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Regulatory Issues and Challenges in

Preparing for the Regulation of New


Reactor Siting: Malaysias Experience
Azlina Mohammad Jaisa,b
a Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB) Malaysia
b Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM)
Halimah Hassan
Department of Environmental (DOE) Malaysia

Muhamad Samudi Yasir


Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM)

CNRA International Workshop on New Reactor Siting, Licensing & Construction Experience;
15-17 September 2010, Prague, Czech Republic

OUTLINE

Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB), Acts and Regulations


Overview on the status of nuclear power development
Licensing Process for NPP
Regulatory Issues and Challenges
Approach to facilitate Licensing Process for a Site License
Siting Criteria and guidelines
Selection and Evaluation for NPP Site
Radiological and Environmental Impact Assessment (RIA/EIA)
Social Impact Assessment (SIA)
Human Resources
Summary
Conclusion

http://www.aelb.gov.my

Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB)- A Regulatory Body for


Radiation and Nuclear Activities in Malaysia

Branch
Branch

Branch

No Staff: 165
Licensee: > 1000
Medical and nonmedical activities, I
Research Reactor
(Triga Mark II),
1 mWt

AELB HQ

Branch
http://www.aelb.gov.my

AELB - Independent RB
Minister of Science, Technology
& Innovation

Ministry of Science, Technology


& Innovation

The Board
(5 Members)

Executive Secretary

Standing Safety
Committee

Sub-standing
Safety
Committee

Director General
AELB Department
Nuclear Installation
Division

Policy, Code &


Standard Division

Technical Support
Division

Licensing Division

Administrative
Services Division

Enforcement Division

http://www.aelb.gov.my

Atomic Energy Licensing Act, 1984


(Act 304) and its Regulations
Atomic Energy Licensing Act 1984 (Act 304)

Appointment of date of coming into force [P.U.(B)


44/85]
Radiation Protection (Licensing) Regulations
1986 [P.U.(A) 149/86]
CORRIGENDUM to Radiation Protection
(Licensing) Regulations 1986 [P.U.(A) 355/86]
Radiation Protection (Basic Safety Standard)
Regulations 1988 [P.U.(A) 61/88]
Atomic Energy Licensing (Exemption) Order 1988
[P.U.(A) 189/89]
Atomic Energy Licensing (Exemption) Order 1989
[P.U.(A) 50/89]
Atomic Energy Licensing (Exemption) (Smoke
Detectors) Order 1989 [P.U.(A) 422/89]
Radiation Protection (Transport) Regulations
1989 [P.U.(A) 456/89]
Atomic Energy Licensing (Exemption) (Lightning
Arrestor) Order 1990 [P.U.(A) 12/90]
Atomic Energy Licensing (Exemption) (Leasing
and Hire Purchase) Order 1990 [P.U.(A) 205/90]

Atomic Energy Licensing (Appeal) Regulations


1990 [P.U.(A) 206/90]
Radiation Protection (Transport) (Amendment)
Regulations 1991 [P.U.(A) 145/91]
CORRIGENDUM to Radiation Protection (Transport)
Regulations 1989 [P.U.(A) 146/91]
Atomic Energy Licensing (Small Amang Factory)
(Exemption) Order 1994 [P.U.(A) 435/94]
Atomic Energy Licensing (Exemption) (Ceramic
Factory) Order 1998 [P.U.(A) 431/98]
Note: This Order has been repealed by P.U.(A)
182/2002
Atomic Energy Licensing (Exemption) (Scanning
Electron Microscope) Order 1998 [P.U.(A) 432/98]
Atomic Energy Licensing (Exemption) (Irradiating
Apparatus Below 5 Kilo Electron Volt) Order 2002
[P.U.(A) 181/2002]
Atomic Energy Licensing (Exemption) (Low Activity
Radioactive Material) Order 2002 [P.U.(A) 182/2002]
http://www.aelb.gov.my

Preparation for NPP- Roles & Responsibilities of Key Players


Ready to
maketoamake
knowledgeable
Ready
a
commitment
to
a
nuclear
knowledgeable
programme
decision

Phase 1

Phase 2

Government
Cabinet
Decision 26th
June 2009Nuclear energy
as an option)

Ready to commission
Ready
to
and operate
the first
commission
NPP

Ready to
invite bids

Phase 3

Policy &
Public Acceptance

International
commitment (45
Instruments identified)

Regulatory Body40 relevant national


Strengthening
Legal frameworkAELB, EC etc

laws & regulations


identified

Operating Organization
Industrial participation
M1

Potential
developer/operator

M2

M3
Source: IAEA
http://www.aelb.gov.my

CABINET COMMITTEE ON ENERGY


NUCLEAR POWER DEVELOPMENT STEERING COMMITTEE

(Cabinet Decision 26th June 2009)

Ministry of Energy, Green Technology and Water

PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT
WORKING COMMITTEE

PROJECT DEVELOPMENT
WORKING COMMITTEE

Nuclear Malaysia Agency

Tenaga Nasional Bhd. (TNB)

Educational Program and Public Awareness


Human Capital Development
Technology Assessment

Site Identification
Nuclear Fuel Procurement Planning
Nuclear Power Plant Conceptual Design,
including Project Management and Quality
Assurance

REGULATORY DEVELOPMENT COORDINATION


WORKING COMMITTEE
Contribute in the
of
Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB) development
Nuclear Power
Infrastructure
and Energy Commission (ST)
Regulation and Licensing of Electricity Generation
Regulation and Licensing of Nuclear Power Plant
International Legal Instruments & Governance

Development
Programme (NPIDP)

http://www.aelb.gov.my

Strengthening Regulatory Infrastructure for NPP


National and
International Nuclear
Legislation and
Regulations Assessment
Study 2010-2012

NPP Site License

NPP construction
License

NPP Operation
License

Implementation of Strategy and


Action Plan 2013-2021
(Output from assessment studies)

http://www.aelb.gov.my

Authorities Involved In Regulating


The Nuclear Power Plant in Malaysia

Nuclear Island AELB


( & DOE, DOSH)
9

Non-Nuclear Island EC ( & DOE, DOSH,


MHLG etc.)
http://www.aelb.gov.my

LICENSING PROCESS OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANT


3 STEPS LICENSE
Class G

Class A
&B
Class F
Operation Licence
licence

Temporary
operation

Site
Licence

Decom.

Construction

Licence

Full Operation
(fuel loading)

Radiation Protection (Licensing) Regulation, 1986


http://www.aelb.gov.my

Licensing Process of NPP- Technical Information Required


Site Licence

Site Evaluation Report


Description of the
proposed installation and
activities
Physical characteristic of
the site
Population distribution
Present land use
Radiological ,
Environmental & social
impact assessment
Pre-operational
radiological monitoring
programme
A description of storage
facilities for radioactive
materials or nuclear
materials on the site
Decommissioning plan
Any additional
information required by
appropriate authority

Construction
Licence

Preliminary Safety
Analysis Report
General layout and
detail plan and
design of the facility
Updated EIA & RIA
Postulated initiating
event (A statement
with respect to
potential accidents
and unscheduled
releases of wastes
and hazardous
materials from the
facility)
Any additional
information required
by appropriate
authority

Operation Licence
Temporary

Note:
Preliminary SAR Siting,

Intermediate SAR Construction

Full

Any change, in the material used


or in the design
Radiation Protection
Programme (A description of
proposed measures to control
radiation exposures)
A detail medical surveillance
programme
A programme for initial and
periodic training
Operational
radiological
monitoring programme (quality
and quantity of effluents to be
discharge or emission from the
facility)
Design
Basis
Accident
(proposed
procedures
to
prevent accident
and the
proposed contingency plan in
the event of an accident)
Design basis Threat (plan and
procedures to prevent loss,
theft, or unauthorized used)
Any additional
required
by
authority

Final Safety Analysis


Report

Any additional
information required
by appropriate
authority

information
appropriate

Final SAR - Operation


http://www.aelb.gov.my

PUBLIC

GOVERNM
GOVT.
EXTERNAL
ENT
AGENCIES EXPERT

AELB

APPLICAN
T (Utility
Provider)

Regulatory Issues and Challenges [1]


Approach to facilitate Licensing Process for a Site License
Letter of
Intent

Prepare and
submit
document

Additional
information

Advice
applicant
on license
requiremen
t

Form inter
agencies
comm. to
review

Conform
regulatory
requiremen
t

SIA, EIA,
LCP

License
notification

Decision
(accept/
reject)

Prepare
licence

Consult
expert

One Gate Licensing


Process with Multiple
Regulatory
Authorities

Issue report
to minister

Report
review

Public
participation
(JPBD, DOE)

Decision
(issue
license)

Public
feedback

12
http://www.aelb.gov.my

Act- 1984

Regulatory Issues and Challenges [2]- Siting Criteria and Guidelines


Atomic Energy Licensing (Basic
Safety Radiation Protection)
Regulations 2010

GS-G-1.6Regulato Issues ry
Seismic Design and Qualification for NPP
GS-G-3.3
Evaluation of Seismic Hazard for NPP
GS-G-4.1
Format and Content of SAR for NPP

Radiation Protection (Nuclear


Installation Licensing) Regulations
201_

NS-G-1.1
Software for Computer Based System
Important to Safety in NPP

Atomic Energy Licensing (Security of


Radioactive Sources) Regulations
201_

Act 304,
1984

Atomic Energy Licensing (Security of


Nuclear Materials) Regulations
201_

NS-G-1.4
Design of Fuel Handling and Storage
System For NPP

Radiation Protection (Medical


Dental and Veterinary Usage of
Radiation) Regulations 201_
Atomic Energy Licensing (Transport
Security) Regulations 201_

Radiation Protection (Licensing)


Regulations 1986

Radiation Protection (Transport)


Regulations 1989

Radiation Protection (Appeal)


Regulations 1990

NS-G-1.12
Design of Reactor Core for NPP

NS-G-3.1
External Human Induce Event in Site
Evaluation for NPP

NS-G-1.13
Radiation Protection Aspect of Design for NPP
NS-G-2.1
Fire Safety in the Operation of NPP

NS-G-3.2
Dispersion of Radioactive Material in Air and
Water and Consideration of Population
Distribution in Site Evaluation
For NPP

NS-G-2.2
Operation Limit & Condition and Operating
Procedures For NPP
NS-G-2.3
Modification to NPP

NS-G-3.5
Flood Hazard for NPP on Coastal and River Site

NS-G-1.5
External Event Excluding Earthquake

NS-G-2.4
The Operating Organization for NPP

NS-G-3.6
Geotechnical Aspect of Site Evaluation and
Foundation for NPP

NS-G-1.7
Protection Against Internal Fires and
Explosion In the Design of NPP

NS-G-2.7
Radiation Protection and Radioactive Waste
Management in the Operation of NPP

WS-G-2.1
Decommissioning for Research Reactor and NPP

NS-G-1.8
Design of Emergency Power System for NPP

NS-G-2.8
Recruitment, Qualification & Training of
Personnel for NPP

NS-G-1.9
Design of Reactor Coolant System and
Associated System in NPP

NS-G-1.10
Design of Reactor Containment System for NPP

Atomic Energy Licensing (Safeguards


Of Nuclear Activities) Regulations
201_

NS-G-2.11
A System for the Feedback of Experience
From Events in Nuclear Installation

To date, a total of
over 100 IAEA
standards &
guidance
documents on
NPP wereIn addition,
Nuclear Siting
adopted by the
Guidelines of
Board Finland, Canada,

NS-G-1.2
Safety Assessment and Verification for NPP

Radiation Protection (Radioactive


Waste Management) Regulations
201_

NS-G-1.11
Protection against Internal Hazard Other than
Fire and Explosion Design of NPP

NS-R-1
Safety for NPP Design

NS-G-2.9
Commissioning for NPP

NS-G-2.10
Periodic Safety Review for NPP

NS-R-2
Safety of NPP Operation
NS-R-3
Site Evaluation for Nuclear Installation
NS-G-2.5
Core Management and Fuel Handling for NPP
NS-G-3.4
Meteorological Event in Site Evaluation for NPP

Guidance Documents

National Guideline on Safety


Assessment And Preparation of SAR

Guideline on the Site Evaluation


For Nuclear Installation

Standard for Certification and


Re-certification of RR Operator

Guideline for Assessment of


Reactor Modification

Guideline for Approval Application of


Nuclear Material Transit

Guideline for IAEA Safeguard


Inspector Designation and Issuance of
Multiple Entry Visa
Guideline for Inspection Procedure
For Research Reactors
Guideline for Approval Application
Of Transshipment of NM
Standard for Certification of Inspector
And Assessor
Guidelines on Security of Radioactive
Sources

RO Korea, USA & Legend


were
adopted by Adopted by Board
Guideline on Physical
Protection
of Nuclear Installation
In Preparation/Drafting
the Board
Guideline on Nuclear Emergency
Preparedness Program

Under Planning
In Revision
Published

Approved by Board

http://www.aelb.gov.my

IAEA Standards and Guidelines Adopted by AELB


GS-G-3.3
The Management System for the Processing,
GS-R-1
Legal and Governmental Infrastructure for Nuclear, Handling and Storage of Radioactive Waste
GS-G-3.4
Radiation, Radioactive Waste and Transport Safety
The Management System for the Disposal of
Radioactive Waste
INSAG-5
TS-G-1.4
The Safety of Nuclear Power
Management System for the Safe Transport of
INSAG-12
Radioactive Material
Basic Safety Principles for Nuclear Power Plants
INSAG-13
INSAG-22
Management of Operational Safety in Nuclear
Nuclear Safety Infrastructure for a National Nuclear Power Plants
Power Programme Supported by the IAEA
INSAG-15
Fundamental Safety Principles
Key Practical Issues in Strengthening Safety Culture
INSAG-21
RS-G-1.4
Strengthening the Global Nuclear Safety Regime
Building Competence in Radiation Protection and
the Safe Use of Radiation Sources
IAEA Handbook on Nuclear Law
INSAG-16
GS-G-1.1
Knowledge,
Training
and
Organization and Staffing of the Regulatory Body Maintaining
Infrastructure for Research and Development in
for Nuclear Facilities
Nuclear Safety
GS-G-1.2
RS-G-1.1
Review and Assessment of Nuclear Facilities by the
Occupational Radiation Protection
Regulatory Body
RS-G-1.2
GS-G-1.3
Assessment of Occupational Exposure due to
Regulatory Inspection of Nuclear Facilities and Intakes of Radionuclides
Enforcement by the Regulatory Body
RS-G-1.3
DS416
Assessment of Occupational Exposure due to
Licensing Process for Nuclear Installations
External Sources of Radiation
RS-G-1.4
GS-G-1.5
Building Competence in Radiation Protection and
Regulatory Control of Radiation Sources
the Safe Use of Radiation Sources
WS-G-2.3
RS-G-1.7
Regulatory Control of Radioactive Discharges to the
Application of the Concepts of Exclusion,
Environment
Exemption and Clearance
INSAG-17
RS-G-1.8
Independence in regulatory decision making
Environmental and Sources Monitoring for
INSAG-20
Purposes of Radiation Protection
Stakeholder Involvement in Nuclear Issues
DS427
GSR Part 5
Radiological Environmental Impact Analysis for the
Predisposal Management of Radioactive
verification of Radiological Protection
WS-R-5
INSAG-9
Decommissioning of Facilities Using Radioactive Potential
Exposure
in
Nuclear
Safety
Material
DS429
DS365
External Expert Support on Safety issues
Risk-Informed Decision Making
GS-G-3.2
GS-G-1.2
The Management System for Technical Services in Review and Assessment of Nuclear Facilities by the
Radiation Safety
Regulatory Body
DS 395
DS349
Deterministic Safety Analyses and their Application
The Management System for Nuclear Installations
for Nuclear Power Plants
111-G-1.1
INSAG-18
Managing Change in the Nuclear Industry: the Classification of Radioactive Waste
DS390 Classification of Radioactive Waste
Effects on Safety

WS-G-2.5
Predisposal Management of Low and Intermediate
Level Radioactive Waste
WS-G-2.6
Predisposal Management of High Level Radioactive
Waste
WS-G-6.1
Storage of Radioactive Waste
DS284
Safety Assessment for Radioactive Waste Predisposal
Facilities and Activities
WS-R-5
Decommissioning of Facilities Using Radioactive
Material
DS354
Disposal of Radioactive Waste (to become new SSR5)
GS-G-3.3
The Management System for the Processing, Handling
and Storage of Radioactive Waste
NS-R-5
Safety of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facilities
DS371
Storage of Spent Fuel
GS-G-2.1
Arrangements for Preparedness for a Nuclear or
Radiological Emergency
SS109
Intervention Criteria in a Nuclear or Radiation
Emergency
DS44 Criteria for Use in Planning Response to
Nuclear and Radiological Emergencies
TS-G-1.2
Planning and Preparing for Emergency Response to
Transport Accidents Involving Radioactive Material
NS-G-2.12
Ageing Management for Nuclear Power Plants
NS-G-2.14
Conduct of Operations at Nuclear Power Plants
DS385
Severe Accident Management Programme for Nuclear
Power Plants
DS388
Chemistry Programme for Water Cooled Nuclear
Power Plants
INSAG-23
Improving the International System for Operating
Experience Feedback
50-SG-S9
Site survey for Nuclear Power Plants (under update
and revision process)
DS405
Volcanic hazards for nuclear installations
DS367
Safety Classification of Structures, Systems and
Components in Nuclear Power Plants

DS393
Development and Application of Level 2 PSA for
Nuclear Power Plants
DS394
Development and Application of Level 1 PSA for
Nuclear Reactors
DS395
Deterministic Safety Analyses and their
Application for Nuclear Power Plants
SS79
Design of Radioactive Waste Management
Systems at Nuclear Power Plants
GSR Part 4
Safety Assessment for Facilities and Activities
INSAG-6
Probabilistic Safety Assessment
INSAG-10
Defence in Depth in Nuclear Safety
TS-G-1.1 (Rev.1)
Advisory Material for the IAEA Regulations for
the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material
TS-G-1.2
Planning and Preparing for Emergency
Response to Transport Accidents Involving
Radioactive Material
TS-G-1.3
Radiation Protection Programmes for Transport
Radioactive Material
TS-G-1.4
Management System for the Safe Transport of
Radioactive Material
TS-G-1.5
Compliance Assurance for the Safe Transport of
Radioactive Material
INSAG-24
Safety and Security Interface in Nuclear
Installations

Additional 56 IAEA
Std. & 16 draft Std.
adopted in 2010

http://www.aelb.gov.my

National Standards and Guidelines Adopted by AELB


USNRC :
Reactor Site Criteria (10 Code of Federal Regulation, Part 100),
Standards For Protection Against Radiation (10 Code of Federal Regulation, Part 20),
Domestic Licensing Of Production And Utilization Facilities (10 Code of Federal Regulation, Part 50)
Physical Protection Of Plants And Materials (10 Code of Federal Regulation, Part 73)
Site Investigations For Foundations Of Nuclear Power Plants (Regulatory Guide 1.132), 2003
Laboratory Investigations Of Soils And Rocks For Engineering Analysis And Design Of Nuclear Power Plants (Regulatory Guide 1.138), 2003
Identification And Characterization Of Seismic Sources And Determination Of Safe Shutdown Earthquake Ground Motion (Regulatory Guide 1.165), 1997
Procedures And Criteria For Assessing Seismic Soil Liquefaction At Nuclear Power Plant Sites (Regulatory Guide 1.198), 2003
A Performance-Based Approach To Define Te Site-Specific Earthquake Ground Motion (Regulatory Guide 1.208), 2007
Preparation Of Environmental Reports For Nuclear Power Stations (Regulatory Guide 4.2), 1976
General Site Suitability Criteria For Nuclear Power Stations (Regulatory Guide 4.7), 1998
Criteria for Preparation and Evaluation of Radiological Emergency Response Plans and Preparedness in Support of Nuclear Power Plant (NUREG 654). November
1980
Standard Format and Content of Safety Analysis Report for Nuclear Power Plants: LWR Edition (Regulatory Guide 1.70, Revision 3). November 1978
Assumption Used for Evaluating the Potential Radiological Consequences of a Loss of Coolant Accident for Boiling Water Reactors (Regulatory Guide 1.3, Revision
2). June 1974
Assumption Used for Evaluating the Potential Radiological Consequences of a Loss of Coolant Accident for Pressurized Water Reactors (Regulatory Guide 1.4,
Revision 2). June 1974
Assumption Used for Evaluating the Potential Radiological Consequences of a Steam Line Break Accident for Boiling Water Reactors (Regulatory Guide 1.4,
Revision 2). June 1974
Meteorological Monitoring Programs for Nuclear Power Plants (Regulatory Guide 1.23, Revision 1). March 2007
Assumption Used for Evaluating the Potential Radiological Consequences of a Fuel Handling Accident in the Fuel handling and Storage Facility for Boiling and
Pressurized Water Reactors (Regulatory Guide 1.25, Revision 0). March 1972
Ultimate Heat Sink for Nuclear Power Plants (Regulatory Guide 1.27, Revision 2). January 1976
Seismic Design Classification (Regulatory Guide 1.29, Revision 4). March 2007
Design Basis Flood for Nuclear Power Plants (Regulatory Guide 1.59, Revision 2). August 1977
Evaluating the Habitability of a Nuclear Power Plants Control Room during a Postulated Hazardous Chemical Releases (Regulatory Guide 1.78, Revision 1).
December 2001
Atmospheric Dispersion Models for Potential Accident Consequences Assessment at Nuclear Power Plants (Regulatory Guide 1.145, Revision 1). February 1983

Canada:
Site Evaluation for New Nuclear Power Plants. Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission. Regulatory Documents (RD) No. 346, 2008
EPRI,USA
Siting Guide: Site Selection and Evaluation Criteria for an Early Site Permit Application. Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. (EPRI)
2002
Finland:
Safety Criteria For Siting A Nuclear Power Plant. Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK). Guide YVL No. 1.10, July 2000

Adopted by Board in 2010 for reference purposes


http://www.aelb.gov.my

Regulatory Issues and Challenges [3]


Site Selection and Evaluation Criteria
Site Selection

Site Evaluation

Public Participation

Population Density &


Distribution

Current Land Use and


Socioeconomics

Uses of Land & Water in the


Region

Environment Protection

Atmospheric, Surface &


Groundwater Dispersion

Health & Safety Criteria

External Natural & Human


Induced Event

http://www.aelb.gov.my

Regulatory Issues and challenges [4]


Radiological and Environmental Impact
Assessment (RIA & EIA)

RIA- Requirements under Atomic Energy


Licensing Act, 1984
EIA- Requirements under Environmental
Quality Act 1974
Construction of a nuclear fueled power station
is a prescribed activity under the EIA Order
Undergo a Detailed EIA procedure, including
public display and public comments on the EIA
Report
http://www.aelb.gov.my

Regulatory Issues and challenges [5]


Social Impact Assessment (SIA)

required during application for Planning


Approval by the Local Authority

submitted together with the Proposed


Project Development

http://www.aelb.gov.my

CONCLUSION

A clear political decision on NPP is important-regulatory body


need more trained human resources, adequate financial,
independent, effective and competent.
Development of regulatory procedures and guidelines for the
site evaluation, licensing process and inspection programme
is important to perform effective regulatory reviews and
inspection in an efficient and timely manner at the beginning
stage of NPP development- possible areas of cooperation and
partnership among the Regulatory Authority of newcomers &
advance NPP countries need to be identified and
strengthened .

http://www.aelb.gov.my

Thank You

http://www.aelb.gov.my