result in seven hours a week and then thirty hours a month. That is a long time to spend on
one communication channel and from the results above, 39% spend less than an hour while 33%
spend between an hour and two on Facebook.
Why did you join Facebook?
Why did you join Facebook


to make new friends


find old friends


communicate with existing friends


find someone I can share a relationship 2

to interact with people with common 10
to run a business

to promote a cause

I was invited



From the table above, the implications are that a higher number of people join Facebook to
communicate with existing friends. 12% said they joined because they were invited and this is
also based on existing relationships because only friends who have the contact details of others
can invite them. Although 17% said they joined to make new friends, 23 % also said they joined
to find old friends. These results suggest that a large number of young Indians join Facebook
based on existing relationships and that it is a medium for maintaining those relationships and
new ones.

Which activity do you spend most time doing?



posting msgs and chatting


updating msgs and status


posting and viewing pictures


writing notes

playing games

creating applications

looking for old friends


promoting business



58% said the activities they engage in most is posting messages and chatting. This suggests that
most use Facebook is to socialize in addition to other activities. No respondent ticked creating
applications as an option. This is an indication of the low rate of participation in technical
activities. It also indicates that the level of creativity and innovation among these users is very
low because one of the strongest features which youths around the world have used on Facebook
is the ability to recreate applications.
If you were not using Facebook, what would you have done to utilize that time?
hanging out/socializing
doing more constructive
reading novels
any others



45% of the respondents said if they were not using Facebook, they would have been doing more
constructive work. This shows that the usage of Facebook takes up the time which could be used
to do other things. This also shows that even though Facebook is very well used and accepted, it
is taking the place of some activities.
Have you ever met someone you have come to know through Facebook?

response number




The number of respondents who have met someone who they have come to know through
Facebook is the same as those who have never had that experience. This suggests that there is an
equal chance of each situation occurring.


Do you think Facebook helps you to be friendlier?







52% of the sample said Facebook helps them to be friendlier. Although there is no significant
difference between the total of both responses, the 52% that indicated that Facebook helps them
to be more confident shows that Facebook plays a role in contributing to social interaction and
making it easier for some youths who might not have such skills offline.


In what way has Facebook benefited you as a user?

I have more friends
I am able to connect with existing friends
I have found a life partner through these


leisure when I am alone
I run my business on Facebook
I express myself better
I learn from others
I have enhanced interpersonal skills


The results from this also show that more of the respondents (58%) consider communicating
with existing friends the major benefit they have enjoyed while using Facebook. This also
corroborates previous research in other parts of the world with findings that social media are
used to maintain existing relationships.
Do you feel Facebook has created any negative impact on you?






From the results, it indicates that most of these young people do not see any negative impacts of
using Facebook.
Nature of negative impacts


loss of time


more reliance on e-media




and 2

emotional disturbance

For those who admitted that Facebook had some negative impacts on them, the most worrisome
form of impact for them was the loss of time and reliance on electronic media. This also
corroborates what was deduced from other results which indicated that the time being used on
Facebook could be used for other things.


Does Facebook influence your lifestyle in any way?







Fewer people admitted that Facebook influence their lifestyles. This means that although a large
number of people are registered on and use Facebook, they decide how to live their lives and
even though they come in contact with various messages, they are able to live lives without
living according to these messages. This also relates to the uses and gratifications theory which
shows that the consumer is not passive and makes decisions based on his or her own needs and
Nature of influence



dressing & education




The highest way in which Facebook has influenced the youths lifestyles is through socializing.
This is also a proof of the results from previous questions which showed that most youths used
Facebook to communicate with friends.









The friends option was the highest selected source of familiarity with Facebook. This also
indicates that a large number of Facebook relationships are based on existing relationships.
Do you use social media as an alternative to other communication media?
Alternativ num




This result shows that many of the users tend to use Facebook over other communication tools
from time. It also indicates that they are likely to rely very much on such social media to
maintain their relationships.
What other social media sites do you use?
Responses number





76% of the respondents use at least one other social media site. This indicated that social media
is very widespread and very few people use only one social media site. It also shows that people
tend to use social media sites that meet their various needs and in which people who have
common interests use.
Do you use any academic social media site?
Responses number




There are many academic social media sites and even though the sample had a large percentage
of students, 59% do not use any academic social media site. This means that very few people are
aware of the usefulness of the use of social media for education or in education.
From the observation of the accessible profiles of users, the following were the sum totals of
each activity by these users:
Post personal information

24 /10= 2.4

Post on other profiles


Uploaded pictures


Played games


Promoted a business or cause


Sent compliments


Updated status message


Posted an inspirational or informative message


Posted vulgar or obscene messages


Logged on for more than an hour


From the results above, the activity with the highest weight is posting on others. This also
corroborates the results from the questionnaire which indicated that the most activity carried out
on facebook is communicating with friends, especially existing friends. The other activity which
forms part of relating with others is the sending of compliments or greetings. This is very evident
on birthdays, weddings and other celebrations. Other activities which also have a high weight
include posting inspirational or informative messages. The weight of the vulgar messages is very
low and corresponds to never. From this, it is also indicative that the likelihood of
communicating with vulgar or obscene information is very low and facebook tends to be used by
the youths for socialization in a positive way.
Discussion of findings
This study was intended to give answers to the research questions raised in chapter one. The
answers derived from respondents through questionnaire were used to find out if the problems
raised by the research questions were resolved.
A careful examination of the data collected revealed that the research questions received
adequate answers as follows:


Research questions

How much time do youths spend on Facebook?

From the questionnaire, with regard to time spent, the results showed that 39% of the
youths spend less than an hour on Facebook. About 33 % spent more than an hour and
less than two hours logged on. From direct observation, it can be deduced that most

people are logged in for more than one hour only occasionally.
What are the reasons youths use Facebook in India?
The results indicated that 29% of the youths joined Facebook to communicate with
existing friends. 25% of the youths said they joined to find old friends. This shows that a
significant number of young Facebook are attracted to Facebook based on existing
relationships and join it to maintain these relationships. The 12% who said they joined
Facebook because they were invited confirms the use of Facebook based on existing
offline relationships.17% also joined to make new friends. This shows that Facebook is

mostly used as a socialization tool.

What activities do youths engage in on Facebook?
The results showed that 58% (most of the group) post messages and chat more than they
do other activities. This also shows that socialization is the highest activity being carried
out on Facebook. The results from the observation rating scale also shows that this is true

as the highest rating were for social interaction via Facebook.

What benefits do youths derive from Facebook?
The results show that a higher number of the youths: 52% admit that Facebook has
helped to make them friendlier. This indicates that Facebook helps to enhance
interpersonal skills. Further responses also tell us that 58% of the youths see the fact that
they are able to communicate with their friends as the most important benefit. Only 2%
see the fact they can run their businesses on Facebook as a benefit. This also indicates
that although there have success stories of the use of social media to run businesses,


many Indian youths do not place importance on it. Also, 75% of the respondents who
indicated that Facebook influence their lifestyles said their socialization habits were

What is the impact of Facebook on the lives of young people in India?

The responses to benefits and influences show that Facebook has a positive impact on
the lifestyles of youths in India, especially in terms of social interaction. The results show
that the youths need to make good use of other beneficial features of this social
networking site. 81% of the sample says that there has been no negative impact from
Facebook. For the 19% of those who admit there are negative impacts, 52% express the
impact as loss of valuable time. This is also supported by the responses which indicated
that if they were not using Facebook, they would have been doing more constructive
work, studying or socializing offline. This shows that these media sites might be leaving
the students with less time to study, read books and novels. With regard to the use of
Facebook as an alternative mode of communication, 74% admitted to using Facebook as
an alternative to other kinds of communication channels which also emphasizes the
reliance on electronic media for communication needs.


The purpose of this project as stated in the initial chapter was to understand the usage of social
media by Indian youths. It was also set to understand their attitudes towards this form of media
and the impact on their lifestyles. The study explored existing literature, based on various
dimensions of the case in study. It also looked at the relationship between the youths in India and
Facebook as well as how the uses and gratification theory relates to the use of media. The study
carried out a primary research on users of Facebook between the ages of 18 and 45 to understand
their activities on this site and how they might be deriving some form of benefit from the use of
this social media site. An observation of the users of this site was also carried out and their
various activities were weighted to find out which activity was most prominent. This was done to
support the results obtained from the questionnaire.
Therefore the findings are presented in the two categories of:
a. Findings from the literature review
b. Findings from the field research.

Key Findings from Literature Review

Social media have become a worldwide phenomenon and various parts of the world have
responded to it as most people will to any kind of development. From Facebook statistics,
at least one million, seven hundred and fourteen thousand Indians are on Facebook.


Social media has become a mainstream activity and has become a major mode of
communication especially for youths, who form about 50% of the world population on

Social media has moved from being just interactive to a form of mass media. Therefore,
there have been attempts to extend to social media, those theories that applied to mass

Social media has been predicted as a strong force in shaping public opinion especially in

issues of politics, social causes and sexuality.

Social media has also been an expression of the complexities between the media and

society. This stems from the fact that much of social media is user-generated content.
Although there have been a great amount of reception of this new media, a lot of it is met

with suspicion especially regarding issues of privacy and security.

Many of the researches carried out on internet media have explored the uses and
gratifications theory. These researches have been fruitful in understanding consumer

behaviors based on motivations.

Evidence from various researches shows that social networking sites are used widely and

are used to support and maintain existing relationships, not to create new ones.
Many users of social media use it to communicate based on existing relationships.
Facebook is one of the most popular social media sites and social networking on
Facebook is one of the most popular activities on the internet.

Relationships developed offline have been discovered to be stronger than those developed

Technologies are used to enable social relationships.

Social media interaction tends to widen the circle of relationships which the user has

Research has also shown that people who had fewer friends offline tend to have few
friends online as well. This has been suggested to limit the socialization benefits of social

Key Findings from Primary Data Survey

Youths in India use social media to maintain existing relationships and make new

Most youths in India spend an average of between 0 and 2 hours per day on

Most youths in India joined Facebook to connect with old friends, existing friends
or because they were invited by friends.

Most Indian youths on Facebook have little or no privacy concerns associated

with Facebook

Facebook is seen by Indian youths as a beneficial tool for socialization

Most youths on Facebook spend more time chatting and posting messages than
they do other activities.

Social media tends to take time and keeps young people from doing other
activities such as studying or socializing offline.

Young people have also come to depend on electronic media more than before to
meet their communication needs.


This study has been able to confirm that most Indian youths use Facebook for socialization
purposes. This study is based on the uses and gratifications theory which says that media
consumers use media for various purposes based on their goals and needs. Students use social
networking to suffice their social needs like friendship. They are motivated and goal oriented to
preserve their self-confidence. They use is to get in touch with some of their friends, to discover
and establish new friendships and at the same time to achieve their social belongingness.
Therefore, this study concludes that there is an existing positive relationship between the social
networking services and the youths who use it. The habitats and attitudes formed according to
their aspirations were evidences that they have gratifications from using the social networking
sites. It serves as their prostheses. It enhances their interpersonal skills through frequent
communication and expression. It preserves their pre-existing cultural ideologies on society.
They tend to interact with different people and show their character.
Social belongingness was one of the motives and achievements of the students as they use those
social networking sites. This is also corroborated by the low number of people who expressed
privacy concerns or any form of negative influence or impact. It is evident that the ability to use
this site as they choose gives them the active power to decide what to do with the site.
The other dimensions to this are the issues of reliance on electronic media for communication
and how this might increase in the near future. Another issue that arises from this is the lower
number of youths who use academic social media. It would appear that the goals and needs of
the young users are based mainly on socialization.


This study was able to expose various insights into the uses of Facebook by Indian youths and,
also, other issues that may arise. Therefore, the following recommendations have been made for
obtaining maximum benefits from this form of media:
For Facebook users:

There is a need for Facebook users to ensure they understand why they are joining the
social media site in the first place so that they would not be overcome by any negative
impacts but rather they can use these sites for maximum benefit.

Young Indian users need to also make efficient use of such social media sites for other
benefits such as education or business and also to create applications so that they can
participate as full producers rather than consumers who only create content from a
limited point of view.

Young Indian users should also make good use of converged media so that they are not
limited to one or few sources of information when there are numerous sources.

Young Indians should also ensure they maintain their existing offline relationships while
creating value even though these forms of electronic media are available.

Young Indians on Facebook should also use these media to promote their talents, interests
and causes since they are available at little or no cost.


For Facebook owners

The Facebook owners need to see Facebook as a service and not just a business and ensure they
bring value to all their users
Another future tool social networking websites could use would be a licensing agreement with
certain parties to prevent copyright infringement from happening on the Internet.

Adults and older citizens

It is important to bridge the digital divide between the young and old to allow the best use of
these media. Social media has become mainstream media and is likely to be used in many areas.
Parents and guardians need to understand the use of these forms of media and, if possible,
attempt to use them, and try to be involved. This is because the use of social media by youths is
worrisome to some parents who are not sure of the reasons the youths use these media. Various
ways of achieving this can be through the use of social media in delivering news, education, in
small business managements and others.
To other researchers:
1. Researchers should conduct surveys that will trigger the students to talk about such personal
issue like social identity.
2. Other researchers can explore the role of social media in the upcoming 2011 elections in India
as a measure of the role it plays in politics.
3. Researchers can also conduct a study which will compare the way social media is used in
various parts of the country and how this might relate to various cultures.
4. With the growing interest in social media, other researchers can also study the impact of social
media in marketing and advertising especially in third world countries like India.



1. Gender
Male ( ) female ( )
2. Age
(18-24) (25-30) (30-35)
3. Occupation
Employee ( ) self employed ( ) unemployed ( ) student ( )
4. How long have you been registered on facebook?
Less than a year ( ) between 1 and 2 years ( ) 2 years and above ( )
5. How many friends do you have on facebook?
(1-200) (200-500) (500-1000) (1000 and more)
6. How many new friends do you think you made through facebook?
(1-200) (200-500) (500-1000) (1000 and more) (dont know) (none)
7. How many friends have you been able to reunite with on facebook?
(1-200) (200-500) (500-1000) (1000 and more) (dont know) (none)
8. How many hours per day do you spend on facebook
15 and above ( ) 10- 14( ) 6-9( ) 3-5( ) 1-2( ) less than1 ( )
9. Why did you join Facebook?
To make new friends ( )

To find old friends ( )

To communicate with existing friends ( )
To find someone I can share a relationship with ( )
To interact with people with common interests ( )
To run a business ( )
To promote a cause ( )
I was invited ( )
Others ( )

10. Which activity do you spend the most time doing?(tick one)
Posting messages and chatting ( )
Updating profiles and status updates ( )
Posting and viewing photos ( )
Writing notes ( )
Playing games ( )
Creating applications ( )
Looking for old friends ( )
Promoting Business ( )
11. If you were not using facebook, what would you have done to utilize that time?
Studying ( )
Hanging out with friends/socializing ( )
Doing more constructive (school or office) work ( )
Reading novels


Any others (please specify)__________

12. Have you ever met someone in person that you have come to know through
a. Yes ( ) b. No ( )
13. Do you think facebook helps you to be friendlier?
a. Yes ( ) b. No ( )
14. In what way has facebook benefited you as a user?

a. I have more friends

( )

b. I am able to connect easily with my existing friends ( )

c. I have found a life-partner through these sites. ( )
d. I find it a great way to enjoy my leisure or whenever I am alone ( )
e. I run my business on facebook ( )
f. I express myself better ( )
g. I learn from other users ( )
h. I have enhanced my interpersonal skills ( )

15. Do you feel facebook has created any negative impact on your
personal life?
a. Yes ( ) b. No ( )(skip to question 17)
16. If yes, then what do you feel can be these impacts?
Loss of privacy ( )
Loss of time ( )


More reliance on electronic media ( )

Less emotional bonding in relations ( )
Emotional disturbance ( )
Increase in rivalry and competitiveness ( )
Any others (please specify)___________________________
17. Does facebook influence your lifestyle in any way?
a. Yes ( ) b. No ( )
If yes, in what way?
a. Career ( ) b. dressing ( )c. socializing ( )d. religion and spirituality ( )e education ( )
18. How did you become familiar with facebook?
TV ( )
Internet ( )
Radio ( )
Prints ( )
Friends ( )
Others ( )

19. Do you consider yourself addicted to facebook?

Yes ( ) no ( )
20. Do you use social media as an alternative to other communication media (telephone,
television, radio, newspaper etc )?
Yes ( ) no ( )

21. Which of these other social media sites do you use besides facebook?
Twitter ( ) LinkedIn ( ) Bebo ( ) MySpace ( ) Blackplanet ( ) Hi5 ( ) Zorpia ( )
22. Do you use any academic social media site?
Yes ( ) No ( )