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Bubble sort Algorithm

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Bubble sort and somes say it as sinking sort.
Selection sort algorithm simply start sorting step by step comparing element to the next
element and swapping them this procedure repeat's until all element in array is sorted in some
sequence accordingly.
Bubble sort algorithm gets name bubble because of sorting the elements in array in
shorter range i.e just next value of the element in array is checked and swapped or we can say
sorting function is perform in very smaller time that is why it is also called comparison sort.
Now we will see the algorithm structure as follows:
Line

Cost

Time
For i <--- to length[Array] -1

C1

n
do For j<--- to length[Array] - i

C2

(n-1)

(n-i+1)
do if (Array[j]>Array[j+1])

C3

(n-1)(n-i)
then exchange Array[j] Array[j+1]

C4

(n-1)(n-i)

Now we will see how it works by taking the example of any array as follows:

n-1
______________________________________________________
| [5]<---j
[4]
[4]
[4]
[4] |
[4]<---j+1
[5]<---j
[3]
[3]
[3]
[3]
[3]<---j+1
[5]<---j
[2]
[2]
[2]
[2]
[2]<---j+1 [5]<---j
[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]
[1]<---j+1 [5]
1st iteration :
* j and j+1 are two pointer set at initial position i.e element [5] and element [4].
* i will iterate till n-1 at first time ,this is the array of length 5 thats why 5-1=4
times it will be iterared.
* At line 3 if (Array[j]>Array[j+1])
At line 4 then exchange
Array[j]Array[j+1]
[5] > [4] true
exchange [5] [4]
[5] > [3] true
exchange [5] [3]
[5] > [2] true
exchange [5] [2]
[5] > [1] true
exchange [5] [1]

* Here you will notice element [5] is set to its proper position.

n-2
_________________________________________________

[4]<---j
[3]<---j+1
[2]
[1]
[5]

[3]
[4]<---j
[2]<---j+1
[1]
[5]

[3]
[2]
[4]<---j
[1]<---j+1
[5]

[3]
[2]
[1]
[4]
[5]

2nd iteration:
* Again j and j+1 are two pointer set at initial position i.e at element [4] and
element [3].
* In above figure i will iterate n-2 times i.e array length is 5 which means 5-2=3
times it will iterate.
* At line 3 if (Array[j]> Array[j+1])
At line 4 then exchange Array[j]
Array[j+1]
[4] > [3] true
exchange [4] [3]
[4] > [2] true
exchange [4] [2]
[4] > [1] true
exchange [4] [1]
[4] > [5] false
no exchange
* Here in this 2nd iteration element [4] is set in its proper position.

n-3
______________________________
| [3]<---j
[2]
[2]
|
[2]<---j+1
[1]
[4]
[5]

[3]<---j
[1]<---j+1
[4]
[5]

[1]
[3]
[4]
[5]

3rd iteration:
* j and j+1 pointers are set to its position according to algorithm.
* In above figure i will iterate n-3 times i.e array length is 5 which means 53=2 times it will iterate.
*At line 3 if (Array[j]>Array[j+1])
At line 4 then exchange
Array[j] Array[j+1]
[3] > [2] true
exchange [3] [2]
[3] > [1] true
exchange [3] [1]
[3] > [4] false
no exchange
* Here in this 3rd iteration element [3] is set in its proper position.

n-4
________________________
| [2]<---j
[1]
|
[1]<---j+1
[3]
[4]
[5]

[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]

4th iteration:
* j and j+1 pointer are set to its position according to algorithm.
* In above figure i iterator will iterate n-4 times i.e array length is 5 which
means 5-4=1 times it will iterate.
* At line 3 if(Array[j]>Array[j+1])
At line 4 then exchange
Array[j] Array[j+1]
[2] > [1] true
exchange [2] [1]
[2] > [3] false
no exchange
* Here this is our array's final iteration in which element[1] and element[2] are
set to their proper position
respectively in the array.

Note: 1. We had taken array with n elements.


2. In above example i iterator is iterating horizontally that is n-1,n-2,n-3,n4............1
3. j iterator is iterating vertically and one more pointer that is j+1 which also
iterating vertically according to
algo.
4. Here at every small step sorting is taking place which we also say bubble and
this happens by
exchanging the position of elements in array i.e j iterator with j+1 iterator.

Calculating the time complexity of the bubble sort algorithm as follows:


According to above algorithm our time complexity equation formed is:
Worst case:
T(n) = C1 * n + C2 * (n-1)(n-i+1) + C3* (n-1)(n-i) + C4 * (n-1)(n-i)
i is 1,2,3,4,5...........,n i.e i iterator is increasing
= C1* n + C2 * (n(n-i+1)-(n-i+1)) +C3* (n(n-i)-(n-i)) + C4* (n(n-i)-(n-i))

= C1* n + C2* (n*n-i*n+n - n -i+1)+ C3*(n*n-n*i -n-i) +C4 *(n*n-n*i-n-i)


= C1*n + C2*(n*n- i*n -i+1)+C3*(n*n-n*i -n-i)+C4 *(n*n-n*i-n-i)
= C1*n + C2*(n*n)-C2 (i*n)-C2*i+C2+C3*(n*n)-C3(n*i)-C3*nC3*i+C4*(n*n)-C4(n*i)-C4*n-C4*i
= n*(C1-C3-C4) + n*n*(C2+C3+C4)+ n*i(-C2-C3-C4)+i*(-C2-C3-C4)+C2
=O(n*n)
=O(n^2)
<--------------------------------------Ans.
Best case:
For sorted array 3rd line in bubble sort algorithm is not satisfied thats why of course
4rth line will also not execute.
T(n) = C1 *n + C2 *((n-1)(n-i+1))+C3* ((n-1)(n-i)) +C4* ((n-1)(n-i))
Now as you know algorithm is working till 3rd line because the elements in array is
already sorted.
So thats why i is iterating one time that is till n times putting n in place of i in the
equation we get:
T(n) = C1*n + C2* ((n-1)(n-n+1)) +C3*((n-1)(n-n)) +C4 *0
= C1*n + C2* (n-1) +C3*0+C3*0+C4*0
= C1*n + C2*n - C2
= n*(C1+C2) - C2
= O(n)
<-----------------------------------------Ans.

Posted 10th June 2012 by Ashwini Kumar


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