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A. C.

Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada

1 Biography

Bhaktivedanta redirects here. For the college under

same name, see Bhaktivedanta College.

1.1 Early life

Abhay Charanaravinda Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada (Bengali: ; Abhoy Charonarobindo Bhoktibedanto Swamy
Probhupad; Sanskrit:
, IAST: abhaya-cararavinda bhaktivednta svm prabhupda; 1 September 1896 14
November 1977) was a Gaudiya Vaishnava spiritual
teacher (guru) and the founder preceptor (acharya) of
the International Society for Krishna Consciousness[1]
(ISKCON), commonly known as the "Hare Krishna
Movement".[2] His mission was to propagate Gaudiya
Vaishnavism, a school of Vaishnavite Hinduism that had
been taught to him by his guru, Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati, throughout the world.[3] Born Abhay Charan De in
Calcutta, he was educated at the prestigious local Scottish
Church College.[4] Before adopting the life of a pious renunciant (vanaprastha) in 1950,[5] he was married with
children and owned a small pharmaceutical business.[6][7]

Born on 1 September 1896, the day after Janmastami,

one of the most important Vaishnava holidays, in a humble house in the Tollygunge suburb of Calcutta, he was
named Abhay Charan, "one who is fearless, having taken
shelter at Lord Krishna's feet. Since he was born on the
day of Nandotsava (the celebration of Nanda, Krishnas
father, a traditional festival in honor of Krishnas birth) he
was also called Nandulal. His parents, Sriman Gour Mohan De and Srimati Rajani De, were devout Vaishnavas
(devotees of Vishnu). In accordance with Bengali tradition, his mother had gone to the home of her parents for
the delivery, and only a few days later Abhay returned
with parents to his home at 151 Harrison Road in Calcutta, where he was brought up and educated.[19]
He received a European led education in the Scottish
Church College. This school was well reputed among
Bengalis; many Vaishnava families sent their sons there.
The professors, most of whom were Europeans, were
known as sober, moral men, and it is believed that the
students received a good education. The college was located in north Calcutta, not far from Harrison Road where
Abhays family lived. During his years in the college, Abhay Charan De ( ) was a member of the English
Society as well as that of the Sanskrit Society, and it has
been suggested that his education provided him a foundation for his future leadership.[6][19] He graduated in 1920
with majors in English, philosophy and economics.[20]
However he rejected his diploma in response to Gandhis
independence movement.[21]

In 1959 he took a vow of renunciation (sannyasa) and

started writing commentaries on Vaishnava scriptures.[8]
In his later years, as a traveling Vaishnava monk, he became an inuential communicator of Gaudiya Vaishnava
theology to India and specically to the West through
his leadership of ISKCON, founded in 1966.[3][9] As the
founder of ISKCON, he emerged as a major gure of
the Western counterculture, initiating thousands of young
Americans.[10] Despite attacks from anti-cult groups,
he received a favorable welcome from many religious
scholars, such as J. Stillson Judah, Harvey Cox, Larry
Shinn and Thomas Hopkins, who praised Bhaktivedanta
Swamis translations and defended the group against disAt 22 years old Abhay married Radharani Devi, who was
torted media images and misinterpretations.[11] In respect
11 years old, in a marriage arranged by their parents.
to his achievements, religious leaders from other Gaudiya
Three years later, Radharani gave birth to Abhays rst
Vaishnava movements have also given him credit.
He has been described as a charismatic leader, in the
sense used by sociologist Max Weber, as he was successful in acquiring followers in the United States, Eu- 1.2 Religious career
rope, India and elsewhere.[13][14][15] After his death in
1977, ISKCON, the society he founded based on a type of In 1922, when he rst met his spiritual master,
Hindu Krishnaism using the Bhagavata Purana as a cen- Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura, he was requested to
tral scripture, continued to grow and is respected in India, spread the message of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu in the Enthough there have been disputes about leadership among glish language.[22] In 1933 he became a formally initihis followers.[16][17] In February 2014, ISKCONs news ated disciple of Bhaktisiddhanta. In 1944, (from his front
agency reported to have reached a milestone of distribut- room at Sita Kanta Banerjee, Calcutta), he started the
ing over half a billion books authored by Bhaktivedanta publication called Back to Godhead,[23][24] for which he
Swami Prabhupada, since 1965.[18]
acted as writer, designer, publisher, editor, copy editor

From 1950 onwards, he lived at the medieval RadhaDamodar mandir in the holy town of Vrindavan, where
he began his commentary and translation work of the
Sanskrit work Bhagavata Purana.[30] Of all notable Vrindavanas temples, the Radha-Damodara mandir had at the
time the largest collection of various copies of the original
writings of the Six Gosvamis and their followers more
than two thousand separate manuscripts, many of them
three hundred, some even four hundred years old.[31][32]
His guru, Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati, had always encouraged him that If you ever get money, print books,[33]
referring to the need of literary presentation of the Vaishnava culture.[7]

1.3 Renunciation
Keshavaji Gaudiya Matha was the place where Bhaktivedanta used to live, he had written and studied in the library of this building, here he edited the Gauya Patrik
magazine and this is the place where he donated the murti
of Lord Chaitanya who stands on the altar beside the
Deities of Radha Krishna (named r r Rdh Vinodavihrj ). During his visit in September 1959 he entered
the doors of this matha dressed in white, as Abhoy Babu,
Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura
but would be leaving dressed in saron, a sannyasi.[8] He
received the sannyasa name Swami ( Svmi), not
and distributor. He personally designed the logo, an ef- to be confused with the title Swami. In this matha, in
fulgent gure of Caitanya Mahaprabhu in the upper left Mathura Vrndavana, Abhoy Charan Bhaktivedanta took
corner, with the motto: "Godhead is Light, Nescience is Vaishnava renunciate vows,sannyasa, from his friend
darkness" greeting the readers.[25] In his rst magazine and godbrother Bhakti Prajnana Keshava, and following this he single-handedly published the rst three volhe wrote:
umes covering seventeen chapters of the rst book of
Bhagavata Purana, lling three volumes of four hundred
Under the circumstances since 1936 up to
pages each with a detailed commentary. Introduction to
now, I was simply speculating whether I shall
the rst volume was a biographical sketch of Caitanya
venture this dicult task and that without
Mahprabhu.[32] He then left India, obtaining free pasany means and capacity; but as none have
sage on a freight ship called the Jaladuta, with the aim
discouraged me, I have now taken courage to
and a hope of fullling his spiritual masters instruction
take up the work.
to spread the message of Caitanya Mahaprabhu around
A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami, Back to
the world. In his possession were a suitcase, an umbrella,
Godhead magazine (Vol.1, 14, 1944)[25]
a supply of dry cereal, about eight dollars worth of Indian
currency, and several boxes of books.[34]
In 1947, the Gaudiya Vaishnava Society recognised his
scholarship with the title Bhaktivedanta, (bhakti-vednta)
meaning one who has realised that devotional service to
the Supreme Lord is the end of all knowledge[26] (with
the words Bhakti, indicating devotion and Vedanta indicating conclusive knowledge). [27]
His later well known name, Prabhupda, is a Sanskrit title, literally meaning he who has taken the shelter of the
lotus feet of the Lord where prabhu denotes Lord, and
pda means taking shelter.[28] Also, "at whose feet masters sit".[6] This name was used as a respectful form of address by his disciples from late 1967 early 1968 onwards.
Previous to this, as with his early disciples, followers used
to call him "Swamiji".[29]

1.4 Mission to the West

Main article: International Society for Krishna Consciousness
When he sailed to the United States in 1965, his trip
was not sponsored by any religious organization, nor was
he met upon arrival by a group of loyal followers.[35] As
the Indian freighter Jaladuta neared his destination, the
magnitude of his intended task weighed on him. On 13
September he wrote in his diary, Today I have disclosed
my mind to my companion, Lord Sri Krishna.[36] On this
occasion and on a number of others, he called on Krishna
for help in his native Bengali. Examining these compositions, academics regard them as intimate records of his


Mission to the West

out America with his disciples, popularizing the movement through street chanting (sankirtana), book distribution and public speeches.

A message from Jaladuta Diary Journal kept by Prabhupada.

Between 25 August 1965 and 30 August 1965, the Jaladuta Journal falls silent for six days. On the seventh day, 31 August, the
silence is broken with these simple words, Passed over a great
crisis on the struggle for life and death.

One of 108 worldwide temples he opened by 1977, was dedicated

to Krishna-Balarama (pictured above) in Vrindavana, India

Once ISKCON was more established in the USA a small

number of devotees from the San Francisco temple were
prayerful preparation for what lay ahead and a view on sent to London, England. After a short time in London
how Bhaktivedanta Swami understood his own identity they came into contact with The Beatles, of whom George
and mission.[37]
Harrison took the greatest interest, spending a signicant
time speaking with Bhaktivedanta Swami and producing
I do not know why You have brought me
a record with members of the later London Radha Krsna
here. Now You can do whatever You like with
Temple.[40] Over the following years his continuing leadme. But I guess You have some business here,
ership role took him around the world some several times
otherwise why would You bring me to this tersetting up temples and communities in all of the major
rible place? How will I make them understand
continents.[16] By the time of his death in Vrindavan in
this message of Krishna consciousness? I am
1977, ISKCON had become an internationally known exvery unfortunate, unqualied and most fallen.
pression of Vaishnavism.[20]
Therefore I am seeking Your benediction so
In the twelve years from his arrival in New York until his
that I can convince them, for I am powerless
nal days, he:
to do so on my own.
By journeying to USA, he was attempting to fulll the
wish of his guru, possible only by the grace of his dear
Lord Krishna.[37] It is in July 1966 global missionary
Vaishnavism was brought to the West by Bhaktivedanta
Swami, the soul agent,[1] founding the International
Society for Krishna Consciousness in New York City.
Bhaktivedanta Swami spent much of the last decade of
his life setting up the institution of ISKCON. Since he
was the Societys leader, his personality and management
were responsible for much of ISKCONs growth and the
reach of his mission.
When it was suggested to him at the time of founding the
ISKCON in 1966 that a broader term God Consciousness would be preferable to Krishna Consciousness
in the title, he rejected this recommendation, suggesting
that the name Krishna includes all other forms and concepts of God.[38]
After a group of devotees and a temple had been established in New York another center was started in San
Francisco in 1967.[20][39] From there he traveled through-

circled the globe fourteen times on lecture tours that

took him to six continents[16]
initiated many disciples,

awarding sannyasa

introduced Vedic gurukul education to a Western

directed the founding of the Bhaktivedanta Book
Trust,[43] which claims[44][45] to be the worlds
largest publisher of ancient and classical Vaishnava
religious texts
founded the religious colony New Vrindavan in West
authored more than eighty books (with many available online[47] ) on Vedantic philosophy, religion, literature and culture (including four published originally in Bengali)[16][45]
introduced international celebrations in the capitals
of the world like that of Jagannatha processions[16]


watched ISKCON grow to a confederation of one of ISKCONs successor gurus. Both sides produced
more than 108 temples, various institutes and farm elaborate studies and position papers meant to counter
the other side. [51] Ch 2,p. 31. The GBC produced
a paper titled Not that I am poisoned[52] in order to
Through his mission, he followed and communicated defuse growing concerns about poisoning allegations. A
the teachings of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu and introduced group of individuals named Bhaktivedanta Investigation
Judge for yourself mentioned
bhakti yoga to an international audience.[16][45] Within Force produced a paper
with counter evidence and tesin
Gaudiya Vaishnavism this was viewed as the fulllment of
a long time mission to introduce Caitanya Mahaprabhus
teachings to the world.[48][49]
In his discussion with historian Arnold J. Toynbee in Lon2 Books and publishing
don, he is quoted as saying: I have started this Krishna
Conscious Movement among the Indians and Americans
It is believed that Bhaktivedanta Swamis most signiand for the next ten thousand years it will increase.[50]
cant contribution are his books.[55][56][57] Within the nal twenty years of his life Bhaktivedanta Swami trans According to the most recent issue of Back to Godlated over sixty volumes of classic Vedic scriptures (such
head magazine, founded by Prabhupada, there are
as the Bhagavad Gita and the Srimad Bhagavatam) into
presently over 400 temples and farm communities
the English language.[43] For their authority, depth, and
listed to visit. The magazine lists only the major
clarity, his books have won praise from professors at
centers, there are many more homes turned temple
colleges and universities like Harvard, Oxford, Cornell,
that hold programs as well that aren't close by regColumbia, Syracuse, Oberlin, and Edinburgh,[58] and his
ular temples (Back to Godhead). Prabhupadas iniBhagavad-Gt As It Is was published by Macmillan Pubtiated disciples and grand disciples number in the
lishers, in 1968 and unabridged edition in 1972,[59][60][61]
tens or hundreds of thousands with millions of more
and is now available in over sixty languages around the
believers who accept his teachings as genuine and
world and some other books by Bhaktivedanta Swami
bona-de throughout the world.
are available in over eighty dierent languages.[23][45] In
February 2014, ISKCONs news agency reported to have
reached a milestone of distributing over half a billion
books authored by Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada,
since 1965.[18]
The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust was established in 1972
to publish his works, and it has also published his multivolume biography, Srila Prabhupada-lilamrta, that according to Larry Shinn will certainly be one of the most
complete records of the life and work of any modern religious gure.[1][62] Prabhupada reminded his devotees
before his death that he would live forever in his books,
and through them would remain present as a spiritual
master or guru.[63] Bhaktivedanta Swami had instilled in
his followers an understanding of the importance of writPrabhupada on a morning walk with Karlfried Graf Drckheim ing and publishing not only with regard to his works, but
in Frankfurt in June 1974.
also their own initiatives. His early disciples felt Prabhupada had given them Back To Godhead for their own
writings from the very start.[63]


Circumstances of death

A prominent Gaudiya Vaishnava gure, Shrivatsa

Goswami, who as a young man had met Bhaktivedanta
Bhaktivedanta Swami died on 14 November 1977 in Swami in 1972, armed the signicance of book pubVrindavan India, his burial remains in Krishna Balaram lishing and distribution in spreading the message of CaiMandir in Vrindavan India.
tanya in an interview with Steven Gelberg:[63]
Circumstances of his death have been source of allegaMaking these Vaisnava texts available is
tions for poisoning: Eugene V. Gallagher mentions in
one of Srila Prabhupadas greatest contribuhis work Introduction to new and alternative religions in
tions. Apart from the masses, his books have
America: Supporters of the ritvik movement have also
also reached well into academic circles and
produced evidence suggesting that Bhaktivedantas death
have spurred academic interest in the Chaiwas not the result of natural causes but rather of poisontanya tradition ... The signicance of making
ing. The suspect several ISKCON leaders, most notably

essential message of dedication to God with love and
Actually, it doesn't matter Krishna or
Christ the name is the same. The main point
is to follow the injunctions of the Vedic scriptures that recommend chanting the name of
God in this age.[69]

Photograph of selected books by Prabhupada, published by

Bhaktivedanta Book Trust

these texts available is not merely academic or

cultural; it is spiritual.[64]


Copyright claims

In 1997, a legal dispute opposing ISKCON Inc. /

BBTI (Bhaktivedanta Book Trust International) to the
sole trustee of Bhaktivedanta Book Trust (at this time,
Hansadutta Swami), ISKCON Inc. supported the position that Bhaktivedanta Book Trust was not existent.;[65]
in 1995 it was claimed by ISKCON that Bhaktivedantas
work was done as a Work for hire.[66] The litigation
led to amiable arrangement after which books of Bhaktivedanta are being edited in mainly two forms: original work (Pre 1978) and work which has, since Bhaktivedantas passing, been further edited, the later being
the sole endorsed by ISKCON.[67]

Other typical expressions present a dierent perspective,

where he would point out that today I may be a Hindu,
but tomorrow I may become a Christian or Muslim. In
this way faiths can be changed, but dharma" is a natural sequence, a natural occupation or a connection and it
can not be changed, because it is permanent, according to
him.[43] While the ISKCON theology of personal god is
close to Christian theology, both personal and monotheistic, being a preacher of bhakti and a missionary he
sometimes would add, that already many Christians have
tasted the nectar of divine love of the holy name and are
dancing with karatalas (hand-cymbals) and mridangas
(drums).[70] His approach to modern knowledge is also
seen in sectarian Orthodox Judaism, where the skills and
technical knowledge of modernity are encouraged, but
the values rejected. Bhaktivedanta Swami stated devotees should not be lazy, idle...we are not afraid to work.
Whatever our engagement is, by oering the result to
Krishna we become Krishna conscious.[35] Some of his
representations are believed to aect women adversely
and are male-centred, others are tender and celebratory.
Bhaktivedanta Swami himself taught a dualism of body
and soul and that of the genders. Similar to many traditional religions he considered sexuality and spirituality as
conicting opposites.[71] Among some liberal male followers there is a positive recognition of his example in
applying the spirit of the law according to time, place,
person and circumstance, rather than literal tracing of the

4 Within India
Beginning his public preaching mission in India, he
founded the League of Devotees in Jhansi in 1953.[73]

Following the establishment of temples and centres in the

United States and Europe, he returned to India in 1971,
holding many public programs which were well attended.
From 1971 onwards, the movement became increasingly
popular and spread throughout India. He was particularly eager to see the progress at the impressive temple
project in Mumbai which he and his disciples had fought
hard to establish,[74] with large temples in Mayapur
3 Views on other religious tradiand Vrindavan to follow in the mid-1970s. To promote
the vedic education system within the modern Indian education structure, he introduced a chain of Gurukul in
Bhaktivedanta Swami considered Moses, Jesus, and various part of India. The Bhaktivedanta Gurukula and
Mohamed to be empowered representatives of God, de- International School is one of the most successful schools
scribing them within his writings as pioneers of the same in the list.

Atal Bihari Vajpayee April 1998

5 Monuments

ISKCON Temple in Delhi, India

ISKCON Prabhupadas Palace of Gold in West Virginia, USA

photo dated 2007

A number of memorial samadhis or shrines to Bhaktivedanta Swami were constructed by the members of
ISKCON in his remembrance, the largest of which are
in Mayapur, Vrindavan and at the larger sized temples in
America. Prabhupadas Palace of Gold was designed and
constructed by devotees of the New Vrindavan commuISKCON Temple in Tirupathi, India
nity and dedicated on 2 September 1979. Back in 1972 it
was intended to be simply a residence for Bhaktivedanta
In 1996, the Government of India recognized his accom- Swami, but over time the plans evolved into an ornate
plishments by issuing a commemorative stamp in his hon- marble and gold palace which is now visited by thousands
our as a part of Prabhupada Centennial celebrations. [75] of Hindu pilgrims each year, visiting this centerpiece of
the community strongly relying upon tourist trade.[46][80]
Speaking at the inauguration of ISKCONs cultural center
in New Delhi on 5 April on the occasion of Ramnavmi in
1998, Atal Bihari Vajpayee, then Indias prime minister,

6 Bibliography
6.1 Translations with commentary

If the Bhagavad Gita, the holy text of

the Hindu traditions, is printed in millions of
copies and scores of languages and distributed
in all nooks and corners of the world, the
credit for this great sacred service goes chiey
to ISKCON. For this accomplishment alone,
Indians should be eternally grateful to the
devoted spiritual army of Swami Prabhupada,
the founder of the Hare Krishna movement,
and to his followers ...
The arrival of Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada in the United States in 1965 and the
particular popularity his movement gained
in a very short span of twelve years must be
regarded as one of the greatest spiritual events
of the century.

Prabhupadas Palace of Gold in 1982


Bengali writings

Bhagavad-Gt As It Is (1968) ISBN 0-89213-134-9

r opaniad (1969) ISBN 0-89213-280-9
rmad-Bhgavatam (197277) ISBN 84-8688307-5 (Vols.)
Caitanya-caritmta (1974) ISBN 0-912776-50-1
The Nectar of Instruction (1975) ISBN 0-91277685-4[23]


Summary studies
His pushpa Samadhi in Mayapur

Ka Consciousness: The Matchless Gift (1974)

Perfect Questions, Perfect Answers (1977)
Teachings of Lord Kapila, the Son of Devaht

6.4 Bengali writings

His Samadhi in Vrindavana


Teachings of Lord Caitanya (1969) ISBN 0-9127766.5

Ka, the Supreme Personality of Godhead (1970)
ISBN 0-89213-354-6
The Nectar of Devotion (1970) ISBN 0-912776-056


Other works published within Prabhupadas lifetime

Published posthumously

Light of the Bhgavata (1978) OL 11337662W

Teachings of Queen Kunt (1978) ISBN 0-89213102-0
Life comes from life (1978) OL 8622511W ISBN
Search for liberation OL 1998508W (1981)

Easy Journey to Other Planets (1970)

Chant and be happy (1982) OL 15397592W ISBN


Ka Consciousness: The Topmost Yoga System


Coming back: the science of reincarnation (1982)

OCLC 495474079 ISBN 0-89213-114-4

Beyond Birth and Death (1972)

Dialectic spiritualism OL 8622518W (1985)

The Perfection of Yoga (1972)

Path of perfection (1989) OL 2089579W ISBN 089213-103-9

Ka, the Reservoir of Pleasure (1972)

On the Way to Ka (1973)

Nrada bhakti stra (1991) ISBN 0-89213-273-6

Rja-vidy: The King of Knowledge (1973)

Mukunda-ml-stotra (1989) OL 1058156W ISBN


Elevation to Ka Consciousness (1973)

The Hare Krsna challenge OCLC 34455353 (1990)

A second chance OL 2089576W (1991)
The journey of self discovery OL 15143945W
Laws of nature : an infallible justice (1991) OL
4101128W ISBN 0-89213-272-8
Renunciation Through Wisdom (1992)
Quest for Enlightenment (1993)
The Nectar of Book Distribution (1993)
The Path of Yoga (1995)
Message of Godhead (1996?)
Civilization and Transcendence (1998) ISBN 089213-298-1
Dharma: The Way of Transcendence (1998)
Srila Prabhupada Slokas (1998)

7 See also
Bhagavad-Gt As It Is
Gaudiya Vaishnavism
International Society for Krishna Consciousness
Krishna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead
List of ISKCON members and patrons

8 Footnotes
[1] Goswami et al. 1983, p. 986
[2] Melton, John Gordon. Hare Krishna. Encyclopdia
Britannica. Archived from the
original on 11 April 2008. Retrieved 9 April 2015.
[3] Klostermaier 2007, p. 217

Beyond Illusion and Doubt (1999)

[4] Jones, Constance (2007). Encyclopedia of Hinduism.

New York: Infobase Publishing. pp. 7778. ISBN 08160-5458-4.

Introduction to Bhagavad-gt (2005)[23]

[5] Goswami 2002, Vol.1 Chapter 6

A Shower of Divine Compassion (2008)

[6] Rhodes 2001, p. 178

Collected Lectures on Bhagavad-gita As It Is (7 volumes)

[7] Goswami 2002, Vol.1 Chapter 4

Collected Lectures on Srimad-Bhagavatam (11 volumes)

[9] Ekstrand & Bryant 2004, p. 23

Collected Teachings of A.C.Bhaktivedanta Swami (7

Conversations with Srila Prabhupada (37 volumes)
Srila Prabhupada Siksamrta (3 volumes)
Srila Prabhupadas Letters (5 volumes)
The Pioneer Years: Back to Godhead, 19441960
The Jaladuta Diary
The Spiritual Master and the Disciple
The Beginning-The 1966 New York Journal
Sri Namamrta-The Nectar of the Holy Name
Srila Prabhupadas original League of Devotees 'Srimad Bhagwatam' reprint
See also: Bhaktivedanta Book Trust

[8] Goswami 2002, Vol.1 Chapter 9

[10] Klostermaier 2007, p. 309

[11] Vasan & Lewis 2005, p. 129
[12] Paramadvaiti, Swami B. A. Branches of the Gaudiya
Math. Archived from the original
on 4 July 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-30.
[13] Unrecognized charisma? A study and comparison of
four charismatic leaders: Charles Taze Russell, Joseph
Smith, L Ron Hubbard, Swami Prabhupada by George
D. Chryssides. Paper presented at the 2001 International Conference The Spiritual Supermarket: Religious
Pluralism in the 21st Century, organised by INFORM and
CESNUR (London, April 2001)
[14] in an evaluation of the nature of the guru, Larry Shinn,
a scholar of religions, utilised Max Weber's analysis of
charisma in order to understand Prabhupada and the issue
of leadership in ISKCON..."status as charismatic leader
Knott 1997, Chapter: Prabhupada and role of guru
[15] Shinn 1987, p. 49
[16] Smith, David Nichol (2003). Hinduism and modernity.
Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Pub. p. 178. ISBN 0-63120862-3.
[17] Cole & Dwayer 2007, p. 64

[18] Smullen, Madhava (2014-02-12). BBT Reaches Half a

Billion Books Distributed Since 1965. ISKCON News.
Retrieved 2014-02-27.

[42] Cole & Dwayer 2007, p. 221

[19] Goswami 2002, Vol.1 Chapter 2

[44] About Bhaktivedanta Book Trust.

Archived from the original on 30 May 2008. Retrieved
2008-05-30. (self published source)

[20] Vasan & Lewis 2005, p. 128

[21] Eggenberger, D. 1989. Encyclopedia of World Biography:
A to F.
[22] Goswami 1984, page xv
[23] Cole & Dwayer 2007, p. 34
[24] Goswami 1984, page xviii
[25] Goswami 2002, Vol.1 Chapter 5
[26] Bhaktivedanta 2003, Ending Glossary
[27] A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, Satsvarupa dasa
Goswami (1998) The Secrets of Transcendental Love,
ISBN 0-89213-273-6, p. 73:"The spiritual harmony of
knowledge and devotion is well expressed in the phrase
[28] Aparna Chattopadhyay (2004). Pearls of Spiritual Wisdom. Pustak Mahal,India. p. 37. ISBN 81-223-0858-9.
[29] Goswami 2002, Vol.1 Chapter Planting the Seed
[30] Charles S. J. White (2004). A Catalogue of Vaishnava Literature on Microlms in the Adyar Library. Delhi: Motilal
Banarsidass. ISBN 81-208-2067-3.
[31] Mukherjee, T.; Wright, J.C. (1979). An Early Testamentary Document in Sanskrit. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. 42 (2):
297320. doi:10.1017/S0041977X00145859. JSTOR
[32] Goswami 2002, Vol.1 Chapter This Momentous Hour of
[33] Goswami 2002, Vol.1 Chapter 4 "mr icch chila kichu
bai karn: Standing by Rdh-kua and beholding his
spiritual master, Abhay felt the words deeply enter his own
life If you ever get money, print books.
[34] Knott 1997, Bhaktivedanta Swami, by journeying to
America, was attempting to fulll the wish of his guru,
possible only by the grace of his dear Lord Krishna.
[35] Charisma and Religious Innovation: Prabhupada and the
Founding of ISKCON. ISKCON Communications Journal. Archived from the original on 16 May 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-31. (self published)
[36] Goswami 2002, Vol 1. Ch 1
[37] Knott 1997, Introduction
[38] Ekstrand & Bryant 2004, pp. 120122
[39] Cole & Dwayer 2007, p. 22

[43] Cole & Dwayer 2007, p. 25

[45] The matrix of principal published translated works.

Bhaktivedanta Book Trust oers a 2006 summary PDF
le showing which books translated in which languages
(PDF). Archived (PDF) from the
original on 28 May 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-30.
[46] Shinn & Bromley 1987, p. 124 now a tourist attraction.
New Vrindavan in West Virginia, on the other hand, is
a close-knit community, has a strong sense of common
[47] Bhaktivedanta VedaBase Online.
[48] Cole & Dwayer 2007, p. 5
[49] Maharaja, Sridhar. Branches of the Gaudiya Math. Archived from the original on 4 July
2008. Retrieved 2008-05-30.
[50] Gosvm, Satsvarpa Dsa (1983). Let There Be a Temple: India Around the World, 19711975. Bhaktivedanta
Book Trust. ISBN 0-89213-119-5. OL 8622579W. Ch.
6, p. 161
[51] Eugene V. Gallagher. Introduction to new and alternative
religions in America - History and Controversies 1. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-275-98712-1.
[52] Governing Body Commission. Minutes of the annual
general meeting of the ISKCON GBC Body Society Sri
Dham Mayapur, March 2, 2000.
[53] Bhaktivedanta Investigation Force. Judge For Yourself
[54] Eugene V. Gallagher. Introduction to new and alternative religions in America - History and Controversies 1 Ch 2,p. 43. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0275-98712-1.
[55] Sharma 1981, p. 971
[56] I think the best feature of the Hare Krishna movement is
that it is providing scholars with excellent translations of
the rarest books on Krishna-bhakti [love of Krishna].
Dr.Larry Shinn, President of Berea College, Kentucky.
[57] Scholars reviews of Srila Prabhupadas books. www. Archived from the original on 15 May 2008.
Retrieved 2008-05-31.
[58] Summary, Academic reviews of Srimad-Bhagavatam. Retrieved 2008-05-31.

[40] Cole & Dwayer 2007, p. 23

[59] Maheswar Neog Professor Maheswar Neog Felicitation

Volume (1990)

[41] Babaji initiation, Chicago, July 11, 1975. Retrieved 2008-10-19.

[60] Bhaktivedanta Swami, A. C. (1968). The Bhagavad-gita

As It Is, rst edition. New York: Macmillan.


[61] Rosen, S. The Macmillan Miracle.

Archived from the original on 6 June 2008. Retrieved
[62] Shinn & Bromley 1989, p. 53
[63] Knott 1997, Prabhupada, Books and Publishing
[64] Cox et al. 1983, p. 247
[65] ISKCON Inc. Complaint for declaratory judgement regarding validity of assignment and existence of trust
[66] Bhaktivedanta Book Trust International. FORM TX for
literary work - United States Copyright Oce.
[67] BBT Only.
[68] Schmidt, Peter (2002). Krishna meets Jesus : A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Srila Prabhupadas Interpretations and
Conclusions about Christianity. Peter Schmidt. ISBN 38311-3570-3. OCLC 313729431. p.146 (self published)
[69] Bhaktivedanta 2003
[70] Cole & Dwayer 2007, p. 6
[71] Cole & Dwayer 2007, p. 224
[72] Cole & Dwayer 2007, p. 223
[73] League of Devotees article
[74] Cole & Dwayer 2007, p. 27
[75] Archived
from the original on 26 March 2013. Retrieved 2014-0108. see Commemorative Stamp section, including image
[76] Centennial 1996 Events. Archived from the
original on 6 July 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-31.
[77] Speech by Atal Bihari Vajpayee, April 18, 1998. (Press
release). Vaishnava News Network. 11 Apr 1998.
Archived from the original on 17 May 2008. Retrieved
2008-05-31. the website, however, gives the speech a
wrong date 1988 instead of 1998.)
[78] Intelligencer (Newspaper), 5 April 1998, Doylestown,
Pennsylvania Today, Indian Prime Minister Atal Bihari
Vajpayee will open the newest Hare Krishna complex,
which includes a temple and a cultural center.
[79] Daily Herald (Newspaper), 6 April 1998, Chicago, Illinois, Hare Krishna center makes debut in India, NEW
DELHI, Indias prime minister inauguration. Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee said the message of Bhagavad
[80] Prabhupadas Palace of Gold.
Archived from the original on 14 June 2008. Retrieved


9 References
Goswami, Satsvarupa dasa (2002). Srila Prabhupada Lilamrta Vol 12 (2nd ed.). Los Angeles:
Bhaktivedanta Book Trust. ISBN 0-89213-357-0.
Ekstrand, Maria; Bryant, Edwin H. (2004). The
Hare Krishna movement: the postcharismatic fate of
a religious transplant. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-12256-X.
Rhodes, Linda (2001). The challenge of the cults
and new religions. Grand Rapids, Mich: Zondervan.
ISBN 0-310-23217-1.
Vasan, Mildred; Lewis, James P. (2005). Cults
(contemporary world issues). Santa Barbara, Calif:
ABC-CLIO. ISBN 1-85109-618-3.
Cole, Richard; Dwayer, Graham (2007). The Hare
Krishna movement: forty years of chant and change.
London: I. B. Tauris. ISBN 1-84511-407-8.
Goswami, Satsvarupa dasa (1984). Prabhupada:
he built a house in which the whole world can live
(abr ed.). Los Angeles: Bhaktivedanta Book Trust.
ISBN 0-89213-133-0.
Harvey Cox; Larry D. Shinn; Thomas J. Hopkins;
A.L. Basham; Shrivatsa Goswami (1983). Gelberg,
Steven J, ed. Hare Krishna, Hare Krishna: ve distinguished scholars on the Krishna movement in the
West. New York: Grove Press.
Klostermaier, Klaus K. (2000). Hinduism: a short
history. Oxford: Oneworld Publications. ISBN 185168-213-9.
Klostermaier, Klaus K (2007). A survey of Hinduism (3rd ed.). New York: State University of New
York Press. ISBN 0-7914-7081-4.
Bhaktivedanta, A. C. (2003). The Science of selfrealization. Los Angeles: Bhaktivedanta Book
Trust. ISBN 91-7149-447-2.
Shinn, Larry D (1987). Bromley, David G, ed.
The future of an old mans vision. ISKCON in the
twenty-rst century. The Future of New Religious
Movements: 123140. ISBN 978-0-86554-238-9.
Knott, Kim (1997). Insider and outsider perceptions of Prabhupada. ISKCON Communications
Journal: 5: 1.
Knott, Kim (2005). Insider/outsider perspectives
in the study of religions. In Hinnells, John. The
Routledge companion to the study of religion. Routledge. p. 243. ISBN 978-0-415-33311-5.
Shinn, Larry D. (1987). The dark lord: cult images
and the Hare Krishnas in America. Philadelphia:
Westminster Press. ISBN 0-664-24170-0. OCLC
15017927. OL 2737873M.

Goswami, Srivatsa; Dasa Goswami, Satsvarupa;
Cox, Harvey; Hopkins, Thomas J.; Judah, J. Stillson (1983). Review: Srila Prabhupada-Lilamrta.
Journal of Asian Studies. 42 (4): 986988.
doi:10.2307/2054828. ISSN 0021-9118. JSTOR
Sharma, Jagdish Saran, ed. (1981). Encyclopaedia
Indica. OCLC 8033900. OL 13760440M.
Shinn, Larry D; Bromley, David G (1989). Krishna
consciousness in the West. Lewisburg [Pa.]: Bucknell University Press. ISBN 0-8387-5144-X.


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