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7&8

7.2 7.8:
Techniques of Integration
&
8.1 8.4:
Further Applications of Integration

1
We use trigonometric identities to integrate
sin x cos x sin 2 x
2
certain combinations of trigonometric functions.

7.2: Example 1: Find sin5x cos2x dx.

Solution:

sin5 x cos2x = (sin2x)2 cos2x sin x


= (1 cos2x)2 cos2x sin x
Let u = cos x, du = sin x dx

sin5x cos2x dx = (sin2x)2 cos2x sin x dx

= (1 cos2x)2 cos2x sin x dx


= (1 u2)2 u2 (du) = (u2 2u4 + u6)du
1 3
2
1
cos x cos5 x cos7 x C
3
5
7

Trigonometric Integrals
We can use a similar strategy to evaluate integrals of
the form tanmx secnx dx.
If n is even:
(ddx) tan x = sec2x , u = tanx
Separate a sec2x factor and convert the remaining
(even) power of secant to an expression involving
tangent using the identity : sec2x = 1 + tan2x.
If m is odd:
(ddx) sec x = sec x tan x, u = secx
Separate a sec x tan x factor and convert the
remaining (even) power of tangent to secant.
Note:
3rd Method: Change everything to sin x & cos x

Example 4: Evaluate tan6x sec4x dx.


Solution:

tan6x sec4x dx = tan6x sec2x sec2x dx

= tan6x (1 + tan2x) sec2x dx; u = tan x so that


du = sec2x dx
Note:
6
6
2
6
8
sin
x 1
= u (1 + u )du = (u + u )du

cos

x cos x

dx

6
10
sin
x
cos
xdx

More Difficult

tan7x +

tan9x + C

7.3: Evaluate

Solution:

a =3, x = 3 sin , /2 /2. Then sin = x/3 & dx = 3 cos d:

(Note that cos 0 because /2 /2.)

x 2 a 2 x a tan
a 2 x 2 x a sin
x 2 a 2 x a sec

Therefore:

7.4: Partial Fractions: Example 2b:


.

11

7.7: Approximation: Left, Right, Midpoints, Trapezoidal & Simpsons Rules

Riemann sums: f ( x)dx lim f ( xi )xi


b

f ( x)dx

ba
, x a ix
can be approximated by: x
n
i 1

Ln x f ( x0 ) f ( x1 ) f ( x2 ) ... f ( xn 1 )

Rn x f ( x1 ) f ( x2 ) ... f ( xn 1 ) f ( xn )
x
Tn
f ( x0 ) 2 f ( x1 ) ... 2 f ( xn1 ) f ( xn )
2
M n x f ( x1 ) f ( x2 ) ... f ( xn 1 ) f ( xn )
xi 1 xi
xi
Midpoint of xi 1 , xi
2

ba
Simpson's Rule:x
, n is even
n
x
S n f ( x0 ) 4 f ( x1 ) 2 f ( x2 ) ... 2 f ( xn 2 ) 4 f ( xn 1 ) f ( xn )

Error Bounds:
Left & Right End Points,
Midpoints, Trapezoidal Rule, and Simpsons Rules

Error =

() Numerical Approximation

ba
x
, x a ix
n

f ( x) K i for all x: a x b

K 2 (b a )3
ET
12n 2

(i )

K1 (b a )
ER EL
2n

EM

K 2 (b a )3

24n 2

K 4 (b a )5
ES
180n 4

7.8: Improper Integral


1
dx
32)
(Q 32):
2
0
1 x
Example : 32)

dx

lim

1 x2

t 1

dx

1 x2

lim sin x
0
t 1
1

lim sin t sin t


t 1
2
1

Convergent

Example 8:
(Q 16):
Example :

16) cos tdt

cos tdt cos tdt cos tdt

cos tdt

sin t

cos tdt lim cos tdt


a 0

sin t
sin a sin 0
lim
lim

a
a


0

a

It oscillates between -1 & 1.

cos tdt

Divergent

8.1: Example 1:
Find the length of the arc of the
(0, 0) and (4, 8).

y x3/ 2 between the points

dy
2)1
dx

dy 3

x
dx 2

1)

3) L

9
dy
2)1 1 x
4
dx

3) L

u 1

Arc Length Steps


dy
1)
dx

4
9
dy
1 dx 1 xdx
0
4
dx

9
9
x du dx, x 0 u 1, x 4 u 10
4
4

9
4 4
9 9
1 xdx 1 x dx
4
9 0
4 4

4 10
8
udu
10 10 1
9 1
27

dy
1 dx
dx

8.2: Example 4 (Q10): Find the surface area


generated by revolving the following curve
about the x- axis: y 1 e x , 0 x 1

x
1/
2

1
dy
1
e
1) y 1 e x 1 e x
ex
dx 2
2 1 ex

e
2)ds 1
dx
x
4(1 e )
1

3) 2 yds 2 1 e x
1

(e
0

2)dx

1) y f ( x)

(e x 2) 2
dx
x
4 1 e
1

3) S 2 yds

(e 2 x) (e 1)
x

dy
dx

dy
2)ds 1 dx
dx

(e x 2) 2

dx
x
4 1 e

2x

Surface of Rev Steps

Moment & Center of Mass: xy-plane


n

Moment & Center of Mass


(Origin)

mi xi
i 1
n

My

xf ( x)dx

8.3 f (x)dx
m

a
b
a

1
x
A

xf ( x)dx

f ( x)dx
a

1
2

f
(
x
)
dx

a 2
Mx
y

b
m
f ( x)dx
b

1
y
A

1
2
f ( x ) dx
2

A= f ( x)dx
a

m x
i 1
n

1
2
f ( x) dx
2
b
f ( x)dx
a

i i

i 1

M
y x
m

m y
i 1
n

i 1

My

1
x

m A
M
1
y x
m A
A=

a
b

xf ( x)dx

M
M mx
m

i 1

My

x f ( x) g ( x) dx
b

1
2

f ( x ) g ( x )
2

dx

f ( x) g ( x) dx

Typical Vertical Strip:


ytop ybot
( x, y ) x,
2

f ( x) g ( x)
x,

8.3: Example 3 :

Find the center of mass of a thin plate of a constant density


bounded by the parabola and line as follows.
y 25 x 2 , x axis

The typical (vertical) strip has center of mass:


Symmetric about the y-axis & Constant Density
f ( x) 25 x 2
Center on the y-axis. ( x, y ) x,

x0
b

A= f ( x)dx (25 x )dx


2

4
2 (25 x )dx 53
0
3
5

xf ( x)dx
a
b

f ( x)dx

1
A

Mx

1
A

1
2
f ( x ) dx
2

A= f ( x)dx

50 3 1 5

8
625
x

625

3
5 0
3

M
y x
m

xf ( x)dx
f ( x)dx
a
b
a

1
2
f ( x) dx

a 2

b
f ( x)dx

5 1
1
2
2 2

dx
f
(
x
)
dx

25

x
a 2
5 2
5 1
625 50 x 2 x 4 dx
2
0 2

8
1
2
625

f ( x) dx
3 10
2

b
4 3
f
(
x
)
dx
5

a
3

xf ( x)dx

Solution:

My

( x, y ) 0,10

1
2
f ( x) dx
2
b
f ( x)dx
a

Consumer Surplus

8.4: Consumer Surplus and Producer Surplus


Example 3: Given

xE

D ( x ) dx xE pE

D(x) (x 5) and S(x) x x 3, Producer Surplus


find each of the following:
xE
xE pE S ( x ) dx.
a) The equilibrium point. D S
0
( x 5)2 x2 x 3 xE 2 , pE D xE D 2 $9
2

The Equilibrium Point: (2, $9)


b) The consumer surplus at the equilibrium point.
3 2
2
( x 5)
44
2
0 ( x 5) dx 2 9 3 18 3 $14.67
0
c) The producer surplus at the equilibrium point.
2
3
2
2
x

x
22
2
2 9 ( x x 3)dx 18 3 x
$7.33
0
3
3 2
0

Revenue Net Change :


b
F (b) F (a) f ( x)dx
8.4: Example 7 (Q 12):
a
Revenue flows into a company
at a rate of f (t ) 9000 1 4t
where t is measured in years and f(t) is measured in dollars
per year, find the total revenue in the first 6 years.
9000 6
1/ 2
0 9000 1 4tdt 4 0 1 4t 4dt
6

3/ 2
9000 2
0 9000 1 4tdt 4 3 1 4t 0 $186,000