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LTE Power Control Feature

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LTE Power Control Feature

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LTE Power Control Feature

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LTE Power Control Feature

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LTE Power Control Feature

LTE systems use the Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) technique on
the downlink and the Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access (SC-FDMA)
technique on the uplink. With these techniques, the subcarriers of UEs in a cell are
orthogonal. Power control compensates for path loss and shadow fading and counteracts
interference between cells. In LTE systems, power control is performed on eNodeBs and
UEs.

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LTE Power Control Feature

Ensure quality of service

Power control adjusts the transmit power to the optimal level to provide services of
a certain quality level that meets the requirement for the BLER.

Reduce interference

Power control reduces interference in a cell, which mainly comes from neighboring
cells.

Lower power consumption

Uplink power control lowers the power consumption of UEs, and downlink power
control lowers the power consumption of eNodeBs.

Expand coverage and capacity

Downlink power control allocates different power to different UEs to meet


requirements for coverage. In addition, downlink power control reduces the
transmit power allocated to each UE to a minimum, so that the allocated power
meets the requirement for the signal-to-interference-and-noise ratio (SINR). In this
way, downlink power control expands system capacity.

Interference to neighboring cells mainly comes from UEs on cell edges. To reduce
interference, uplink power control uses a technique known as Fractional Power
Control (FPC) to lower the interference to neighboring cells, thereby increasing
network capacity.

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LTE Power Control Feature

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LTE Power Control Feature

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LTE Power Control Feature

Downlink power control is achieved through fixed power assignment or dynamic power
control.

Fixed power assignment

Fixed power assignment is applicable to the cell-specific reference signal,


synchronization signal, PBCH, PCFICH, and the PDCCH and PDSCH that carry
common information of the cell. Users configure fixed power based on channel
quality. The configured power must meet the requirements for the downlink
coverage of the cell.

Dynamic power control

Dynamic power control is applicable to the PHICH and the PDCCH and PDSCH that
carry dedicated information sent to UEs. Dynamic power control lowers
interference, expands cell capacity, and increases coverage while meeting users'
QoS requirements. However, these channels can also support fix power assignment,
and in fact, this is our recommendation because the AMC function can also meet
the requirement of QoS

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LTE Power Control Feature

The cell-specific reference signal is transmitted in all downlink subframes. The signal serves
as a basis for downlink channel estimation, which is used for data demodulation.

The power for the cell-specific reference signal is set through the ReferenceSignalPwr
parameter, which indicates the Energy Per Resource Element (EPRE) of the cell-specific
reference signal.

Related command: MOD PDSCHCFG

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LTE Power Control Feature

The synchronization signal is used for cell search and system synchronization. There are
two types of synchronization signals, the Primary Synchronization Channel (P-SCH) and the
Secondary Synchronization Channel (S-SCH).

The offset of the power for the P-SCH and S-SCH against the power for the cell-specific
reference signal is set through the SchPwr parameter.

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LTE Power Control Feature

On the PBCH, broadcast messages are sent in each frame. The messages carry the basic
system information of the cell, such as the cell bandwidth, antenna configuration, and
frame number.

The offset of the power for the PBCH against the power for the cell-specific reference
signal is set through the PbchPwr parameter.

The PCFICH carries the number of OFDM symbols used for PDCCH transmission in a
subframe. The PCFICH is always mapped to the first OFDM symbol of each subframe.

The power for the PCFICH is set through the PcfichPwr parameter, which indicates an
offset of the power for the PCFICH against the power for the cell-specific reference signal.

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LTE Power Control Feature

Related command: MOD CELLCHPWRCFG

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LTE Power Control Feature

Power control for the PHICH is set through the DlPcAlgoSwitch parameter

. When the switches PhichPcSwitch and PhichInnerLoopPcSwitch under the


DlPcAlgoSwitch parameter are set to ON, the transmit power for the PHICH is
periodically adjusted to adapt to change in path loss and shadow shading according to the
difference between the estimated SINRRS and SINRTarget.

When the switches PhichPcSwitch and PhichInnerLoopPcSwitch under the


DlPcAlgoSwitch parameter are set to OFF, the power for PHICH is set through the
PhichPcOff parameter, which indicates an offset of the power for the PHICH related to
the RS power

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LTE Power Control Feature

When PDCCH carry the following dedicate info, power control should be performed to
ensure the receive reliability

Uplink scheduling information (DCI format 0)

Downlink scheduling information (DCI format 1/1A/1B/2/2A)

PUSCH/PUCCH TPC commands (DCI format 3/3A)

Power control for the PDCCH is set through the PdcchBndPcSw parameter

When the PdcchBndPcSw parameter is set to ON, the transmit power for the PDCCH is
periodically adjusted according to the difference between the measured BLER and
BLERTarget. If the measured BLER is greater than BLERTarget, transmit power is increased.
Otherwise, transmit power is decreased.

When the PdcchBndPcSw parameter is set to OFF, the PDCCH uses fixed power
assignment. In this case, the offset of the power for the PDCCH against the power for the
cell-specific reference signal is set through the PdcchPwrDedi parameter.

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LTE Power Control Feature

The presentation of PDCCH power

Regarding power control for the PDSCH, the OFDM symbols on one slot can be
classified into two types. Above table shows the OFDM symbol indexes within a
slot where the ratio of the EPRE to the EPRE of RS is denoted by A or B.

Power control for the PDSCH determines the EPREs of different OFDM symbols using A
and B. A determines the power offset against the power for the RS when there is no
reference signal on the PDSCH, and B determines the power offset against the power for
the cell-specific reference signal when there is a reference signal on the PDSCH.

The transmit power for the two types of OFDM symbols used on the PDSCH is defined by
PPDSCH_A and PPDSCH_B. The calculation formulas are as follows:

PPDSCH_A = A + ReferenceSignalPwr

PPDSCH_B = B + ReferenceSignalPwr

A = PA. PA is sent to the UE through RRC signaling for PDSCH demodulation.

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LTE Power Control Feature

B is determined by the power factor ratio B/A of the EPRE on the PDSCH. Above
table lists the values of the cell-specific ratio B/A for different PB values and
quantities of antenna ports. PB corresponds to the B/A on the PDSCH. PB is set
through the command MOD PDCHCFG
Pb

B /A
1 ANT port

2 or 4 ANT ports

5/4

4/5

3/5

3/4

2/5

1/2

In fact, Power control for the PDSCH is performed to determine PA for each UE.

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LTE Power Control Feature

Power control mechanism for the PDSCH is related with the following 2 switchs
DlIcicAlgoSwitch: switch for the downlink inter-cell interference coordination (ICIC).

DlPcAlgoSwitch: switch for the PDSCH power control

If :

DLIcicAlgoSwith is on, then the PDSCH power control is disabled, and PDSCH
power is setting by the follow command

DLIcicAlgoSwith is off, and PdschPcSwitch is on, system perform power control

DLIcicAlgoSwith is Off, and PdschPcSwitch is off, PDSCH power is setting by the


follow command

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LTE Power Control Feature

The power for the PDSCH is determined and dynamically adjusted based on PA when the
PdschPaAdjSwitch parameter is set to ON. PPDSCH_A and PPDSCH_B, the initial transmit power
for the PDSCH, are calculated as follows:

The eNodeB receive the CQI report to estimate the SINRRS of the cell-specific
reference signal. If no CQI is reported, the default SINRRS_Initial value of the system is
used.

The transmission block (TB) size of the UE is estimated based on the QoS
information related to the UE, including the Guaranteed Bit Rate (GBR) and
Aggregate Maximum Bit Rate (AMBR).

Under the precondition that the service requirements of the UE are met and a
balance is achieved between the power usage efficiency and RB usage efficiency in
the system, the initial CQITarget is calculated based on the estimated SINRRS and the
TB size.

The initial power offset for the PDSCH, namely, PO_PDSCH, is calculated based on the
estimated SINRRS and CQITarget.

The initial transmit power for the PDSCH, namely, PPDSCH_A and PPDSCH_B, is
calculated based on PA.

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LTE Power Control Feature

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LTE Power Control Feature

The power control interacts with the other RRM algorithm

The downlink CQI adjustment algorithm adjusts the CQI reported by the UE,
thereby adjusting the selected MCS and ensuring that the IBLER of the PDSCH
converges to IBLERTarget. In addition, the downlink CQI adjustment algorithm
provides the adjusted CQI for the downlink power control algorithm to adjust the
transmit power for the PDSCH.

The downlink ICIC algorithm informs the downlink power control algorithm of the
user type, which can be either CCU or CEU. The power control algorithm calculates
the PA based on the user type.

The downlink scheduling algorithm informs the downlink power control algorithm
of the PDCCH DCI. The power control algorithm performs power control based on
the DCI format.

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LTE Power Control Feature

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LTE Power Control Feature

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LTE Power Control Feature

Description of each parameters:

PCMAX : The maximum transmit power of UE, 23dBm is the default value that
designed in specification

Po_pre: The target power expected by the eNodeB when the requirements for the
preamble detection performance are met and the PRACH preamble format is 0.
The initial value of is set through the PreambInitRcvTargetPwr parameter.

PL: The downlink path loss estimated by the UE. This value is obtained based on
the Reference Signal Received Power (RSRP) measurement value and the transmit
power for the cell-specific reference signal. The Alpha filtering factor for filtering
the RSRP measurement values is set through the FilterRsrp parameter.
: The offset of the power for the current preamble format against

preamble format 0.

Npreamble
pre: Number of times that the preamble of the UE is sent before the random access
procedure is successfully completed.
: The ramping step in power ramping of the preamble. This value is set

through the PwrRampingStep parameter.

step

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LTE Power Control Feature

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LTE Power Control Feature

Description of each parameters

i: The subframe number


PCMAX : The maximum transmit power of UE, 23dBm is the default value that
designed in specification

M PUSCH (i) : The PUSCH transmission bandwidth(RB number) for the this subframe
: The receive power expected by the eNodeB. It is determined by the
Po _ PUSCHand reflects the receive power expected by the eNodeB when the
eNodeB
requirements for the PUSCH demodulation performance are met. The calculation
formula is as follows:

Po _ PUSCH Po _ NOMINAL _ PUSCH Po _ UE _ PUSCH

: is the transmit power for the PUSCH expected by the eNodeB

Po _ NOMINAL
when
the correct
_ PUSCHPUSCH demodulation is ensured. It is set through the
P0NominalPUSCH parameter.

: is the offset of the power for the UE against . This value reflects the
impact
of the UE level, service type, and channel quality on the transmit power for
Po _ UE _ PUSCH
the PUSCH.
: is the path loss compensation factor. It is set through the Alpha parameter.

PL: same meaning & setting as PRACH power control

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LTE Power Control Feature

TF (i) :is the offset of the power for the current MCS format against the reference
MCS format. If the DeltaMcsEnabled parameter is set to 0, TF(i) is 0. Otherwise,
the impact of TF(i) is considered.

f (i ): is the adjustment of the PUSCH transmit power of the UE. This value is
obtained based on the TPC information on the PDCCH.

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LTE Power Control Feature

When the switch InnerLoopPuschSwitch under the UlPcAlgoSwitch parameter is set to ON,
the transmit power for the PUSCH is periodically adjusted to adapt to change in the
channel environment based on the difference between the measured SINR and SINRTarget. If
the measured SINR is greater than SINRTarget, the eNodeB sends a TPC command, ordering
a decrease in the transmit power. If the measured SINR is smaller than SINRTarget, the
eNodeB sends a TPC command, ordering an increase in the transmit power.

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LTE Power Control Feature

When the switch PhSinrTarUpdateSwitch under the UlPcAlgoSwitch parameter is set to


ON, SINRTarget is periodically adjusted according to the power headroom (PH) information
of the current UE, and the number of RBs scheduled for the current UE.

When the switch OiSinrTarUpdateSwitch under the UlPcAlgoSwitch parameter is set to


ON, SINRTarget is periodically adjusted according to the OI information of the neighboring
cell and the number of RBs scheduled for the current UE. The adjustment adapts to change
in the channel environment and the interference to neighboring cell.

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LTE Power Control Feature

SINR adjustment is related with many factors, such as power headroom, RB number and
system load. Suppose the UL link is getting worse and worse, the following mechanism
can be used to maintain the BLER with prior

Perform inner loop power control to increase UE power

When the UE power reach the maximum value, the scheduling mechanism perform
the RB decreasing to reduce data rate, but SINR is still maintained.

When the RB number gets the minimum, namely only 1 RB, then eNodeB reduce
the SINR target to maintain the BLER.

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LTE Power Control Feature

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LTE Power Control Feature

Description of each parameters

P0 _ PUCCH : is the receive power expected by the eNodeB. It s determined by the


eNodeB and is the receive power expected by the eNodeB when the requirements
for the PUCCH demodulation performance are met. The calculation formula is as
follows:

Po _ PUCCH Po _ NOMINAL _ PUCCH Po _ UE _ PUCCH

h n CQI , n HARQ : is determined by the PUCCH format. nCQI is the number of


information bits of the CQI, and it reflects the impact of the number of CQI bits of
the PUCCH on the power. nHARQ is the number of information bits of HARQ, and it
reflects the impact of the number of HARQ signaling bits of the PUCCH on the
power. It is defined in protocol.

F _ PUCCH ( F ) : reflects the transmission format of the PUCCH on the transmit


power. It is set through the DeltaFPUCCHFormat1, DeltaFPUCCHFormat1b,
DeltaFPUCCHFormat2, DeltaFPUCCHFormat2a, and DeltaFPUCCHFormat2b
parameters.

g (i ) : is the adjustment of the transmit power of the UE's PUCCH, and it is


obtained based on the TPC information on the PDCCH.

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LTE Power Control Feature

PDCCH power control configuration use the same command as PDSCH configuration.

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LTE Power Control Feature

Parameters Description

M SRS : is the transmission bandwidth of the SRS


PSRS _ OFFSET : is the offset of the SRS power against the PUSCH power. This value is
set through the PsrsOffsetDeltaMcsDisable or PSrsOffsetDeltaMcsEnable
parameters based on different DeltaMcsEnabled values.

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LTE Power Control Feature

The uplink power control algorithm informs the uplink scheduling algorithm of the current
UE's power headroom. The uplink scheduling algorithm determines the UE's MCS and
number of RBs based on the UE's power headroom. System throughput is maximized while
meeting the user's QoS requirements. The uplink scheduling algorithm informs the uplink
power control algorithm of the TB size and allocated RBs, so that the uplink power control
algorithm can determine the UE's power.

The random access control algorithm informs the uplink power control algorithm of the
number of times that a UE's preamble is sent. In this way, the transmit power during the
random access process is determined.

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LTE Power Control Feature

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