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Fakulttsname XYZ Fachrichtung XYZ Institutsname XYZ, Professur XYZ

Live Load Capacity of


Bridges

Dresden, 4.11.2015

CASE STUDY Concrete Box Girder Bridge

LRFR Method
Load and Resistance Factor
Rating
According to the AASHTO Guide Manual
for the Condition Evaluation and Load and
Resistance Factor Rating (LRFR) of
Highway Bridges Specifications (MBE)
Load Rating of the structure was performed
by AECOM (Former URS) 2009.
A complete report of this analysis was
provided to MnDOT: Such report has been
made available to the public by MnDOT
see:

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STRUCTURE DESCRIPTION

Figure Courtesy of Indiana Maps

Built in 1983
Consists of six units carrying 27 spans of eastbound and 28 spans of
westbound traffic across a Harbor Canal, and various local railroad tracks
A one-inch gap separates the 56-0 wide (average width) eastbound and
westbound segments for all mainline segments except Segment 1.
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Plan View

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Segment 1 - three single cell post-tensioned concrete box girders.


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Segment 2 - Double cell and twin single cell post-tensioned concrete box girders.
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Segment 3 - Double cell and twin single cell post-tensioned concrete box girders.
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Segment 4 - Double cell and twin single cell post-tensioned concrete box girders.
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Segment 5 - Double cell post-tensioned concrete box girders.


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Segment 6 - Double cell and single cell post-tensioned concrete box girders.
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Ramp A - Double cell and single cell post tensioned concrete box girders.
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Ramp B - Single cell post tensioned concrete box girder.


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Ramp C1 - Single cell post tensioned concrete box girder.


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Ramp C2 - Single cell post tensioned concrete box girder.


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Ramp D - Single cell post tensioned concrete box girder.


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Live Load Capacity of a Bridge


Load Rating

The Live Load Capacity of a Bridge is the capacity beyond permanent and other
transient loads that can be safely carried by a bridge. It can be expressed as a
ratio as:

Live Load Capacity

TU Dresden, 12.11.2015

Total Capacity Permanent & Transient Load demands


Live Load Demand

Live Load Capacity of a Concrete Box Girder Bridge

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LRFR Basic Formula


Rating Factor:


=
( + )
0.85

MBE 6A4.2.1-1

MBE table 6A.4.2.2-1


MBE table 6A.4.2.2-1

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WHY?

Load Rating Purpose

Ensure bridge safety


Management decisions (rehabilitation vs. replacement?)
Operational decisions (posting, permitting, routing)
Comply with federal regulations - National Bridge
Inspection Standards (NBIS)

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Elements of Design

Project Understanding
Features of Design
Cross Section
Superstructure Longitudinal Design
Superstructure Transverse Design

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Project Understanding

As-Built Plans
Prior Inspections
Walk Through Inspections
Corrosion Testing

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Using As Built-Plans

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Walk-Through and Bridge Inspection Data

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Elements of Design

Project Understanding
Features of Design
Cross Section
Superstructure Longitudinal Design
Superstructure Transverse Design

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Features of Design

Inter-relationship between design and construction


Time dependent effects of concrete
Temperature gradients
Disturbed zones
Importance of detailing

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Inter-relationship
between design and
construction

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Inter-relationship between design and


construction

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Time Dependent Effects

T = INITIAL

T = INFINITY

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Temperature Gradient

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Disturbed Regions
Pier Diaphragms

Anchorage Zones

Deviation Saddles
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Importance of Detailing

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Importance of Detailing

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Elements of Design

Project Understanding
Features of Design
Superstructure Longitudinal Design
Superstructure Transverse Design

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Superstructure Longitudinal Design

Plane Frame System for Time Dependent Effects


Space frame for other Effects
Finite Elements for Special Conditions

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Superstucture Longitudinal Design

Time Dependent Effects


Creep, Shrinkage and Aging of Concrete
Steel Relaxation
Sequence of Construction
Stresses Greatly Affected by Method of
Construction
Live Load
Lateral Loads
Wind, Ship Impact, Earthquake Not Considered
Temperature Gradient
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RM 2000 Model Layout Global Model and Segment 1


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Method of Analysis RM 2000

Self-weight
Post-tensioning
Locked-in effects from construction sequence
Time-dependent effects associated with the progressive
change in structural systems and post-tensioning forces
during and after construction.
The stage analysis tracked the complete stress history of
the structure leading to the final stresses for which the
analysis was performed.

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RM 2000 versus Tango Live Load Comparison


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Live Load Types


Design Live Load
Used to manage States Assets. Compares the
condition of the bridge against a new design)
Legal Loads
Used for Load Posting. Intended for safe operation
and preservation of bridges
Load Permitting
Truck routing, efficient operation of traffic,
commerce

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AASHTO Guide Manual for the Condition


Evaluation and Load and Resistance Factor
Rating (LRFR) of Highway Bridges
Specifications (MBE)

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Design Load - HL 93 Truck + 0.64 plf

Figure from AASHTO LRFD


Bridge Design Specifications

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Wheel Spacing and Contact Tire Area (LRFD Section 3.6.1.2)


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Legal InDOT Legal Load Trucks (R1 thru R3) (Longitudinal Axle Loads and Spacing)
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AASHTO Legal Load Trucks (R4 thru R6) (Longitudinal Axle Loads and Spacing)
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InDOT Overload Permit Trucks (RS1 thru RS2) (Longitudinal Axle Loads and Spacing)
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Special InDOT Permit Trucks (S1 thru S5) (Longitudinal Axle Loads and Spacing)
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Overload Permit Trucks


Picture Courtesy of T.J. Potter Trucking, Inc,
Minnesota

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Application and Spacing for Design, Legal and Permit Load (Strength Evaluation) (Part 1)
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Application and Spacing for Design, Legal and Permit Load (Strength Evaluation) (Part 2)
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Application and Spacing for Design Loads (Service Evaluation)


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Muller Breslau Principle


The influence line follows the profile of the
deflected shape of a structure generated by
releasing the restraint corresponding to the
action and applying a unit displacement or
rotation in the direction of the action.

Use of Influence Line to Maximize effects of a Moving Load


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Design Example by Parsons and


Brickerhoff , Proposed AASHTO-PCI-ASBI
Standard Box Girder, 1996

Application and Live Load to Produce Maximum Positive Moment Longitudinal Direction
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Design Example by Parsons and


Brickerhoff , Proposed AASHTO-PCI-ASBI
Standard Box Girder, 1996

Application and Live Load to Produce Maximum Negative Moment Longitudinal Direction
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Type of Permit Trucks


MBE 6A.4.5.4.2aRoutine (Annual) Permits

Generally valid for 12 months


Designated routes in a region or Blanket Route
Number of crossings unknown or unlimited
MBE 6A.4.5.4.2bSpecial (Limited Crossing)
Valid for limited time
Specific routes
Number of crossings limited (single trip or multiple
trip Construction)
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Type of Permit Trucks


MBE 6A.4.5.3
Routine (Annual) Permits
Valid for unlimited trips over a period of time, not to
exceed one year, for vehicles of a given configuration
within specified gross and axle weight limits.
Special permits
Valid for a single trip only, for a limited number of
trips, or for a vehicle of specified configuration, axle
weights, and gross weight. Mix with normal traffic or
may be required to be escorted in a manner which
controls their speed, lane position, the presence of
other vehicles on the bridge, or some combination
thereof.
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Traffic Implications Live Load Capacity


Blanket Permit
The live load capacity of all bridges on the route(s)
that the permit allows the truck to cross should be
calculated. Generally all bridges on a given region.

MBE 6A.4.5.4.2bSpecial (Limited Crossing)


The live load capacity of all bridges on the specific
route(s) that the permit allows the truck to cross
should be calculated.

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LRFR Basic Formula


Rating Factor:


=
( + )
0.85

MBE 6A4.2.1-1

MBE table 6A.4.2.2-1


MBE table 6A.4.2.2-1

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MBE 6A4.2.1-1
Structural Condition of Member
Good or Satisfactory

NBI Rating

Condition Factor (Fc)

>6

1.00

0.95

<4

0.85

Fair
Poor

System Factors(Fs)
Bridge Type

Cast-In-Place

TU Dresden, 12.11.2015

Span Type

# of Hinges
to Failure

No. of Tendons per Web


1/web
2/web
3/web
4/web

Interior Span

0.90

1.05

1.15

1.20

End or Hinge Span

0.85

1.00

1.10

1.15

Statically Determinate

n/a

0.90

1.00

1.10

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Limit States
and
Load Factors

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No. of Ld. Lanes = No. of


Design Lanes per LRFD

No. of Ld. Lanes = No. of Design Lanes


per LRFD

Strength I gL = 1.25 1.50 1.00 1.00 0.50 0.00

0.00

gL = 1.75

Strength
II

gL = 1.25 1.50 1.00 1.00 0.50 0.00

0.00

gL =

Service I

gL = 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.50

0.00

gL = 1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

Service III gL = 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.50

0.00

gL = 0.80

1.00

1.00

0.90

gL = 1.75

1.35

1.35

1.35

Longitudinal

Strength I gL = 1.25 1.50 1.00 n/a

n/a

n/a

Operating

1.35

S5

S4

S3

S2

S1

RS2

InDOT Permit Loads

RS1

R5, R6

R3, R4

LRFD AASHTO &


Design InDOT Legal
Loads
Loads

R1, R2

HL-93 or Tandem

Operating

Inventory
TG

TU

LRFD
Design
Loads

HL-93 or Tandem

Inventory
LRFD Transient
Loads

CR, SH

EL including PT Sec.

DW

DC

LRFD Dead
and
Permanent
Loads

Transverse

No. of Ld. Lanes = No. of Striped Lanes


placed for max. effects

LRFR Load Factors

1.70 (I-70)**
1.45 ()**
1.43 (I-70) *
1.36 () *

* Per LRFR Table 6A.4.5.4.2a-1 assumed gL factor is Special or Limited Crossing, Single Trip, Mixed Traffic, One Lane,
ADTT = 1950
** Per LRFR Table 6A.4.4.2.3a-1 gL factor is ADTT = 1950.

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Allowable Service Stresses


At the Service Limit State after Losses
Compression (longitudinal or transverse)
Transverse distribution of reinforcement.
Principal Tensile Stresses at Neutral Axis in
Webs (Service III)

TU Dresden, 12.11.2015

Stress Limit
Inventory
0.60fc

Stress Limit
Operating
0.60fc

Not checked (Per. 6.5.4.1 - LRFR.)


0.110fc (ksi)
3.5fc (psi)

0.126fc (ksi)
4fc (psi)

Transverse Analysis of a Concrete Box Girder Bridge

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Elements of Design

Project Understanding
Features of Design
Superstructure Longitudinal Design
Superstructure Transverse Design

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Transversse Design
Purpose
Determine the distribution of forces in the transverse
direction that act on the individual components of the box
girder section.
Optimize segment dimensions.
Design transverse reinforcement or post-tensioning so
that allowable stresses are not exceeded.
The bridge for this case study did not have transverse
post-tensioning.

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Methods of Evaluation
The capacity of a section in transverse flexure was
determined using the relevant formulae in the LRFD Code.
Factored resistance of any section is based on the
conditions of equilibrium and strain compatibility as
specified in Section 5.7 of the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design
Specification.

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Transverse Analysis of a Concrete Box Girder Bridge

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Transverse Analysis
System is Uncoupled into Transverse and Longitudinal
Systems.
Traditional Approach
Analysis of the slab using Influence Surfaces.
Distribution of the bending moments around the
frame cross section using Plane Frame Model.
Finite Element Approach

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Methods of Evaluation

Empirical Method
A = Shear Stresses due to Longitudinal Effects
B = Transverse Bending of the Frame
Design Section For Larger of:
A + 0.5B
B + 0.5A
0.7(A+B)

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Methods of Evaluation
Loads
Dead Load Analysis
Live Load Analysis
Transverse Post-Tensioning
Temperature
Construction Loads
Sections
Top and Bottom Slab
Webs

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Design Live Load

Design Example by Parsons and Brickerhoff , Proposed


AASHTO-PCI-ASBI Standard Box Girder, 1996
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Transverse Analysis of a Concrete Box Girder Bridge

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Live Load Influence Lines

Design Example by Parsons and Brickerhoff , Proposed


AASHTO-PCI-ASBI Standard Box Girder, 1996
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Live Load Influence Lines

Design Example by Parsons and Brickerhoff , Proposed


AASHTO-PCI-ASBI Standard Box Girder, 1996
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Transverse Analysis of a Concrete Box Girder Bridge

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Live Load Influence Lines

Design Example by Parsons and Brickerhoff , Proposed


AASHTO-PCI-ASBI Standard Box Girder, 1996
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Transverse Analysis of a Concrete Box Girder Bridge

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Typical Cross Sections


UNIT
Segment 1 - Gdr 1
Segment 1 - Gdr 2
Segment 1 - Gdr 3
Segment 2 - EBL
Segment 2 - WBL
Segment 3 - EBL

Segment 3 - WBL

Segment 4 - EBL

Segment 4 - WBL
Segment 5 - EBL
Segment 5 - WBL
Segment 6 - EBL
Segment 6 - WBL

Transverse
Section ID

Rating Node

IA
IA
IA
IIB
IIB
IIIA
IIB
IIIA
IIIA
IIIB
IVA
IIB
IIIA
IIIB
IVA
IIB
IIB
IIB
IIB
IIB
IVA
IIB
IVA

1-173
1-173
1-173
1-151
1-80
80-151
1-72
72-117
1-8
8-36
36-76
76-117
1-11
11-53
53-87
87-138
1-138
1-138
1-128
1-36
36-122
1-100
100-133

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RM
Segment
1001-1172
2001-2172
3001-3172
1174-1323
2174-2252
2253-2323
1325-1395
1396-1440
2325-2331
2332-2359
2360-2399
2400-2440
1442-1451
1452-1493
1494-1527
1528-1578
2442-2578
1580-1716
2580-2706
1718-1752
1753-1838
2708-2806
2807-2839

UNIT
Ramp A - Segment 2

Ramp A - Segment 3

Ramp A
Ramp B
Ramp B - Segment 6
Ramp C - Segment 3

Ramp C - Segment 4

Ramp C - Units 2-5


Ramp C - Units 1 6-8
Ramp D
Ramp D - Segment 6

Transverse
Section ID

Rating Node

IIIA
IIIA
IIIB
IVA (VC)
VC
VA
VB
IIA
VA
IVA (VC)
IIIA
IIIA
IIIB
IVA (VC)
VC
VA
VA
VA
IVA (VC)

1-72
1-8
8-36
36-74
74-83
1-57
57-97
97-155
1-48
1-35
1-46
1-11
11-53
53-86
86-94
1-100
1-107
1-81
1-100

Transverse Analysis of a Concrete Box Girder Bridge

RM
Segment
4001-4071
4073-4079
4080-4107
4108-4147
4148-4154
4156-4211
4212-4251
4252-4309
4501-4547
4548-4581
5001-5045
5047-5056
5057-5098
5099-5131
5132-5139
5141-5239
5241-5346
5501-5580
5582-5680

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Typical Cross Sections

Section Type IA

Section Type IIA

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Typical Cross Sections

Section Type IIIA

Section Type IVA

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Typical Cross Sections

Section Type VA

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Typical Reinforcement Case Study Bridge

Section Type VA

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Design Example by Parsons and Brickerhoff , Proposed


AASHTO-PCI-ASBI Standard Box Girder, 1996
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Transverse Analysis of a Concrete Box Girder Bridge

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Method of Analysis

The bridge was analyzed using the BRUG program which


performs a finite element analysis with plate bending
elements to derive the cross sections bending forces for
load rating.

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Validation of Results
The BRUG program results were verified as follows:
Using influence Homberg charts to determine live load
fixed end moments for each load condition.
Using 2-D GTSTRUDL models to:
a. Estimate dead load moments.
b. Redistribute fixed end live load moments on
continuous system(s).
Using 3-D Midas Civil finite element model.
Using RM 2006 3-D beam element model.

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Validation of Results

Finite
elements

Y
Z

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or influence
diagrams.
Transverse Analysis of a Concrete Box Girder Bridge

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Homberg Charts

Fixed Moments at Cantilever


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From Florida DOTs New Directions in


Post-Tensioning Volume 10A

Transverse Analysis of a Concrete Box Girder Bridge

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Homberg Charts

Fixed Moments at Interior Slab


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From Florida DOTs New Directions in


Post-Tensioning Volume 10A

Transverse Analysis of a Concrete Box Girder Bridge

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Transverse Analysis of a Concrete Box Girder Bridge

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Transverse Analysis of a Concrete Box Girder Bridge

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Transverse Analysis of a Concrete Box Girder Bridge

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GT Strudl 2D Frame Model

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Transverse Analysis of a Concrete Box Girder Bridge

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MIDAS FEA Live Load

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GT Strudl 2D Frame Model Dead Loads


x

x
x

xxx
x

xxx
x

x
x

x
x

x
x

Y
Z

Y
Z

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Transverse Analysis of a Concrete Box Girder Bridge

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MIDAS FEA
Comparison of Point Loads vs. Pressure Loads

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Transverse Analysis of a Concrete Box Girder Bridge

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RM 2006 3D Beam Element Model

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Transverse Analysis of a Concrete Box Girder Bridge

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RM 2006
Model Generation
GP (or Geometric Preprocessor)
Input: bridge geometry
Output: export to structural database RM
RM
Input: materials, loadings, staging
Analysis: dead, PT, C & S, live
Output: forces, stresses, ultimate capacities

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Transverse Analysis of a Concrete Box Girder Bridge

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RM 2006 Geometric Prepocessor


A total of 4 axes used: Line EPR, Ramp A, Ramp B,
Ramp C & Ramp D
Horizontal geometry
Vertical geometry, neglected
Based on actual bridge geometry components
Tangents, circles, spirals, etc.

TU Dresden, 12.11.2015

Transverse Analysis of a Concrete Box Girder Bridge

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RM 2006 Geometric Prepocessor


Cross sections
CL

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Axis (PGL)

Transverse Analysis of a Concrete Box Girder Bridge

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RM 2006 Geometric Prepocessor


Cross sections

TU Dresden, 12.11.2015

Transverse Analysis of a Concrete Box Girder Bridge

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RM 2006 Load Definition

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Transverse Analysis of a Concrete Box Girder Bridge

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Brug Sample
Results

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Transverse Analysis of a Concrete Box Girder Bridge

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Brug vs. Homberg Charts


Comparison Findings
The BRUG program results showed a lower force
distribution to the webs than the Homberg charts
and GTSTRUDL model.

TU Dresden, 12.11.2015

Transverse Analysis of a Concrete Box Girder Bridge

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Brug vs. MIDAS FEA


Comparison Findings
The BRUG force distribution to the webs was
independently verified using a Midas Civil finite element
model, incorporating plate elements, using the extreme
loading case for web bending.
The Midas Civil finite element model results verified the
BRUG results for web transverse bending. Since the BRUG
program uses a more accurate distribution than Homberg
charts used in conjunction with the GT Strudl model and
the BRUG results are more favorable, the FEM results from
BRUG were used for the transverse evaluation.
TU Dresden, 12.11.2015

Transverse Analysis of a Concrete Box Girder Bridge

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References
The Manual for Bridge Evaluation (MBE), 2nd Edition, AASHTO
AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications, 6th Edition
InDOT Bridge Design Manual
URS Load Rating Design Criteria (for the Bridge under Consideration) presented
to InDOT, 2009.

URS Load Rating Analysis Report of Findings (for the Bridge under consideration)
presented to InDOT, 2009.
Design Example by Parsons and Brickerhoff , Proposed AASHTO-PCI-ASBI
Standard Box Girder, 1996.

Structural Analysis (Prentice-Hall civil engineering and engineering mechanic


series) [1982] Alexander Chajes.
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Live Load Capacity of a Concrete Box Girder Bridge

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THANK YOU!
QUESTIONS?

TU Dresden, 12.11.2015

Prsentationsname XYZ

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