Foreign Language Enrollments in United States Institutions of Higher Education, Fall 2002

Elizabeth B. Welles
IN SEPTEMBER 2003 the MLA finished compiling the figures from its fall 2002 survey of foreign language enrollments in United States institutions of higher education. This latest survey is the twentieth in a series conducted since 1958 with the support of grants from the United States Department of Education (or from its predecessor, the United States Office of Education). The following report presents fall 2002 enrollments for individual languages and examines trends through time. Using procedures developed for previous surveys, the MLA sent a questionnaire to the registrars of 2,781 two- and four-year institutions, soliciting information on credit-bearing enrollments for fall 2002 in all language courses other than English. Although the instructions on the questionnaire made it clear that the survey was seeking information on all language courses offered on the campuses of these institutions, the MLA has no way of knowing whether the registrars in all cases provided complete information. The questionnaire was not mailed until midOctober 2002, to ensure that the figures provided would be final (or nearly so) rather than preliminary. A second mailing was sent in early December, a third in mid-February 2003, and a series of follow-up telephone calls was begun in April. All but 12 of the institutions receiving the initial survey mailing, or 99.6%, eventually responded—the highest response rate in the history of the MLA’s enrollment surveys. Among the 2,769 respondents, 2,519, or 91.0%, reported having fall 2002 enrollments in at least one language other than English. Of the responses, 1,068, or 38.6%, are from two-year colleges, and 1,701 are from four-year institutions. No language courses other than English were offered by 7.6% of the fouryear institutions and 11.3% of the two-year colleges.

This year for the first time, survey participants were able to respond on the World Wide Web using an interface designed for the collection of the survey data. Of the responses monitored and entered into our database, 28.7% were made on the Web site, 50.9% were made on a return postcard, and 20.4% were made in follow-up phone calls. The Web site was designed to tell us whether enrollments had been previously reported for an institution and for what specific languages. This feature helped make the survey more accurate, ensuring a higher level of consistency in the data reported by the participating institutions, whose particular individual respondents change from survey to survey. The user-friendly design of the Web interface also made it easier for the MLA survey administrator to keep track of additional information about language offerings. It instantly displayed comparisons between the numbers of programs offered in 1998 and those being reported for 2002. This display led to follow-up questions about the addition and subtraction of specific language offerings and about the reasons for those changes. For example, we asked institutions that reported enrollments in a specific language in 1998 but not in 2002 whether the language was still listed in the catalog; those that had enrollments in a language in 2002 but not in 1998 were asked if they were reporting about a new program.

The author is former Director of Foreign Language Programs and ADFL at the Modern Language Association.
ADFL Bulletin, Vol. 35, Nos. 2–3, Winter-Spring 2004 © 2004 by the association of departments of foreign languages

8

Foreign Language Enrollments in United States Institutions of Higher Education, Fall 2002

Fall 2002 Enrollments Tables 1a and 1b compare the fall 2002 enrollments in the fifteen most commonly taught languages with those in 1998, the year of the most recent previous survey. In table 1a, the languages are listed in descending order of fall 2002 enrollment totals; in table 1b they are listed alphabetically. The tables also show an aggregate count for the 147 other languages for which enrollment data were reported in 2002. Enrollments for those other languages appear in table 8. As tables 1a and 1b show, the total of foreign language enrollments for 2002 exceeded that for 1998 by 17.0%. It is the highest total recorded since the beginning of the MLA surveys (see fig. 1). The list of the fifteen more commonly taught languages shows clear groupings: Spanish is far ahead; then come French and German; then Italian, American Sign Language (ASL), and Japanese; then Chinese, Latin, Russian, and ancient Greek; then biblical Hebrew, Arabic, Modern Hebrew, Portuguese, and Korean. For the first time since 1968, all show increases in enrollments. ASL’s increase at 432.2% is more than four times that of any other language. Next is Arabic at 92.3%; biblical Hebrew at 55.9%; Italian at 29.6%; Japanese, Chinese, ancient Greek, Modern Hebrew, and Portuguese at between 20% and 30%; and Spanish, Latin, and Korean at between 10% and 17%. French, German, and Russian showed an increase under 3% and thus can be said to have had stable enrollments from 1998 to 2002.

Foreign Language Enrollments by Undergraduates in Two- and Four-Year Colleges and by Graduates in Universities Tables 2a and 2b show enrollments of undergraduate and graduate students; two-year and four-year institutions further define the undergraduate population. Undergraduate enrollments at four-year institutions, which had declined 6.2% from 1990 to 1995, rose 4.6% in 1998 and rose another 11.8% in 2002;

they are now 9.8% more than the previous high in 1990. Graduate enrollments declined 15.2% from 1995 to 1998 but increased 11.9% from 1998 to 2002. They have fluctuated in a range of 5,000 students since 1983 and have not yet returned to the high of 1974 (see table 2c). Foreign language enrollments in two-year colleges underwent a growth spurt of 40.2% between 1986 and 1990 and have risen continuously since: 3.6% in 1995, 8.8% in 1998, and 36.0% in 2002. The student population in two-year colleges increased 12.0% from 1986 to 1990 and 4.8% between 1990 and 1995, decreased 0.1% between 1995 and 1998, and increased 8.6% between 1998 and 2002.1 Of the 1,068 two-year colleges included in our survey, 947 reported enrollments in 2002 (37.6% of all institutions), accounting for 45.6% of the total growth for all enrollments regardless of level or institution type. From 1998 to 2002, Spanish increased 22.9%, almost twice the increase in Spanish for the total survey. Spanish now represents 63.0% of all two-year college language enrollments, a drop from 1998 when it represented 69.7%. Community college enrollments in ASL, which accounted for 78.9% of the overall ASL total in 1995 and 61.3% in 1998, increased by 457.6% between 1998 and 2002 and now represent 64.2% of the overall ASL total. Tables 3a and 3b show the regional distribution of language study in the United States. Whereas total enrollments and four-year and graduate enrollments are highest in the Northeast, Midwest, and South Atlantic regions, two-year college enrollments are overwhelmingly on the Pacific Coast. Appendix A shows sixteen languages and their enrollments by region. The study of Italian and Hebrew resides primarily in the Northeast. The study of the Asian languages Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese takes place primarily on the Pacific Coast. The study of Spanish is fairly evenly distributed nationally, with slightly higher concentrations found in the Midwest and South Atlantic. Arabic is also very evenly distributed, with an enrollment concentration of about 21% in the four most populated regions of the United States.

Elizabeth B. Welles

9

Table 1a Fall 1998 and 2002 Foreign Language Enrollments in United States Institutions of Higher Education (Languages in Descending Order of 2002 Totals)
Language Spanish French German Italian American Sign Language Japanese Chinese Latin Russian Ancient Greek Biblical Hebrew Arabic Modern Hebrew Portuguese Korean Other languages Total 1998 656,590 199,064 89,020 49,287 11,420 43,141 28,456 26,145 23,791 16,402 9,099 5,505 6,734 6,926 4,479 17,771 1,193,830 2002 746,267 201,979 91,100 63,899 60,781 52,238 34,153 29,841 23,921 20,376 14,183 10,584 8,619 8,385 5,211 25,716 1,397,253 Percentage Change 13.7 1.5 2.3 29.6 432.2 21.1 20.0 14.1 0.5 24.2 55.9 92.3 28.0 21.1 16.3 44.7 17.0

Table 1b Fall 1998 and 2002 Foreign Language Enrollments in United States Institutions of Higher Education (Languages in Alphabetical Order)
Language American Sign Language Arabic Chinese French German Ancient Greek Biblical Hebrew Modern Hebrew Italian Japanese Korean Latin Portuguese Russian Spanish Other languages Total 1998 2002 Percentage Change

11,420 5,505 28,456 199,064 89,020 16,402 9,099 6,734 49,287 43,141 4,479 26,145 6,926 23,791 656,590 17,771 1,193,830

60,781 10,584 34,153 201,979 91,100 20,376 14,183 8,619 63,899 52,238 5,211 29,841 8,385 23,921 746,267 25,716 1,397,253

432.2 92.3 20.0 1.5 2.3 24.2 55.9 28.0 29.6 21.1 16.3 14.1 21.1 0.5 13.7 44.7 17.0

Figure 1 Foreign Language Enrollments by Year, Excluding Latin and Ancient Greek
1,400,000 1,347,036 1,300,000 1,200,000 1,138,880 1,100,000 1,000,000 900,000 800,000 700,000 600,000 608,749 1,073,097 1,067,217 1,151,283 1,096,603

975,777

963,930 897,077 883,222 877,691 922,439

960,588

500,000 1960

1965

1968 1970 1972 1974

1977

1980

1983

1986

1990

1995

1998

2002

10

Foreign Language Enrollments in United States Institutions of Higher Education, Fall 2002

Table 2a Foreign Language Enrollments by Undergraduate Students in Four-Year Colleges and by Graduate Students (Languages in Descending Order of 2002 Totals)
Language Spanish French German Italian Japanese Latin Chinese American Sign Language Russian Hebrew* Ancient Greek Arabic Portuguese Korean Other languages Total Percentage Change 1995 432,133 168,027 80,393 36,287 33,888 24,030 20,966 852 21,305 8,860 11,666 3,807 5,359 2,943 12,877 863,393 – Undergraduates 1998 2002 468,040 164,407 74,437 41,216 32,588 24,411 22,472 4,254 20,541 11,740 11,738 3,902 5,958 3,546 14,254 903,504 4.6 515,688 162,705 75,987 51,750 38,545 27,695 26,914 21,613 20,208 16,651 14,044 8,194 6,945 4,045 19,257 1,010,241 11.8 1995 10,936 6,809 4,181 1,043 1,406 1,040 1,042 58 1,424 3,448 4,385 441 710 231 1,523 Graduates 1998 2002 9,046 4,850 2,938 925 1,334 894 1,220 163 964 3,560 4,471 445 488 309 1,196 9,950 4,605 2,803 1,047 930 1,045 934 121 770 5,551 6,033 531 487 111 1,797 36,715 11.9 Undergraduates and Graduates 1995 1998 2002 443,069 174,836 84,574 37,330 35,294 25,070 22,008 910 22,729 12,308 16,051 4,248 6,069 3,174 14,400 902,070 – 477,086 169,257 77,375 42,141 33,922 25,305 23,692 4,417 21,505 15,300 16,209 4,347 6,446 3,855 15,450 936,307 3.8 525,638 167,310 78,790 52,797 39,475 28,740 27,848 21,734 20,978 22,202 20,077 8,725 7,432 4,156 21,054 1,046,956 11.8

38,677 32,803 – –15.2

*Modern and biblical Hebrew combined

Table 2b Foreign Language Enrollments by Students in Two-Year Colleges (Languages in Descending Order of 2002 Totals)
1986 Spanish American Sign Language French Japanese German Italian Chinese Russian Arabic Vietnamese Latin Korean Portuguese Hawai‘ian Hebrew* Ancient Greek Other languages Total Percentage Change 89,491 0 39,818 4,835 15,399 6,303 2,105 1,596 354 56 497 0 289 199 697 245 997 162,881 – 1990 133,823 1,140 44,366 10,308 19,082 8,325 3,506 3,472 423 169 909 141 365 299 786 283 1,023 228,420 40.2 1995 163,217 3,394 30,515 9,429 11,689 6,430 4,463 2,000 196 489 827 169 462 635 819 221 1,747 236,702 3.6 1998 179,504 7,003 29,807 9,219 11,645 7,146 4,764 2,286 1,158 385 840 624 480 645 533 193 1,291 257,523 8.8 Percentage Change Percentage Change 2002 between 1998 and 2002 between 1986 and 2002 220,629 39,047 34,669 12,763 12,310 11,102 6,305 2,943 1,859 1,185 1,101 1,055 953 667 600 299 2,810 350,297 36.0 22.9 457.6 16.3 38.4 5.7 55.4 32.3 28.7 60.5 207.8 31.1 69.1 98.5 3.4 12.6 54.9 117.7 36.0 146.5 – –12.9 164.0 –20.1 76.1 199.5 84.4 425.1 2,016.1 121.5 – 229.8 235.2 –13.9 22.0 181.8 115.1

Hebrew and ancient Greek are not commonly taught at the two-year level but are included here for comparison with table 2a. *Modern and biblical Hebrew combined

Elizabeth B. Welles

11

Table 2c Total Foreign Language Enrollments by Student Status, 1974–2002
Students in Two-Year Colleges 1974 1983 1986 1990 1995 1998 2002 154,466 164,411 162,881 228,420 236,702 257,523 350,297 Students in Four-Year Colleges 750,277 769,444 807,084 920,092 863,393 903,504 1,010,241 Graduate Students 41,892 35,158 33,269 35,628 38,677 32,803 36,715

Table 3a United States Geographic Distribution of 2002 Language Enrollments
Number Northeast Midwest South Atlantic South Central Rocky Mountain Pacific Coast National (total) 302,875 304,366 293,736 138,884 104,323 253,069 1,397,253 Percentage of National 21.7 21.8 21.0 9.9 7.5 18.1 100.0

Table 3b United States Geographic Distribution of 2002 Language Enrollments by Level
Two-Year Colleges Northeast Midwest South Atlantic South Central Rocky Mountain Pacific Coast National (total) 45,360 45,648 54,891 36,759 36,037 131,602 350,297 Percentage of National 12.9 13.0 15.7 10.5 10.3 37.6 100.0 Four-Year Colleges 249,018 250,162 230,377 98,696 66,134 115,854 1,010,241 Percentage of National 24.6 24.8 22.8 9.8 6.5 11.5 100.0 Graduate 8,497 8,556 8,468 3,429 2,152 5,613 36,715 Percentage of National 23.1 23.3 23.1 9.3 5.9 15.3 100.0

States included in each region: Northeast: CT, DE, MA, ME, NH, NJ, NY, PA, RI, VT Midwest: IA, IL, IN, KS, MI, MN, MO, ND, NE, OH, SD, WI South Atlantic: AL, DC, FL, GA, KY, MD, NC, SC, TN, VA, WV South Central: AR, LA, MS, OK, TX Rocky Mountain: AZ, CO, ID, MT, NM, NV, UT, WY Pacific Coast: AK, CA, HI, OR, WA

12

Foreign Language Enrollments in United States Institutions of Higher Education, Fall 2002

Trends in Language Enrollments Figure 1 shows trends through time in total foreign language enrollments: the steep growth in the 1960s, the decrease in the 1970s, and the steady rise through the 1980s. During the 1990s, enrollments continued to ascend, dipped in 1995, and reached an all-time high in fall 2002. This growth is tempered by the fact that total college enrollments have increased at a greater rate than foreign language enrollments; the difference in the two rates of increase is shown in table 4. Between 1977 and 1998, as the increase in the number of college students leveled off, the proportion of enrollments in modern foreign languages remained stable, ranging from the 1980 low of 7.3 per hundred students to the high in 1990 of 8.2. In our 2002 survey the proportion of modern foreign language enrollments per 100 institutional enrollments rose to 8.6, a moderate proportion but the highest in the history of MLA surveys since 1977. Table 5 presents trends in enrollments in the twelve most commonly taught foreign languages (Latin and ancient Greek excluded) between 1960 and 2002, and the enrollment growth or decline for each language over selected periods. Table 6 gives the per-

centage of the total language enrollment count for the fourteen most commonly taught languages (Latin and ancient Greek included). Spanish is and has been the most widely taught language in colleges and universities since 1970, and it continues to account for more than half (53.4%) of all enrollments, a fact first recorded in our 1995 survey. The next largest grouping, French and German, represents 21.0% of students studying languages other than English. Italian, ASL, Japanese, Chinese, and Latin together make up 17.2%. A fourth grouping of languages, each representing between 1% and 2% of the total, comprises Russian, Hebrew, and ancient Greek; together they account for 4.8% of all language students. The languages that have enrollments lower than 1% in some cases show very dramatic increases but still account for a very small percentage of students studying languages. Korean, Arabic, and Portuguese, which individually grew significantly from the previous survey, account for only 1.8% of total enrollments. Since their high points in 1968, French has lost 48.0% of its total enrollments and German 57.9%, but each seems to have stabilized in the last four years, with slight increases in both languages in comparison with the 1998 survey. Between 1970 and 2002 Japanese

Table 4 Modern Foreign Language (MFL) Enrollments Compared with Enrollments in Higher Education, 1960–2002
Total United States *College Enrollments* 1960 1965 1968 1970 1972 1977 1980 1983 1986 1990 1995 1998 2002 3,789,000 5,920,864 7,513,091 8,580,887 9,214,820 11,285,787 12,096,895 12,464,661 12,503,511 13,818,637 14,261,781 14,507,000 15,608,000 Index of **Growth (%)** 100.0 156.3 198.3 226.5 243.2 297.9 319.3 329.0 330.0 364.7 376.4 382.9 411.9 ***MFL Enrollments*** 608,749 975,777 1,073,097 1,067,217 963,930 883,222 877,691 922,439 960,588 1,138,880 1,096,603 1,151,283 1,347,036 Index of Growth (%) 100.0 160.3 176.3 175.3 158.3 145.1 144.2 151.5 157.8 187.1 180.1 189.1 221.3 MFL Enrollments per 100 Overall 16.1 16.5 14.3 12.4 10.5 7.8 7.3 7.4 7.7 8.2 7.7 7.9 8.6

***The figures in the first column are taken from the Digest of Education Statistics. ***The 1960 and 2002 figures are estimates. The 2002 figure is taken from a projections table on the National Center for Education Statistics Web site (nces.ed.gov/pubs2002/proj2012/Table_11_2.asp). ***For index figures, 1960=100.0% ***Includes all languages listed in tables 1 and 2 except Latin and ancient Greek.

Elizabeth B. Welles

13

Table 5 Enrollments in the Twelve Leading Foreign Languages (Excluding Latin and Ancient Greek) in Selected Years, with Percentage Changes
1960 Spanish French German Italian American Sign Language Japanese Chinese Russian Hebrew* Arabic Portuguese Korean Total 178,689 228,813 146,116 11,142 – 1,746 1,844 30,570 3,834 541 1,033 168 604,496 1970 389,150 359,313 202,569 34,244 – 6,620 6,238 36,189 16,567 1,333 5,065 101 1,057,389 1980 379,379 248,361 126,910 34,791 – 11,506 11,366 23,987 19,429 3,466 4,894 374 864,463 Enrollments 1990 533,944 272,472 133,348 49,699 1,602 45,717 19,490 44,626 12,995 3,475 6,211 2,286 1,125,865 1995 606,286 205,351 96,263 43,760 4,304 44,723 26,471 24,729 13,127 4,444 6,531 3,343 1,079,332 1998 656,590 199,064 89,020 49,287 11,420 43,141 28,456 23,791 15,833 5,505 6,926 4,479 1,133,512 2002 746,267 201,979 91,100 63,899 60,781 52,238 34,153 23,921 22,802 10,584 8,385 5,211 1,321,320

1960–70 Spanish French German Italian American Sign Language Japanese Chinese Russian Hebrew* Arabic Portuguese Korean Total *Modern and biblical Hebrew totals combined 117.8 57.0 38.6 207.3 – 279.2 238.3 18.4 332.1 146.4 390.3 –39.9 74.9

1970–80 –2.5 –30.9 –37.3 1.6 – 73.8 82.2 –33.7 17.3 160.0 –3.4 270.3 –18.2

Percentage Changes between Surveys 1980–90 1990–95 1995–98 40.7 9.7 5.1 42.9 – 297.3 71.5 86.0 –33.1 0.3 26.9 511.2 30.2 13.5 –24.6 –27.8 –11.9 168.7 –2.2 35.8 –44.6 1.0 27.9 5.2 46.2 –4.1 8.3 –3.1 –7.5 12.6 165.3 –3.5 7.5 –3.8 20.6 23.9 6.0 34.0 5.0

1998–2002 13.7 1.5 2.3 29.6 432.2 21.1 20.0 0.5 44.0 92.3 21.1 16.3 16.6

14

Foreign Language Enrollments in United States Institutions of Higher Education, Fall 2002

Table 6 Percentage of Total Enrollments, 1968–2002, for the Fourteen Most Commonly Taught Languages in 2002
1968 Spanish French German Italian American Sign Language Japanese Chinese Latin Russian Hebrew* Ancient Greek Arabic Portuguese Korean Other languages Total enrollments (in numbers) 32.4 34.4 19.2 2.7 – 0.4 0.4 3.1 3.6 0.9 1.7 0.1 0.4 0.0 0.7 1,127,363 1980 41.0 26.9 13.7 3.8 – 1.2 1.2 2.7 2.6 2.1 2.4 0.4 0.5 0.0 1.4 924,837 1986 41.0 27.4 12.1 4.1 – 2.3 1.7 2.5 3.4 1.6 1.8 0.3 0.5 0.1 1.3 1,003,234 1990 45.1 23.0 11.3 4.2 0.1 3.9 1.6 2.4 3.8 1.1 1.4 0.3 0.5 0.2 1.2 1,184,100 1995 53.2 18.0 8.5 3.8 0.4 3.9 2.3 2.3 2.2 1.2 1.4 0.4 0.6 0.3 1.5 1,138,772 1998 55.0 16.7 7.5 4.1 1.0 3.6 2.4 2.2 2.0 1.3 1.4 0.5 0.6 0.4 1.5 1,193,830 2002 53.4 14.5 6.5 4.6 4.4 3.7 2.4 2.1 1.7 1.6 1.5 0.8 0.6 0.4 1.8 1,397,253

*Modern and biblical Hebrew totals combined

enrollments increased by nearly eight times, Chinese almost five and a half times. The greatest period of growth in actual numbers for both these languages occurred during the 1980s; they now are experiencing less variation and have represented 6% of all student enrollments for the current and previous two surveys. Figure 2 contrasts the enrollments in Spanish from 1960 through 2002 with those in all other modern languages taught at the postsecondary college levels. While considerably higher in 2002 than in the previous two surveys, enrollments in languages other than Spanish are lower than they were at their high of 1968. After dropping off in the 1970s, they grew through the 1980s and peaked in 1990, which was the most recent high for the total enrollments in all languages other than Spanish. After a dip in the 1990s, languagees other than Spanish indicate a rise in the current survey. Spanish enrollments, however, have increased consistently since 1960 and progressively accounted for a greater percentage of all enrollments until 2002. For this survey the number of students studying Spanish went up by 89,677, while the number of students studying all other languages increased by 113,746. Figure 3a shows enrollment trends through time in the top seven most commonly taught modern languages, not including Spanish, and Figure 3b shows the trends for the remaining six languages listed in

table 1. French and German are similar: strong growth during the 1960s and a drop in the 1970s. While French recovered somewhat in the 1980s, it declined through the 1990s, though it now seems to be increasing again. German made a modest recovery from 1986 to 1990, declined throughout the 1990s, but has experienced an increase since 1998. Russian now seems to be stabilizing after showing great variability (dropping steeply in the 1970s and 1990s, rising in the 1960s and 1980s). Enrollments in Italian, Chinese, and Japanese grew consistently from 1960 to 1990, but since 1990 slightly different patterns have emerged: Chinese continues to grow; Japanese declined slightly but has been on the rise since 1998; and Italian recovered from the decline that it experienced in the 1995 survey and in 2002 is increasing substantially. American Sign Language was first recorded in the survey in 1990 and has shown a tremendous increase for each survey since then as more institutions begin to report it. Korean has grown steadily since it was first reported in 1974, showing an increase of 128.0% since 1990. Enrollments in Arabic were relatively stable during the 1980s; however, since 1995 they have shown rapid growth, particularly between 1998 and 2002, almost doubling (from 5,505 to 10,584). Portuguese showed consistent low growth through the 1990s but jumped between 1998

Elizabeth B. Welles

15

Figure 2 Enrollments in Spanish Compared with Those in All Other Languages, except Latin and Ancient Greek, by Year
800,000
708,227

700,000

Other Modern Languages Spanish
656,590 604,936 549,295 533,944 490,317 494,693 606,286

746,267

600,769

600,000
498,312 430,060

500,000

411,293
364,870 379,379

400,000

300,000

200,000

178,689

100,000

0

1960

1968

1980

1986

1990

1995

1998

2002

and 2002 (from 6,926 to 8,385). Enrollments in Hebrew and Greek have shown similar curves since their high counts in 1974, though Hebrew’s growth has been steadier since 1990. Through the 1990s, Greek hovered in the 16,000s but in 2002 jumped to over 20,000. The net gain between 1998 and 2002 of 48 institutions reporting Greek perhaps accounts for this growth (see table 7a). The 2002 count for Latin is the highest in the history of the survey, showing a healthy jump after enrollments dropped during the mid and late 1990s from the previous high in 1990. Information gathered about the differences between the programs that reported in 1998 and those that reported in 2002 revealed some interesting trends. The data based only on responses from those institutions reporting in 1998 showed smaller increases generally than those reporting overall in 2002 (table 7b); in three languages there were decreases. This difference should not be taken as an indication of what the enrollment figures might have been if the response rate in 2002 had been the same as that in 1998 (97.4%). It is doubtful that a 2.2% increase in respondents would have changed the picture significantly. The comparison of the 1998 and 2002 institutional figures (table 7a) is particularly useful for explaining the enormous growth of ASL: the bulk of the increase occurred through the reporting of institutions that had not responded previously.

ASL enrollments rose from 1,602 in 1990 to 4,304 in 1995 and then to 11,420 in 1998, increases of 168.7% and 165.3%. Besides student interest, the increase recorded in 2002 also has to do with a change in the nature of our survey. For over thirty years we have elicited enrollment data on less commonly taught languages by requesting information about “other languages” rather than listing them individually on the survey form. Through the 1998 survey, ASL was in this category, but with the enrollments reported in that survey it joined the list of the more commonly taught languages, then numbering fifteen. As a result, in 2002 ASL was among the fifteen languages about which we explicitly requested information. Many institutions that had not reported their existing ASL programs in 1998 did so in this survey. If these institutions had previously reported their existing ASL enrollments, the remarkable growth in ASL in the current survey might have been more evenly spread out across the three surveys from the 1990s. But it is also notable that 187 new programs were created between 1998 and 2002 (see table 1 in appendix B) to meet growing demand. French, German, and Russian enrollment data from the 1998 respondents alone show decreases, while the overall enrollments in these languages were slightly up. For Arabic, Chinese, and Italian there is also a considerable rise in the number of institutions

16

Foreign Language Enrollments in United States Institutions of Higher Education, Fall 2002

Figure 3a Enrollments in the Top Seven Modern Languages, Not Including Spanish, in Selected Years
228,813 388,096 248,361 275,328 272,472 205,351 199,064 201,979 146,116 216,263 126,910 121,022 133,348 96,263 89,020 91,100 11,142 30,359 34,791 40,945 49,699 43,760 49,287 63,899

French

German

Italian

*ASL

1,602 4,304 11,420 60,781

1,746 4,324 11,506 23,454 Japanese

45,717 44,723 43,141 52,238

Chinese

1,844 5,061 11,366 16,891 19,490 26,471 28,456 34,153 30,570 40,696 23,987 33,961 44,626 24,729 23,791 23,921

Russian

1960 100,000

1968 150,000

1980 200,000

1986

1990 250,000

1995 300,000

1998 350,000

2002 400,000

0

50,000

*1960, 1968, 1980, 1986 figures for ASL not available.

Elizabeth B. Welles

17

Figure 3b Enrollments in Six Less Commonly Taught Languages in Selected Years
25,035 25,038

Latin

28,178 25,897 26,145 29,841 22,111 17,608 16,401 16,272 16,402 20,376 19,429 15,630

Ancient Greek

*Hebrew

12,995 13,127 15,833 22,802 3,387 3,417 3,475 4,444 5,505 10,584 4,846 5,071 6,211 6,531 6,926 8,385 365 875

Arabic

Portuguese

Korean

2,286 3,343 4,479 5,211

1980 10,000

1986 15,000

1990 20,000

1995

1998 25,000

2002 30,000

0

5,000

*Modern and biblican Hebrew combined

18

Foreign Language Enrollments in United States Institutions of Higher Education, Fall 2002

Table 7a Comparison of Numbers of Institutions Reporting Undergraduate Enrollments in the Top Fifteen Foreign Languages in 1998 and 2002
1998 Spanish French German Italian American Sign Language Japanese Chinese Latin Russian Ancient Greek Biblical Hebrew Arabic Modern Hebrew Portuguese Korean 2,166 1,668 1,192 531 116 683 416 526 497 518 194 157 150 143 76 2002 2,279 1,701 1,163 606 552 696 489 561 441 566 226 233 163 175 91 Net Gain or Loss 113 33 –29 75 436 13 73 35 –56 48 32 76 13 32 15

Table 7b Language Enrollments in Fall 1998 and in Fall 2002 for Those Institutions Responding in 1998
1998 Spanish French German Italian American Sign Language Japanese Chinese Latin Russian Ancient Greek Biblical Hebrew Arabic Modern Hebrew Portuguese Korean Total 656,590 199,064 89,020 49,287 11,420 43,141 28,456 26,145 23,791 16,402 9,099 5,505 6,734 6,926 4,479 1,176,059 2002 710,347 191,996 86,545 58,774 13,486 48,258 30,701 27,006 22,438 17,520 10,212 7,720 7,179 7,057 4,730 1,243,969 Percentage Change 8.2 –3.6 –2.8 19.2 18.1 11.9 7.9 3.3 –5.7 6.8 12.2 40.2 6.6 1.9 5.6 5.8

reporting over 1998. Tables 1 and 2 of appendix B show that in undergraduate programs new offerings account for the gains notably in Arabic (74), ASL (as noted, 187), and Chinese (84). In most cases the number of new offerings since 1998 is larger than the number of programs no longer offered, except in Russian, where 59 programs were discontinued and 28 established, and in German, where 60 programs were discontinued and 39 established.

Less Commonly Taught Languages During the 1960s, languages we now call less commonly taught (LCTLs) were designated “critical” or “strategic” by government entities and the MLA. Before 1986, the seven most commonly taught languages in United States colleges and universities were Latin, ancient Greek, French, German, Italian, Russian, and Spanish. By the 1986 survey, however, Japanese became the seventh most commonly taught language, and by 1998 it had moved up to fifth place; it now stands in sixth place, behind American Sign Language. Chinese was the sixth most commonly taught language in 1995 and is now the seventh. Table 8 provides information about enrollment data by level of program (two-year, four-year, graduate) for

the 147 languages composing the other-languages category of tables 1, 2, and 6. (In table 8, of the 162 languages listed, 137 were taught in 1998, and 147 were taught in 2002.) There are 7.3% more languages in which students enrolled than were reported for 1998; 34 are indigenous to Europe, 38 to the Middle East or Africa, 41 to Asia or the Pacific and 34 to North or South America. Table 9 shows the proportion of enrollments for these different language groups. These numbers have not changed significantly since 1998, except for languages indigenous to Asia or the Pacific, of which 11 were added in 2002 to the 30 reported in 1998. Of these Asian languages, Vietnamese stands out as the largest gainer of the LCTLs with enrollments of 2,236, for a total increase of 148.7%. At the two-year level, Vietnamese went from 385 students in 1998 to 1,185 in 2002; at the four-year level, it grew from 491 to 1,003. Hindi also shows remarkable growth at 72.1%, up to 1,430 in 2002 from 831 in 1998. One LCTL of Middle Eastern origin—Aramaic, and one of African origin—Swahili, now have enrollments over 1,500 and appear to be gaining rapidly (Tables 8 and 10a). North and South American native languages have experienced considerable expansion since the previous survey, as shown in the enrollments for the leading sixteen of these languages in 2002 (table 10b).

Elizabeth B. Welles

19

Table 8 Enrollments in 162 Less Commonly Taught Languages, 1998 and 2002
Enrollments in Two-Year Colleges 1998 2002 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 80 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 40 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 28 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 46 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 20 36 112 318 12 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 41 0 0 0 47 0 0 0 0 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 55 1 17 0 28 0 0 0 0 0 0 20 Undergraduate Enrollments 1998 2002 72 13 9 1 1 7 0 0 1,071 0 233 0 3 10 1 28 5 1 31 0 7 31 0 39 6 0 0 0 147 0 0 31 83 0 1 1 5 159 286 145 0 7 260 13 46 6 2 0 13 5 24 10 10 12 18 0 1,261 0 278 0 0 14 0 10 46 0 50 0 17 46 5 128 31 7 0 11 111 1 0 56 63 2 0 15 0 291 589 189 13 9 357 16 99 13 0 64 Graduate Enrollments 1998 2002 0 0 93 0 0 0 0 0 59 0 12 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 4 0 4 3 0 0 3 0 2 0 0 0 2 1 0 3 0 0 4 30 2 6 0 0 28 39 0 2 1 0 0 0 71 0 0 3 0 0 389 0 11 0 0 0 0 1 3 0 4 0 3 3 0 5 4 0 0 0 0 0 2 18 0 9 0 1 0 29 4 2 0 0 18 31 0 3 0 1 Total 1998 72 13 102 1 1 7 0 0 1,130 4 325 5 4 10 2 28 5 1 35 40 11 34 0 39 9 0 2 0 175 0 2 32 83 3 1 1 9 194 334 151 0 7 288 52 46 8 3 0 2002 13 5 95 10 10 15 24 20 1,686 112 607 12 0 14 0 11 49 0 54 41 20 49 5 180 35 7 0 11 118 1 2 74 63 11 0 16 55 321 610 191 41 9 375 47 99 16 0 85

Language Afrikaans Akan Akkadian Albanian Alutiiq Amharic Anishinabe Apache Aramaic Arapahoe Armenian Assiniboine Assyro-Babylonian Athabaskan Aymara Bambara Basque Bemba Bengali Blackfoot Bulgarian Burmese Cambodian Cantonese Catalan Cebuano Chagatai Chamorro Cherokee Cheyenne Chichewa Chinese, Classical Choctaw Coptic Cree Croatian Crow Indian Czech Dakota/Lakota Danish Dari Deg Xinag Dutch Egyptian Eskimo Estonian Ethiopic Farsi

Status

+ +

– –

+

+ – + +

+

– +

A plus sign in the Status column signifies a new program; a minus sign signifies a discontinued program. No sign means that the program continues.

20

Foreign Language Enrollments in United States Institutions of Higher Education, Fall 2002

Table 8 (continued)
Enrollments in Two-Year Colleges 1998 2002 2 0 0 0 0 19 0 0 0 0 645 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 13 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 13 0 0 0 6 0 0 0 0 11 0 0 0 0 667 0 0 0 89 0 0 0 0 0 24 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 13 0 0 0 Undergraduate Enrollments 1998 2002 103 0 47 0 0 553 32 0 116 36 1,344 767 417 0 13 53 2 0 171 177 22 77 252 0 35 0 2 1 14 0 49 7 0 12 35 37 9 0 1 28 1 0 18 6 0 1 16 4 151 0 4 0 1 736 20 18 121 38 1,014 1,374 393 0 194 97 12 9 91 180 27 92 659 8 0 8 2 8 20 0 77 6 0 8 78 54 13 1 1 20 0 1 25 0 0 0 29 27 Graduate Enrollments 1998 2002 9 0 3 6 1 74 1 2 8 7 18 64 31 8 0 5 0 0 0 46 0 3 13 0 13 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 14 0 5 1 0 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 5 1 0 5 1 57 0 0 7 2 6 56 34 1 0 5 0 0 0 45 0 10 46 0 3 11 0 8 0 2 0 0 0 0 1 5 0 2 3 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 8 Total 1998 114 0 50 6 1 646 33 2 124 43 2,007 831 448 8 15 58 2 0 171 223 22 80 278 0 48 0 2 1 14 0 49 7 0 12 35 51 9 5 2 28 7 0 18 6 13 1 16 6 2002 162 1 4 5 2 804 20 18 128 40 1,687 1,430 427 1 283 102 12 9 91 225 51 102 705 8 3 19 2 16 20 2 77 6 20 8 79 59 13 3 4 20 0 1 25 2 13 0 29 35

Language Finnish Fula Gaelic, Scottish Galician Georgian Greek, Modern Gujarati Gwich’in Haitian Creole Hausa Hawai‘ian Hindi Hindi-Urdu Hittite Hmong Hungarian Icelandic Igbo Ilocano Indonesian Inupiaq Iranian Irish Irish, Modern Irish, Old Japanese, Classical Kannada Kazakh Khmer Kikuyu Kiowa Koyukon Kutenai Latvian Lingala Lithuanian Luganda Macedonian Malay Malayalam Manchu Mandingo Maori Marathi Menominee Meru Mohawk Mongolian

Status

+

+

+ +

+

+

– +

A plus sign in the Status column signifies a new program; a minus sign signifies a discontinued program. No sign means that the program continues.

Elizabeth B. Welles

21

Table 8 (continued)
Enrollments in Two-Year Colleges 1998 2002 0 0 169 0 0 0 0 0 31 19 0 0 27 0 233 0 11 22 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 76 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 428 0 0 0 0 17 0 0 0 6 0 526 0 0 0 0 0 40 0 0 0 36 10 308 236 9 80 0 0 0 0 56 0 0 0 133 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 47 0 0 0 404 0 0 0 0 16 0 0 0 Undergraduate Enrollments 1998 2002 85 0 127 7 94 0 4 638 219 0 0 0 5 0 317 0 0 703 30 53 83 10 0 207 275 22 66 19 7 8 1 0 7 24 0 1,199 0 678 11 362 19 0 41 11 240 59 0 17 126 0 257 0 11 9 2 772 230 0 0 0 13 4 680 213 0 935 99 43 120 0 0 201 329 20 175 10 2 16 0 1 9 31 3 1,483 0 727 2 287 20 34 89 3 302 43 8 108 Graduate Enrollments 1998 2002 0 1 1 0 6 0 1 2 1 0 0 1 0 0 64 0 0 47 2 5 9 0 0 0 88 15 12 0 0 0 0 0 23 1 13 41 0 6 30 4 0 0 4 0 15 21 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 5 0 0 1 11 0 0 129 0 0 38 0 8 6 0 0 0 158 16 34 0 2 0 0 0 0 5 19 63 2 9 29 2 0 13 25 0 12 35 20 0 Total 1998 85 1 297 7 100 0 5 640 251 19 0 1 32 0 614 0 11 772 32 58 92 10 0 207 363 37 154 19 7 8 1 0 30 25 13 1,241 0 684 41 794 19 0 45 11 272 80 0 17 2002 132 0 783 0 11 9 11 777 270 0 1 11 49 14 1,117 449 9 1,053 99 51 126 0 56 201 487 36 342 10 4 16 0 1 9 36 22 1,593 2 736 31 693 20 47 114 3 330 78 28 108

Language Muskogee (Creek) Nahuatl Navajo Ndebele, Zimbabwe Nepali Nez Perce Norse Norwegian Ojibwa Omaha Oromo Pali Papago Pashto Persian Pilipino Pima Polish Punjabi Quechua Romanian Sahaptin Salish Samoan Sanskrit Serbian Serbo-Croatian Setswana Shona Shoshoni Sinhala Sinhalese Slavic, Old Church Slovak Sumerian Swahili Swati Swedish Syriac Tagalog Tahitian Taiwanese Tamil Telugu Thai Tibetan Tibetan, Classical Tlingit

Status

– – +

– +

+ +

– +

– +

+

+

+

A plus sign in the Status column signifies a new program; a minus sign signifies a discontinued program. No sign means that the program continues.

22

Foreign Language Enrollments in United States Institutions of Higher Education, Fall 2002

Table 8 (continued)
Enrollments in Two-Year Colleges 1998 2002 0 0 15 0 0 0 0 0 0 385 0 0 0 0 12 0 0 0 0 2,348 122 25 15 162 0 0 13 0 0 0 0 0 7 1,185 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4,662 Undergraduate Enrollments 1998 2002 33 15 166 33 0 1 34 22 0 491 16 0 43 0 0 324 64 55 63 14,227 43 15 240 75 0 0 107 140 5 1,003 30 2 73 34 0 414 76 10 70 19,257 Graduate Enrollments 1998 2002 0 0 37 1 33 1 6 13 4 23 1 0 0 0 0 14 5 0 5 1,196 0 6 61 4 14 0 19 12 11 48 2 4 1 0 0 24 0 0 2 1,797 Total 1998 33 15 218 34 33 2 40 35 4 899 17 0 43 0 12 338 69 55 68 17,771 2002 43 21 314 79 14 0 126 152 23 2,236 32 6 74 34 0 438 76 10 72 25,716

Language Tonga Turkic Turkish Twi Ugaritic Uighur Ukrainian Urdu Uzbek Vietnamese Welsh Welsh, Early Wolof Xhosa Yaqui Yiddish Yoruba Yup’ik Zulu Total

Status

+ + –

Continued programs New programs Discontinued programs Total other languages

A plus sign in the Status column signifies a new program; a minus sign signifies a discontinued program. No sign means that the program continues.

Table 9 Enrollments in Less Commonly Taught Languages, by Region of Origin, 1998 and 2002
Languages Europe Middle East and Africa Asia and Pacific North and South America Total 32 39 30 37 138 1998 Enrollments 4,126 5,353 4,477 3,815 17,771 Percentage 23.2 30.1 25.2 21.5 100.0 Languages 34 38 41 34 147 2002 Enrollments 6,636 6,373 7,996 4,711 25,716 Percentage 25.8 24.8 31.1 18.3 100.0

Elizabeth B. Welles

23

Table 10a Enrollments in Sixteen Leading Asian or Pacific Languages in Selected Years, with Percentage Change
Language Vietnamese Hindi Tagalog Sanskrit Pilipino Hindi-Urdu Thai Hmong Indonesian Samoan Cantonese Urdu Tamil Punjabi Ilocano Tibetan Total Percentage change 1974 29 313 122 384 203 161 71 – 121 0 42 41 33 0 58 61 1,639 – 1980 74 197 263 265 –0 76 80 – 127 18 36 23 25 0 17 56 1,257 –23.3 1986 175 300 88 250 132 101 108 – 156 56 111 49 36 1 28 50 1,641 30.5 1990 327 306 146 251 196 125 192 13 222 69 83 90 35 8 72 75 2,210 34.7 1995 1,010 694 680 377 –0 263 278 170 256 179 33 88 55 42 146 67 4,338 96.3 1998 899 831 794 363 –0 448 272 15 223 207 39 35 45 32 171 80 4,454 2.7 2002 2,236 1,430 693 487 449 427 330 283 225 201 180 152 114 99 91 78 7,475 67.8 Change from 1998 to 2002 (%) 148.7 72.1 –12.7 34.2 NA –4.7 21.3 1,786.7 0.9 –2.9 361.5 334.3 153.3 209.4 –46.8 –2.5

Table 10b Enrollments in Sixteen Leading Native American Languages in Selected Years, with Percentage Change
Language Hawai‘ian Navajo Dakota/Lakota Ojibwa Muskogee (Creek) Cherokee Arapahoe Tlingit Eskimo Kiowa Choctaw Salish Crow Indian Inupiaq Quechua Papago Total Percentage change 1974 570 587 112 95 20 15 0 0 0 0 12 0 0 30 29 15 1,485 – 1980 610 225 109 84 0 29 0 5 0 0 0 0 16 0 23 0 1,101 –25.9 1986 441 273 168 184 0 22 15 0 0 0 0 0 14 32 17 0 1,166 5.9 1990 913 186 158 231 0 57 15 0 0 0 8 0 21 48 37 5 1,679 44.0 1995 1,890 832 465 321 0 73 9 0 0 0 0 0 38 0 41 39 3,708 120.8 1998 2,007 297 334 251 85 175 4 17 46 49 83 0 9 22 58 32 3,469 –6.4 2002 1,687 783 610 270 132 118 112 108 99 77 63 56 55 51 51 49 4,321 24.6 Change from 1998 to 2002 (%) –15.9 163.6 82.6 7.6 55.3 –32.6 2,700.0 535.3 115.2 57.1 –24.1 NA 511.1 131.8 –12.1 53.1

24

Foreign Language Enrollments in United States Institutions of Higher Education, Fall 2002

Following national trends, enrollments dipped in 1980 and began to climb slowly through the rest of the decade: a 5.1% increase from 1980 to 1986; 48.2% from 1986 to 1990; and, much more steeply, 119.6% from 1990 to 1995. Despite a slight decline of –8.5% from 1995 to 1998, these languages have increased since 1998 by 24.6% and have almost tripled since 1974. Though it has lost some enrollments, Hawai‘ian still has the largest total enrollment (39%) of the top sixteen Native American languages taught; however Navajo and Dakota-Lakota made impressive gains of 163.6% and 82.6%, respectively. The 2002 statistics on enrollments in foreign languages in United States institutions of higher education show that trends established in previous surveys are continuing: Spanish is still the language chosen by most students who study languages and is becoming ever more significant in the undergraduate curriculum. While the number of students studying other languages is slightly less than half the total, these students are pursuing a greater variety of languages. Some of the more commonly taught languages—French, German, and Russian—do not enjoy the enrollments they did during the 1970s but now have become stable or have increased slightly. While the 17.0% increase in total language enrollments (table 1) is substantial,2 the proportion of modern foreign language (MFL) enrollments to every 100 institutional enrollments (table 4) has remained relatively constant over the years. The current proportion of 8.6 MFL enrollments per hundred institutional enrollments should be taken as a

good sign, not only because it is the highest since 1972 but also because the college population grew at a faster pace between the last two surveys than it had during the surveys of 1990, 1995, and 1998. The index of growth for institutional enrollments, showing increases in college student population since 1960, rose by 11.7% between 1990 and 1995, by 6.5% between 1995 and 1998, by 29.0% between 1998 and 2002. Considering that growth, the 0.7% increase in MFL enrollments per hundred institutional enrollments for the 2002 survey is significant: foreign language enrollments are keeping pace with and improving slightly in relation to the increase in the college student population.

Notes
The author wishes to thank Michael Pisapia, the project research assistant who collected the data; Richard Brod, former MLA director of special projects and founding director of ADFL; and MLA staff members David Goldberg and Natalia Lusin. The author is particularly indebted to Natalia Lusin, who verified and corrected the data. 1 These figures are taken from the 2002 Digest of Educational Statistics, published by the National Center for Education Statistics. Projections for 2002 enrollments can be found at nces.ed.gov//pubs2002/proj2012/table_16.asp and nces.ed.gov// pubs2002/proj2012/table_18.asp. 2 This percentage gain is the largest since 1990. Gains and losses of total enrollments in previous years are: –1.4% in 1970, –9.2% in 1972, –6.2% in 1974, –1.4% in 1977, –0.9% in 1980, 4.5% in 1983, 3.9% in 1986, 18% in 1990, –3.8% in 1995, 4.8% in 1998.

Elizabeth B. Welles

25

Appendix A Regional Comparison of 2002 Undergraduate Enrollments in Sixteen Leading Languages
Language Spanish Percentage of national French Percentage of national German Percentage of national Italian Percentage of national American Sign Language Percentage of national Japanese Percentage of national Chinese Percentage of national Latin Percentage of national Russian Percentage of national Greek Percentage of national Biblical Hebrew Percentage of national Arabic Percentage of national Modern Hebrew Percentage of national Portuguese Percentage of national Korean Percentage of national Vietnamese Percentage of national Northeast 143,587 19.5 46,540 23.6 16,580 18.8 26,192 41.7 8,818 14.5 9,132 17.8 8,822 26.6 6,127 21.3 6,034 26.1 2,111 14.7 5,732 63.3 2,184 21.7 4,091 49.9 2,202 27.9 1,147 22.5 113 5.2 Midwest 157,214 21.4 44,680 22.6 27,456 31.1 10,459 16.6 11,613 19.1 9,980 19.5 5,166 15.6 7,197 25.0 5,198 22.5 4,128 28.8 1,242 13.7 2,219 22.1 1,491 18.2 1,250 15.8 592 11.6 45 2.1 South Atlantic 167,090 22.7 48,065 24.4 18,870 21.4 9,350 14.9 7,744 12.8 6,582 12.8 4,228 12.7 7,200 25.0 4,159 18.0 3,750 26.1 1,132 12.5 2,246 22.3 1,207 14.7 1,886 23.9 393 7.7 97 4.4 South Central 87,819 11.9 19,088 9.7 6,702 7.6 2,813 4.5 4,989 8.2 2,320 4.5 1,431 4.3 3,736 13.0 1,442 6.2 1,982 13.8 357 3.9 652 6.5 280 3.4 516 6.5 152 3.0 117 5.3 Rocky Mountain 58,837 8.0 11,452 5.8 6,634 7.5 3,101 4.9 6,882 11.3 4,023 7.8 1,933 5.8 1,688 5.9 2,289 9.9 780 5.4 135 1.5 692 6.9 339 4.1 1,244 15.8 323 6.3 36 1.6 Pacific Coast 121,770 16.5 27,549 14.0 12,055 13.7 10,937 17.4 20,614 34.0 19,271 37.6 11,639 35.0 2,848 9.9 4,029 17.4 1,592 11.1 452 5.0 2,060 20.5 793 9.7 800 10.1 2,493 48.9 1,780 81.4 National (Total) 736,317 100.0 197,374 100.0 88,297 100.0 62,852 100.0 60,660 100.0 51,308 100.0 33,219 100.0 28,796 100.0 23,151 100.0 14,343 100.0 9,050 100.0 10,053 100.0 8,201 100.0 7,898 100.0 5,100 100.0 2,188 100.0

26

Foreign Language Enrollments in United States Institutions of Higher Education, Fall 2002

Appendix B Status of Foreign Language Offerings at Institutions That Reported Undergraduate Enrollments in Fall 1998 or Fall 2002 but Not in Both
Table B1 Institutions Reporting Enrollments in 2002 but Not in 1998
Language Spanish French German Italian American Sign Language Japanese Chinese Latin Russian Ancient Greek Biblical Hebrew Arabic Modern Hebrew Portuguese Korean New Offerings since 1998 38 49 39 49 187 67 84 25 28 20 20 74 13 35 11 Language Available in 1998 but No Enrollments Reported 36 70 50 40 24 22 24 62 24 48 33 12 7 13 10 Status Not Reported 145 83 38 37 240 25 20 21 13 49 38 17 15 8 4 Total 219 202 127 126 451 114 128 108 65 117 91 103 35 56 25

Table B2 Institutions Reporting Enrollments in 1998 but Not in 2002
Language Spanish French German Italian American Sign Language Japanese Chinese Latin Russian Ancient Greek Biblical Hebrew Arabic Modern Hebrew Portuguese Korean Discontinued Offerings since 1998 3 46 60 16 4 40 16 13 59 10 6 8 7 6 4 Language Available in 2002 but No Enrollments Reported 13 69 62 24 9 34 25 45 38 40 40 11 10 13 4 Status Not Reported 90 54 34 11 2 26 14 15 24 19 13 8 5 5 2 Total 106 169 156 51 15 100 55 73 121 69 59 27 22 24 10

Reasons for lack of enrollments include changes in student demand, lack of faculty availability, courses offered on a staggered schedule, or a combination of these reasons. This category includes languages listed in the course catalogue but having no reported enrollments. The New Offerings column is for languages newly listed and offered at an institution since 1998. The Discontinued Offerings column is for languages that are no longer listed in the catalog, though they were available in 1998.