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Summer Internship Report (MEC 400)

On
Steel Making Process
20th June, 2016 16th July, 2016
Submitted By
Subhash Patel
Registration No. 11309464
Undergraduate student at
Lovely Professional University
Department: Mechanical Engineering
Under The Guidance
Of
SAIL Guide:
Mr. Ranjeet Kumar,
Head of Department,
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Human Resource Department,


Steel Authority of India (SAIL), Bokaro

DECLARATION
I hereby declare that I have completed my six weeks summer
training at _________________________ from _____________to
_____________ under the guidance of
_______________________________. I declare that I have worked
with full dedication during these four weeks of training and my
learning outcomes fulfil the requirements of training for the
award of degree of _________________________, Lovely
Professional University, Phagwara.

no:

Date: ___________________

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Name of Student
Registration

CERTIFICATE

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I take this opportunity to extend my sincere thanks to SAIL for offering me a


unique platform to gain exposure and garner knowledge in the field of
Production.
I would like to extend my heartfelt gratitude to my Internship guide Mr.
Ranjeet Kumar for having made my summer training a great learning
experience by their constant guidance, encouragement and support.
Last but not the least I would like to express my profound gratitude to each and
every employee of Production Engineering Department, Steel Authority of
India (SAIL) who contributed in their own ways in successful completion of
my Internship.

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Subhash Patel

CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT....................................................................................
...................................... 4
ABOUT THE
COMPANY ..........................................................................................................
.............. 6
VISIONS..................................................................................................
...................................... 7
CAPACITY AND
MILESTONES ......................................................................................................
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......... 7
PRODUCTS.........................................................................................................
................................... 8
VARIOUS DEPARTMENT
VISITED ......................................................................................................... 9
MODERNISATION
.. 23
FLOW CHART OF THE
WORK............................................................................................................... 25
APPENDIX
... 26
REFERENCES AND
BIBLIOGRAPHY .............................................................................................
......... 28

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ABOUT THE COMPANY


Steel Authority
of India Limited
(SAIL) is the
largest steelmaking
company in
India and one of
the seven
Maharatnas of the countrys Central Public Sector Enterprises.
Bokaro Steel Plant - the fourth integrated plant in the Public
Sector - started taking shape in 1965 in collaboration with the
Soviet Union. It was originally incorporated as a limited
company on 29th January 1964, and was later merged with
SAIL.
The Plant is hailed as the countrys first Swadeshi steel plant,
built with maximum indigenous content in terms of equipment,
material and know-how. Its first Blast Furnace started on 2nd
October 1972 and the first phase of 1.7 MT ingot steel was
completed on 26th February 1978 with the commissioning of
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the third Blast Furnace. All units of 4 MT stage have already


been commissioned and the 90s' modernisation has further
upgraded this to 4.5 MT of liquid steel.

VISION
To be a respected world class corporation and the leader in
Indian steel business in
quality, productivity, profitability and customer satisfaction.

CAPACITY

First Phase : 1.7 MT of ingot steel


Second Phase : 4.0 MT of ingot steel
After modernization : 4.5 MT of liquid steel
Enough scope for further expansion (Plan for 7 MT)
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MILESTONES

Start of construction : 06.04.68


Start of hot metal production : 02.10.72
Completion of 1.7 MT stage : 26.02.78
Completion of 4 MT stage in phases
Start of last modernization : 23.07.93 (completed in 1997)
Next modernization for 7 MT : Evaluation Process started

PRODUCTS
SAIL, Bokaro offers following products:
Hot Steel Machining(HSM) - HR Coils/
Sheets/ Plates
Hot Roll Coil Finishing(HRCF) - HR Sheets/
Plates/ Coils
Cold Rolling Mills(CRM) - CR Coils/ Sheets, GC Sheets
By-products - 1. Nitration-grade Benzene,
2. Nitration-grade Toluene,
3. Light Solvent Naphtha,
4. Still Bottom Oil,
5. Hot Pressed Naphthalene,
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6.
7.
8.
9.

Anthracene Oil,
Extra-hard Pitch,
Hard-medium Pitch (solid/ liquid),
Ammonium Sulphate

VARIOUS DEPARTMENT
VISITED
IN
SAIL
1. Raw Material Handling Plant ( RMHP )
2. Coke Oven
3. Sintering Plant
4. Blast Furnace
5. Basic Oxygen Furnace ( BOF )
6. Continuous Casting Shop ( CCS )
7. Hot Strip Mill ( HSM )

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Raw Material Handling Plant (RMHP)


Receive different raw materials from various mines
through wagons and their unloading & stacking with the
help of tipplers & stackers
Blend raw material by making layers in beds & cross
section-wise cutting beds by
reclaimer.
Keep buffer stock to take care
of irregularities and supply
raw materials to different
units as per their
requirements.
Basic facilities:

4
7
5
1
2

Rotary Wagon Tipplers - 20 Wagons/Hr each


Twin boom Stackers - 1200 T/Hr each
Barrel Type Reclaimers - 1000 T/Hr each
Bucket Wheel Type Reclaimer - 500 T/Hr
Transfer Cars, 10 Shuttle Conveyors, 11 Cranes, 8

Telphers

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Coke ovens
8 Batteries of 5 meter height, 69
Ovens each
The process of coke making
consists of destructive distillation
of coal in absence of air. The
phenomenon is called high
temperature (above 12000c
-13000c carbonization of coal
Volatile matters are driven out leaving behind the residue called
COKE

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Material Flow Diagram: Coal and Coke

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Sintering Plant
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Sintering is the process


where incipient fusion takes
place by combustion of Coke
within moving bed of loosely
packed fines of mainly Iron
ore, Coke & Flux so as to
agglomerate into a compact
porous mass called Sinter
Iron ore fines are not suitable for use in the Blast Furnace. Hence,
the iron ore fines are agglomerated into larger porous lumps,
which is suitable for use in the Blast Furnace.
A green mix of carefully proportioned iron ore fines, fluxes and
coke breeze is prepared in granular form in Mixers.
Heat generated through combustion within the mass itself
produces large lumps of hot Sinter.
This Sinter is cooled, sized and stored for use in the blast furnace.
Iron ore fines are recycled to make sinter, to help produce hot
metal of predictable and standard quality in the Blast Furnace.

Specifications

3 Sinter Machines: Capacity 6.25 million tonnes per annum


75-80% Sinter is being used in the burden of BF
Area of each Siter belt is 252 sq.m.
Productivity of Sintering Band : 1.2 T/M2/hr
Three Sections
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1. Raw Material Section


2. Stock Bin & Proportioning Section
3. Sinter Machine Section

Blast Furnace
The iron oxide of ore and
sinter is reduced to iron with
the help of carbon monoxide
& Coke
The Blast Furnace is a
ceramic refractory lined tall
reactor, used for the
production of liquid iron
called Hot Metal. Iron oxide, present in the iron bearing raw
materials, is reduced inside the reactor by coke and carbon
monoxide.
Coke is used for combustion to attain the high temperatures
required for reduction. Coke on combustion generates carbon
monoxide, which acts as the reducing agent and converts the iron
oxides into molten iron.
Fluxes are used to make low melting slag and control the quality
of Hot Metal.
Hot Metal and Slag are collected in the hearth and tapped
periodically.
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Blast Furnaces are used for producing Hot Metal.


Functions of coke in BF are manifold. It provides strong porous bed
to burden and supplies the heat load. Part of the heat load is
supplied by the hot air blast
5 Furnaces each of 2000 cubic meter useful volume and
2640T/day HM capacity
All furnaces have Bell-less Top charging System for continuous

charging & better distribution of charge


Capacity of B F 4.585 MT of Hot Metal per annum
Hot Metal Temperature 1460-14800C
BF Productivity: 1.4 T/m3/Day
Coke Rate 520 Kg/THM

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Material Flow Diagram of Blast Furnace

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Basic Oxygen Furnace

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Also known as Linz-Donawitz


(LD) process.
Basic oxygen
steelmaking (BOS, BOP, BOF,
and OSM), also known
as Linz-Donawitzsteelmaking or the oxygen
converter process is a method of primary steelmaking in which
carbon-rich molten pig iron is made into steel.
Hot Metal, or liquid iron, contains about 4% carbon and other
impurities. In the next stage of steel-making, iron is converted into
steel by reducing its carbon content and other impurities in the
Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF).
Hot metal from the blast furnace and steel scrap are the principal
materials used in Basic Oxygen Steel making (BOS).
A water-cooled oxygen lance is lowered into the converter and
high-purity oxygen is blown on to the metal at very high pressure.
The oxygen combines with carbon and other unwanted elements,
eliminating them from the molten charge.
These oxidation reactions produce heat, and the temperature of
the metal is controlled by the quantity of added scrap.
The carbon leaves the converter as a gas, carbon monoxide,
which can, after cleaning, be collected for re-use as a fuel.

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Lime is added as a flux to help carry off the other oxidized


impurities as a floating layer of slag. Impurities of Si, C & P are
oxidized and forms slag with lime
The steel is tapped by tilting the convertor to the tapping side and
alloying elements are added via chutes while metal is being
tapped The convertor is tilted to the charging side in order to
remove the floating slag .
Modern furnaces, or converters can take a charge of up to 350
tones and convert it into steel in around 15 minutes.

Specifications
SMS-I: 5 Converters each of 100/130T capacity, 2 Mixers each of
1300 T capacity (Rated Capacity 2.5 MT/Yr.)
SMS-II: 2 Converters each of 300 T capacity, 2 Mixers each of
2500 T capacity (Rated Capacity 2.25 MT/Yr.)
Total capacity 4.5 MT of liquid steel.
Killed, Semi-killed and Rimming steels are made.
Hot metal from the blast furnace and steel scrap are the principal
materials used in Basic Oxygen Steel making (BOS).

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Continuous Casting Shop


Continuous Casting is the
process whereby molten steel
is solidified into a
"semifinished" billet, bloom, or
slab for subsequent rolling in
the finishing mills.
During continuous casting, the
liquid steel passes from the
pouring ladle, with the exclusion of air, via a tundish with an
adjustable discharge device into the short, water-cooled copper
mould.
The shape of the mould defines the shape of the steel. Before
casting, the bottom of the mould is sealed with a so-called dummy
bar. As soon as the bath reaches its intended steel level, the
mould starts to oscillate vertically in order to prevent the strand
adhering to its walls.
The red-hot strand, solidified at the surface zones, is drawn from
the mould, first with the aid of a dummy bar, and later by driving
rolls. Because of its liquid core, the strand must be carefully
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sprayed and cooled down with water. Rolls on all sides must also
support it until it has completely solidified. This prevents the still
thin rim zone from disintegrating.
Once it has completely solidified, the strand can be divided by
mobile cutting torches or shears. Intensive cooling leads to a
homogeneous solidification microstructure with favourable
technological properties. speeds of about 0.6 to 3.5 m/min are
possible for slabs.

Specifications
Two Twin strand curvilinear casters with capacity to produce 2.16
MT of Slabs
Steel Refining Unit (SRU) with LF/LRS for treatment of steel before
casting
On-line slab cutting
Steel Killed with Al/Si to O2<5ppm + Argon purging sulphur

reduced <0.015%
Slab size : Thickness
200, 225 & 250 mm
Width
950-1850 mm
Length
9-10.5 m
MgO lined Tundish of 50 T capacity
Slide Gate System
Slab Produced
Mild Steel: DD, EDD, Boiler Plate etc.
Low Alloy Steel : LPG, WTCR, SAILCOR & API grades

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Hot Strip Mill


Hot Rolling involves plastic
deformation of a metal under
squeezing force (a pair of
rolls) above its recrystallization temperature.
This mill is designed to roll
thin & wide strips for use in
various industries such as
wagon building, tube & pipe industry, drum & furniture
manufacturing and further rolling in Cold Rolling Mill.
Specifications
3 Walking Beam Reheating Furnaces & 1 Pusher type furnace
Vertical Scale Breaker
5 Roughing Stands, 7 Finishing Stands
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4 Hydraulic Coilers with automatic strapping & Robot marking


Capacity: 3.955 MT of HR Coils
Coil Dimensions
Strip thickness
1.6 to 16.0 mm
Strip Width
910 to 1,850 mm
Coil inside dia
650 mm
Max Coil outside dia
2,300 mm
Max coil weight
32 T
Rolling Speed:
20 m/sec Max.

Material Flow Diagram of HSM

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Last Modernization

Con-cast facilities integrated with SMS-II

Ladle Furnace & Ladle Rinsing Station for Secondary


Refining
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Two Double Strand Slab Caster


Up-gradation of Hot Strip Mill including
Change of Pusher Type Reheating Furnaces to Walking

Beam Type

Quick Work Roll Change System

Addition of fourth Coiler

Next Phase Modernization (by 2016-17)

New SMS-III with 3.8 MT Capacity

3 x 160T Converters with 3 x 160T Ladle Furnaces & Degassing


facilities
2 Single Strand Thin Slab Casters(1.2 MT each) & 1
conventional Slab Caster(1.4 MT)
7- Stand Compact Strip Mill & new Coil Yard

New CRM-III with 1.2 MT Capacity

Coupled Pickling and Tandem Mill


ECL, Bell Annealing Furnace(100% Hydrogen
Annealing) Galvanizing Line with Galvanneal facilities

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Up gradation of 3 BF to 4900T/day capacity by


enhancing volume from 2000 to 2365 M3 and installing CDI

& CHSGin all BFs (presently 4&5 only)

Sintering Area 252 m2 to 312m2 and productivity


1.2T/m2/hr

Rebuilding of 3 CO batteries, computerised combination


control system etc.

Conversion of H2S04 PL-I to HCL Pickling Line

Enhancing capacity of SMS II from 2.16 to 3.12 MT by


schemes

Addition of O2 generating capacities

Result of Expansion

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GANTT CHART
(Timeline)
Day

Day

Day

Day

Day

Day

Day

Day

Day

Day

1-2

3-5

5-8

9-10

11-13

14-15

16-17

18-20

21-25

26remaing
days

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Visitin

Introdu

Visited

Visited

Visited

g of

ction to

Raw

Coke

Sinter

whole

steel

Materia

site (7

plant

units)

Oven

Visited

Visited

Visited

Visited

Blast

Basic

Contin

Hot

uous

Roll

Furnac

Oxyge

Casting

Milling

Furnac

Shop

report

Plant

Handli

APPENDIX
Sources of Raw Material

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Made
presentati

ng
Plant

Made

on

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Desired Analysis vs Indian Coals:

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REFERENCES

https://www.sail.co.in/learnings_centres/home.html
https://www.sail.co.in/modernisation-expansion
https://www.sail.co.in/bokaro-steel-plant/about-bokaro-steel-plant
http://www.tatasteelindia.com/products-andprocesses/processes/steel-making-process.asp
Google Images

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