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Original Title: 01 Numerical Prediction of Dynamic Performance of Pelton

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Ser.B, 2007,19(3):356-364

TURBINE*

XIAO Ye-xiang, HAN Feng-qin, ZHOU Jing-lin, KUBOTA Takashi

College of Electric Power, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, China,

E-mail: xiaoyx@scut.edu.cn

(Received November 3, 2006; Revised January 23, 2007)

ABSTRACT Different from the reaction turbines, the

hydraulic performance of Pelton turbine is dynamic due to the

unsteady flow in the rotating buckets in time and space. The

dynamic energy efficiency of bucket EB and power efficiency

of bucket PB within a short period can be predicted from the

dynamic flow pattern of the free-surface sheet flow in the

rotating bucket, whereas the dynamic discharge efficiency of

bucket QB is defined as the resident discharge in the bucket at

the respective moment. Under the operation of higher unit

speed nDH than the optimum one, the power efficiency of

bucket is deteriorated by the jet interference with the rear

surface of bucket Prear at the first stage of the dynamic

performance, as well as the loss power due to the spilt flow

from the cutout of bucket at the later stage of performance.

Based on the dynamic performance prediction presented, the

future possibility of the quantitative investigation for the

negative scale effect of Pelton turbines was discussed.

KEY WORDS: dynamic energy efficiency, dynamic discharge

efficiency, dynamic power efficiency, rotating bucket, Pelton

turbine

1. INTRODUCTION

In a Pelton turbine, the rotating buckets

consecutively penetrate a water jet to have the

inflow under the atmospheric environment as

shown in Fig.1. In the figure, the three buckets

receive the different amount of water jet,

respectively[1]. The above unsteadiness in time and

space, even under the constant rotating speed, is the

main reason why the numerical prediction of its

performance is difficult compared with the reaction

turbines[2-6].

The

time-averaged

steady

performance prediction has little contribution to the

study of the negative scale effect of the Pelton

turbines[7].

animated-cartoon frames[1,8] to discretize the

analogous unsteady flow, it is possible to adopt the

usual angular momentum equation for the inlet and

outlet of the free-surface sheet flow in a bucket

under the respective frame[9,10]. Based on the

consecutive frame of flow analysis, the dynamic

performance of the specific hydraulic energy, the

relative discharge and the hydraulic power of

rotating bucket can be determined numerically[11].

The aim of this article is to present the numerical

procedure for acquiring the dynamic characteristics

* Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 50379015).

BiographyXIAO Ye-xiang(1978-), Male, Ph. D. Student, Lecturer

357

turbines.

DYNAMIC PERFORMANCE

2.1 Numerical procedure of dynamic flow analysis

In order to predict the dynamic performance of

the Pelton turbines, it is necessary to perform the

fundamental dynamic flow analysis of the rotating

multi-buckets for a single jet. By applying the

method of animated-cartoon frames[1], the

fundamental flow analysis was executed for the

consecutive frames.

To consider the negative scale effect of the

Pelton turbines[7], the expansion of water jet along

the jet axis was modeled by introducing the radial

jet expansion rate kRj = (RjR0)/(XjX0), where R0,

and X0 is the jet radius and the axial position of jet

contraction, respectively, and Rj is the radius at the

position Xj as shown in Fig.1[12,13]. Under the

assumption of the constant kRj for the specific

operating condition, the dynamic jet radius RJ,i at

the entrance of the rotating bucket at a moment of

Frame #i was computed for the position XJ,i as

follows:

RJ ,i = R0 + k Rj ( X J ,i X 0 )

represented by the streamlines at the center of the

respective layer as shown in Fig.3. The jet enters

the splitter of bucket, then becomes the water sheet

flow having the free-surface with the Inner Moving

Boundary (IMB) and the Outer Moving Boundary

(OMB) on the inner surface of bucket[15]. Figure 4

shows an example of the free-surface flow pattern

with the various depths on the upper half of rotating

bucket[16,17]. The color of water sheet illustrates the

distribution of water depth H in the flow pattern.

On a relevant flow strip, all of the fluid particles

entered the bucket simultaneously[18].

(1)

entrance was computed from the contraction

velocity C0 as follows:

CJ ,i = C0 (

R0 2

)

RJ ,i

(2)

radius expansion rate kRj for the fundamental single

jet were numerically predicted from the

axi-symmetric two-phase flow analysis[14] as shown

in Fig. 2.

the brim, the water sheet flowed out of the brim of

bucket. The instantaneous specific hydraulic energy

Eijk, the relative discharge Qijk, and the hydraulic

power Pijk of a fluid Particle #k on the flow Strip

#

j in the water sheet flow in the rotating bucket at

the moment of Frame #i were computed from the

flow analysis data as follows[1]:

(3)

(4)

(5)

358

peripheral speed, the absolute circumferential

velocity, the relative velocity, the breadth normal to

Wijk, and the depth of water sheet for the fluid

particle, respectively.

2.2 Numerical procedure of performance prediction

2.2.1 Jet energy and jet discharge

Under the constant specific hydraulic energy

ET of turbine, ET= gH, where H is the net head of

the turbine, and the fixed needle stroke Sn and the

instantaneous kinetic energy of free jet EJ,i at the

moment of Frame #i was computed as follows:

E J ,i =

E J ,i =

C J2,i

2

, (i < ilastIn )

C J2,i _ lastIn

2

, (i > ilastIn )

(6a)

(6b)

position XJ,i according to Eqs. (1) and (2), and ilastIn

the frame at the last inflow to the bucket,

respectively. The turbine discharge per a single

nozzle Q0 was computed referring to the jet

contraction:

Q0 = C0 R02

(7)

to bucket

The instantaneous inflow discharge Qin,i, the

power Pin,i and the specific energy Ein,i at the

moment of the relevant Frame #i were obtained by

integrating with the Particle #k along the Splitter #j,

respectively, as follows:

Qin,i = k (Qijk )

(8)

Pin ,i = k (Pijk )

(9)

Ein ,i

E Q

P

= in ,i = k ijk ijk

Qin ,i

Qin ,i

(10), respectively.

2.2.4 Cutflow discharge, power and specific energy

from bucket

If a part of water sheet flow in the bucket

spilled out of the cutout, the instantaneous cutflow

discharge Q cut ,i , the power P cut ,i and the specific

energy E cut ,i i at the moment of the relevant Frame

#

i were obtained by integrating with the Particle #k

along the Cutout #j according to the equations

similar to Eqs. (8) to (10), respectively.

2.2.5 Loss power with rear-interference and

discharge loss

In the operation of higher unit speed nDH, the

jet velocity C0 decreases under the constant

peripheral speed Uref, and the rear surface of bucket

pushes the trailing-edge of the retarded jet truncated

by the bucket. This rear-interference[19] at the

moment of the Frame #i was numerically acquired

by the instantaneous negative power Prear,i

Prear,i = (

Vrear,i

t F

2

Rrear,

i)

(11)

trailing-edge to be displaced by the rear surface,

t F the elapsed time per a frame, and Rrear,i the

rotating radius of the virtual volume, respectively,

as shown in Fig.5.

(10)

from bucket

The instantaneous outflow discharge Q out ,i ,

the power P out ,i and the specific energy E out ,i at

the moment of the relevant Frame #i were obtained

by integrating with the Particle #k along the Brim #j

discharge loss Qjet due to the ineffective jet that

does not enter the bucket as shown in Fig.6. The

amount of Q jet was acquired through the

numerical analysis.

2.2.6 Dynamic performance EB, QB, and PB of a

rotating bucket

At the moment of the relevant Frame #i, the

dynamic specific hydraulic energy EB,i of a bucket

B

359

is

EB ,i = Ein,i_lastIn Eout,i Ecut,i , (i > ilastIn )

(12a)

(12b)

follows:

QB ,i =

QB,i is

(13)

QB ,i

Q0

in,i

Q0

q q

in

where qin=

i Qout,i i Qcut,i

out

in

i qcut

=

(17)

discharges, respectively.

The dynamic power efficiency PB ,i of a

EB ,i QB ,i as follows:

(14)

single jet was obtained by computing Eqs. (12) to

(14) from the Frame #0 at the first contact of the

splitter tip on the jet surface till the Frame #ilastOut at

the discharge of the last fluid particle from the

bucket.

PB ,i =

PB ,i

EB ,i QB ,i

EB ,i QB ,i

(18)

power.

The dynamic hydraulic efficiency hB ,i of a

bucket is

hB ,i =

The dynamic jet efficiency J ,i instantaneous

at the Frame #i is

E J ,i

(15)

ET

bucket is defined based on the jet energy EJ,i at the

entrance of bucket as follows:

EB ,i =

E B ,i

E J ,i

E J ,i

ET Q0

EJ ,i EB ,i QB ,i

(16)

specific hydraulic energies, respectively.

The dynamic discharge efficiency of a bucket

PB ,i

ET EJ ,i Q0 EB ,i QB ,i

J ,i EB ,iQB ,i PB ,i

J ,i =

PB ,i

=

(19)

three or four buckets are simultaneously interacting

with a single jet as shown in Fig.1. The dynamic

hydraulic efficiency hT,i of the Pelton turbine was

computed by integrating the respective bucket

efficiency hB,i in Eq. (19) for the whole relevant

buckets in a runner.

2.2.8

deficiencies in Pelton turbine

In order to get the time-averaged overall

efficiency of the Pelton turbine, the dynamic

hydraulic power PB,i of a bucket in Eq. (14) was

integrated to get the power PR,i of a runner and

time-averaged to obtain the overall output power PT.

By applying the usual turbine energy ET and the

turbine discharge QT specified in the IEC model

acceptance code, the time-averaged overall

360

hT =

moment of Frame #i.

PT

ET QT

(20)

the dynamic jet deficiency J,i is

J , i = 1 J ,i =

ET EJ ,i

(21)

ET

the distributing pipe with the branches, in the

nozzle/needle, and in the free jet from the nozzle

throat to the entrance of bucket at the moment of

Frame #i. The dynamic energy deficiency EB ,i of

a bucket was determined from Eq. (16) as follows:

EB ,i = 1 EB ,i =

E J ,i E B ,i

E J ,i

Ecut,i

E J ,i

i = i* F in

(22)

velocity Wcut.i has the similar direction as the

peripheral speed Ucut,i, the absolute cutflow velocity

Cucut,i is large, resulting in the large cutflow

deficiency EB ,i .The dynamic discharge deficiency

of a bucket QB ,i was directly determined from Eq.

(17):

QB ,i = 1 QB ,i =

Qjet

Q0

(23)

bucket was determined from Eq. (18) as follows:

PB ,i = 1 PB ,i =

Prear,i

EB ,i QB ,i

space,

and

simultaneously

is used as the abscissa in the dynamic curve of the

performances.

3.2 Dynamic discharge efficiency of bucket

At the optimum unit speed nDH = 40 rpm as

shown in Fig. 7 (b), the non-dimensional inflow

discharge qin= Qin/Q0 to the bucket rapidly increases

with increasing penetration of bucket to the jet up to

the Frame #14. The full jet enters the bucket

during the frames from Frame #14 to Frame #43.

The inflow decreases from Frame #43 to Frame #60

due to the penetration of the following bucket to the

jet. The outflow discharge qout = Qout/Q0 from the

bucket has the similar locus as that of qin with the

time shift of flowing in the bucket from the splitter

to the brim. There is a small amount of cutflow

qcut = Qcut/Q0 out of the cutout during the frames

between Frame #60 and Frame #80. The discharge

efficiency of bucket QB = QB/Q0 implies, by

definition with Eq. (17), the amount of discharge

residing in the bucket at the every moment, and

reaches the maximum of 13.5 times of the jet

discharge Q0. Since all of the jets enter the bucket,

there is no discharge loss QB ,i =Qjet/Q0 due to the

B

(24)

bucket is approximately

hB ,i = 1 hB ,i J ,i + EB ,i + QB ,i + PB ,i

PERFORMANCE PREDICTION

3.1 Numerical setup

A Pelton runner having the geometrical

specific speed B/Dref of 0.35 with 18 buckets was

chosen to be the numerical analysis, where B is the

bucket inner breadth and Dref the reference runner

diameter. Under the optimum unit speed nDH = 40

rpm, the needle stroke Sn/Rt was set to 0.892 where

Rt is the nozzle tip radius, and the jet radius

expansion rate was assumed as kRj = 0.05 %. The

value of kRj varied with nDH, 0.2 % for 30 rpm and

50 rpm[13]. The infinitesimal rotating angle F

per a frame was set to the 1.0o by equally dividing a

pitch angle between the two buckets into 20 frames.

The Frame #i corresponds to the rotational angle of

(25)

Pelton turbine was computed with the sum of four

ineffective jet.

When the unit speed is lower than the

optimum as shown in Fig. 7 (a), the jet velocity

becomes higher under the constant peripheral speed.

All of the dynamic discharges happen within the

shorter frames without the occurrence of qcut. The

361

11.2. There is no discharge loss due to the

ineffective jet.

reverse direction to the rotation of bucket. The

amount of the cutflow energy ecut = Ecut,i/EJ,i is not

negligible due to the large circumferential

component Cucut of the cutflow velocity. The

variation of dynamic energy efficiency EB of the

bucket, EB = EB/EJ,i is not remarkable.

When the unit speed is lower than the

optimum as shown in Fig. 8 (a), the dynamic jet

efficiency J ,i decreases rapidly due to the

B

energy ein = (Uin,i Cuin,i)/(CJ,i2/2) Uin,i/CJ,i tends

to decrease with increasing CJ. The absolute value

of the negative outflow energy eout is larger because

of the larger outflow velocity. There is no cutflow

energy ecut due to the absence of cutflow discharge.

Fig. 7 (c), it takes more time to inflow and outflow

with decreasing jet velocity. The amount of

cutflow, as well as the amount of unsteady

discharge loss Qjet due to the ineffective jet

increase with increasing nDH.

3.3 Dynamic energy efficiency of bucket

At the optimum unit speed as shown in Fig. 8

(b), the dynamic jet efficiency J,i = Cj,i2/(2ET)

slightly decreases with increasing flow distance due

to the small expansion of jet toward downstream,

kRj = 0.05 %.

On the contrary, the

non-dimensional inflow energy ein = Ein,i/EJ,i tends

to increase with frames, because the splitter tends to

be perpendicular to the jet with its rotation. After

the frame of the last inflow to the Bucket #60, both

the jet efficiency and the inflow energy are assumed

to be constant irrespective of the frame. The

outflow energy eout=Eout,i/EJ,i has the negative value

Fig. 8

Fig. 8 (c), the dynamic jet efficiency J,i decreases

more rapidly due to the more increased expansion

rate kRj = 0.2 % for nDH = 50rpm. The level of the

inflow energy ein increases with increasing nDH.

362

eout becomes smaller, and turns to be positive

because of the higher positive component of the

outflow velocity. The cutflow energy ecut becomes

very large with increasing nDH.

3.4 Dynamic power efficiency of bucket

At the optimum unit speed as shown in Fig. 9

(b), the non-dimensional inflow power pin=

Pin,i/(EB,i QB,i) to the bucket is very large (out of

scale close to 1.0) at the beginning stage of frames

due to the small denominator, and decreases toward

zero at the frame of the last inflow. The outflow

power pout is negative corresponding to the negative

outflow energy eout, and sharply increases from the

Frame #77 to the last outflow from Bucket #91 due

to the small positive eout. There is a small amount

of cutflow power pcut during the frames between

Frame #60 and Frame #80. The dynamic power

efficiency PB of the bucket PB = PB/(EBI, QB,i)

rapidly decreases with frames down to the negative

value due to the large positive pout.

B

and turns to increase by the decrease of pout. There

is no cutflow power pcut.

In the case of higher unit speed as shown in

Fig. 9 (c), the rear-interference power deficiency

PB,I = Prear,i/(EB,i QB,i) occurs in the first stage.

The amount of cutflow power pcut increases with

increasing nDH. As a result, the dynamic power

efficiency PB,i is damaged by the rear-interference

power deficiency PB,i at the first stage and by the

cutflow power deficiency at the last stage of

Frames.

3.5 Dynamic hydraulic efficiency of Pelton turbine

According to Eqs. (15) and (16), the product of

J and EB gives the energy efficiency E of

turbine as follows:

E ,i =

EB ,i

ET

= J ,iEB ,i

(26)

turbine for the various nDH are summarized in the

upper part of Fig. 10. The final stage of the

dynamic curves for nDH of 50 is deteriorated by the

serious cutflow. The dynamic behavior of the

hydraulic efficiency hB of a bucket is

summarized in the lower part of Fig. 10. The

deterioration of the dynamic efficiency at lower nDH

is small, on the contrary, its deterioration is serious

with nDH higher than the optimum due to the

dynamic rear-interference power deficiency PB ,

the dynamic discharge deficiency QB due to the

ineffective jet, and the dynamic cutflow power

deficiency pcut even under the single jet operation.

optimum as shown in Fig. 9 (a), the dynamic power

Fig. 10

363

increase with increasing Reynolds number, and

become more serious in the multi-nozzle Pelton

turbines[20]. The quantitative study of those dynamic

deficiencies will be the urgent future task to clarify

the negative scale effect of the Pelton turbines.

The performance equations presented are not yet

elegant, nevertheless, may be a milestone for the

dynamic performance prediction considering the

negative scale effect.

large and its direction is opposite to jet. In the case

of higher unit speed as shown in Fig.11(c), besides

the outflow, there are cutflow and ineffective jet

within it.

In Table 1, the computational results are

compared with the experimental results for the

time- averaged overall efficiency hT at different

nDH. The errors between the computed and

experimental results for the various nDH are about

1.2%, 1.4% and 2.1%, respectively. In the case of

lower nDH, the key factor to decrease the efficiency

is the shorter residence of water flow in the open

bucket. On the contrary, in the case of higher nDH,

the rear-interference, the ineffective jet and cutflow

cause the efficiency deterioration rapidly.

Table 1 Comparison of time-averaged overall efficiency

hT

turbine

The hydraulic performance of this Pelton

turbine was resulted from model experiment. At the

optimum unit speed as shown in Fig.11(b), the

absolute outflow velocity is close to zero. When the

unit speed is lower than the optimum as shown in

Unit speed

30 rpm

40 rpm

50 rpm

Computational result

80.6%

92.4%

80.3%

Experimental results

81.7%

91.1%

78.6%

4. CONCLUDING REMARKS

The fundamental equations of dynamic

hydraulic performance have been derived for the

Pelton turbine under the single jet operation through

the flow analysis based on the animated-cartoon

frame method.

As a result of the dynamic

performance prediction for the various unit speed

nDH under the optimum needle stroke, the following

conclusions can be reached.

(1) The smaller efficiency decrease at the

lower nDH is mainly resulted from the shorter

residence of water flow in the open bucket.

(2) On the contrary, the larger efficiency

deterioration at the higher nDH is due to the

rear-interference deficiency in the first stage, the

discharge deficiency due to the ineffective jet, and

the cutflow deficiency due to the spilt flow from the

cutout of the bucket in the last stage of the dynamic

performance.

(3) The ineffective jet and the cutflow may

introduce the jet interference in the multi-nozzle

Pelton turbines.

(4) The three dynamic deficiencies are the key

words for the negative scale effect of the Pelton

turbines.

364

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