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SYKES

CMStOCK
I

Publisher

EDUCATION DEPT.

PLANE GEOMETRY

PLANE GEOMETRY
By

MABEL SYKES
Bowen High School. Chicago
Source Book of Problems for Geometry"

Instructor in Mathematics,

Author of

"A

and

CLARENCE
Professor

E.
of

COMSTOCK
Mathematics,

CHICAGO

NEW YORK

c^
3^

Rand M?Nally

St

Company

Edition of 1922

Kf
{

c-22

THE CONTENTS
The Preface

ix

Chapter

I.

Introductory

p^^g

Circles

5
6

Angles

## Summary and Supplementary Exercises

Chapter II. Congruent

15

Triangles

Introductory Definitions
Tests for Equal Angles and Equal Segments
Application of Congruent Triangles to Constructions

20

....

## Nature of Theorems and Proofs

Miscellaneous Theorems and Exercises

Chapter

III.

21

30
35
37

Parallels, Perpendiculars,

Angles, Angle-Sums

48
50
54
59
63
66
69

Introductory
Parallels

## Angles Made by Parallels and Transversals

Angles in Triangles
Angles in Polygons
Miscellaneous Theorems

Supplementary Exercises

Chapter

IV.

75
79
84
88
94

Symmetry
Parallelograms

## and Segments on Transversals

Supplementary Exercises
Parallels

Chapter

V.

Inequalities

## Assumptions for Combining Inequalities

Fundamental Tests of Inequality
Tests for Unequal Sides and Angles in One Triangle
Tests for Unequal Sides and Angles in Two Triangles
Supplementary Exercises

99

....
.

100
102
105
106

571779

THE CONTENTS

vi

Chapter

VI.

Circles

## and Related Lines

Introductory
Related Arcs, Chords, and Central Angles
Chords in General

108

Tangents

114

Two

Circles

110
Ill

## and Related Lines

117

120

Supplementary Exercises

Chapter

VII.

Circles

## Relation between Central Angles and Their Arcs

Relation between Inscribed Angles and Their Arcs
Relation between Angles
Their Arcs

Summary and

## Formed by Tangents and Chords and

135
137

vSupplementary Exercises

Chapter

VIII.

Loci

General Considerations
Loci of Points
Determination of Points by the Intersection of Loci
Loci of Centers of Circles

143

....

Chapter IX.
of

146
152
153

155

Supplementary Exercises

Measurement

123
126

## Ratio and Proportion

161

Segments

Ratios

163

of Proportion

165

Theory

by

........

Parallels

Similar Triangles

182

## Important Special Cases

Applications of Equal Ratios

191

Exercises

197

## Area and Equivalence

Chapter X.

208

Introductory

Measurement

168
176

of

Polygons
Equivalent Polygons
Summary and Supplementary Exercises

Chapter

XL

Similarity

Introductory
Tests for Similar Polygons
Properties of Similar Polygons

211

220
228

Exercises

240
240
244
248

THE CONTENTS
Chapter XII.

Regular Polygons
252
252
259
262
264

Definition

## Construction of Regular Polygons

Properties of Regular Polygons
Similar Regular Polygons

Chapter XIII.

Exercises

Measurement

of the Circle

## The Circumference of the Circle

Areas of Circles, Sectors, and Segments
Ratios and Circles

## Summary and Supplementary

Exercises

Chapter XIV.
Introductory
Triangles
Polygons in General

Regular Polygons

Tables
Outline

Index

Summary

vii

269
275
276
277

284
284
287
290

292
298
301
309

THE PREFACE
This book

is

## possible to give to high-school

tematic training in the science of

it is

## by any textbook on the market to-day. In this connection

the two main features of the book should be noted
:

## The analytical method of attack is employed throughout.

Analyses of proofs serve several purposes. When it has
been found by actual classroom experience that any particular proof is so difficult that the pupil cannot reasonably
be expected to think it out for himself, the analysis gives
1.

him

## at the outset the gist of the argument, calls his attention

method of proof employed, and gives him some idea

to the

## how the proof may have been originally invented. In

such cases not only is the analysis given, but as much of
In this conthe proof as experience has found necessary.
of

## nection the treatment of the proofs of Theorems 3, 4, 9, 14,

64, 77, 113, and 120 may be noted and compared with the

## usual treatment of these same proofs.

More important, however, is the fact that the pupil can,
with proper training, invent many of his own proofs. While
nothing can do away entirely with the element of inspiration

method of
method by which every trained mind attacks
The teacher should see to it that the pupil is

analysis

is

difficulties.

the

## continually asking himself the necessary questions, that he

sees clearly how each step follows from the preceding, and

down in the orderly form here emThe statements given in the analyses may seem

ployed.

and

## definiteness are essential.

No

statement should be permitted which does not clearly indicate that the pupil sees

ment.

all

## working backward from the analysis.

THE PREFACE

2.
he work is so arranged as
important theorems and methods.
'J

to

## Without emphasis effective analysis is impossible. It is

said to be a fundamental characteristic of the mind that
lasting impression of a vast field requires distinctions in
Moreover, it is just here that much of our

any

emphasis.

## geometry teaching has failed. Attention is called to the

following points in arrangement and presentation:
a) The division into chapters is based on the important
general ideas in geometry, such as congruence, loci, ratio,
If the work is so prearea, equivalence, and similarity.
sented that each chapter is made to serve the special, definite

## purpose intended, many of the details in both analysis and

proof for later theorems may be left to the pupil. Otherwise such details should be given. The purpose of chapter ii,
for example, is to train pupils in the use of congruent triIf this purpose has been accomplished, the pupil
angles.

can work out for himself the details for such congruent
triangle work as that used in the proofs of Theorems 33, 36,
and 37. Similarly, it is only on the assumption that chapter
vii and
209-212 have served their purpose that the
and
proof for Theorems 103, 104, and 105 may
analysis
be safely

left

to the pupil.

worked out
theorems and exercises.
In the minds of the pupils the importance of a theorem
depends solely upon the frequency with which it is used.
To this end the dependence of the minor theorems upon
b)

The purpose

in the order

the

and grouping

of the

is

evident,

and

all

exercises

## given in connection with the various theorems are intended

On pages
to illustrate the use of those special theorems.
50-54, for example, Theorems 10, 11, and 12 depend directly

## on Theorem 9, while 67 consists entirely of exercises in

which it is required to prove two lines parallel. The purpose of chapter

ix is to train pupils in

THE PREFACE
The

xi

>

## ing of the exercises in it should be noted.

c) Theorems and problems whose interest

is

largely theo-

## which have no important place in

the plan of the work are inserted in the supplementary exerThese are marked with a
cises at the end of the chapters.
it
is desired to extend the
when
can
be
and
(f)
given
dagger

and

retical

historical or

## Entrance Examination Board.

traditional order is the most convenient,
has been preserved except where emphasis required a
This accounts for the separation of the work on
change*.
This subject involves
ratio, proportion, and similarity.

Inasmuch as the

it

two

points.

## Pupils should not only be familiar with the

and the properties of similar figures,

## tests for similar figures

The work is
two chapters. The chapter on
the chapter on area and equivalence

therefore

divided

into

## similarity is given after

to permit of grouping

## together all theorems involving

properties of similar figures.
Attention is also called to certain minor features:

The

introduction

to the point.

is

## natural and interesting, concise

of the exercises in this

The nature

and
first

## chapter should be noted, as well as the preliminary use of

paper folding in construction work.

The
cises

and

algebraic form of statement for theorems and exerSee especially chapters ix, x,
extensively used.

is
xi.

of limits

is

omitted.

The

idea of a

## limit is presented informally by exercises, but proofs that

are either lacking in rigor or are too difficult for the pupil

## are omitted entirely.

The treatment of the measurement
of the circle will be found satisfactory and comprehensive.

## There is a great variety of exercises with concrete setting.

These include exercises taken from surveying, physics,
For illustrations of
architecture, and industrial design.

THE PREFACE

xii

exercises in surveying, see pages 27, 46, 72, 191, and 219;
for exercises from physics, see page 106; for exercises from

architecture, see pages 157, 158, 204, 206, 265, and 280;
for exercises from industrial design, see pages 69, 71, 97, 230,

## and 235. Illustrations of similar problems will be

found on pages 141, 142, 214, 266, and 279.
The Notes on Arithmetic and Algebra and the Outline
Summary preceding the Index will be found convenient
Attention is also called to the unusually
for reference.
231,

## complete character of the index.

Thanks are due Professor G. A. Miller of the University
of Illinois for his criticisms of the historical notes.

C.
Chicago, Illinois
May, iQi8

M.

S.

E.

C.

PLANE GEOMETRY
CHAPTER

Introductory
1.

Geometry

and

solids.

## Plane geometry deals with lines and points on a plane

surface.
A plane surface is a flat surface, like a plain. In
years ago the name was "plain geometry," that is, the
geometry of the plain. In the early part of the seventeenth
century the spelling was changed from "plain geometry" to
fact,

## The word geometry comes from two

"plane geometry."
From
Greek words meaning the earth and to measure.
earliest times the results of geometry have been used for
The
practical purposes, such as building and surveying.
work of the early Egyptians furnishes an illustration.
* '

' '

' '

' '

## POINTS AND STRAIGHT LINES

CONCRETE REPRESENTATION

We

## by a dot made with a

and
it
sharp-pointed pencil
designate
by a capital letter
near
the
dot
A,
placed
(see point
Fig. 1).
^^
We represent a straight line on paper by a
^^^- ^
mark made with a sharp-pointed pencil and a
straight ruler and designate it by a small letter placed on
2.

**

the

mark

## by which a weight is suspended. The word

comes from the Latin word linea meaning "a linen
thread." The word straight comes from the Anglo-Saxon
verb meaning "to stretch."

line

'jE

:_

p.L^m GEOMETRY

".

Ex.

3.

How many

1.

points?

(2)

(4)

drawn through

(3)

Illustrate

(1)

figures.

## If two points are given, the sljraight line passing through

these points is said to be located definitely.
^
When two points are given, as points and ^

Fig. 2
often best to designate the
line passing through them as the line AB, rather than by a
small letter. This method of designating the line locates it

(Fig. 2), it is

We

and B.

## assume as apparent that

Only one straight line can pass through two given
shall

Ex.

drew

points.

## Designate each of the points in the figures that you

by a capital letter. Read each of the lines by

2.

for Ex. 1

naming two

of its points.

LOCATION OF POINTS
4,

Ex.

Ex.

2.

How many

1.

What

straight lines

Ex.

3.

Ex.

4.

is

the greatest

number

of points in

which two

can intersect?

## Draw two straight lines with no

What is the greatest number of

possible intersections.

Ex.

5.

Draw

intersections;

Ex.

6.

(3)

Name

straight lines

## the greatest number of points in which four

can intersect.

If two given straight lines intersect, the point of intersection is said to be located definitely. When two inter-

## secting straight lines are given, such as lines a and 6, it is

often best to design 2'*:e the point of intersection as the point

INTRODUCTORY

## In Fig. 3 the two

letter.
a and b were first given; their intersection
then locates point 0, which may be
^^ o
This method of
called the point ab.

straight lines

it

We
Two

shall

^""^

^^^^

definitely

Fig. 3

one

point.

Ex.

## Designate each of the lines in the figures you drew for

7.

Exs. 5 and 6 by a small letter. Read each of the points whose location is determined by these lines; show how each point is located.

STRAIGHT-LINE SEGMENTS

The

## i)ortion of a straight line terminated by two given

of
the line is called a straight-line segment. Herepoints
after the single word segment will be used to indicate a
6.

straight-line segment.
If two segments are parts of the
are said to be collinear.
6.

We

transfer segments

same

## the use of the compasses,

the dividers, or a strip of
paper.

To

transfer

given

segment.

Open the

viders

the

to

di-

segment

## required by laying them

on the given segment.
Without changing the adjustment place one leg on point
A and mark off the segment
on the line c (Fig. 4).

AB

Ex.
ments.

1.

is

the

sum

of

two given

seg-

PLANE GEOMETRY

4
Ex.

2.

## Find a segment which is the difference between two

Can any segment be subtracted from any other

given segments.

segment?
Ex.

3.

Show how

by 3 by 5 by
;

w.

## The problem of dividing a segment by any given number

not as simple as the three foregoing problems. It will be studied
In 9 we learn how to divide a given segment by 2.
later.
Note.

is

## 7. Two segments are said to be congruent if they can

be placed upon each other so as to fit exactly. To make
two segments coincide, their extremities must be made to

coincide.

We

## assume as apparent that

one
segment can be drawn joining two given points.
Only

is

shall

## If the end points of a segment are known, the segment

located definitely.

## segment has a definite length. The length of a

segment may be obtained by the successive application
of some standard unit.
8.

The

## length of a segment joining'two given points

between the two given points.

is

often

## Segments that have the same length are called equal

segments. Equal segments are congruent and congruent
segments are equal.
9.

To

folding.

falls

sharply.

segment by paper

Fold the

## paper so that point

on point B. Crease the paper ^

Hold

it

to

the

light

and see

^
Fig. 5

## that one part of the segment falls exactly

upon the other part. The crease marks the mid-point
of the segment.

## We shall assume as apparent that

A given segment has only one mid-point.
Exercise.

1

INTRODUCTORY

RAYS

## portion of a line which starts at a given point

extends indefinitely in a given direction is
10.

## The point is called the origin

called a ray.
of the ray (see ray a, origin O, Fig. 6).

Two
same
same

## rays that have a common origin

direction are said to be coincident.
origin

and

^^^- ^

If they have the

collinear.

A number
rays.

of rays

11. If

the ray

pencil of rays.

## the origin and any other point of a ray are known,

is located definitely.

We

## shall assume as apparent that

Only one ray can be drawn having a given

origin

and

## passing through a second given point.

CIRCLES

12.
closed curved Une every point of which is equally
distant from a given point in the same plane is called a circle.
The given point is called the center of the circle. In Fig. 7,

is

circle.

## A segment drawn from the center to the

A segment
drawn through the center and terminating
in the circle
7,

is

called a diameter.

a diameter of

In Fig.

DE

is

^^^-

circle 0,

'^

## segment joining two points on a circle is called a chord

In Fig. 7,
and DE are chords of circle 0.

of the circle.

OD

XY

## a circle is called an arc. In Fig. 7 the part of

between points A and B is an arc of circle 0.

part of

the circle

Note. Arc comes from the Latin, and means "a bow"; chord,
from the Greek, and means "the string of a musical instrument."

PLANE GEOMETRY

6
If

two

circles

## can be made to coincide, they are said to be

congruent.
Circles with equal radii are congruent.

The

may

be shown thus:

Cut them

We shall assume
Congruent
Note.

Draw two

out.

Put the

circle.

## as apparent also that

circles

have equal

circle is usually

and a string

## of compasses a pencil and a thread or a piece of chalk

ANGLES
DEFINITIONS

13.
figure formed by two rays which have the same
The rays are called the sides or
origin is called an angle.
arms of the angle. The origin of the rays is the vertex of

the angle.

An

angle

may

Fig. 8

## In Fig. 8 we have the following angles, reading from left

to right:
LA, Zab, /.a, Z2, ABAC. Notice that in the
last case the letter at the vertex of the angle is read between
the other two letters.

## An angle may be considered as

formed by the rotation of a ray about
its origin.

The

## pends upon the amount of rotation.

In Fig. 9 which is the larger angle?

Why?

INTRODUCTORY

Angles that have a common vertex and a common
which separates the angles are called adjacent angles.
Make a drawing to illustrate this definition.
14.

side

Ex. 1. How many angles are formed when a ray starts from
a point in a given straight line? Illustrate your answer by a
drawing and designate the angles in as many ways as possible.

Ex.

How many

2.

the angles in as

Ex.

Illustrate

intersect?

many ways

as possible.

3.

many

you

for Exs.

find?

Can you

and

2,

how

find angles

CONGRUENT ANGLES
16.

Two

To

## angles are said to be congruent

that
their sides are coincident.
placed

if

they can be so

angle.

Method
this

I.

method

Method

## By means of tracing paper.

are left to the pupil.
By means

II.

of

an

The

angle-carrier.

details of

Fasten two

## pieces of cardboard or very stiff paper together

as shown in Fig. 10.
Open the instrument
until

the edges

## sides of the given angle.

Without changing
the adjustment of the angle-carrier transfer

the

instrument to

the

desired

position

angle formed.
16. Two angles may be added by placing
them adjacent to each other. The angle
formed by the two exterior arms is the sum of
In Fig. 11, Z3 is
the sum of Z and Z 2.
Z 3 - Z 1 + Z ?..
1

i^^io.

lu

PLANE GEOMETRY

## smaller angle may be subtracted from a larger angle

by placing the smaller inside the larger so that they have
a common vertex and a common side. The

## remaining part of the larger angle is the

In Fig.
difference between the two angles.
and
between
Zl
Z2.
Z3
is
the
difference
12,

Z3=Z1-Z2.
Ex.

1.

Fig. 12

## Draw two angles

an angle equal to

their

## that are not congruent and construct

sum.

Ex. 2. Draw two angles that are not congruent and construct
the angle equal to the difference between the larger and the smaller
angle.

Ex.

3.

is

angle.

## At point on line AB draw a ray

make with the line AB an angle
Can this line have more
congruent to Z 1
Ex.

4.

that shall

To

17.

(Fig. 13.)

construct

the

bisector

of

o
Fig.

given angle.

To

i;

ZBAC.

## paper folding. Fold the paper on

extending through the vertex A
(Fig. 14) so that the ray AB will be
coincident with the ray AC.
Crease

By

line

ZA.

We

Why?

The

crease bisects
Fig.

14

## assume as apparent that

one
Only
ray can be drawn bisecting a given angle.
shall

## Divide a given angle into four congruent parts.

angles that are not congruent. Construct
an angle that is one-half the sum of the two angles just drawn.
Ex.

1.

Ex.

2.

Ex.

3.

Draw two

Draw two

Construct
angles that are not congruent.
one-half the difference obtained by subtracting
the smaller angle from the larger.

an angle that

is

INTRODUCTORY

When

## a ray starts from a point in a straight line and

forms two congruent angles, the angles are called right
angles, and the ray is said to be perpenIn Fig. 15, Z 1 is
dicular to the line.
Z
Z
1
and Z 2 are called
2,
congruent to
is said to be perBC
and
right angles,
18.

pendicular to Z) A

^''''

^^

BA may

## One complete rotation would carry it

BA. A right angle is obtained by one-

as origin.
point
the
to
back
position

The ray OA

(Fig. 16)

may

start

from

## the position OA and rotate until it extends in a direction exactly opposite to

It has made oneits original position.

The figure
half of a complete rotation.
AOAf, is called a straight angle. The angle formed
complete rotation is called a perigon.

by one

## An angle less than a right angle is called an acute angle.

An angle greater than a right angle and less than a straight
angle

is

called

19.

To

To

construct

an obtuse angle.

## construct a perpendicular to a line from a given

line.
in
the
point

By

a perpendicular to

paper folding.

## that the ray OA

the paper sharply.

is

AB

from point O.

so
with
the
OB.
Crease
coincident
ray

The

crease

Fig.

is

_L

AB. Why?

(Fig. 17.)

17

Note.

## In ordinary practice a perpendicular to a line from a point

in the line is usually drawn by means of a rectangular card or a drafts-

man's

triangle.

Place one edge of the card on line ^45 with the corner
O and draw a line along the other edge of the card.

PLANE GEOMETRY

10

We shall

## assume as apparent that

one
Only
perpendicular can be drawn

to a line

from a

To

20.

To

By

from point O.

paper folding.

## 18) so that line / will fall upon itself.

Crease the paper sharply. The crease is
the perpendicular to line / from point

Ex.

Fig.

Show how

1.

## from a point not

to

in the line

18

perpendicular to a line
means of a rectangular card or a

construct

by

(Fig.

.^

Why?

O.

draftsman's triangle.

We

## assume as apparent that

one
Only
perpendicular can be drawn to a
shall

Ex.

may

2,

line

from a

line.

How many s

How

line?

21.

To

segment.

To

AB,

## By paper folding. Fold the paper so that point

on point B. Crease the paper
sharply.

The

crease

pendicular bisector of

is

the

AB.

per-

falls

Why?

fig.

19

(Fig. 19.)

We

22.
I.

II.

of

shall

## All straight angles are congruent.

All right angles are congruent.

Ex.

1.

Show how

Ex.

2.

## Construct by paper folding an angle that

a straight angle.

## to bisect a straight angle.

is

one-fourth

INTRODUCTORY

11

MEASUREMENT OF ANGLES
23.
it

of

## An angle is measured by the successive application

some other angle considered as a unit.

to

## Sometimes angles are measured by comparing them with

Thus an angle may be H of a right angle;
Si
For most purposes,
oi
H
right angle; ^ of a right angle.

a right angle:

is

## good practical unit for measuring angles

is called a degree ().

is -g-J^

of a

perigon and
1.

How many

Ex.

2.

Ex.

3.

How many

Ex.

in a right

angle?
/^,

degrees in

H, Ks,

^3'^4, ^^

%, H, H,

}^i,

of a perigon?

oi

a.

right

angle

## Each degree may be divided into 60 congruent parts

Each minute may be divided into
minutes (')

called

The number

that

tells

(").

how many

## contained in a given angle

number of the given angle.

is

is

measure

## Angles that have the same measure number are said to

be equal. Since congruent angles can be so placed that
their sides take the same direction, congruent angles represent the

same amount

of rotation

## Also angles that have the same measure number

same amount of rotation and can be made to
the
represent
coincide.
In other words, equal angles are congruent and

number.

## congruent angles are equal.

Ex.

4.

times the

number

The sum
first,

of three angles

and the

third

of degrees in each.

is

is

Can you

360.

The second

first.

is

three

Find the

PLANE GEOMETRY

12

24.

Two

an angle

of

is

is

their

if

other.

## Find the complements

1.

Note:

Each

complement of the

called the

Ex.

sum

of 90.

a.

60

d.

62 27'

g,

33

b.

44

e.

59 18'

h.

42 2'

c.

39 10'

/.

25 20'

i.

Many

ic

## can and should be solved

by an algebraic equation.
Ex.
the

If

2.

number
Ex.

and

If

3.

an angle

is

and

of its

its

is

complement.

## complement, find the number

its

complement.
Ex. 4. Draw any acute angle. Construct the angle which
the complement of the first angle.
Ex.

Draw two

5.

is

## equal acute angles. Draw the complement

Cut out these complements and place

Ex.

How

6.

The

## fact illustrated in Exs. 5

evident.

It

may

Complements
26.
is

Two

and 6

will

be assumed as

be stated as follows:

an angle

by sub-

of 180.

Each

of

if

their

sum

is

Ex.

1.

a.

75

d.

59 22'

g.

90 21'

b.

18 25'

e.

63 18'

h.

16 18'

INTRODUCTORY
Ex.

ment

Draw any

4.

angle.

Draw

13

is

the supple-

## Ex. 5. Draw two equal angles. Draw the supplements of

each of these angles. Cut out these supplements and place one
upon the other. Are they congruent?
Ex.

How

6.

by sub-

The

## and 6 will be assumed as

be stated as follows:

evident.

It

may

## Supplements of equal angles are equal.

Certain important facts concerning sums of angles
It is evident

26.

## sum of all the parts of an angle is equal to the

whole angle. Show which is the whole angle and what are
its parts in each of these three exercises.
that the

Ex.

1.

If in Fig.

20 the ray

OB

from

starts

## in the line CA, how many degrees are

point
there in the sum oi A\ and 2?

Ex.

what

is

Ex.

2.

the

3.

In Fig. 21,

sum

of

if

AOB

is

a straight

line,

Z1+Z2+Z3+Z4?

In Fig. 22 what

is

the

sum

of

Z1+Z2+Z3+Z4+Z5?
Fig. 22

The
dent.
I.

of the

## facts illustrated in Exs. 1-3 will

They may be

be assumed as evi-

stated as follows:

## a ray starts from a point in a straight line, the sum

two adjacent angles formed on one side of the

If

line is 180, or

a straight angle.

PLANE GEOMETRY

14

The sum

11.

## of the adjacent angles on one side of a

formed by any number of rays having a comon the line is 180, or a straight angle.

straight line

mon

origin

The sum

III.

Ex.4.
is

of rays

Zl+/2+Z3 = 180,

If

Ex.

each?

in

each?

Ex.

If

7.

number

and Z2

is

## equal angles form a perigon,

Zl+Z2+Z3+Z4 = 360,

Z2

twice Zl,

twice

Zl,and Z3

## four equal angles form a perigon,

If six

6.

Ex.

Z3

If

5.

in

formed by a number

how many

degrees

how many

degrees

and Z4

how many

is

twice

Z3,

degrees in each?

## Statement I in the preceding section indicates a very

between supplementary adjacent angles and a
The next two exercises illustrate another
straight angle.
27.

close relation

## phase of this relation.

Ex. 1. Copy two right angles from cards or
draftsman's triangles (Fig. 23). Place them so
falls on point 0', side OA along side
that point
What kind of an
O'A', and OB opposite O'B'.

A BOB'}

is

angle

Ex.

and 2
ment

## Draw any two

2.

(Fig. 24).

of

Why?

How

Z2.

an angle

The

is

Zl and
angles.

occupied by

Z2.

related?

Place

What

It

kind
Fig

/.B'OC}

and 2
be stated as follows:

evident.
If

are

## Cut out the three

in the position
of

equal angles, A 1
Construct Z3, the supple-

may

will

be assumed as

24

their exterior

INTRODUCTORY
Two

28.

15

## one are prolongations of the sides of the other. If two

Thus
lines intersect, two pairs of vertical angles are formed
in Fig. 25 lines h and k intersect, forming vertical angles,
Z 1 and Z 3, also Z 2 and Z 4.
of

Ex.

Show

Draw two

1.

A2 and

that

intersecting

## same angle. Show that A

ments of the same angle.
Ex.

Zl=Z3and Z2=

## fact illustrated in Exs.

evident.

It

may

and 2

Z4?
Fig. 25

will

be assurned as

be stated as follows:

## two straight lines

If

25).

(Fig.

In Fv^. 25 why is
why are vertical angles equal?

2.

In general,

The

lines

## SUMMARY AND SUPPLEMENTARY EXERCISES

SUMMARY OF GEOMETRICAL ASSUMPTIONS
29.

The

## foregoing definitions and exercises justify the

following assumptions:

As.

1.

Two

can intersect in

point (4).
As. 2.

and

straight lines:

As.

3.

## Only one segment can be drawn between two

points, or a segment
are given (7).

is

located definitely

if its

extremities

4.
Only one ray can be drawn having a given
and
origin
passing through a second given point ( 11).
As. 5. Only one ray can be drawn bisecting a given

As.

angle (17).

PLANE GEOMETRY

16

As.

6.

line

## given points (3).

As. 7. Only one perpendicular can be drawn to a
line fjcom a given point in the line (19).
line

## As. 8. Only one perpendicular can be drawTi to a

from a given point not in the line (20).

C. Concerning circles:

As.

9.

As. 10.

## Circles with equal radii are congruent (12).

Congruent circles have equal radii (12).

As. 11.

## All straight angles are equal (22).

All right angles are equal (22).

As. 12.
As. 13.

Complements

As. 14.

As. 15.

## of equal angles are equal (24).

E. Concerning angle-sums:

## a ray starts from a point in a straight

two adjacent angles formed on one side
of the line is 180, or a straight angle (26).
As. 17. The sum of the adjacent angles on one side
of a straight line formed by any number of rays having a
common origin on the line is 180, or a straight angle (26).
As. 18. The sum of the adjacent angles formed by
a number of rays from the same origin is 360, or a
As. 16.

line,

the

sum

If

of the

perigon (26).
F. Concerning straight angles:

As. 19.

If

## their exterior sides are coUinear (27).

GENERAL ASSUMPTIONS
30.

The

## following assumptions are also true:

If equal segments (or angles) are added to

As. 20.

(or angles).

INTRODUCTORY
As. 21.

If

17

## equal segments (or angles) are subtracted

(or angles), the results are equal seg-

## from equal segments

ments (or angles).
As. 22.

If

angles)

As. 23.
the

segments (or

If

As. 24.

same segment

Segments

(or angles)

As. 25.

Equal segments

(or angles)

may

be substi-

## tuted for equal segments (or angles).

Note.
Hereafter when these assumptions are used they should be
quoted in the form in which they apply; for example: Equal segments
may be substituted for equal segments, or equal angles may be substituted for equal angles, as the case

may

require.

MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES
31. After solving each of the following exercises state
clearly and in full the definitions or assumptions which it
is

intended to
1.

illustrate.

## two supplementary angles

Find the angles.
Find an angle whose complement

One

of

is

the other.
2.

angle
3.

angle
4.

Show
all

}4

as large as the

that

if

two

one angle

is

a right

## Find an angle whose complement is }4 of its supplement.

angle by paper folding?
the hands of a clock make at 5 o'clock?

## Can you construct this

5. What angles do
at 10 o'clock?
6.

is

itself.

If,
fl.
^>.

c.

in Fig.

Z
Z
Z

6
(/.
Z 1=Z 8
7
d.
Z 4=Z 5
Z 4=Z 8
5
/.

3=Z
2=Z
1=Z

PLANE GEOMETRY

18
7.

Which

of the following

a.
b.

## Construct a perpendicular to line AB.

Construct a perpendicular to line AB from point
of

c.

d.
e.

J.

g.

## directions locate the required line

Why?

or rays definitely?

outside

AB.

## Connect points C and D.

Bisect A A.
Draw a line through point A.
From point O outside of line A B draw a ray cutting line
AB.
Draw a ray which shall make a given angle with a given
line.

h.
i.

## Draw a perpendicular bisector to a given segment.

Draw a segment bisecting a given segment.

## on the same side of line AB.

8. Two rays start from point
Of the three angles formed the second is 3 times the first and the
Find the angles.
third is 5 times the first.
9.

angle
10.

is

itself.

Can you

find

is

of its sup-

plement?
11.

Draw

possible
tion;

c.

intersections;

h.

12.

## Can you draw

four

straight

lines

d.

intersections;

e. Five possible
possible intersections;
/. Six possible intersections.

so

a.

No

intersec-

Four

intersections;

13.

ment

How many
is

/.x

\i

its

comple-

23?

## In Fig. 27 show that Z H- Z44-Z5+ZGWhat other combinations of angles in

Fig. 27 will be equal to two right angles?
14.

2rt. ^.

Fig. 37

INTRODUCTORY

19

Draw two complementary adjacent angles and the bisecHow many degrees in the angle made by the

15.

tor of each.
bisectors?

Why?

Draw two supplementary adjacent angles and the bisecHow many degrees in the angle made by the
tor of each.
bisectors?
Why?
16.

17.

Show

## Draw AABC (Fig.

Z 3 = Z 4.

18.

How many

the supplement of

32.

>

Exs
Def

exercises

<^

As

assumption
assumptions
theorem
theorems

Th
Ths
Cor

comp
sup

complementary
supplementary

section

degree
'

c^

rt.

rt.

A
Z
A

angle, angles

right angle
right angles
to
(perpendicular
-^us perpendicular
to

-^

'

(parallel to
II

A,
rt.

n
D

(is parallel

A
CS

[s]

(is equal to
(congruent to
(is congruent to
(similar to
I

is

similar to

EJ,

'

CsJ.
/-g-\

right triangle
/rectangle, rec(
tangles

square, squares
(parallelogram
(parallelograms
(trapezoid, trap(

O,

(D

to

triangle, triangles

minute
second
centimeter
millimeter
(equal to

than
than

(is less

therefore

.*

(less

corollary
alternate interior

alt. int

(greater than
(is greater than

definition

Ass

mm

if

Fig. 28

figure
exercise

Fig.

cm

Z6

Z ft is 110?

## ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS USED

Ex

"

Z1=Z2.

28) so that

that

ezoids
circle, circles

.15

arc^B

AB

chord

area

per

perimrjter

^5

'

CHAPTER

II

Congruent Triangles

INTRODUCTORY DEFINITIONS
33.

Any two

figures that

## In congruent figures corresponding sides or angles are

or angles that coincide or that can be made to

sides

coincide.

We

shall

As. 26.

Any

list

of assumptions:

## out changing either

As. 27. Figures congruent to the same figure are congruent to each other.

34.
figure formed of three segments joined end to end
consecutively is called a triangle. Such a figure has three
Unless it is othersides, three angles, and three vertices.

its sides of

## triangle that has at least two sides equal is called an

isosceles triangle. The angle included by the equal sides
is called the vertex angle, and its vertex, the vertex of the
triangle.

The

## triangle with all its sides equal

triangle.

20

is

called

an equilateral

CONGRUENT TRIANGLES

21

EQUAL SEGMENTS
TESTS
35. Ex.

AND

Draw a

1.

ments a and

II

triangle with

two

30).

(Fig.

## Draw this triangle with a soft

pencil

too

on paper that

is

not

hesLvy.

Compare your

figure with

j,

Fig, 30

by placing one paper upon the other and holding them to the
Ex.

Draw a

2.

light.

tri-

## angle with two sides equal

to the segments a and b

## and the included angle

ZC

equal to

Compare your

31).

(Fig.

figure with

plained in Ex. 1.
Ex.

Draw a

3.

exFig. 3]

triangle

## with two angles equal to A A

and B and the included side
equal to segment

Compare your

c (Fig. 32).

triangle with ^^

one paper upon the other and

them

holding

Ex.

4.

triangle

angle of

to the light.

Draw any

and

letter it

AXYZ

Fig~~32

triangle

and

ABC.

letter it

sides

Draw

another

## equal to two sides and the included angle of

the two triangles.

AABC. Compare

Note.

## In Ex. 4 and in all exercises requiring

the construction of figures the pupil should not
only make the drawing but should tell how he did ait.

Sentences should

example
(1)

be

## short and exact.

For

(Fig. 33):

Make ZX=/.A.

(2)

Make

XY = AB.

^
Etc.

Fig. 33

PLANE GEOMETRY

22

Theorkm

1.*
If two sides and the included angle of one
are
equal to two sides and the included angle of
triangle
another triangle, the triangles are congruent in all corre-

Fig. 34

AABC

Given

and

## ADEF, ZA=ZD, AB = DE,

and

AC = DF.
To

prove

congruent in

all

correspond

ing parts.

Proof:

STATEMENTS
1.

Place

REASONS

1.

Swill iallonDE,A
on D, B on E, and C and
F on the same side of DE,
that

2.

yl

Segment

AC

the line of
3.

Point

4.

BC

will fall

along

ZA=

ZD.

DF.

will

2.

## This can be done

because AB = DE.

coincide

F.

3.

exactly

4.

with EF.

AC = DF.
If

the extremities of

two segments
cide, the

coin-

segments will

coincide exactly.
5.

5.

Two

triangles

coincide

that

exactly

are

congiTient.

Note: An angle

The

teacher desires.

may

between

its

## be jjostponed imtil such time as the

CONGRUENT TRIANGLES

23

## Theorem 2.* If two angles and the included side

one triangle are equal to two angles and the included
side of another triangle, the triangles are congruent in all
corresponding parts and are called congruent triangles.
36.

of

Fig. 35

AABC

Given

and

An=

Z.D,

Z.E,

and

AB = DE.

To prove

congruent in

all

correspond-

ing parts.
Proof:

STATEMENTS
1.

A.4^Con

Place

REASONS

1.

on DE, A
on D, B on E, and C and F
on the same side of DE.

AB

that

2.

AC

can

This

2.

Why?

3.

Why?

4.

Why?

will fall

be

because

falls

done
?

oiDF.
3.

BC

will fall

ofF.
4.

and
5.

.*.

also

on the

will

fall

line of

EF,

on point F.

5.

Two

lines

sect at only
6.

.*.

Note.

f).

Why?

i1.

teacher desires.

may

## be postponed until such time

the

PLANE GEOMETRY

24
*

Draw any

Exercise.

triangle

and

letter

ABC.

it

Draw

another triangle and letter it XYZ, but make two angles and the
included side of
equal to two angles and the included
side oi AABC.
In how many ways can you construct a triangle

AXYZ

## congruent to a given triangle?

Construct an isosceles triangle with
37. Ex. 1.
base 3 cm. and each of the equal sides 5 cm. (Fig. 36)
.

Note.
I.

II,

-*^

^s

Fig. 36

drawing.

Draw segment
With A

as

a,

AB=S

cm.

center

Etc.

Ex.

2.

## angles opposite the equal sides of an

are
isosceles triangle
equal.

Theorem

3.

The

Fig. 37

To prove

A ABC, AC = BC,

AA^ LB.

I.

To prove

ZA= ZB,

prove A A and

correspond-

II.

To

obtain the

bisector
III.

IV.

.-.

CO

to

0.

## ZA=ZB, prove AAOCmABOC.

AAOC ^ ABOC, prove two sides and the

to prove

To prove

triangles, bisect

included angle

CONGRUENT TRIANGLES
Proof:

STATEMENTS

25

PLANE GEOMETRY

26

## Construct Fig. 38. Make AD and BC perpendicular

Find 0, the mid-point of AB. Make
AD = BC. Join DO and CO. Prove DO = CO.
How might AAOD be made to coincide with
Ex.

to

1.

AB.

ABOC?
Ex.

2.

Make BC

perpen-

## AO. Make Z 1 = Z2. Prove AB = AC

and BX = XC. How might AAXB be made to

dicular to

coincide with

Ex.

3.

AAXC?

Draw XY,

the per-

## pendicular bisector of segment AB. Join F, any

point in XY, to A and to 5. Prove PA=PB.
Fig. 40

Ex.

4.

Make

ment.
sides

How

Z1=Z2

and

^i5

Z3=

is

any seg-

Which

Z4.

## can be proved equal? Prove them equal.

might A^^A' be made to coincide with

AABY?
Ex.

5.

bisecting Z B.

Draw BO

angle.

Prove ^A = CA.
Ex.

6.

triangle.

in

Make AB = BC.

OB, with

A and

C.
Fig. 42

## Construct Fig. 43. ABC is an isosceles

= BY.
is the mid-point of AB.

AX

OX = OY.

Prove
Ex.

7.

Draw any
mid-point. Draw

## ment AB. Find O, its

and k so that Z 1 = Z 2.

43
seg-

rays

Through O draw
any line that will intersect h and k. Call the
])oints of intersection D and C respectively.
Prove that AD = BC and that DO = CO. How
h

might

coincide with

AAOD ?

Fig. 44

CONGRUENT TRIANGLES
Ex.

8.

Show

27

may be

used to find

## First set up a stake at any convenient point, as

Set
0, from which points A and B are both visible.
up a stake at Z) in a straight line with O and A so
= 0A. In the same way place stake C so qz
that

OD

that

CO = OB.

Fig. 46

Measure CD.

## Ex. 9. Explain from Fig. 46 how to find

the distance across a stream. Notice that the

AB

3^^^5^-^
^Sa^g^rrSv

\J

is perpendicular to a line
required distance
along the bank of the stream.

^
Fig. 46

Ex.

10.

Show

## that the distance across a stream

measured as follows

up at A with a

Z DC A may be

(Fig.

47):

pole

is

set

## stick fastened at the top so that

altered by moving the stick CD.

may

be

c
^'''''^Pv

## A person stands with the eye at C and ^7

T^^^^^^^^"^
Fig. 47
moves the stick CD until he just sees point B.
The pole is then turned around. Standing with eye at C and
looking along CD' he locates point B'. He then measures AB'

Could you do this using the visor of your cap rather than a
Is it necessary to turn through 180?
This
pole and a stick?
device is said to be an old one.*
Note. Theorems 1 and 2 were probably known to Thales. Thales
regarded as the founder of one of the earliest Greek schools of matheIt is said that Th. 2 was used in those days to
is

## determine the distance of a ship at sea. It is not known how this

was done; but a tower or a cliff might have been used as the base of
a triangle of which the ship formed the vertex. The base angles of
this triangle could be found by observation.
Show from Ex. 10 how
the solution to the problem could be completed.

Ex.

11.

intersecting

Prove that
prove

AB and CD are
AO = OB and CO =

In Fig. 48,

two

lines.

OD.

AC = BD.

Join

## See W. E. Stark, "Measuring

Science and Mathematics, 1910,

^\''y;^:^C\

^^^

^^- ^^

School

PLANE GEOMETRY

28

## Construct Fig. 49. Draw AB any segment,

and k perpendicular to ^j5 at A and B
respectively. Find 0, the mid-point oiAB. Make
Z 1 = Z 2 and extend the sides imtil they interCall the points of intersection D
sect h and k.
and C respectively. Prove that AD = BC and
DO = OC.
Ex. 12.

Con-

struct h

## Construct Fig. 50. ABC is an isosceles

Prove
is the mid-point oi AB. Zl= Z2.

Ex. 13.
triangle.

AX = BY

and OX=-OY.

TEST
39. Ex. 1 .

III

## XF, BC=YZj and CA=ZX.

Draw

X YZ so that AB =

## these triangles with a soft

Compare them by
pencil on two pieces of fairly thin paper.
placing one paper on the other and holding the papers to the
Before these triangles can be proved congruent what must
light.
you know?
Ex.

2.

its sides

equal to three

given segments.

## Theorem 4. If three sides of one triangle are equal to

three sides of another triangle, the triangles are congruent.

Fig. 51

Given

AABC

and

## ADEF, AB = DE, AC = DF,

CB=^FE.
To prove

and

CONGRUENT TRIANGLES

29

I.

II.

To prove
"

"

## AABC ^ADEF, prove AC = /.F.

ZC=ZF, place AABC so that AB,

longest side of
longest side of

AABC,
CF and

coincides with

the

DE, the

## and point C is opposite

prove that ZC^and
point F. Join

celes triangles.

Proof:

ZF

PLANE GEOMETRY

30

## APPLICATION OF CONGRUENT TRIANGLES

TO CONSTRUCTIONS
CONSTRUCTION OF ANGLES
Problem

1.
At a given point in a given line to conan angle equal to a given angle.

40.

struct

B
Fig. 53

Given line

To

/,

point

construct at point

in line

and Z BAG.

/,

X in line

WXO

## In order to construct an angle

equal to /.A,
construct two congruent triangles that shall contain

I.

AA
With

II.

at

andX
A

ZA

D and E.

With

## and the same radius draw an arc

Hne
/
at
W.
cutting
IV. With 1^ as a center and DE as a radius cut the last

III.

as a center

arc at O.

V. Join

and O.

Proof:

REASONS

STATEMENTS
I.

a.
b.
c.

d.

AE = XO.
DE = WO.

reasons in

all

full.

,CA==ZX.
Exercise.
How is

II.

.-.

it

ments?

## possible to construct the

line

and

still

have

ZX

it fulfill

in

more

the require-

CONGRUENT TRIANGLES

31

DIVISION OF ANGLES
41.

Problem

2.

To

angle.

Given

To

ZBAC.

ZBAC.

I.

II.

## In order to construct the bisector of Z.A, construct

a line through point A so that Z 1 equals Z 2.
In order to construct

Zl = Z2,

## triangles that contain

III.

With

V.

With

construct congruent

and

2.

## i4 as a center and any convenient radius draw

an arc cutting the sides of /.A Sit E and D.
IV. With as a center and any convenient radius draw
an arc.

Z) as

last

arc at O.

VI. Join

and 0.

Ex.

may be

## Show that a carpenter's steel square

used to bisect an angle as follows: Mark o

1.

## equal distances OA and OB on the sides of

the angle. Place the square as shown in Fig. 55.
Mark point D. Join
and O.

off

Fig. 55

Ex. 2. Construct
Exs. 4 and 5, 38.

PLANE GEOMETRY

32

Show by

## Ex. 3. Draw two vertical angles and bisect each.

As. 19 that the two bisectors are collinear.
Ex.

4.

Ex.

5.

## how many ways can this be done?

Ex. 6. Draw any triangle and
angle of

an equilateral

Bisect each

triangle.

Note.

Trisection of Angles.
can bisect any angle that we choose.
42.

## bisect each angle.

In

By

the

The

method given in 41 we
an angle is a

trisection of

## problem. We shall find a little later how to

In elementary geometry we confine ourselves
to the circle and straight line and use no instruments except the compasses and the straightedge. A straightedge is a ruler that is not
graduated to any scale. It has been shown that angles generally
cannot be trisected by the use of these instruments only. The Greeks
learned How to trisect any angle, and since their time many ways of
These methods, however, have
trisecting angles have been found.
always required other curves than the circle and other instruments

much more
trisect

difficult

a right angle.

## than the compasses and straightedge.

Draftsmen's methods for trisecting angles are approximations.

number

have been
56 shows one such instrument. What segments are
made equal? Show that Fig. 54 is used twice in Fig. 56. Why is the
angle trisected? How could an instrument for bisecting angles be
made? Such an instrument is sometimes used by carpenters for

Fig.

cutting

and

## of different instruments for trisecting angles

fitting

moldings.

CONGRUENT TRIANGLES

33

CONSTRUCTION OF PERPENDICULARS
Problem

43.

3.

To

## from a given point in the

line.

V
/

\\

/
\.

t-

Fig. 57

Given line

To

and point

construct

in line

/.

a perpendicular to

line

from point 0.

## Analysis and directions:

I.

In order to construct

OX

at

0,

construct

Z1=Z2.
II.

In order to construct

Zl=

## Z2, construct two con-

gruent triangles.
III.

With

as center

an arc cutting

/ at Y and Z.

line

With

V. With

as center

IV.

draw an

arc.

## and the same radius cut the

last

arc at X.

VI. Join

X and 0.

Let the pupil give the proof (see 18 for the proof to

Ex.

1.

Construct at point

of 135; of 22>^; of

in a given line

I).

an angle

of 45;

157K.

Ex.

2.

Ex.

3.

Ex.

4.

Can

Ex.

5.

by the

bisectors?

in the angle

Con-

PLANE GEOMETRY

34
44.

Problem

To

4.

## construct a perpendicular to a line

in the line.

q
\

4\

r\^

Fig. 58

Given line

To

and point

not in

line

construct a perpendicular to

/.

from 0.

Directions:
I.

With O
ting

11.

III.

as center and

at

cut-

and Z.

## With Y as center and a radius greater than half

YZ draw an arc opposite O.
With Z as center and the same radius cut this arc
at X.

and X.

IV. Join

Analysis:
I.

II.

To prove
"

"

OX

/,

prove Z

Z1=Z2,

join

= Z 2.

OY

and

OZ

and prove

AYOAUAZOA.
III.

IV.

## To prove /\YOA ^ AZOA, prove Z3= Z4.

'*

"

Z3=Z4,

.....

Let the pupil complete the analysis and give the proof.

The proof

Note.

Ex.

1.

## be much simpler after intersecting

reasons for the directions are then apparent.

The

Draw any

triangle

^

Make

side.

## the drawing called for in Ex. 1 for an equilateral

triangle and also for a triangle containing an obtuse angle.

Ex.

2.

CONGRUENT TRIANGLES
Pkoblkm

46.

of

To

T).

35

a given segment.

01
i
I
I

Fig. 59

To

AB.

Directions:
I.

With

i4

III.

## and any radius greater than

above and below AB.

as a center

construct arcs
II.

AB.

H AB

arcs at C and D.
Join C and D.

With

Note.

4,

is

simpler

Ex.
equal?

1.

## and give the

directions,

Ex.

2.

need not be made equal? Draw the figure

Which

analysis,

much

and proof

as possible.

The statements

46.

different

## preceding chapter have received three

assumptions, theorems, and corollaries.

theorem

is

is

and the
narnes:

to be proved

true.

An

assumption

is

## a statement of a fact that is taken

Its ^mth is taken for granted.

PLANE GEOMETRY

36

Many

## the assumptions in chapter i were obtained by

Many were shown to be true informally.

of

observation.

The
known

## proof of a theorem shows that if certain facts are

to be true a certain other fact must be true. The

known

The

fact to be

proved

## or given constitute the hypothesis.

is called the conclusion.

sides.

equal

The

conclusion

is:

The

The

is:

triangle has

two

## In Theorem 4 the hypothesis is Three sides of one triangle

are equal to three sides of another triangle. The conclusion
is: The triangles are congruent.
:

## The hypothesis and conclusion of a theorem may be

found by studying the grammatical construction of the
statement of the theorem. If the sentence contains a clause
beginning with "if," this clause is the hypothesis. If there
is no such clause, the complete subject is the hypothesis and
the complete predicate the conclusion.

In each case the proof consists in showing that the confrom the hypothesis. The analysis
shows how the proof has been or may be thought out.
The proof is the analysis worked backward and is set

## clusion must follow

down

in

method

The synthetic
is called the synthetic form.
the opposite of the analytical method.

what
is

The
is

## special method used for the proofs of Ths. 1 and 2

This word is derived
called proof by superposition.

What

is its literal

translation?

is

## theorems and exercises that

statement is made to the conIn all proofs a warrant must be given for each step.
trary.
Some of the exercises have been called problems. Any
Proofs are required for

some

all

specific

## for the construction of

some

CONGRUENT TRIANGLES

37

## geometrical figure to fulfill certain stated requirements.

Unless it is otherwise stated, these constructions must be

## performed with compasses and straightedge only. In all

problems it is necessary to prove that the completed figure
fulfills

47.

A.

OUTLINE REVIEW

## We have the following methods for proving two segments

or two angles equal
I.

## In the case of segments look for

differences, equal multiples, or equal

a.

Sums,

b.

## parts of equal segments.

Sides of isosceles or of equilateral triangles.
Corresponding sides of congruent triangles.

c.

11.

## In the case of angles look for

differences, equal multiples, or equal

a.

Sums,

b.

Right angles.
Supplements of equal angles.

c.

Complements

e.

Vertical angles.

## Corresponding angles of congruent triangles.

Base angles of an isosceles triangle.

/.
g.

of equal angles.

d.

ing

may

angles.

To prove
I.

Two

II.

III.

Two

## and the included angle of one with two

and the included angle of the other.

sides

sides

## angles and the included side of one with

angles and the included side of the other.

two

## Three sides of one with three sides of the other.

PLANE GEOMETRY

38
48.

Theorem

5.

If

a perpendicular be erected to a

## straight line, oblique segments drawn from the same point

in the perpendicular cutting the straight line at equal distances from the foot of the perpendicular are equal.

XY

## l.iQ line I and the oblique segments

Hypothesis: Line
are drawn from Cso that AO = OB.

CA and CB

CA=CB.

Conclusion:

Analysis:

## To prove CA=CB, prove AAOC ^ ABOC.

IL "
AAOC ^ ABOC, compare
I.

**

The proof

is left

to the pupil.

How

Exercise.

could you

make

## the congruent triangles in

Fig. 60 coincide?

## In the following exercises segments and angles are

to be proved equal.
The analysis given for Th. 3 may now
be shortened as shown under Th. 5.
49.

The

Note.

## Construct an isosceles triangle ABC. Let CO, the

Prove that the segZ C, meet the base A B at 0.
with the mid-points of ylC and BC are equal.
ments joining

Ex.

1.

bisector of

Ex.

same

2.

base.

Two

## isosceles triangles stand on opposite sides of the

Prove that the segment joining the vertices bisects

Ex.

-3.

## Investigate the case, Ex. 2, in which the

on the same side of the same base.

triangles stand

two

isosceles

CONGRUENT TRIANGLES
50.

Theorem

The

6.

39

an

## isosceles triangle is the perpendicular bisector of the base.

Hypothesis:

is

AC = BC,

isosceles,

CO

Conclusion:

is

bisector of

AB.

Analysis:
I.

CO

and

Z C.

bisects

To prove CO

_L bisector oi

Z2=

AB, prove

Z3.

^AO==BO.

Z2= Z3
AO = BO

II.

prove

Let the pupil complete the analysis and give the proof.

Theorem

## The segment which joins the vertex

7.
triangle with the mid-point of the base
bisects the vertex angle and is perpendicular to the base
61.

of

an isosceles

(Fig. 61).

= BC, and
is isosceles,
Hypothesis:
the vertex C with 0, the mid-point of base AB.

A ABC

## COtic lus ion

AC

1.

CO

2.

COAB.

bisects

CO

ZC.

Analysis:
I.

11.

To prove
'

"

that
'

CO

bisects

COAB,

ZC, prove
prove

Z2=

Z5=
Z3.

"^-

lz2=Z3

I'P^^^^

Let the pupil complete the analysis and give the proof.

Z6.

joins

PLANE GEOMETRY

40

## EXERCISES INVOLVING CONGRUENT TRIANGLES

In the exercises that follow, special care is needed
making the analysis. Study carefully the analyses given
As compared with
for Ths. 6 and 7 and for Ex. 1 below.
62.

in

the analyses for Ths. 3 and 5, one or more extra steps are
The pupil should carefully ask himself the
required.

## proper questions at each step and should be perfectly sure

that he understands how each step follows from the preceding one.
1.

The segments

isosceles triangle

## joining the mid-points of the sides of

form an

an

isosceles triangle.

Analysis:
I.

To

prove

IL "

"

AXYZ

isosceles,

ZZ=Z7,

prove

XZ=XY.

prove

Let the pupil complete the analysis and give the proof.

A ABC

How

## would Ex. 1 have read if

had been an equilateral triangle? Give
2.

(Fig. 62)

Fig. 62

proof.

## the segment which joins the vertex of a triangle with

the mid-point of the base is perpendicular to the base, the triangle
3. If

is isosceles.

CX

## a perpendicular bisector of AB.

along the ray CX, how will the
sides of
ACS change? What are the upper and
lower limits to these sides? No proof is needed.
4.

In Fig. 63,

is

C moves upward

## the segment which bisects the vertex angle

of a triangle is perpendicular to the base, the tri5.

angle
6.

If

is isosceles.

In

Fig.

64,

CX

bisects

ZACB.

## the segment AB moves to the right

and to the left along the ray CX but is
always perpendicular to CX, how will the
If

sides

of

ACBA

change?

What

is

C-*

the

## lower limit to the length of these sides?

What is the upper limit? No proof is
needed.

.^j^

Fig. 64

CONGRUENT TRIANGLES

41

## Given the equilateral AABC with equal segments AX,

off on the sides as shown in

7.

## BY, and CZ measured

Fig. 65, prove that

Given the

8.

AXYZ is equilateral.
AABC with the mid-point

isosceles

## of the base AB.

The equal sides
extended beyond the base so that

that

CA and CB

AE = BF.

are
Fig. 65

Prove

OE = OF.
Frames

9.

pieces of

## of various shapes can be made by fastening together

or iron as shown in Fig. 66. Could you change

wood

## the shape of any of these figures by pressing upon opposite sides

Which ones could be so changed?

or vertices?

Fig. 66
10.

How

and the
11.

like

rigid?

point of a chord

circle to

the mid-

## perpendicular to the chord. Is there any

special position of the chord for which the exercise and its proof
is

have no meaning?

## Show how the instrument shown in Fig. 67

be used as a leveling device. The pieces are
so fastened together that AB = AC. AD is a
plumb line. How must the framework be placed if
BC is level? This instrtmient is said to be very
12.

may

Fig. 67

ancient.*

Suggestion.
to a plumb line.
13.

Join

Draw any

CX

triangle

ABC.

is

one that

is

perpendicular

Prove AC = BY.

XY = CX.

p. 178.

PLANE GEOMETRY

42
14. Fig.

CO

joins

AABC. The

isosceles

with

## common form of truss.

with the mid-point of AB in the

68 shows a

and

OF

^C

of

OE = OF

Prove that

respectively.
is

OE

braces

The king-rod

O
CB
CO

join

and

and that

AB.

perpendicular to

^^

Fig. 68

## The segment joining any vertex of a triangle with the

mid-point of the opposite side is called a median of
the triangle.
In Ex. 14 the king-rod is the median of
the isosceles triangle that forms the truss.

In Fig. 09,

15.

and

and
If

respectively.

BC

are

^^

at

yl

prove that

AC = BD.
16.

Given ABC, an

isosceles

triangle

with the

## equal sides extended through the vertex to

and BY are AB at points A and B.
Y.

AX
that AX = BY

and
Prove

(Fig. 70).
Fig. 70

17.

Given the

extended beyond
18.

with

and

## AABC with the equal sides CA and CB

the base so that AX = BY, prove that AY = BX.
isosceles

ABC

In Fig. 71,

AC = CB.
AC and BC

prove that
19. If

is

an

isosceles triangle

## the mid-point of AB,

are extended so that CE = CD,
If

is

OE^OD.

## in the bisector of the vertex angle of an

any point
be joined to the extremities of the base AB,

isosceles triangle

AAOB
20.

an

is isosceles.

## sides are equal.

21. In Fig. 72,

and

CY

AXCY

are

ABC

drawn

is isosceles.

is

an

so that

isosceles triangle.

Z1=Z2.

CX

Prove that

CONGRUENT TRIANGLES
22. In Fig. 73,

and

CY

ACXY
23.

are

ABC

if

is

drawn so that

43

## given an isosceles triangle and

Z 1 = Z 2, prove that

is isosceles.

The

'^

are equal.
^
24.

'*

Fig. 73

triangle
25.

CX

Draw

an

isosceles

## several figures for Ex. 24.

Let the diff'erent triangles
Are there
legs of different lengths.

any

26.

triangle

No

proof

needed.

is

## The segments that bisect the angles of an equilateral

and are terminated by the opposite sides are equal.

27. If from the ends of the base of an isosceles triangle segments are drawn making equal angles with the base and terminated by the opposite sides, these segments are equal.

REVIEW DIAGRAMS
53.

## Review the proofs of Ths. 3 and 4 by means

and diagram:

of the

following scheme

Theorem 4
three sides of one triangle arc equal to three sides of another,
the triangles are congruent.
If

Hyp.

Th.3

Def. iaoBcelea
triangle

Aa.go

Th.l

Fig. 74

The theorem

to be proved

tical lines

shown

it

is

written

(Fig. 74).

down

in full

with a

ver-

## on which the proof depends. Some of these references

will be theorems.
These theorems (2 and 3 above) should
then be proved and the references to the authorities used
4.
This process should be continued until only definitions and assumptions remain.

PLANE GEOMETRY

44

## MAY INVOLVE MORE THAN ONE PAIR

OF CONGRUENT TRIANGLES

EXERCISES THAT
Note.

54.

When

from

## often well to require the proofs for

used in proving the exercises assigned.

is

it is

from
theorems

this or
all

## L Any point in the median to the base of an isosceles triangle

equally distant from the extremities of the base.

## 2. Are there any

special positions of the arbitrary point
mentioned in Ex. 1 for which the proof given does not hold?

BE

5.

X ^

which

^^^- ^^

are on
and
extended.

which

CO

are

B.

extended.

AC

In Fig. 78,
so that Z 1 =

9.

CO

8.

CO

AB

prove that

BX = BY.

C
A and

CX = CYy

AC

Prove that
7.

If

are on BC and
extended.

In Fig. 77,

6.

## the median to the base

ZXOY.

bisects

and

CO is
AABC.

In Fig. 76,

4.

of the isosceles

and

CA = CB and CD = CE. If AD
CO bisects ZC.

In Fig. 75,

3.

and

Z 2,

line h,

Fig 77

Rays

## drawn from point

h at points
are joined with any point in OC
Prove that
is isosceles.
intersecting

line

A and B

AABD

## Investigate the case, Ex.

8, in

which

is

in

extended.
10.

In Fig. 79,
point in

DC

CA = CB and AD = BD.
extended, prove that

is

any

is

between C and D.

11. Investigate

the

case,

Ex. 10,

in

If X
AX = BX.

which

X
Fig. 79

CONGRUENT TRIANGLES
In Fig. 80,

12.

CD

Prove that

is

45

## CD is any segment. Zl= Z2 and

a perpendicular bisector of AB.

## 13. If, in Fig. 80,

A ABC

Z3=

Z4.

constructed isosceles

is

## and Z>, any point in the bisector of Z.C, is joined to

A and B, DA and DB make equal angles with AB.
14.

C and
15.

^ABC

In Fig. 81,

In Fig.

AC = BD

82,

AAOB

Prove that

CO

isosceles.

is

## median to the base AB. If Z

CX = CV and that OX = OY.

16.

Fig. 80

## Construct the figures for Exs. 12 and 13 with

the same side oi AB.

D on

= Z 2,

and

is

the

prove that

isosceles.

is

Fig. 82
17.

ABC
In Fig. 83,
Prove that

BD = AF.
18.

is

equilateral,

CE =

AXZY is equilateral.

In Fig. 83,

Z1=Z2=Z3,

if

A ABC

prove

that

is

equilateral

AXYZ

is

and
equi-

lateral.

19.

Fig. 83

shown in
CX = CY.

Fig.

by means

of

A ABC

is

84.

of

an

isosceles

the construction
the isosceles

A.

Analysis:

To prove Z1=Z2,
/.YAB^ AABX.

prove that

that^

## This method of proving the theorem is given in Euclid's

In the thirteenth century the students of Oxford, England,
that is, "the flight of the
nicknamed this theorem "elefuga"
because most of them found it so difficult that few cared
wretched"

Note.

Elements.

Two

## or three hundred years later

PLANE GEOMETRY

46
the students called

Very

little is

## "pons asinorum," or "the bridge of asses."

He was a Greek who
himself.
Alexandria about 300 B.C. Some of the earlier
it

## known concerning Euclid

and taught in
students of geometry kept the results of their studies secret. Euclid's
Elements was a great advance lipon the work of his predecessors, both
lived

## arrangement and in rigor. It is said that Ptolemy once asked him

was in geometry any shorter way than that of the Elements,''
and he answered that "there was no royal road to geometry." Another
story told of him is that some one who had begun to read geometry
with EucHd asked, when he had learned the first theorem, "But what
Euclid called his slave and said,
shall I get by learning these things?"
"Give him threepence since he must make gain out of what he
in

"if there

learns."

20.

as

Show

## that the distance between two inaccessible points,

opposite sides of a stream, may be found as follows

A and B on

## Set a stake at C, sighting it in line with AB.

be any convenient distance. Take
any
point from which A, B, and C are visible. Sight

BC may
E

in line

in line

## D and C, making ED = DC. Sight F

D and B, making FD = DB. Sight
^^^ 85
will be in line with F and E and also
D and A. What line should be measured to find

with

with

so that

it

in line with

## Suppose (Fig. 86) that P represents a fence post on one

stream and line / a fence on the other side of the stream.
fence is to be built in line with P and
21.

side of a

perpendicular to fence
following

/.

Show

that the

## Let P be the point and / the line.

At any point A in the line / construct a
perpendicular to line / and set stakes
Fig. 86
making AB = AC. On line / sight D
Then sight
in line with P and B, and E in line with C and P.
F in line with D and C and at the same time in line with E
and B. PF is 1. I and S is the point where the cuts the
line

/.

CONGRUENT TRIANGLES

47

## EXERCISES INVOLVING PROPERTIES OF AND TESTS FOR

CONGRUENT TRIANGLES AND CONSTRUCTION
OF TRIANGLES
66.

1.

## Note. Two proofs may be given: one by means

angles and one by superposition.

of congruent

## 2. Two triangles are congruent if two sides and the

to one of these sides are ecjual respectively to two sides
corresponding median of the other.

3.

A ABC so
AC = cm.

Construct

the median to
Suggestion.

that

AB = 7

cm.,

AC =10

tri-

median
and the

cm.,

and

4:

Draw any

7, 10,

triangle

ABC and

and 4 on the

## the median to the side

proi)er segments.

## figure until it is evident to you wliich segments must

in order that each may have the required lenjiith.

A C.

Look at the

be constructed

first

## t4. Construct a triangle, given two sides and an angle opposite

one of these sides.

ZA

## Let a and h be the given sides and

he opposite
Suggestion.
side a.
Show how Fig. 87 is constructed. DescTil)e changes in the
data given that will alter the results, using
the following outline:
I.

Let

II.

Let

III.

Let

ZA
ZA
ZA

be an acute angle.
be

a.

right angle.

be an obtuse angle.

^^'"
side b, then suppose side a to decrease gradually and note results.

Note.

This problem

is

## Construct an isosceles triangle so that one leg shall be

9.4 cm. and the median to that leg shall make with that leg an
5.

angle of 22K.
6.

the median to
7.

The

AB

makes with

## AB = H.6 cm., 5C = 6.5

AB an angle of 45.

cm.,

and

are equal.

be

8.

Constmct an

of a right angle

and one

leg 5

cm.

shall

CHAPTER

III

## Parallels, Perpendiculars, Angles, Angle-Sums

INTRODUCTORY
PRELIMINARY THEOREM: TEST FOR UNEQUAL ANGLES
one side of a triangle is extended, an angle

56. If

which

is

called

Thus

angle.

an exterior angle

in Fig. 88,

is

formed

of the tri-

AB is extended.

## an exterior angle of AABC, The interior

angle numbered 2 is adjacent to Z 1 Z 3 and
is

Z4

## How many exterior angles has a

We may add the following to the

Exercise.
57.

assumptions

triangle?
list

of general

## As. 28. If one angle or segment is greater than a second

and the second is equal to or greater than a third, then the
first is

As. 29.

The whole

is

its parts.

## 58. Theorem 8. An exterior angle of a triangle

than either of the non-adjacent interior angles.

Hypothesis: In
the exterior Z.
Conclusion:

AABC the

side

AB

## Zl > ZCor /.BAC.

48

is

is

greater

extended, forming

49

## Analysis and construction:

A.

Zl= ZC
part of Z1=ZC, bisect CB at D, join

I.

"

II.

part of

"

## and prove Z 2 = ZC.

III.

B.

I.

"
"
Zl > ZBAC, extend CB and prove
c
Z5 = Zl and Z5 > ZBAC.

## Let the pupil give the proof.

1. How many illustrations can you find in
90 of an exterior angle of a triangle? Show
how Th. 8 applies in each case.

Ex.

Fig.

Ex.

2.

In Fig. 90,

any point

is

inside

Fig. 90

AABC.

Prove that

ZAOB>ZC.
TRANSVERSALS AND ANGLES
59.
line,

When two

by a third

straight

Zc, Zd, Zw, and

Zx

are interior

angles.

angles.

Zc and Zx,

Zd and Zw,

also

Fig. 91

Za and

Zz, also

Zh and Zy,

angles.

Z;y, also

Zd and

Exercise.

alternate

In

interior

Fig.

terior

angles.

92,

How

name 8

pairs

of

16

angles,

Fig. 92

Zz,

PLANE GEOMETRY

50

PARALLELS
60.

far

## Lines in the same plane that do not intersect however

follow them are called parallel lines.
Two

we may

same plane

will ordinarily

## Two parallel lines do

point.
This definition is the fundamental

and determine a

intersect

## not determine a point.

test for parallels.
Five other tests for parallels are contained in the group that follows.
Th. 9 is the fundamental

theorem

of the group.

Exercise.

Find

in the

and

room

in

of lines

## FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM: TEST FOR PARALLELS

61. Exercise.
Construct two straight Hnes cut by a third
straight line so that the alternate interior angles are equal.

Theorem
cut

by a

9.
If two straight lines in the same plane are
third straight line so that the alternate interior

Fig. 93

Hypothesis:

Conclusion:

Line a

\\

line

and Z

= Z 2.

6.

Analysis:
I.

To prove

## line b, show that Hne a and Hne

line a
cannot meet either on the right or on the left.
\\

IL To prove that

met

line

## a cannot meet line

b,

an exterior angle
would be equal to an opposite interior

line

line b,

show that

if

of a triangle
angle.

## PARALLELS AND ANGLES

51

Proof:

I.

a.

STATEMENTS
Line a might meet

REASONS

on the right.
would be greater
than Z2.
Zl = Z2.

a.

Supposition,

6.

Why

c.

Given.

line h

6.

c.

d.

:.

line

meet

line

does
b

not

d.

on the

diction.

## Line a might meet

line b on the left.

a.

Supposition

right,

IL

II.

a.

Supposition,

62.

The ordinary

## direct synthetic proof is explained in

for theorems and exercises in

## chapter ii. The proof used for Th. 9 is an indirect proof.

In technical terms it is called proof by reductio ad absurdum.
This is a Latin phrase. What is its hteral translation?

1.

Determine

all

## dicting the given conclusion.

Then, since either the conclusion or one of the contradictory statements must be true, we must eliminate all
but one of these by proving them absurd.
2.

## Proofs of this character are very

mathematics, but in

among

all

argument.

## common, not only in

Their validity depends

## other things upon the presentation of

all possibilities.

## The proofs for many of the theorems and exercises that

In
follow are clearer if expressed in algebraic notation.
some cases the solution of an equation is necessary. In
other cases the use of algebraic manipulations and identities are required without the solution of an equation.
Be definite and accurate.

PLANE GEOMETRY

52

## DEPENDENT TESTS FOR PARALLELS

If two straight lines in the same plane
63. Theorem 10.
are cut by a third straight line so that one pair of corresponding angles are equal, the two straight lines are parallel.

Fig. 94

Hypothesis:

Z1 =

Z2.
Line a

Conclusion:

\\

line b.

Analysis:

To prove a
IL
Z
I.

b,

\\

''

'*

prove Z 2

=Z

3,

=Z

3.

1.

Ex.

1.

Z4=Z5.

Use sup-

Theorem

11.

If

two straight

lines in the

## cut by a third straight line so that the interior angles on the

same side of the transversal are supplements, the two
straight lines are parallel.

Hypothesis:

Z24-Z4 =

2rt. Z.

Conclusion:

Line a

\\

L To
II.

"

prove a
"

supplements of

Z
Z

\\

b,

line b.
:

prove

=Z

3,

4.

=Z

3.

are each

## PARALLELS AND ANGLES

Theorem

Two

12.

pendicular to the

Would Ths.

2.

Suggestion.

Ex.

same

53

9,

10,

11,

and 12 be true

if

the phrase

## in the same plane were omitted?

CONSTRUCTION OF PARALLELS
64. Problem 6.
To draw a straight line through a given
point parallel to a given straight line.

Show
Th.

## may be solved by using Th. 9,

Make the construction by each method
How many lines may be drawn fulfilling the

## 10, or Th. 12.

and prove

it.

requirements ?
Exercise.
Show how to solve Prob. 6 by paper folding, or with
a ruler and a card, or two draftsman's triangles.

65.

As. 30.

Only one

line

66.

Theorem

13.

Two

Suggestion.

## EXERCISES INVOLVING TESTS FOR PARALLELS

67. To prove two lines parallel,
the following:
1.

2.

3.

## The alternate interior angles are equal;

The corresponding angles aYe equal;
The. interior angles on the same side

of the trans-

4.
5.

They

They

same

same
line.

of

line;

PLANE GEOMETRY

54

## Ex. 1. If two straight lines in the same plane are cut by a

third straight line so that the alternate exterior angles are equal,
the two straight lines are parallel.
2.
If, in Fig. 95, lines h and k are cut
n so that Za4-Zft = 2 vt.A, prove line k

Ex.
line

by

\\

line h.

Ex.

3.

If

Ex.

4.

In Fig. 96,

=y
figure with x

II

z.

and

ABCD
= 'w.

is

a four-sided

Prove x

\\

y and

Fig. 96

## ANGLES MADE BY PARALLELS AND TRANSVERSALS

FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM: TEST FOR EQUAL ANGLES
Theorem

14.
If two parallel lines are cut by a third
alternate
interior angles are equaL
the
straight line,
68.

ProoJ:

55

PLANE GEOMETRY

56

## APPLICATION OF PARALLELS TO TEST FOR PERPENDICULARS

70.

of

Theorem

two

17.

parallels is

line

which

is

perpendicular to one

k

## PARALLELS AND ANGLES

EXERCISES INVOLVING ANGLES
J2.

If,

in Fig. 100, h

\\

57

and Z 6 = 27

30', find

the

number

of

## degrees in each angle formed.

2. If two parallel lines are cut by a third
straight line, the alternate exterior angles are

a/i

equal.
3. If,

in Fig.

100, line

line

k, prove
^^^ ^^^
other angles
in the figure can be proved supplementary in the same way?

/.a-\- /.x

that

4.

If,

=2

rt.A.

in Fig. 101,

\\

What

Z6 = 44,

find the

number

of degrees in each

5.

the

If,

in Fig.

number

101,

Ax- Zy = 33,

find

## of degrees in each angle of the

figure.
6.

the

If,

in

number
7.

Fig.
Fig. 101, ZA is ^^ of Z.y, find
of degrees in each angle of the figure.

starts at point
If the point

ray AB.

is

101

## and moves along the ray AC indefinitely,

what are the limiting values of the Z XOA and
of the Z BOX ?
Investigate the case in which
the point X moves from A along AD.
Fig. 102

MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES
In several theorems which we have proved, certain
were constructed and used which were not given in the
hypothesis. Such lines are called construction lines. Their
use is not only permissible but often necessary. Occasionally
they may be more or less arbitrary. When such lines are
located defiftitely care should be taken that no facts are
assumed which require proof. In general, two points or one
point and a direction locate a line. For methods of locating
73.

lines

1.

## What theorems have we had

Tell how the

of construction lines?

## that were proved by the aid

line was located in each case.

PLANE GEOMETRY

58

line, ray,

a fixed

called
'

The use

or segment.

is

often

line, ray,

## should be carefully noted

2. Lines which are perpendicular to
:

(Fig. 103).
t3.

and left side to

If

parallel right

left

side,

the

Fig. 103

## Note. The right side of an angle

stands in the angle and faces out.

t4. If

their

is

sides

## right side to left side and left

side to right side, the angles are supple-

parallel

//
^-

/
^'

F'

Fig. 104

mentary.
5.

/
/

'

The

bisectors

of

pair

of

alternate

interior

angles

of

6.

If

## drawn parallel to the opposite

has two angles equal.

sides,

## triangle lines are

isosceles

a triangle

is

formed which

How

If it had none of its angles equal?
angles equal?
Give proof.
7.

all

of

its

If,

\\

line k

and

9.

a four-sided

If

figure

is

an

Zb= Za

arbi-

-\-

Zc.

.
Fig. 105

10. If

parallel

## right angle, all of its angles are right

angles.
11. A ray parallel to the base of an isosceles triangle through
the vertex bisects the exterior angle at the vertex.
12. What would be true in Ex. 11 if the ray parallel to the
base of the isosceles triangle cuts the sides of the triangle or the
Give proof.
sides extended?

13. If

59
is

any

bisected,

## other segment between the parallels and through the point of

bisection is also bisected by this point.

In

14.

Prove

In Fig.

15.

BX = AY,

106,

Fig.

BZ = AW.

that

106,

if

prove that

## AW\\BZ, BX = AY, and

XZllYW.

AW

\\

BZ, XZ\\

YW, and

BZ = AW.

Fig. 100

ANGLES IN TRIANGLES
74.

FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM
Theorem 18. The sum of the interior

triangle is

angles of

Fig. 107

Hypothesis:
Conclusion:

## A ABC any triangle.

Zl+Z2+Z3 = 2rt.^.
is

I.

## To prove Zl + Z2 + Z3 = 2 rt.Z, compare Z 1

-h Z 2 + Z 3 with angles whose sum is 2 rt. Z
.

II.

Construct
pare Z

XY
1, 2,

through

parallel to

and 3 with A

4, 5,

AB

and 3

and com-

respectively.

Note.

## Th. 18 is one of the most famous theorems of geometry.

supposed that the ancient Greeks knew that it was true for equilateral and for isosceles triangles before they l<:ncw that it was true
for all triangles.
The proof given above is supposed to be that of
Pythagoras (about 500 B.C.) and may be one of the earliest proofs for
this theorem.
It is

Ex.

by Al,

1.

2,

Can you
and 3 in

## by tearing off the corners made

and rearranging them?

verify Th. 18
Fig. 107

PLANE GEOMETRY

60

## Are there any other ways of putting in construction

Z2 Z3
Th. 18 so that Z1
may be compared with angles whose sum
Give proof. (See
is two right angles?
Ex.

2.

lines for

Fig. 108

Fig. 108.)

Ex.

## Find the number of degrees in the third angle of a

the other two angles are:

3.

triangle

if

d,

59 25', 58 42'

b.

29, 58 10'

e.

72 16', 68 42'

c.

38 40', 72 18'

/.

58

56

a. 40,

18',

79 53'

## COROLLARIES: VALUES AND COMPARISONS OF INTERIOR

ANGLES OF TRIANGLES
Cor.

75.

Ex.

I.

Each angle

Construct angles

1.

an equilateral

of
of

30,-

15,

75,

triangle is 60.
7 30',

67 30',

165, 150.

Cor.

If two angles of one triangle are equal respectwo angles of a second triangle, the third angles

II.

tively to

are equal.

Fig. 109

Hypothesis:

A ABC

and

AXYZ

have

ZA= ZX

and

ZB=ZY.
Conclusion:

Analysis:

ZC=

To prove
Prove-

Ex.
of

an

2.

ZZ.

ZC=

ZZ,

ZA-\-ZB-}-ZC=ZX-\-ZY-}-ZZ,

ZA+ZB==ZX-{-ZY.

make

Cor. IIL

of

61

## plements of each other.

Ex. 3. The vertex angle of an isosceles triangle is 42. The
perpendiculars are drawn from the ends of the base to the opposite
Find the number of degrees in the angles that these persides.
pendiculars make with the base.

76.

## Theorem 19. The exterior angle of a triangle is

sum of the two non-adjacent interior angles.

equal to the

Fig. 110

## AABC the side AB is

Hypothesis: In
the exterior Z XBC.

Z XBC= Z

Conclusion:

extended, forming

+ Z 2.

L To

prove

ZXBC=

Z1

+ Z2,

divide

ZXBC

two
and Z 2

into

respectively.
II.

.*.

and Z5 with Zl.

Ex.

1.

An

## opposite interior angles is 62. Find the

each of the angles of the triangle.

Ex.
triangle

2.
is

If

is

145,

number

one of the

of degrees in

## the exterior angle at the vertex of an isosceles

number of degrees in each of the angles

## 128, find the

of the triangle.

Ex. 3. Find the sum of the exterior angles formed when the
hypotenuse of a right triangle is extended in each direction,

PLANE GEOMETRY

62

77.

third

## one angle of a triangle is double the second, and the

first, find each angle of the triangle.

If

1.

double the

is

## 2. How many degrees in each angle of an isoscples triangle

the vertex angle is (1) three times the sum of the base angles?
(2) ^2 the sum of the base angles? (3) \i the sum of the base

if

sum

3.

4.

## have only one right angle or one obtuse

a triangle have a right angle and an obtuse angle?

triangle can

May

angle.

If

is

number

## of degrees in the angles at the intersection of the bisectors

Find also the number of degrees in the angles
of the base angles.

## In Fig. Ill, J\,ABC

5.

what

in length,

6.

is

and

the legs
to decrease

bisect

What

AO

is isosceles.

A A and B respectively.
CA and CB are made to increase and

OB

If

AAOB'i
^i^-

is

If

is

number

makes with

7.

If

is

## 70, find the

number

of degrees in the angles at the intersection of the perpendiculars drawn to the equal sides from the extremities of the base.

## In Fig. 112, l\ABC is isosceles.

pendicular to BC and AC respectively.
8.

AC

and

BY

the legs
to increase and to decrease in

what is the upper

length,
its

AX

limit to

If

ZAOB ? What

are perc

is

lower limit?
9.

times

If,

AABC, ZA

in

Z C,

find the

is

4 times

number

ZC

and

of degrees in

ZB

is

^ig. 112

the triangle.
10.

isosceles
(2)

triangle

if

in
is

## each of the angles of an

(1) >! the vertex angle;

## PARALLELS AND ANGLES

63

ANGLES IN POLYGONS
segments are joined end to end and the
end of the last is joined to the free end of the first, the
The segments are called
figure formed is called a polygon.
the sides of the polygon; the common end points of the
segments are called the vertices. Segments joining any two
78. If several

free

## non-consecutive vertices are called diagonals.

the sides is called the perimeter of the polygon.

polygon

is

said to be convex

if

no

side

The sum

of

can be extended

## so as to enter the polygon. Otherwise it is said to be

concave and has one or more re-entrant angles.

Fig. 113

## In Fig. 113 polygon 1 is convex; polygon 2 is concave with

one re-entrant angle; polygon 3 is concave with two reentrant angles; polygon 4 is a cross polygon. Hereafter
unless otherwise stated a convex polygon is intended.

## Polygons are named according to the number of sides:

a polygon of 3 sides is called a triangle ;

a polygon of 4 sides
a polygon of 5 sides

a polygon of 6
a polygon of 7

is

called

is

called a

pentagon
a hexagon;
called a heptagon;

sides is called

sides is

## a polygon of 8 sides is called an octagon

a polygon of 10 sides is called a decagon;
a polygon of 12 sides is called a duodecagon;
;

## a polygon of 15 sides is called a pentadecagon.

Polygons are sometimes called by their English instead of
by their Latin or Greek names, thus: 4-side, 7-side, 8-side,
9-side, etc.

PLANE GEOMETRY

64

A
is

## polygon with all of

a regular polygon.

and

its sides

all

79. Ex.

Ex.

2.

## Find the sum of the four angles of a quadrilateral.

of the five angles of

a pentagon

(Fig. 114).

Analysis:

To

## divide the polygon into triangles whose vertices are the

vertices of the polygon and find the sum of all the
.*.
draw the diagonals from
angles of all the triangles.
one vertex and multiply the sum of the angles in one

triangle

Ex.
of

by the number
3.

i
//' |\

\
j

>^^

^^^p

of triangles.

pj^

j^

a decagon.

Theorem

20.

gon of n sides

The sum
is

Proof:

STATEMENTS
1.

The

diagonals

divide

the

polygon into

tri-

angles.
2.
3.

## The sum of the angles of each

The sum of the angles of the

triangle is

triangles is

## Ex. 4. By substituting the proper number for n in the formula

given in Th. 20 find the sum of the angles of a hexagon; of an
octagon; of a 15-side; of a 16-side; of a 20-side; of a 24-side; of a
32-side.

Fig. 115

Ex.

5.

Fig. 115.

## Prove Th. 20 by means

of the constructions

shown

in

65

## Ex. 6. How many degrees in each angle of a regular octagon?

of a regular pentagon? of a regular decagon? of a regular 12-side?
of a regular 16-side? of a regular 20-side? of a regular 24-side? of
a regular n-side?

Ex.
angles

## Is it possible to have a regular polygon each of whose

108? 150? 144? 128? 160? If such polygons are

7.
is

possible,

how many

sides

would there be

in

each case?

## Ex. 8. Find the sum of the interior angles of a peAtagon that

has one re-entrant angle; of an octagon with two re-entrant angles.

Ex.

How many

9.

## regular triangles can be placed adjacent with

the same point? Will the space about the

their vertices

at

point be

exactly?

Ex.

filled

Can

10.

Why?

## the same point and the space be

filled

exactly?

Why? Can

regular pentagons?

regular

Why?

octagons?

## THE SUM OF THE EXTERIOR ANGLES OF ANY POLYGON

Find the sum of the exterior angles of a pentagon.

80. Ex. 1.

Analysis:

To

## sum of the exterior angles of ABCDE,

sum of the interior angles from the sum

find the

subtract the

and

of the interior

^^

-_

Fig. 116

## Ex. 2. Find the sum of the exterior angles of an octagon; of

a decagon; of a 12-side.

## Theorem 21. The sum of the exterior

gon of n sides is four right angles.

angles of a poly-

Ex.

3.

Is

it

exterior angles

## possible to have a regular polygon each of

24? 36? 40? If so, how many sides

is

## these polygons have?

whose
would

PLANE GEOMETRY

66

MISCELLANEOUS THEOREMS
TEST
81.

triangle.

## triangle that contains a right angle is called a right

The side opposite the right angle of a right triangle

## The perpendicular sides are called

called the hypotenuse.
the legs of the right triangle.

is

Ex.

1.

## Construct a right triangle with the hypotenuse equal

and one acute angle equal to a given angle.

to a given segment

Theorem

22.

Two

## hypotenuse and an acute angle of one are equal

hypotenuse and an acute angle of the other.

if

the

to the

Fig. 117

Hypothesis:

In

AABC

Z X, and Z B and Z Y
Conclusion:

Analysis:

are

AABC
To prove

and
rt.

AXYZ, AC = XZ, AA =
A

m AXYZ.

AABC

^ AXYZ, prove

Use Cor.

II,

ZC=

ZZ.

75.

## Ex. 2. Perpendiculars dropped from the mid-points of the

equal sides of an isosceles triangle to the base are equal.
Ex. 3. Perpendiculars from the mid-point of the
base of an isosceles triangle to the legs are equal.

CO is the perpendicular
are the limiting values of the
length of the perpendicular from O to the segment
as
moves along the ray OC?
Ex.

4.

bisector of

BX

If,

in Fig. 118,

AB, what

TEST

II

67

## Construct a right triangle with the hypotenuse and

82. Ex. 1.
one side equal respectively to given segments.

## Theorem 23. Two right triangles are congruent if the

hypotenuse and a side of one are equal to the hypotenuse
and a side of the other.

Fig. 119

In the

Hypothesis:

YZ, and Z

and

Conclusion:

A ABC

ZY are

AABC

rt.

and XYZ,

AC = XZ, BC =

^ AXYZ.

I.

II.

Toprove

AA^C

^ AXYZ, prove

ZA= ZX,

## prove ZA = ZX, place AABC so that BC

falls on YZ, B on Y, C on Z, and A opposite X,

To

## XYAZ an isosceles triangle.

XYAZ a triangle, prove XYA

and prove
III.

To

prove

a straight

Cor.

For

## a perpendicular is erected to a straight line,

equal segments drawn from the same point in the perIf

perpendicular.
Ex.

2.

chord of the

line

## from the center of a

circle bisects

circle

perpendicular to a

the chord.

## Ex. 3. Construct an isosceles triangle, given one leg and the

perpendicular from the vertex to the base.

## Ex. 4. Perpendiculars drawn from an arbitrary point in the

bisector of an angle to the sides of the angle are equal.

PLANE GEOMETRY

68

Theorem

83.

the triangle

The

analysis

We now

24.

two angles

If

of.

have two

left to

the pupil.

## To prove a triangle isosceles, prove

L Two sides are equal, or

Two

II.

of

is isosceles.

that

## Of these two tests the first is derived from the definition

an isosceles triangle and is therefore the fundamental one.

Ex.

The

form a second
Ex.

2.

## bisectors of the base angles of

The

3.

isosceles triangle

## bisectors of the exterior angles at the base of

form a second

isosceles triangle

Ex.

an

isosceles triangle.

an

isosceles triangle.

## equal to a given segment and whose vertex angle shall

be equal to a given angle.

Ex.
with

4.

In Fig. 120,

CA = CB.

If

AAOB

at 0, prove that

Ex.

and
0.

5.

In Fig. 121,

Extend

Prove that

AXOY

6.

isosceles,

If,

in Fig.

XA = YB

an

is

and

isosceles triangle

a^

is isosceles.

Fig. 120

AABC is isosceles. AX = BY

CZ = CW.

Ex.

ABC

CD CE

and

XZ

and

YW

to meet at

121,

AXOY

XZ=YW,

c^

zy^w

is isosceles.

AX
is

constructed

prove that

AABC

Fig. 121
is

isosceles.

84.

Theorem

25.

of

an

isos-

## celes triangle perpendicular to the base bisects the base

and the vertex angle.

The

analysis

left to

the pupil.

7.

## PARALLELS AND ANGLES

69

SUPPLEMENTARY EXERCISES
EXERCISES INVOLVING ANGLES OF POLYGONS
85.

of

In Fig. 122,

1.

ABCDE

## whose angles are obtuse.

is

a convex polygon of
sides of the

The

## polygon are extended until they intersect, formFind the sum of

ing the star polygon shown.
the angles in the points of the star. What
of the angles in the points
If it
of the star if the polygon had six sides?

Fig. 122

sides?

## Suppose the convex polygons used in Ex. 1 were regular,

degrees would there be in the angle at any point of
the star polygons formed?
2.

how many

3. Fig.

If the points

DEFGHK

is

regular hexagon.

4. Fig.

## 124 shows a kite formed of two regular

same base AC. If the sides

are bisected

that

## and the points joined as shown, prove

AEFCGH

is

a regular hexagon.

## shows a regular hexagon ABCDEF,

are extended in both directions as
indicated, prove that a regular triangle XYZ is
5.

Fig. 125

If alternate sides

formed.

Note.
triangles

Tiled
so

and mosaic

colored

floors

are

often

of

equilateral
Fig.

126

XJLXJL

Fig. 126

## represents three of these designs containing the figures used in the

preceding exercises. The use of equilateral triangles, squares, and
hexagons for tiles probably dates back to the ancient Egyptians.

PLANE GEOMETRY

70

MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES
86.

Be prepared

Note.

on which each of

## perpendicular from any vertex of a triangle to the

opposite side is called an altitude of the triangle.

Make

1,

## review diagrams for Ths. 11, 15, 19, and 25.

ABC

2. If

an

is

sides

BC and ^C

^5

is

the perpendiculars
AB\.o the equal

if

## extremities of the base

intersect at 0,

In Fig. 127,

3.

and

isosceles triangle

t\AOB

isosceles.

is

any segment,

Zl=

## From D and C perpendiculars

AB. What segments and angles

Z2,

are

drawn to

are

equal?
4.

Fig. 127

Why?
Investigate

obtuse angles.

Zl and Z2

are

Give proof.

## the ray which is drawn through the vertex of a triangle

the base bisects the exterior angle at the vertex, the
to
parallel
5.

If

triangle is isosceles.
6. A segment drawn from an arbitrary point in the bisector
an angle to one side of the angle and parallel to the other side
forms with the bisector and the side to which it is drawn an

of

isosceles triangle.
7.

Z CA

## In Fig. 128, BD\\ XY. AB bisects

F. Prove that BC = CD.

ZX^IC and

bisects

x_

## Construct an isosceles triangle with the

vertex angle Vs of a right angle and the alti- b
8.

## 129, ABC is an isosceles triangle

any point in ^C extended. From D a perProve
at E.
pendicular is drawn to AB cutting CB
that CDE is an isosceles triangle.
9.

with

In Fig.

point

is

on

c"

^^^- ^28

J5

case, Ex.

extended.

9,

in

which the

U. In
with

ZC

Cto AB.

Fig. 130,

ABC is an
CD

a right angle.
Construct

71

## isosceles right triangle

is

XY=YC

perpendicular from

and

YZ= YC.

## Note. The patterns used in applied design are usually made by

repeating at regular intervals some very simple figure called the unit.
Show how Fig.
Figs. 131 and 132 show two parquet floor patterns.
130 in whole or in part is used in each of these designs. The possibilities of Fig. 130 as a design unit may be discovered by making four
or eight copies of the figure, coloring the spaces to suit one's fancy,
cutting the figures out, and fitting them together in various ways.

^^

PLANE GEOMETRY

72
16.

In surveying,

135), so that

(Fig.

it

is

will

it

be in the same

## straight line with LA but on the othfer side

of some obstacle to vision, such as a house

line,

CD

as

^^^

Show

Fig. 135
that the following method
will give the desired result:
Lay off the Z a so as to clear the
Take AB, a. convenient distance. Lay off Zb = 2Za.
obstacle.

or wood.

Make BC=BA,
^

17.

Lay

off

Zc=

Za.

of the base of

an

isosceles

18.

In any

AABC

the arbitrary

AABC

is

## perpendiculars from points A and B to

AB are equal. For what special case of

## the proof of this exercise meaningless?

19. If two parallel lines are cut by a third straight line, the
bisectors of the interior angles on the same side of the transversal

## are perpendicular to each other.

20. If two parallel lines are cut by a third straight line, the
bisectors of the four interior angles form a quadrilateral with

## four right angles.

21. If a perpendicular be drawn from the vertex of the right
angle of a right triangle to the hypotenuse, the two triangles formed
are mutually equiangular.
22. Construct

an

23.

## with altitude 4.3 cm. and

isosceles triangle

H of a right angle.

(Fig. 136).

24.

sides

Two

## triangles are congruent if two

altitude to the third side

g,

and the

## one are equal respectively to two sides

and the altitude to the third side of the

of

Fig. 136

25.

AABC so
AB = 6 cm.

26. Construct

the altitude on

that

AC = 10

(Fig.

cm.,

BC = 7

cm.,

and

27.

73

Two

## triangles are congruent if two sides and the altitude

in one triangle are equal respectively to two
the corresponding altitude of the other.

and

sides

28.

A ABC

Construct

29.

The

AB = 7

so that

cm.,

AC^b

cm., and

to ^45 = 3 cm.

an

30.

an

The

angle

## isosceles triangle is equal to the exterior angle at the base of

the triangle.

3L
sides,

ABD

If

and

if

prove that

i4D

BC

is

an

is

extended through

perpendicular to

is

an exterior angle

32. If

with

isosceles triangle

DA

to point

is

and
until

DB equal
DC = DA,

AB.

of a triangle

is

bisected

bisectors

and

also

one

the two

## through a given point a ray that shall make a

with
a
given line. Is there more than one solution
given angle
33. Construct

for this

problem?

34. If

two medians

of a triangle are

## extended beyond their

bases and segments are taken on the extended lines equal to the
corresponding medians, the points thus found and the other vertex
of the triangle are

on a straight

line

that

is

## side of the triangle.

35. In Fig.

ZA
angle

137,

ABC

is

an

isosceles triangle

## Note. Fig. 137 cannot be constructed at

without a protractor.
Fig. 138, ABC is an
ZB = 54. AXCB from A

36. In

with

with

## ZC. Find the number of degrees in each

shown in the figure ii AX bisects ZA.

twice

of degrees in

37. Construct

isosceles

present

Fig. 137

triangle

and Z 2.

AABC

with

ZA=30,

## and the perpendicular from C to

AB

ZB = 45,

6.4 cm.

Pig. 138

PLANE GEOMETRY

74

t38. In each of the figures shown in Fig. 139, lines a and a'
are perpendicular to each other, also lines b and b'.
Prove that
Zab= Za'b'.

Apply Cor.

Suggestion.

Ill, 75.

Fig. 139

## 139. Investigate the truth of the statement that if two angles

have the sides of one perpendicular respectively to the sides of

40. In

140,

Fig.

A BCD

## figure with its sides equal

and

is

its

four-sided

angles right

AE = BF = BG = CH = etc. EX and HY
^C; XF and MW are parallel to

angles.

are parallel to

DB.

## NW, KZ, GY, and LZ are similarly drawn.

ANOE, EOF, and EXF are isosceles.

Prove that

How many

isosceles triangles

H and E

isosceles

What

41.

If

contain?

triangles

if

EH

||

AC.

42. If a

## equal distances from the vertex,

it

is

of

an

isosceles triangle at

## two angles are parallel right side to right

to left side, the bisectors of the angles are

side

and

parallel.

left

side
/

44.

45.

## Prove that a convex polygon cannot have more than three

in the angles at the intersection of the bisectors of the acute angles of a right triangle.

## obtuse exterior angles or more than three acute interior angles.

CHAPTER

IV

SYMMETRY
87. We have seen in chapter ii that under certain circumstances two figures can be placed one upon the other so
as to coincide exactly.
Moreover, if we wish to prove two

## segments or two angles equal, we often look for two triangles

that contain these segments or angles and try to prove these
In many cases we can make one of
triangles congruent.
these triangles coincide with the other by folding the figure
along some line in the figure, or by rotating part of the figure

No.

## shows four figures of this kind which we have had.

and 2 are folded along the line AB, the two parts
coincide.
If Nos. 3 and 4 are rotated about point O

Fig. 141
If

Nos.

will

will coincide

with

its original

## impression. Figures or parts of figures that can be made to

coincide in either of these ways are said to be symmetric.
Points, lines, segments, or angles that coincide under these
circumstances are said to be symmetric to each other.

## Can you find any other figures in chapter ii or

which are symmetric? Can you find any figures in
these chapters which are not symmetric?
Exercise.

chapter

iii

75

PLANE GEOMETRY

76

88.

## symmetric with respect to a

one part coincides with the

figure is said to be

an axis

line as

if

remainder when

it is

Two

## figures are said to be symmetric with

respect to a line as an axis if one figure
coincides with the other when the plane in

which

it lies is

>

(Fig. 143).

## Such a figure or such

have axial symmetry.

Fig. 143

SYMMETRY
89.

Theorem

The

26.

## bisector of the vertex angle of

of symmetry of the triangle.

Analysis:

To prove

A ABC
an

CD

that

(Fig. 144),

cide with

an

an axis

isosceles triangle is

ABCD

is

an

axis of

prove that
if

AABC

is

symmetry

AACD

of

will coin-

folded on

CD

as

Fig. 144

axis.

Ex.

1.

The end

## respect to the perpendicular bisector of that

Ex.

2.

What

symmetric with
segment as an axis.

Show how

## to place two congruent triangles so that

they are symmetric with respect to a side of one as an axis.

Ex.

90.-

3.

Theorem

27.

Two

## respect to an axis if the vertices of one are symmetric to

the corresponding vertices of the other.
Ex.

1.

How

parts of the

Ex.

2.

same polygon?

Show how

if

## given pentagon with a given

line as axis,

77

SYMMETRY

DEFINITIONS OF CENTRAL

## 91. A figure is said to be symmetric with respect to a

point as a center if one part of the figure coincides with the remainder when it is rotated

Fig. 145

Two

## figures are said to be symmetric with

respect to a point as a center if one figure

when

it

is

*?=^^^
^^^

rotated

/;\

## through an angle of 180 about the point as

a center (Fig. 146).

^\|^::i^
Fig,

^q

## figure or such figures are said to have central

symmetry. These definitions give us the following test for
central symmetry: A figure is symmetric with respect to

Such a

a point as a center

## for every point in it there

if

so

situated

that

responding point
sjrmmetric with respect to the center.
similar test for axial

is

a cor-

Can you

are

state a

symmetry?

SYMMETRY
92.

Ex.

The

1.

center of

symmetry

of

two points

is

the mid-

Ex.

2.

Two

vertical

respect to

Ex.

3.

many such

parallel lines.

How

## Two polygons are symmetric with respect

the vertices of one are symmetric to the corresponding vertices of the other.
Theorem

to a center

Ex.

4.

28.

if

How

if

## Ex. 5. Which letters of the alphabet have central

symmetry?
Which ones are symmetric with respect to an axis?

PLANE GEOMETRY

78

## RELATION BETWEEN AXIAL AND CENTRAL SYMMETRY

93.

metry

Theorem

29.
Any figure that has two axes of symat right angles to each other has the intersection of

v>

Fig. 147

## Hypothesis: P is a point on any figiire which is symmetric

with respect to xx' and yy' as axes. Axis xx' _L axis yy'
.

## 0, the intersection of xx' and yy'

center of symmetry of the figure.

Conclusion:

is

the

Analysis:
I.

To prove

## the figure s)mimetric with respect to point

O, prove that for every point in the figure there

a point symmetric to
a center.

exists

II.

.*.

it

with respect to

as

be any point in the figure and P' be symP with respect to yy' and P" be
symmetric to P' with respect to xx' and prove O
let

metric to

III.

To prove O

## PO = P'V and POP" a straight

To prove PO = P"0, prove them both equal to
To prove that POP" is a straight line, prove
and prove

IV.

V.

Zi-1-Z2+Z3+Z4 = 2rt.
VI.

To prove

that

Z 1+

and Z2-}-Z3 = l

full.

that

A.

Z1=Z2, Z3=Z4,

line.

P'O.

A, prove
Z.

rt.

Ex.

How many

Ex.

Has

angle?

it

## axes of symmetry has an equilateral

tri-

a center of symmetry?

2.

79

its

Note.

figures are

Symmetric

much used

in

make constant

## use of the idea of symmetry.

found in ornamental windows, wall paper, etc.
in nature, as in

snow

metric encaustic

How

ornament.

Designers
may bo

Illustrations

Symmetry

also occurs

Fig. 148 shows three symLet the pupil find other illustrations.

tile

designs.

K^SZrasa
^V/?f^1

Fig. 148

PARALLELOGRAMS
DEFINITIONS
94. Ex. 1.

Construct

BC = G.7

cm.

From A

construct

CD

parallel to

Ex.

Construct

2.

parallel.

Make one

## ZABC = (jO. Make ^5 = 5.3 cm. and

AD parallel to ^C. From C

construct

AB.

## a quadrilateral with its opposite sides

angle 45 and the sides that include the

## quadrilateral with each side parallel to its opposite is

called a parallelogram.

z,

also

and

## y, are called opposite sides ; w and x

are called consecutive sides; A A

and

## are called opposite angles;

are called consecutive

D
AC and BD

A A and

Fig. 149

## are called diagonals. While any side

angles;
be
considered
as
the base, x and z are usually called
may

the bases.

PLANE GEOMETRY

80

PROPERTIES OF PARALLELOGRAMS
95. The fundamental characteristic of
parallelograms is
stated in the definition, namely: The opposite sides are
The next three theorems depend directly upon
parallel.

this fact.

Theorem
it

into

30.
Each diagonal
two congruent triangles.

Theorem

of a parallelogram divides

31.

The

32.

The

equal.

Theorem
equal.
Ex.

1.

Two

mentary.
Ex.

2.

The sum

## of the angles of a parallelogram

is

four right

angles.
96. The diagonals of a parallelogram differ from the
diagonals of other four-sided figures in important respects.
Note the exercise on p. 81.

We

shall

## assume that the diagonals of convex quadri-

laterals intersect.

Theorem

The

33.

each other.

Analysts:
I.

that

To prove

that BO = OD.

AO = OC and

IL To prove
I

^^^^^,

prove

81

## Fig. 151 shows a parallelogram, a convex quadri1

and a concave quadrilateral. In V ~~7 /
which cases do the diagonals intersect? In \\
/
/
^^
^^~^
which case do they bisect each other?
v

Exercise.

lateral,

-i

Fig. 151

97.

Theorem

parallelogram

is

## The intersection of the diagonals of a

34.
the center of symmetry of the parallelogram.

CONGRUENCE OF PARALLELOGRAMS

## Two parallelograms are congruent if

98. The OR I'M 35.
two sides and the included angle of one are equal to two
sides and the included angle of the other.

Fig. 152

## In [s] ABCD and

Hypothesis:

and

ZA=

A'B'CD\ w = w', x = x\

ZA'.

Conclusion:

ABCD U EJ A 'B'CD'.
To prove CJ ABCD ^ OJ A'B'CD\
/Z7

Analysis:
that they will

fit

when

prove

superposed.

Proof:

STATEMENTS
I.

Place
of

ZA

and

on the

will fall

along w'

sides of

Point

upon point

B'.

III.

Point

D'.

1.

ZD

will fall

and

respectively.
2. z will fall

.'.

ZD=

## along the line of z\

V
Let the pupil give

x'

II.

IV.

all

^4

and A\

PLANE GEOMETRY

82

99.

The

## definition of a parallelogram is the fundamental

Other tests are dependent primarily

Theorem

A BCD

100. Exercise.

opposite sides

one.

and
If

36.

BC

are parallel

and

so that the

equal.

## a quadrilateral has one side equal and

it is a parallelogram.

Fig. 153

Hypothesis:

Conclusion:

ABCD

is

ABCD,

x = z and

x\\z.

ZZ7.

## Analysis and construction:

I.

To prove

III.

ABCD

/Z7,

*'

"

w\\y, draw

"

"

Z1=Z2,

II.

prove

AC

\\

y.

and prove Z

= Z 2.

prove

Let the pupil complete the analysis and give the proof.

## Construct a quadrilateral ABCD so that the

BC, also the sides AB and DC, are equal.

101. Exercise.

opposite sides,

Theorem
its

opposite,

37.

If

it is

a parallelogram.

Fig. 154

Hypothesis:
Conclusion:

The

analysis

ABCD is a O.

left to

ABCD,

the pupil.

x = z and

w = y.

83

## If the diagonals of a quadrilateral

102. Thp:orkm 3S.
bisect each other, the quadrilateral is a parallelogram.

## EXERCISES INVOLVING TESTS FOR PARALLELOGRAMS

103. To prove that any given quadrilateral
gram, prove that it has
(1)

(2)
(3)
(4)
1.

angle.

is

a parallelo-

## Each side parallel to its opposite, or

Each side equal to its opposite, or
One side equal and parallel to its opposite,
The diagonals bisecting each other.

or

## Construct a parallelogram, given two sides and the included

In how many ways is this possible?

## 2. If two sides of a quadrilateral are parallel

angles are equal, the figure is a parallelogram.

## 3. If A BCD is a parallelogram and E and

and
the mid-points of the opposite sides
CD, prove that AECF is a parallelogram.

are respectively

AB

## 4. Given EJ ABCD, with points E and F

on the diagonal .4C so that AE = CF, prove
that BFDE is a parallelogram (Fig. 155).

## Investigate Ex. 4 if points

are on the diagonal extended.
5.

6.

Given

7.

HJABCD, AE = CG,

EFGH

prove that

is

and

Fig. 155

AH = CF,

Fig. 156

## THEOREMS AND EXERCISES INVOLVING TESTS FOR

EQUAL AND PARALLEL SEGMENTS
Ths. 36 and 37, together with the definition of a parallelogram, give an additional test for equal and for parallel
104.

segments

## which these segments are opposite sides and prove

that the quadrilateral is a parallelogram.
lateral of

PLANE GEOMETRY

84

Theorem

39.

Segments

of parallels intercepted

between

## parallel lines are equal.

Theorem
between
Ex.

40.

Segments

of

perpendiculars intercepted

1.

## parallel to a given line.

Ex.

If

2.

A BCD

is

a parallelogram and

and

are respecthat

## A B and CD, prove

AF\\CE.

H the mid-points

CJABCD

Ex. 3. Given
with E, F, G, and
the sides, and the points joined as indicated in
the figure; prove that
is a parallelogram

of

AXCY

(Fig. 157).

Ex.

In what other

4.

in Fig. 157

way may

the points ^

f^

## be joined so as to form a parallelo-

ftg.

157

gram?
Ex.

5.

Construct a

of a given triangle
shall

## be intercepted by the sides

to
the
base of the triangle and
parallel

and be

## have a given length.

105.

four-sided figure

is

Unless

sides equal

and no

sides parallel.

site sides of

is

## quadrilateral with but one pair of parallel sides

a trapezoid has

its

an isosceles trapezoid

by two

If

are important

is

called

it is

called

2).

(Fig. 158,

No.

3).

## The non-parallel sides of a trapezoid are sometimes called

the legs of the trapezoid.
The

## parallel sides of a trapezoid are called the bases.

85

The perpendicular
zoid

No.

## distance between the bases of a trapecalled the altitude of the trapezoid.

In Fig. 158,
2, b and b' are the bases and a is the altitude.
is

## A quadrilateral with two pairs of parallel sides has been

defined as a parallelogram.
The perpendicular

## distance between the bases of a paralcalled the altitude of the parallelogram.

parallelogram has two altitudes, since each pair of parallel
In Fig. 158, No. 4, b
sides may be 'Considered as bases.

lelogram

is

'

## be considered as a base with a as the corresponding

altitude, or b' may be considered as a base with a' as the cor-

may

responding altitude.

The following special kinds of parallelograms are of considerable importance and of widespread occurrence:

## parallelogram with one right angle

(Fig.

158, No.

is

called a rectangle

5).

a rhombus

(Fig. 158,

No.

is

called

6).

## rectangle with two consecutive sides equal

square (Fig. 158, No. 7).

is

called a

(segment

The

XY,

definition of

## test for the

Fig. 158,

any

No.

8).

particular figure

is

the fimdamental

PLANE GEOMETRY

86

KITES
One diagonal

106. Ex. 1.

Ex.

2.

The

axis of

Theorem

it

of a kite is

symmetry

of

an

axis of

symmetry.

passes.

The

## diagonals of a kite are perpendicular

the
to each other, and
one which is an axis of symmetry
bisects the other.

Ex.

107.

41.

ISOSCELES TRAPEZOIDS
The base angles of an isosceles trapezoid

1.

are

Ex.

2.

Ex.
zoid

The segment

an

sides of

3.

## joining the mid-points of the parallel

an axis of symmetry. -

isosceles trapezoid is

If

is isosceles.

Ex.

4.

and the

altitude.

## Construct an isosceles trapezoid, given two consecutive

5.
and the included angle.

Ex.
sides

RECTANGLES
Ex.

108.

1.

Theorem

42.

sides.

## All the angles of a rectangle are right

angles.
Ex. 2. What properties has a rectangle
virtue of the fact that it is a parallelogram?
Ex.

3.

The

by

## the diagonals of a parallelogram are

the
parallelogram is a rectangle (Fig. 159).
equal,

Ex.

4.

If

Analysis:
I.

III.

To ipToveOJABCD a
prove ZA=aTt.Z.
Z^=art. Z, prove Z.4 = Z5.
"
Z^ = ZB, prove
'

II.

^^- ^^^

*'

'

Let the pupil complete the analysis and give the proof.

Ex.

5.

## Construct a rectangle, given one side and one diagonal.

87

6.
Construct a rectangle, given one diagonal and the
between
the diagonals.
angle
Ex. 7. The medians of a rectangle bisect each other at right

Ex.

angles.

## Make a list of all of the properties of the rectangle.

8.
of these properties are special properties of the rectangle?

Ex.

Which

RHOMBUSES
Construct a rhombus, given one side and one

109. Ex. 1.

angle.

Theorem

43.

Theorem

44.

The diagonals

rhombus are

equal.

they pass.
Ex.

The diagonals

2.

of a

of

symmetry.

## the diagonals of a quadrilateral bisect each other

at right angles, the figure is a rhombus.

Ex.

3.

If

Ex.

4.

The

Ex.

5.

Ex.

When
Ex.
that

7.

it is

rhombus.

rhombus are

equal.

## Construct a rhombus, given one side and the altitude.

6.
is

altitudes of a

this

problem impossible?

What

properties has a

a parallelogram?

Which

Make

rhombus by virtue
a

list

of the fact

rhombus?

SQUARES
110.

Ex.

1.

Ex.

2.

Show

Ex.

3.

side.

## that a square may be classified as a special kind

of a rectangle, or rhombus.
From these facts make a list of all
the properties of the square.

of

of a square

is

an

axis

symmetry.

## Ex. 4. If the diagonals of a quadrilateral are equal and bisect

each other at right angles, the figure is a square.
Ex. 5. Construct a square, given one diagonal.

PLANE GEOMETRY

88

## PARALLELS AND SEGMENTS ON TRANSVERSALS

TEST FOR EQUAL SEGMENTS

Theorem

111,

45.

If

all

it

off

equal

transversals.

Fig. 160

Hypothesis:

segments
X, y,

and

A, b,

li,\\l2,\\h,\\U,

and

on transversal

Conclusion :

c are equal,

and cut

off

the segments

k.

x = y = z.

Analysis:
I.

II.

## To prove x = y = z, draw MN, PQ, and RS

prove AMNP ^ APQR ^ ARST.
To prove

AMNP m APQR
mARST,

prove]

\\

h and

^^7= Z2= Z3

^^^^g^^g'.

Let the pupil complete the analysis and give the proof.

Ex.

1.

Problem

7.

To

divide a given

segment

into

lines

from

k.

any num-

## From point A draw a

Solution: Let AB he the given segment.
ray making any convenient angle with AB. From point A lay off
equal divisions on this ray. The number of divisions must be the
same as the number of parts into which ^5 is to be divided. Join
the last point of division with B. Draw parallels from the other
points of division.

Let the pupil draw the figure and give the proof.

Ex.

2.

line

may

## of equal parts (for example, 5) by the

construction shown in Fig. 161. Give the

number

Note.
to divide

may

be used

of

## equal parts. Number the lines ps in Fig. 162.

If the segment is to be divided into 7 equal
parts, put the ends of the segment on lines

and

Why?

7.

Ex.

3.

may be

## Show how a carpenter's steel square

used to divide a board into strips

Note.

the

^
Fig.

163

112.

Theorem

triangle

## segment parallel to the base of a

and bisecting one side is equal to half the base.
46.

PLANE GEOMETRY

90

## A segment parallel to the base of a

47.
and bisecting one side bisects the other side also.
Suggestion. Draw a line through the vertex of the triangle parallel
Theorem

113.

triangle

to the base

45.

## 114. Theorem 48.

segment bisecting
triangle is parallel to the third side.

two sides of a

Fig. 165

points oi

A ABC, XY

In

Hypothesis:

joins

## and Y, the mid-

AC and BC respectively.
XY\\AB.

Conclusion:

## To prove XY\\AB, prove that

segment that is to AB.

I.

XY

coincides with a

||

11.

/.

cides with

To prove

III.

XZ

coin-

XY,

that

XZ

coincides with

## XY both pass through X and

and
Proof

Y.

STATEMENTS
a.

I.

b.
c.

11.

XY
XZ
XZ

XY

passes through

and Y.

passes through X.

passes through Y.

and

XZ coincide.

XYWAB,

III.

Apply Th. 47
Exercise.

in Ic.

For

II see As. 6.

is

equal

91

## 115. If three or more lines pass through a

they are said to be concurrent.

Theorem

The medians

49.

common point,

## of a triangle are concurrent

from each vertex to

## in a point that is two-thirds the distance

the mid-point of the opposite side.

Hypothesis:

ABC is

Conclusion:

(1)

any

triangle.

The medians

are concurrent.

(2)

The

## point of intersection is two-thirds the distance from

each vertex to the mid-point of the opposite side.

## Analysis and construction for

I.

To prove

that

AF
E and prove that AE = EB.
AE = EB, prove that AB may be the

diagonal of a 17
III.

.-.

prove

## H so that OH = CO, join HB

AHBO a O.
HB OF (part of AF) and AH OG (part

extend

.-.

CE

and HA.
IV.

## that the medians are concurrent, let any

two medians, as
and BG, meet at O. Join CO

and extend to
II.

(1)

To prove

to

Prove

\\

\\

oiBG).
The

proof

is left

Analysis for
Exercise.

to the pupil.
(2)

Prove

Segments

CO = % CE.

drawn

from

one

## vertex of a parallelogram to the mid-points

of the opposite sides trisect the diagonal

t/

Fig. 167

Suggestion.

Draw

diagonal

AC

49.

PLANE GEOMETRY

92
116.

Theorem

50.

## the vertex of the

hypotenuse

is

one-half

the h5rpotenuse.

ABC,
Hypothesis: In the rt.
the /.A to the hypotenuse CB.

AX =

Conclusion:

AX

is

CB.

}/2

Analysis:
I.

II.

## AX = y2 CB, prove AX- X5 isosceles.

AX-XB isosceles, from X construct XO AC

To prove
"

"

that

\\

and prove

XO

bisector of

AB.

117.

Ex.

The
1.

## following exercises are applications of Ths. 46-50.

The segments

a triangle divide

Ex.

2.

it

## joining the mid-points of the sides of

into four congruent triangles.

its sides.

## Perpendiculars from the 'mid-points of two sides of a

to
the
third side are equal. How might this exercise be
triangle
proved if the given triangle were isosceles?

Ex.

3.

Ex. 4. If D is any point in the side ^C of a AABC, the segments joining the mid-points oi AD, DC, CB, and AB form a
parallelogram.

Ex. 5. Through a given point within an angle draw a segment terminated by the sides of the angle and bisected by the
given point.

Ex.

6.

Ex.

7.

Would Ths.

## 46, 47, and 48 be true

Give proofs.

for parallelograms as

93

TRAPEZOIDS

Theorem

118.

The segment

51.

## joining the mid-points of

is parallel to the bases.

.L
Fig. 169

## XY joins X and Y, the midAD and BC respectively.

Hypothesis: In C^ABCD,
points of the non-parallel sides

XY AB

Conclusion:

\\

and CD.

To prove

I.

XY
II..

draw

.*.

XY AB
\\

XZ AB
\\

cides with

To

III.

and therefore

||

from

AB.

is

||

XY,

prove that

## XZ coincides with XY, show.

Let the pupil complete the analysis and give the proof.

## The segment joining the mid-points

sides
of a trapezoid is equal to one-half
of the non-parallel
bases.
the sum of the

Theorem

119.

52.

~vO

Fig. 170

Analysis:
secting

XY

at

and prove

XO = y^ AB

## Construct a trapezoid so that

=
cm., CD=4: cm., AD 2.S cm.

Ex.

1.

and

AB-Q

D^ interOY = }i DC.

cm.,

BC = 3.2

## two trapezoids have the four sides of one equal

the four sides of the other, the angles of one are
to
respectively
of the other.
equal respectively to the corresponding angles
Ex.

2.

If

PLANE GEOMETRY

94

SUPPLEMENTARY EXERCISES
EXERCISES INVOLVING PARALLELOGRAMS
Be prepared

Note.

120.

any

of

1.

Make a

## review diagram for Th. 36.

2. Any segment drawn through the intersection of the diagonals of a parallelogram, and terminated by the sides of the parallelogram, is bisected by the point of intersection of the diagonals.

## 3. Perpendiculars drawn to a diagonal of a parallelogram

from the opposite vertices are equal.
4. The bisectors of two consecutive angles of a parallelogram are
perpendicular to each other.
5.

The

bisectors of

of

a parallelogram

are parallel.
6.

The

bisectors

of

rectangle.

is

## 7. The median to one pair of opposite sides of a parallelogram

equal and parallel to the other two sides.
8.

The medians

## In Fig. 171, ABCD is a parallelogram.

The sides are extended through A and C so that
9.

CE = AG and CF = AH.

Prove that

EFGH

is

a parallelogram.

## ABCD is a paralleloCD and AB are extended so that

DE = BF, DF cuts CB at Y and BE cuts
DA at X. Prove DX = BY.
10.

In Fig. 172,

gram.

Fig. 172
11.

DY

If,

are

drawn and

DX

equal to
extended to meet CD at

in Fig. 172,

is

DE = BF.
12. In Fig. 173, ABCD is a parallelogram.
DX and BY are perpendicular to ^C from
D and B respectively. DY and BX are
Prove DXBY a parallelogram.
joined.

BX and
AB at F

BY, and

and

respectively, prove

^"

Fig. 173

13.

AH =

In Fig. 174,

Prove

CF.

95

AE = CG

A BCD is a parallelogram.
^ AGOF.

A0^

Ex.

13, in

which

and

__^

pic. 174

From a Roman
floor design

## OXZY is any parallelogram,

any line through O. YA XB, and ZC are
drawn from F, X, and Z respectively perpendicuProve OC = OA + OB.
lar to OC.
15. In Fig. 175,

OC

is

16. Fig.

## often used in mechanical drawing for constructShow how each is constructed

ing parallel lines.

and upoii what theorems in geometry the construction depends. Which one of these is sometimes used in folding gates?

vertices of

BF

and

## prove that FE = 2AB, and that

bisect each other (Fig. 177).

AABC,

AC

figure

is

Fig. 177

a parallelogram.

## 19. The sum of the perpendiculars drawn from an arbitrary

point in the base of an isosceles triangle to the equal sides is equal
to the perpendicular from one end of the base to the opposite side.

is

in the

Ex.

19, in

base extended.

## 21. The sum of the perpendiculars drawn from an arbitrary

point within an equilateral triangle to the sides is equal to the
altitude of the triangle.

is

22. Investigate the case, Ex. 21, in which the arbitrary point
outside of the triangle.

PLANE GEOMETRY

96

121.

## Are the diagonals

of a rhombus?

1.

each other?

of a rectangle?

kite?
2.

of a parallelogram perpendicular to
of a square?

Name

of a trapezoid?

of

to each other.
3.

Name

by the

diagonals.

## 4. What quadrilaterals have one axis of

quadrilaterals have two axes of symmetry?

laterals

of

symmetry? What

Name

symmetry?

5.

What

Name

symmetry?

6.

The

7.

The

figure

of a rectangle

is

figure

a rhombus

is

a rhombus.

a rectangle.

## 8. The figure formed

of a square is a square.

9.

In Fig. 178,

distances

A BCD

is

is

## a square with the equal

etc., measured on the

EHKN

by

and

from the

FGLM are

vertices;

rectangles

prove that

and that

XYZW

a square.

11.

In Fig. 179,

ABDC is

a rectangle,

same number

## parts and the points joined as indicated.

that the figures formed are rhombuses.

A BCD

AB and

is

a rhombus

M y

E F G

of equal

Prove

Would

## be possible to construct the figure so that

squares are formed instead of rhombuses?
it

JTB

Fig. 178

## 10. Investigate the case, Ex. 9, in which

or a rectangle instead of a square.

CD

^'

Fig. 179

12.

In

180,

Fig.

square with

its

A BCD is a
A C and BD.

diagonals

AE = BF=CG = DH. GW

and

## are parallel to AC, and

are parallel to DB.

FZ

WXYZ

is

YE

and
Prove

HX

that

97

Fig. 180a

a square.

Parquet
floor

design

## Given A BCD a square with

U AX = CY, prove
that 5FZ)X is a rhombus (Fig.
13.

i4

a diagonal.

181).

Is

A BCD

is

is

this

exercise

a rhombus?

true

if

A BCD

If

extended.

14.

AC

13,

hi

DABCD

## In Fig. 182 given the

mid-points of the sides, and the
15.

## points joined as indicated.

is a square.
that

Fig. 181a

Fig. 181

any parallelogram?

parquet

which

floor design

and

with , F, G, and

are on

the

p_

Prove

WXYZ

Analysis:

To

prove
it a

WXYZ

a
Zl=a

rt.

with

D,

prove

WX = XY and

Fig. 182 a

Fig. 182

Parquet

floor design

Z.

16.

## A BCD is a square with AX = BY

^
Prove that PFXFZ is a square.

In Fig. 183,

CZ = DW.

z B
Fig. 183
From a Roman
floor design

## In Fig. 184, ABC is an isosceles triangle

ZC = art.Z,C0^5 from C. AX=XY=YB.
XW and YZ are AB from X and Y. Prove that
17.

with

PFXFZ
18.

is

rhombus.

sides of a

Fig. 184

a square.
its

vertices

on the

PLANE GEOMETRY

98

Be prepared

Note.

any

of

2.

## Make review diagrams for Ths. 45,

Name two important special cases

3.

in

122.

## the following exercises depend.

1.

49,
of

and

50.

Th. 45.

Ex.2.
4. The segments which join the mid-points of
the sides of a quadrilateral taken in order form a

parallelogram

5.

and

The medians

J^

for

6.

^f

'[/-/

(Fig.. 185).

Fig.

185

## join the mid-points of two opposite

sides of a quadrilateral to the mid-points of the diagonals form a

## The segments which

7.

parallelogram.
8. If from two opposite vertices of a parallelogram segments
are drawij to the mid-points of the opposite sides, these segments
trisect the diagonal joining the other two vertices.
9.

It is said

is the same

## segment as in Fig. 186. Show that this

construction as that given in Ex. 8.
10.

segment joining the mid-points of the nona trapezoid bisects both diagonals.

parallel sides of
11.

p^,^

jgg^

The segment

trapezoid

is

## joining the mid-points of the diagonals of a

to
the bases and equal to >^ their difference.
parallel

one leg

## ot a trapezoid is perpendicular to the bases, the

the
mid-point of the other leg to the extremities
segments joining
of the first leg are equal.

12. If

## the mid-points of the legs of an isosceles triangle are

the mid-point of the base, the figure formed is a
to
joined
13. If

rhombus.

## Given A BCD a trapezoid with the base AB twice the base

diagonals AC and BD intersect at 0. Prove that ^O is
twice OC.
14.

CD.

The

Suggestion.

OB

with

and

C.

CHAPTER V
Inequalities

## ASSUMPTIONS FOR COMBINING INEQUALITIES

123. To As. 28 and As. 29 in chapter iii, which were
assumptions of inequality, we must now add the following:
If equal segments (or angles) are added to
segments
(or angles), the resulting segments (or
unequal
angles) are unequal in the same order.

As. 31.

## As. 32. If equal segments (or angles) are subtracted

from unequal segments (or angles), the resulting segments
(or angles) are unequal in the same order.
If unequal segments (or angles) are added to
segments
(or angles) the greater to the greater and
unequal
the lesser to the lesser, the resulting segments (or angles)

As. 33.

same

order.

## As. 34. If unequal segments (or angles) are subtracted

from equal segments (or angles), the resulting segments (or
angles) are unequal in the opposite order.
If unequal segments (or angles) are mtdtiplied
the
same
number, the resulting segments (or angles) are
by
in
the
same order.
unequal

As. 35.

As. 36.

If

## the same number, the resulting segments (or angles) are

unequal in the same order.
Exercise.

## numbers to represent the lengths

of degrees in the angles.

99

of the

PLANE GEOMETRY

100

## FUNDAMENTAL TESTS OF INEQUALITY

124.

The fundamental

in 57, the

125.

Th.

whole

test of inequality
greater than any of

is

is

its parts.

## TEST FOR UNEQUAL ANGLES

The fundamental theorem for unequal
an exterior angle

8,

of

a triangle

is

angles

is

greater than

126.

## TESTS FOR UNEQUAL SEGMENTS

The two following tests for unequal segments are

## As. 37 may be called the fundamental test for

unequal segments. It is known to every one who goes
'cross lots rather than around the corner.

important.

As. 37.

The sum

of

is

greater

As. 38.
is less

Ex.
11, 19,

Ex.

The

difference

How many

1.

If

2.

triangles can be

two sides
and lower

of

3.

If

Ex.

4.

The sum

## point in the side

of the diagonals of

The perimeter

5.

of*

BC

AABC,

of

is

greater

sides.

is

## greater than the

of its diagonals.

Ex.

of these

## fiom a point within a triangle segments

to the vertices of the triangle, the sum

If

6.

drawn

segments

is

the triangle.

Ex.

7,

are

## limits of the third side?

D is an arbitrary
Ex.

Ex.

a triangle

and 15 cm.?

sum

of

7.

The median

## to one side of a triangle is less

of the other two sides (Fig. 187).

J''

Fig. 187

INEQUALITVES."
127.

Theorem

53.

is less

## from a point within a triangle segone side, their sum

the other two sides of the triangle.

If

to the extremities of

sum

than the

101

of

Pig. 188

Ift

Hypothesis:

from point

AABC,

segments

DA

and

DB

are

drawn

AB.

to the extremities of

Conclusion:

## Analysis and construction: To prove AD-\-DB< AC-\-CB,

to meet BC at E and prove
extend
DE-\-EB and

DB<

Proof:

STATEMENTS
1.

DB<DE-\-EB.

2.

3.

,\

4.

.\

5.

:.

Ex.

1.

The sum

the vertices

is less

## of the distances from any point in a triangle to

than the perimeter of the triangle.

Ex.

2.

Ex.

3.

If

<AB+AC,
8

32.

is

any point

in the side

AC

of

AABC, OC+OB

PLANE GEOMETRY

lOS

## TESTS FOR UNEQUAL SIDES AND ANGLES IN ONE

TRIANGLE
If one angle of a
128. Theorem 54.
triangle
than a second, the side opposite the first angle
than the side opposite the second angle.

is

greater

is

greater

Fig. 189

Hypothesis:
Conclusion:

AB> /.A.

AABC,
AC > CB.
In

I.

## AC > CB, construct a triangle with BC for

one side such that the sum of the other two sides

To prove

shall equal
II.

/.

construct
is,

so that

and
The proof

AC.
from point B so that OB = OA, that
Z 2 = Z 1, and compare AC with OC-^OB

OB

is left

to the pupil.

## 129. Theorem 55.

If one side of a triangle is greater than
a second, the angle opposite the greater side is greater than

Fig. 190

AABC,

Hypothesis:

In

Conclusion :

AB> /.A.

AOCB.

INEQUALITIES

103

ZB>ZA,

To prove

I.

that
II.

.*.

on

is

compare

ZB

with an angle

AC take CD = CB,
ZB and ZA.

with
Proof:

STATEMENTS

I.

11.

III.

a.

Zl=

b.

ZB >Z2.

c.

:.ZB>Z\.

Z2.

Zl>ZA.

ZB> ZA.

.-.

Ex.

1.

## Review Ths. 3 and 24 concerning the equal

sides

and

angles of a triangle.

## Prove Th. 55 by an indirect proof.

Prove Th. 55 by the following construction:
Bisect
Z C, continue the bisector to meet ABaX E. On CA take CD = CB.
Join E and D.
Ex.

2.

Ex.

3.

Ex.

4.

'

In Fig. 191,

dicular bisector of

AB.

XO

ZW

is

the perpen-

AB.

If point
to the right and to the left along ZW,
will the relative lengths of CA and CB
\\

C moves
how

What

change?

How

will

will

be the limits of

Z CAB

and

AA

Fig. 19i

change?
Ex.

5.

The

Ex.

DB

Ex.
Ex.

6.

If,

in

6.

the diagonal
(Fig.

192).

## State and investigate the converse of ^^

7.

Fig. 192

Ex. 8. An angle of a triangle is right, acute, or obtuse according as the median from its vertex is equal to, greater than, or less
than half the side that it bisects.

104

PLANE GEOMETRY

130.

## DISTANCES AND OBLIQUE SEGMENTS

Theorem 56. The perpendicular is the

The proof
Ex.
the

1.

sum
Ex.

is left

The

a straight

shortest

line.

to the pupil.

of the other

2.

to

The sum

two

is less

than half

sides.

is

less

than

the perimeter.

## The distance between a point and a line is defined as the

length of the perpendicular from the point to the line.

Theorem

## If from a point in a perpendicular to a

two oblique segments are drawn cutting the
straight line at unequal distances from the foot of the perpendicular, the more remote is the greater.

57.

straight line

0'

Fig.

Hypothesis: AO _L line
are so drawn that
and

AC

Conclusion:

o
193

AB

OB>OC.

AB>AC.

Analysis:
I.

## To prove AB > AC, prove Z 2 > Z 1.

"
Z2>Z1, " Z 2 an obtuse angle.
"
"
Z2 an obtuse angle, prove Z2 > Z4.
*

II.

III.

## If from a point in a perpendicular to a

two unequal oblique segments are drawn, the
line at the greater distance from
greater cuts the straight

Theorem

58.

straight line

Suggestion.

Use an

indirect proof.

INEQUALITIES

105

TRIANGLES

TWO

Theorem

## If two triangles have two sides of one

59.
two sides of the other, but the included angle of one
greater than the included angle of the other, the third side
of the first is greater than the third side of the second.

131.

equal to

Fig. 194

In

Hypothesis:

and

ZB> ZB\
AC>A'C.

Conclusion:

I.

that

II.

is

place

.-.

greater than

AC

with a segment

A'C

AA'B'C on \ABC

## AB, A' on A, and B' on B. Bisect

LC'BC\ let the bisector meet AC at X\ join XC
Compare AXA-XC with AC and AC,
To compare AX-\-XC' with AC, prove XC = XC.
cides with

III.

Let the pupil complete the analysis and give the proof.

## In constructing Fig. 194 according to state-

Discussion.

ment

will fall
may happen that point
on the Hne AC or within the triangle as well as in the position shown in the figure,
li
falls within the triangle, the
falls
proof is the same as for the case given above. If
on AC, the theorem is evident without proof.

II of the analysis it

Exercise.

Z i4

is less

If,

in

EJABCD, ZA<ZB,

PLANE GEOMETRY

106

## If two triangles have two sides of

132. Theorem 60.
one equal to two sides of the other, but the third side of
one greater than the third side of the other, the angle

## the first is greater than the

the second.
the
third
side
of
angle opposite

the

opposite

third side of

Use an

Suggestion.

indirect proof.

Exercise.
Review any theorem or theorems concerning congruent triangles that are closely related to Ths. 59 and 60.

SUPPLEMENTARY EXERCISES
Be prepared to prove the theorems on which any of
133. Note.
the following exercises depend.

Name

1.

## the theorems that are tests for unequal angles; for

unequal segments.
2.

If,

AABC,

in

3.

CD

4.

is

and B, prove

If

in

is

AB in AABC, and
CD is joined to A

^X+^^<^I^+^I^.

is

drawn and

straight line.

that

any point

5.

is

A BCD,

## the median to side

ZB > ZA.

^^'

LB > ZA.

Prove

jLC,

the median

AC> AB.

acute, prove

is

any point

by ZY. J5^'
ZY. Prove

in

is

also

Pig. 196

Zr=Z2.
Ex. 5 illustrates some important facts from physics.

Note.

## XY represents a plane mirror with a candle

E represents the eye. The reflection C of the
Fig. 196,

In

in front of

it.

## candle seems to be as far behind the mirror as C is

The light from C strikes the mirror at
it.

in front of

M and

## turned back to the eye at E so that the

The light
is the least possible.
Zl= Z2.
C.
Also
from
to
come
directly
appears
Similar relations hold when an elastic object strikes
a surface and rebounds freely.
is

distance

CME

c'

Fig.

1!

INEQUALITIES
6.
is

at

107

## Show how to find the path of a billiard ball which

A (Fig. 197) and which is struck so as to rebound

from the

XY and strike

ball B.
Fig. 197

Show

## the path of a billiard ball which is struck so as to

rebound from each side of the table and return to its original
7.

(From O.

position.

Elementary

Henrici,

Geometry,

Congruent

Figures.)

8.

in

Fig. 198.

A nalysis:
I.

fB

## prove i4C>CS, construct a triangle with AC

for one side such that the difference between
the other two sides will be BC.

To

II.

Z1=Z2

construct

.'.

and compare

9.

in

Fig. 199.

Analysis:
I.

To

II.

If

Zl, compare

Z4 with an

angle that

construct

.'.

10.

Z4 >

prove

is

^O

so that

two opposite

Z2= Z3

and compare

## sides of a quadrilateral are equal

but the

diagonals are unequal, the angles which are opposite the longer
diagonal are respectively greater than the angles which are opposite
the shorter diagonal.

two

11. If

median drawn
drawn to the longer

is

Analysis:
I.

To

prove

CX > AY,

prove

CO > AO.

II.

## CO > AO, draw the median BZ and

ACZO and AAZO.
To compare ACZO and AAZO, prove Zl>'

To

prove

compare

III.

Z2.
IV.

To

prove

Zl >Z2, compare

ACZB

and

AAZB,

CHAPTER

VI

INTRODUCTORY
DEFINITIONS
134.

We

chord,

and

Two

arc.

circle,

diameter,

(See 12.)

circles or

two

to coincide are

## called congruent circles or arcs.

we

two ways of
and by the
number of degrees that it contains. Each method gives a
numerical measure for the arc, but the measures and the
methods are different. Before two arcs can be made to
coincide they must have not only the same measure but the
same radius. Congruent arcs will have, the same measure
whichever method is used in measuring them and will be
In succeeding chapters

measuring an

arc,

shall

namely: by

its

consider

length

The chord

## joining the ends of an arc is called the chord of

Every arc has one and only one chord. Every
chord, however, has two arcs. If the chord is a diameter,
If
its two arcs are congruent and are called semicircles.
the chord is not a diameter, its two arcs are unequal. The
larger arc of a chord is called the major arc and the smaller
arc is called the minor arc.

the arc.

## An angle with its vertex at the center of a circle is called

a central angle. The sides of the angle cut off two arcs on
a circle. The minor arc cut off by the sides of a central
angle is said to be the arc intercepted by the angle,
108

CIRCLES

136.

As.

we have:

## Circles with equal radii are congruent.

9.

Congruent

As. 39.

The diameter

circle

a circle is twice its radius.

circles

As. 40.
its

109

In 29

As. 10.

To

## AND RELATED LINES

of

we

located definitely

is

if its

center and

## As. 41. If a line passes through a point within a circle,

the Hne and the circle intersect in two and only two points.

Every diameter

As. 42.
As. 43.

an

axis

ter as

## bisects the circle.

symmetric with respect to any diameand with respect to its center as a center.

circle is

## Between the same two points on a circle there

one and only one minor arc of the circle, provided these
points are not the ends of a diameter.
As. 44.

is

As. 45.
the center

As. 46.

is

If

## a segment that has one end at the center of a

than the radius, it lies wholly within the

circle is shorter
circle.

As. 47.
the center

As. 48.

is

If

circle

and

## a segment that has one end at the center of

it extends without the

circle and cuts the circle but once.

circle

As. 49.

is

In the same

minor

equal

arcs.

## As. 50. In the same circle or in congruent circles equal

minor arcs intercept equal central angles.
Note. Ass. 49 and 50 should be verified. Draw the figures on
fairfy

thin paper, place the centers together, and hold to the light.
may be drawn to illustrate Ass. 39-48.

Figures

The assumptions in

PLANE GEOMETRY

110

## RELATED ARCS, CHORDS, AND CENTRAL ANGLES

136. Ass. 49 and 50 are closely related to the two following theorems and should be learned with them.

Theorem

61.

## A. Equal chords intercept equal central angles.

B. Equal central angles intercept equal chords.

Fig. 201

Suggestion.

Prove by congruent

Theorem

62.

triangles.

## A. Equal chords have equal minor arcs.

B. Equal minor arcs have equal chords.

Analysts A:

## To prove BC = ZT, prove /.A= ZX.

Use Th. 61A and As.

49.

Analysis B:

Use

As. 50

Ex.

1.

If

and Th. 61 B.

two

circles are

## congruent to an arc of the other?

Ex.

2.

For what

special cases

do the proofs

of Ths. 61

and

62 have no meaning?
Ex.

3.

Ex., 4.

Show how

chord.

and

the mid-point

CIRCLES

## AND RELATED LINES

CHORDS

111

GENERAL

IN

FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM
Theorem

137.

63.

and

its arc.

Hypothesis:

OO, and

Conclusion:

The

analysis

Ex.

The

CO

OO

Fig. 202
is

any

bisects the

AB

AB and the

left to

1.

circle;

is

any chord

of

OC AB.

in

AB.

the pupil.

which

AB

(Fig.

202)

is

diameter.

## Ex. 2. Construct through a given point within a circle a chord

that shall be bisected at the given point.
Ex.

If a diameter is perpendicular to a chord, the quadriformed by joining the extremities of the chord to the

3.

lateral

Ex.

both of

is

kite.

## have the same center and a line intersects

them, the segments intercepted between the circles are
If

4.

two

circles

equal.

## Draw a radius perpendicular to the given

segments from equal segments.

Suggestion.
tract equal

Ex.
of

and sub-

5.

an arc

line

is

## segment from the center of a circle to the mid-point

a perpendicular bisector of the chord of the arc.

## Ex. 6. If, in a circle whose center is 0, B is the mid-point of

ACf perpendiculars from B to AO and CO are equal.
Ex. 7. If two circles intersect, the segment that joins the
centers bisects the

common

## chord at right angles.

is formed by the radii drawn to the

## Show that a kite

Suggestion^
points of intersection.

PLANE GEOMETRY

112

138.

## TEST FOR DIAMETERS

Theorem 64. The perpendicular bisector

of

a chord

circle.

Fig. 203

OO

Hypothesis:

Xy is

the

any

is

bisector of

_L

Conclusion:

AB

circle;

is

any chord

of

OO;

AB.

I.

11.

## that XY passes through point 0, prove that

XY coincides with a line that passes through O.
construct OZ from
J_ AB and prove that XY

To prove
.*.

OZ coincide.

and
IIL

To prove

that

are both

XY and OZ

bisectors of

coincide,

AB.

Proof:

STATEMENTS
I.

a.
6.
c.

II.

III.

REASONS

OZ
OZ

_L

I.

AB.

bisects

AB.

a.

Given.

h.

Construction.

c.

## XY coincides with OZ.

XY passes through point O.

II.

IIL

Why?

Why?

139. Ex.

To

1.

Ex.

2.

Suggestion.

To

of

two diameters.

## construct a circle that shall pass through the three

vertices of a triangle.
Suggestion.

The

113

65.
non-collinear
three
points.
through

Theorem

The proof

We

two methods

have, therefore,

definitely
a.

to the pupil.

is left

If

of

locating

circles

is

6.

If

points,

circle passes

it is

140.

Theorem

66.

If in

the

same

circle or in

## from the center

circles perpendiculars

to

congruent
two chords are

## equal, the chords are equal.

Fig. 204

Hypothesis:

from A,

XZ YW

Conclusion :

BC=YW,

Analysis and

construction:

CD=wz, CD=y2

CB,

To prove

BCYW,

prove

wz=y2 yw.

Let the pupil complete the analysis and give the prooL
Exercise.

141.

State

## all tests for

equal chords.

EQUAL DISTANCES
Theorem 67. In the same circle

circles perpendiculars

are equal.

to

or in congruent

## two equal chords

PLANE GEOMETRY

114

TANGENTS
TESTS FOR TANGENTS
142.

line that

## touches a circle at one point but does not

This definition is the

## called a tangent to the circle.

fundamental test for tangents.

cut

it is

## The point at which the tangent touches the circle is called

the point of contact or the point of tangency of the tangent.
143.

Theorem

its

68.

line

outer extremity

which is perpendicular
a tangent to the circle.

to a

is

Fig. 205

OO

Hypothesis:
line

AB OA

any

is

circle;

Conclusion:

AB

Analysis and

construction:

i.

To prove
all

II.
-

OA

is

at A.
is

tangent to

OO at A.

## AB is tangent to OO at A, prove that

AB except A lie outside the circle.
that any point in AB other than A, such as
that

points in

To prove
M, lies

OM >

outside the

circle, join

O and

and prove

OA.

Proof:

REASONS

STATEMENTS
I.

II.

OM >
.'.

OA.

lies

outside

I.

OO.

III. All

points except
outside OO.

IV.

.-.

AB

is

tangent to

II.
lie

Th. 56 (quote in
As. 48.

III. Since

AB
OO.

IV.

full).

is any point in
other than A.

Whyi

115

## To construct a tangent to a circle at

144. Problem 8.
a given point on the circle.
Ex. 1. Construct a circle of given radius tangent to a given
line at a given point.
Ex.

Show

2.

at a given point

on the circle.

drawn to a

circle

## TEST FOR PERPENDICULARS

145.

Theorem

69.

drawn

tangent to a circle

is

perpendicular

Fig. 206

OO

Hypothesis:

OA

is

is

any

circle,

Conclusion:

AO

Analysis and

construction:

L'

II.

AB

is

tangent to

OO
A

at

AB.

## AO AB, show that the supposition that

AB is not J_ AO'^leads to an absurdity.
If AO is not J_ AB, suppose some other line, as DO^
is AB, and show that the supposition- that DO is

To prove

Ex.

1.

Two

Ex.

2.

tangents at

diameter bisects

all

its extremities.

## LENGTHS OF TANGENTS; TEST FOR EQUAL SEGMENTS

IIG. Theorem 70.
If two tangents meet at a point without a circle, the distances from the intersection to the points
of tangency are equal.
The analysis and the proof are left to the pupil.

PLANE GEOMETRY

116

Theorem

147.

71.

## point of contact passes through the center of the circle.

Fig. 207

Hypothesis:

AC AB

Sit

Conclusion:

In QO,
A.

AB

is

tangent to

AC passes through

OO

at

and

0.

## Analysis and construction:

AC

To prove

that
passes through 0, prove that
coincides with a Hne that does pass through 0.

I.

11.

and

connect

.*.

AO

and

AC
AC

coincide.

To prove

III.

are both

The

proof

is left

AO and AC
AB at A.

that

to

coincide,

to the pupil.

## EXERCISES INVOLVING TANGENTS

Construct a line that shall be tangent to a given
and parallel to a given line.
148.

2.

1.

Construct a

line

3.

Construct a

make a

circle

line.

line

line.

4.

tangent to a

circle at

is

parallel

5.

which

If
is

two

circles

is

of the larger
of tangency.
at
the
point
b^isected

## CIRCLES AND RELATED LINES

117

6. If two circles have the same center, chords of the larger which
are tangents of the inner are equal.

## circle meet at a point

the bisector of the angle between
the tangents passes through the center of the circle.
7.

If

two tangents to a

without the

8.

circle,

Fig. 208

TWO

it

may

How

be

is it

be used?

## CIRCLES AND RELATED LINES

DEFINITIONS

@6)999
No.

yo. 3

So. 2

No. 6

So. 5

So. 4

Fig. 209

shows the

209

149. Fig.

possible relations of

six

two

circles.

Two

same center

(Fig.

209, No.

Two

The

line passing

be concentric

if

1).

## be tangent if they have but one

common point. They may be tangent internally as in
Fig. 209, No. 3, or tangent externally as in Fig. 209, No. 5.
This definition is the fundamental test for tangent circles.

## The segment through

circles is called
150.

the

two

circles is

circles.

## the points of intersection of two

chord of the two circles.

common

## Since any diameter of a circle

we will assume
Th^ line of centers

is

an

axis of

symmetry

of that circle,

As. 51.
sjnnmetry of the two
Exercise.

of

two

circles is

an axis

circles.

## When have two

circles

a center of symmetry?

of

lis

PLANE GE:OMETRY

INTERSECTING CIRCLES

Theorem

151.

72.

If

two

circles intersect in

one point

## not on the line of centers, they intersect in two points.

Fig, 210

(DA and

Hypothesis:
line of centers

intersect at point

not on the

AB.
(DA and

Conclusion:

## To prove that (DA and B intersect at a

second point, prove that there is on each circle one
point P' which is symmetric to point P.

Analysis:

Cor.

two

If

We

will

Two

As. 52.

circles

points.

Theorem
centers

is

Suggestion.

Ex.

1.

ment and

73.

If

any two

## the perpendicular bisector of the

Prove by folding the

figure

## on the axis of symmetry.

bisector to a given seg-

## If two equal circles intersect, the

Ex.
tends equal central angles in the two circles.
3.

In Fig. 211,

equal (D intersecting at
centers meets the

Prove

chord.

2.

Ex.

common

0

common chord

## A and B. The line of

at C and QO' at D.

cf

sub-

## Theorem 74. If two congruent circles

common chord is an axis of symmetry of the

119

152.

the

intersect,
figure.

Fig. 212

Suggestion.

on point B.

Cor.

If

The

two congruent

## joining the centers and the

bisectors of each other.
Exercise.

axis.

Point

will fall

## circles will coincide.

Solve Ex.

1,

circles intersect,

common

151,

the segment

by Th. 74 Cor.

TANGENT CIRCLES
153.

Theorem

75.

If

two

circles

meet

at a point

on

their

Fig. 213

Suggestion.

## Use an indirect proof. Suppose that they have a

See Th. 72 and Th. 65, 139.

CoR.
is

I.

If

## the segment joining the centers of two circles

sum of the radii, the circles are tangent

equal to the

externally.

CoR. IL
is

If

## equal to the difference between the radii* the circles are

tangent internally.

PLANE GEOMETRY

120

Theorem
contact

76.

and

## Show that they have a common

OX, at point 0. Construct OX.
Ex.

In Fig. 214,

2.

indirect proof.

In Fig. 214,

1.

circles

line of centers.

Use an

Suggestion.

Ex.

two

If

on the

is

XY

and

are

tangent at

XY = XZ

Ex.

if

Y and Z

XZ

are tan-

Fig. 214

## ^ and B are two equal circles

the common tangent at the
any point on XF may be the

In Fig. 215,

3.

tangent at C.

XY

is

## point C. Prove that

center of a circle tangent to

Ex.

0.

r^

## gent to d) A and B respectively from any

Prove
point in the common tangent OX.
that

point

tangent,

In Fig. 216,

4.

A and B

Y
Fig. 215

and B.
are

two equal

XF is a bisector of the
Prove that any point on XF

circles.

non-intersecting
line of centers AB.

Ex.

5.

Ex.

6.

Show how

each of two
Ex.
circles

4,

if

Fig. 216

## to construct circles that will be tangent to

concentric circles.

7.
With three given segments as radii construct three
each tangent to the other two.

SUPPLEMENTARY EXERCISES
EXERCISES INVOLVING INSCRIBED AND
CIRCUMSCRIBED POLYGONS
154.

polygon

vertices are

on the

is

circle

and

its

if its

## In this case the circle is said to be circumscribed

about the polygon. A polygon is said to be circumscribed
about a circle if its sides are tangent to the circle. In this
case the circle is said to be inscribed in the polygon.

circle.

an

Inscribe

1.

121

## Suggestion. It is necessary to divide the pcrigon at the center of

the circle into 8 equal parts.

2.

## Suggestion. One-sixth of the perigon

60 constructed?

Inscribe

3.

also

one of 16

an equilateral polygon

is

60.

are angles of

sides.

## Prove that the polygons constructed

4.

How

in Exs. 1, 2,

and 3 are

regular.

a regular pentagon

If

5.

is

inscribed in a circle,

its

diagonals are

equal.

The

Note.

## pupil cannot construct a regular pentagon at present

without a protractor.
of the longer

Any

6.

diagonals

## diameter of the circumscribed

How many

7.

AB

CD

The sum

is

circle?

two diameters

and
Prove that tangents at
are

each other.
9.

a regular hexagon

8.

of

circle.

of

two opposite

## lateral is equal to the

sum

of the

of a circle perpendicular to

their extremities

form a square.

two remaining

sides.

## 10. AX and BX are tangents to 0 And meet at point X

without OO. AO and BO are radii drawn to the points of
contact A and B. Prove that Z0-\- ZX = 2 rt. A that OX bisects
ZO and ZX and is a perpendicular bisector of the chord AB.
;

To

11.

## circumscribe about a given circle a triangle

shall be equal to three given angles.

whose angles

I.

To

II.

To

construct

construct

ZA

circle,

construct

circle.

## equal to one of the given angles,

to the supplement of Z^ (Fig. 217).

Z YOX equal

## Let the pupil complete the directions, construct the

the proof.

figure,

and give

PLANE GEOMETRY

122

MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES
Note.

155.

Be prepared

any

of

## the following exercises depend'.

1. If two lines intersect at a point within a circle and make
equal angles with the segment joining the point of intersection and
the center of the circle, the chords cut off are equal.

## Investigate the case, Ex. 1, {a) when the point of intersection

circle; (b) when the point of intersection is without the

2.
is

on the

circle.
3. If two equal chords intersect within a circle, they make equal
angles with the segment joining the point of intersection and the
center of the circle.

Investigate the case, Ex. 3, (a) when the equal chords intercircle; (b) when the equal chords are segments of lines

4.

sect

on the

5.

A perpendicular

circle.

6.

7.

If

8.

Two

## line joining the mid-points of two parallel chords passes

the
center of the circle.
through

parallel,

they cut

off

equal arcs.

## Suggestion. Draw a diameter perpendicular to one of the chords and

use the As.
Equal arcs subtracted from equal arcs give equal arcs.
:

9.

10.

by two

line

circles.

## through the center of a circle is cut

Prove that the segments

parallel tangents.

## cut from this line between the tangents and the

circle are equal.
11. In Fig. 218, AB is any chord and CD is a
diameter intersecting the chord. DE and CF are
AB from D and C respectively. Prove that

AE = BF.
is

CD
12. In Fig. 219, ^^ is any chord in O 0.
a diameter drawn to the mid-point of arc AB.

Prove

/1=Z2.

circles

CHAPTER

VII

## RELATION BETWEEN CENTRAL ANGLES AND

THEIR ARCS
UNITS FOR MEASUREMENT *OF ARCS
156.

## There are two ways by which an arc

is

measured:

In
length and by the number of degrees it contains.
this chapter we consider the measure of an arc in degrees.

by

its

## The number of degrees in an arc is closely related to the

number of degrees in certain angles.
The degree of angle is Meo of a complete rotation. Since
in the same circle equal central angles intercept equal arcs,
Heo of a complete rotation about any point, as O, will intercept Keo of any circle drawn with O as center. The arc
of

circle is

circle.

## of one degree at the center

taken as a unit for measuring the arcs of that

intercepted

The

unit arc

a degree of

is

therefore

Meo

of the circle

and

is

## Smaller units are obtained by

using smaller divisions of the dngle. An arc of one minute
An arc of
(') corresponds to a central angle of one minute.
called

one second
Ex.

1.

gruent?

2.

how many
Ex.

3.

## corresponds to a central angle of one second.

Are two angles of the same number of degrees conAre two arcs of the same number of degrees always

congruent?
Ex.

(")

arc.

Illustrate

by a

figure.

## a wheel makes 250 revolutions a minute, through

degrees does it revolve in one second?
If

If

a A BCD

## degrees in the arc

is

inscribed

AB?
123

in

circle,

how many

PLANE GEOMETRY

124

FUNDAMENTAL RELATION
a central angle of 30 intercepts an
arc of 30; a central angle of 42 7' 15" intercepts an arc of
42 7' 15".
shall accordingly assume that if the measure
of a central angle is any number whatsoever, the measure
167. It follows that

We

We

## by the same number.

have, therefore,

The measure of a central angle and its intercepted arc are expressed by the same number, or a central
As. 53.

angle
158.

is

measured by
protractor

its

intercepted arc.

## an instrument for measuring angles.

a semicircle or circle divided into unit
any other scale for measuring. Fig. 220
is

It usually consists of

## and is used like

shows one form of protractor.
arcs

Ex.

1,

To measure an

## Place the protractor with the center C on the vertex of the

angle and the line of zeros CO along a side of the angle. Read off
the number of degrees on the scale as indicated by the other side
of the angle.

Ex.

2.

Show how

Ex.

3.

40, 18.

Ex.

4.

number

of degrees.

## Construct with the protractor angles of 54, 72, 125,

Draw a number of angles; measure each with protractor.

With a protractor

## divide a given circle into 10 equal

By this means
parts; into 9 equal parts; into 15 equal parts.
inscribe in a given circle equilateral polygons of 10, 9, and 15
Prove that these polygons are regular.
sides.

## CIRCLES AND RELATED ANGLES

125

INEQUALITIES IN CIRCLES

The

169.

following

the

are

concerning inequalities in

fundamental assumptions

circles:

## As. 54. In the same circle or in congruent circles, if

two central angles are unequal, the minor arc subtended by
the greater angle is greater than the minor arc subtended

## by the lesser angle.

In the same circle or in congruent

As. 55.

circles,

if

## two minor arcs are unequal, the angle subtended by the

greater arc is greater than the angle subtended by the
lesser arc.
fEx.

1.

## are unequal, the central angle subtended

greater than the central angle subtended

Draw

Suggestion.

if

two chords
is

2.

fEx.

circles,

## by the greater chord

by the lesser chord.

conclusion.

## In the same circle or in congruent circles, if two minor

by the greater arc is greater

3.

fEx.

## than the chord subtended by the lesser arc.

Suggestion.
Apply As. 55 and the preceding
Investigate the converse of Ex.

4.

fEx.

exercise.
3.

clusions.

## In the same or in congruent circles the greater of two

is at the less distance from the center (Fig. 221).

5.

fEx.

unequal chords

A nalysis:
I.

To prove

perpendicular

OX, prove
11.

.*.

OY <

a part

of

perpendicular

OX.

## 5 with point A on point C, and so that

between D and C, prove that OZ cuts
DC, and that OF < a part of OZ.
place

III.

OF <

To

/1

^~^

lies

place

AB

prove

Fig. 221

AB <

DC.

## Prove the converse of Ex. 5 by an indirect proof.

Ex. 7. Construct in a given circle the shortest chord that
shall pass through a given point.
fEx.

6.

PLANE GEOMETRY

126

## RELATION BETWEEN INSCRIBED ANGLES

AND THEIR ARCS
THE MEASURE OF THE INSCRIBED ANGLES
160.

vertex

The
is

An

is

angle

on the

is

and

circle

its sides

if its

Exercise.

etc.

## Inscribe in a given circle angles of 44, 72, 105,

of the intercepted arcs.
Use a protractor.

## Find the measure

161.

Theorem

one-half

its

77.

An

inscribed angle

is

measured by

intercepted arc.

Fig. 222

Hypothesis:

ZCAB

Conclusion:

Z CAB

Case A.

When

is

inscribed in

OO.

measured by }4 EC.
the center of the circle is on one
is

side of

the angle.

I.

To prove

## that Z.A is measured by ^i BC, compare

with an angle whose measure is known.
and compare ZA and Zx.
connect C and

ZA
II.

III.

.*.

Tocompare ZAa.nd

Z:^;,

compare Z A -\-

Proof:

STATEMENTS
I.

1.

ZA+ZC= Zx.

2.

ZA=ZC.

3.

:.2ZA=Zx.

ZA

Zx.

ZC with Zx^

## CIRCLES AND RELATED ANGLES

Zx

II.

is

127

measured by BC.
is measured by J^ BC.

ZA

,'.

all

reasons.

Case B.
Analysis:

To prove

I.

that

ZA

is

II.

.%

## draw the diameter through point

with Zx and Zy.

and compare

ZA
Proof:

REASONS

STATEMENTS
1.

2.

3.

Zx

L Why?
2. Why?

measured by 3^ 5X.
Z;v is measured by }4 CX.
ZA is measured by }4
BC.
is

3.

.*.

bers, etc.

When

Case C.

is

without the

angle.

The

analysis

left to

the pupil.

## two angles of an inscribed triangle are 70 and 50*,

the number of degrees in the arcs subtended by each side.

Ex.
find

## and the proof are

Ex.

1.

If

2.

The

arcs

subtended

by the

sides of

Find the
triangle are in the ratio of 1:2:3.
bar of degrees in each angle of the triangle.
Ex.

3.

## In Fig. 223, the semicircle

is

divided into

and G. E is the
5 equal parts
by^the points C, D, F,
mid-point of FD. Find the nurfiber of degrees in
each angle of the figure.

_Ex.^.

an inscribed

num-

f e ^

^^^r^fT^^^c

\
^^^' ^23

^dSign^

## In Fig. 224, i^ = 120 and j5c=100.

Find the number of degrees in each angle

of the figure.
Fig. 224

PLANE GEOMETRY

128

## TESTS FOR EQUAL ANGLES, RIGHT ANGLES

AND SUPPLEMENTARY ANGLES

COROLLARIES:
Cor.

162.

I.

same

or

## by equal arcs are equal, and, conversely, arcs that measure

equal inscribed angles are equal.
Ex.

is

1,

## the vertices of a square A BCD lie on a circle and

in the arc AB, pt-ove that CE and
trisect the

If

DE

any point

ZAEB.

An

angle

said to be inscribed in

is

on the arc

an arc

vertex

if its

## sides pass through the extremities

of the chord of the arc.
In this case the arc is said to
lies

affti its

Cor.

An

II.

is

a right

angle.

For summary

of

tests

for

perpendiculars

and

right

Ex.

2.

## The angle between the segments

in a circle to the

Ex.
out a

3.

is

an obtuse

## The angle between the segments

circle to

Ex.

ends of a diameter

is

angle.

an acute

angle.

## the diameter of a second,

any chord of the larger drawn from the point of contact is bisected
^
by the smaller circle.
4.

If

is

Ex.

5.

Ex.

6.

CoR.

sum

Inscribed

III.

angles

leg.

are

angle.

supplementary

if

the

Ex.

7.

The

supplementary.
Ex.

8.

If

a triangle

is

## inscribed in a circle, the sum of the

by the sides is 4 right angles.

129

The

163.

L A new method

its corollaries

give us

## A new method for proving arcs equal.

A new method for proving angles supplementary.
A new method for determining and constructing

XL
III.

IV.

right

angles.

ZACD

1.

in

Fig. 225.
If

2.

diameter

PQ

bisects

3.

and a

b\

Fig. 225

QR.

circle is

AB.

point of

PQ

parallel to

A ABC

ZABP

Prove that

is

and

is

the mid-

/C.

## Construct a number of angles inscribed in the same arc and

What theorem can be

4.

## the bisector of each angle.

inferred from the drawing?

Prove

it.

## that the center of a given circle may be

5.
found with a carpenter's steel square as shown in

Show

Fig. 226.

ABC

6.

that
7.

is

## a triangle inscribed in a circle whose

OD
ZCOD=ZB.

center

is

50).

0.

perpendicular to AC.

is

Prove

## center of a given arc may be

steel squares as shown

in Fig. 227.
Give reasons.
8.

In

points on CD

## and 0' are two equal

A and B. C and D are any
and 0' respectively. Prove Z BCA

228,
circles intersecting at
Fig.

9.

the

Fig. 228

central angle

same

^"

is

arc.

10. Inscribe in

a given

circle

Use Ex. 9.
Suggestion.

PLANE GEOMETRY

130

Theorem

164.

An

78.

## formed by two chords

measured by one-half the

angle

## intersecting within a circle is

sum of the intercepted arcs.

Fig. 229

Hypothesis:

AC

The chords

and

BD

intersect within

OO.
Conclusion:

Zl

is

## Analysis and construction:

I.

il.

To prove that Z 1 is measured by }4 {AD -{-EC), compare Z 1 with angles whose measures are known.
connect

.*.

and

and prove

Zl=

Z.A-\-

ZB.

_Ex.

l._

If,

in Fig. 230,

^=

55,

^'S=140; and

of the figurCo

Ex.

2.

## which the given chords intersect at the center of

the circle.

Ex.

3.

In Fig. 231,

is

the mid-point of CD
from P. Prove that

## PA and PB are any two chords

Zl=Zl'and Z2=Z2'.

p,^ 231

Ex. 4. Find the sum of each pair of opposite arcs into which
two perpendicular chords divide a circle.
Ex.
72,

5.

and

If,

AB, what would have been the number of

in Fig. 230,

been

131

## ANGLES FORMED BY SECANTS INTERSECTING

WITHOUT THE CIRCLE

165.

circle in

two

called a secant.

places is

Theorem

79.

An

## secting without a circle is measured

ence of the intercepted arcs.

Fig. 232

The

Hypothesis:

secants

BA

and

BC

intersect without

oo.
Z.B

Conclusion:

is

measured by ^4

{ACXY).

I.

AB

'

## >^ {AC-XY), compare

with angles whose measures are known.

II.

.*.

connect

III.

.-.

prove

C and

and prove

AAXC = ZB + ZC.

Ex.

without

1.

## In Fig. 233, secants a and b meet

If secant b moves until it

OO.

## comes into the positions

41, 2, and 3 measured?

b'

Give the theorem
Fig. 233

## Ex 2. If, in Fig. 234, Z C = 25 and XV =

A
H B, find the number of degrees in Z XA Y
and in ZBYA.
Ex. 3. If, in Fig. 234, ZC = 24, XY^VsAB,^
.

and
in

AV is

3.

number

of degrees

Fig. 234

PLANE GEOMETRY

132

FOR EQUAL ARCS

Theorem

166.

on a

80.

circle.

Fig. 235

Hypothesis:
Conclusion:

OO is any

circle

and

AB

||

DC.

I.

by

## equal inscribed angles.

II.

.*.

join

AC

Let the pupil complete the analysis and give the proof.

_Ex.
AB,

Ex.
allel

1.

If,

find the
2.

If

in Fig. 235,

number
on a

and minor

DC

is

H of minor

circle

AC = BD,

prove that

is

either par-

Ex.

3.

If

Ex.

4.

## the vertices of a trapezoid lie on a

and its base angles are equal.

circle, its

diago-

ZB

Suggestion.

toAB and
Ex.

5.

From D

compare

236).

Fig. 236

angle.
Suggestion.

From A

construct a line

||

DB.

## CIRCLES AXD RELATED ANGLES

133

CONSTRUCTION OF PERPENDICULARS
To construct
167. Probleim 9.
line from a point in the line.

/!->.

perpendicular

to

^-''

Fig. 237

I.

## In order to construct a perpendicular to line

construct a right angle at A

at A,

II.

To

circle
III.

as center

and segment

OA

## take any point

Let the pupil complete the directions and give the proof.
168.

line

Problem

10.

To

construct

## from a point not in the

^^

line.

a perpendicular to a

PLANE GEOMETRY

134

CONSTRUCTION OF TANGENTS
Problem

169.

To

11.

circle.

Fig. 239

QO

Given

To

and point

construct

without the

tangent to

sl

Analysis and

OO

circle.

from point A.

construction:

## In order to construct a tangent to OO from point Ay

construct a right angle whose vertex is on OO
and whose sides pass through points O and A.

I.

II.

/.

join

OA

cutting

and construct a
at X and Y.

circle

OO

Join

on

OA

AX

as diameter,

and AY.

Ex.

1.

Let

represent

## OO (Fig. 240). Suppose to move away

from the center along the ray OX. How
many tangents can be drawn to OO through
point

P when P

on the

is

is

circle?

when P

is

when

outside the

pj^,^

240

How

## are these tangents constructed

Locate various positions of P outside the circle
in each case?
and sketch in the tangents from P at each position of P. As P

circle?

How

circle

how

## does the angle between the

What
of contact move?

do the points

tangents change?
are the limiting positions of these points? How does the length
What
of the segment between P and the point of contact change?
are the limiting lengths of this segment?

Ex.

2.

## Circumscribe an isosceles triangle about a circle, given

Is the problem always possible?

CIRCLES

135

## RELATION BETWEEN ANGLES FORMED BY

TANGENTS AND CHORDS, AND THEIR ARCS
MEASUREMENT OF THE ANGLE
170.

## An angle formed by a tangent and

measured by one-half its intercepted arc.

Theorem 8L

a chord

is

Fig. 241

AB

oX A and
is tangent to
Hypothesis:
A the point of contact of the tangent.

from

QO

^C is drawn

Z1

Conclusion:

is

measiired

by

AC.

I.

II.

III.

## To prove that Zl is measured by >^ AC, compare

Z 1 with angles whose measures are known.
.*.

draw diameter
and Z2.

To

find the

measure of

Z3

Z3 = 90 and

Z3, prove

ACD = \m\
The proof
Ex.

1.

is left

In

to the pupil.

Fig.

241, prove

that

ABAC

Is

measured by

Ex.2.

A CAB

Suggestion.

Draw CD.

## Ex.3. Prove Th. 81 by comparing

with a central angle (Fig. 242).

A CAB
Fig. 242

PLANE GEOMETRY

136

Theorem

171.

they cut

allel,

The

analysis

82.

off

equal arcs.

The chord

Exercise.

If

of

the pupil.

left to

an arc

is

drawn

## An angle formed by a secant and a

83.
measured by one-half the difference of the inter-

Theorem

172.

is

tangent

cepted arcs.

## Theorem 84. An angle formed by two tangents is

measured by one-half the difference of the intercepted arcs.
Let the pupil review Ths. 78 and

Ex.
the

In Fig. 243,

1.

number
Ex.

2.

number
Ex.

In Fig. 243,

of degrees in

3.

Two

to each other.

AXC

if

of degrees in
if

79.

is

220, find

ZB.
Z5

AXC

is

and A YC.

Ex.
to

4.

If line

BC

through point
Ex.

5.

represent

within

(Fig. 243)

how

In Fig. 244
0.

moves

ZB

## so that it remains parallel

he measured when BC passes

A?
let

## How will the

CD revolves

will

AB

and

CD

intersecting

How is Z 1 measured?
measure of Z 1 change if

lines.

vase in

Fig. 244

## Various positions of CD are shown by the dotted

How would Zl be measured in each case? Discuss the

direction?

which

CD

becomes

parallel to

AB.

CIRCLES

137

## SUMMARY AND SUPPLEMENTARY EXERCISES

SUMMARY OF IMPORTANT POINTS

173.

I.

IN

CHAPTER

VII

a.

central angle

is

## An inscribed angle is measured by,

An angle formed by a tangent and

b.
c.

etc. (161).

a chord,

etc.

(170).

An

d.

angle formed

by two chords

intersecting

An

/.

## angle formed by two secants intersecting

without, etc. (165).
An angle formed by a secant and a tangent

g.

An

e.

(172).

II.

General

by two

angle formed

test.

same

circles

circle

It is evi-

or in congruent

if

if

For summary of

## EXERCISES CONCERNING TANGENTS TO CIRCLES

1. Prove that a tangent can be drawn to a circle from
174.
a given point without the circle by the following method (Fig.
^-*
24 r>) Let yl be the given point. Join 0/1. With
,--

/ ^ ^

as center

and

OA

draw

circle

ABC.

'>

## cut the given circle at D. At D draw

o^^l.^P^^
BC tangent to the given circle and ciitting the \ V ^V>4/'
outer circle at B and C. Draw OB and OC cut- '\^
^^'l^'
and AF
ting the given circle at E and F.
"*""!'

Let

OA

;'

i.

XI.

AE

-1

Fig. 245

Suggestion.

Prove

Z1=Z2 = 1

rt.

Z, by comparing

AOEA

AODB.
Note.

The

## construction given in Ex. 1

is

similar to Euclid's.

with

PLANE GEOMETRY

138
t2.

From

## the following figures (Fig. 246) give the analysis,

proof for constructing the common tangents

and

directions,

-V

Fig. 246

to

two given

circles.

pulleys.
3.

A line

that

is

4.

Two common

5. Is

## of this to belts over

it

interior tangents to

circles is parallel
bisects this segment.

two

## 6. How many common tangents can be drawn to two circles

they are in each of the possible positions shown in Fig. 209?
Show how to construct the tangents in each case.
if

## 7. An angle between two tangents to a circle is double the

angle between the chord joining the point of contact and the
^
radius drawn to one point of contact.
8.

## Circumscribe an isosceles triangle about a circle, given the

Is the problem always possible?

9.

one

## Circumscribe about a given circle a right triangle, given

Is the problem always possible?

leg.

MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES
175. Note.
Be prepared to prove the theorems on which any of
the following exercises depend.
1.

Make

2.

gent to the

circle at

AXFZ

are tan-

## the vertices of the inscribed

If Zl=43 and Z3
62, find^
triangle ABC.
the number of degrees in each angle of the figure.

^
Fig. 247

CIRCLES
3.

4.

in

## ZCAB = 5S, find the number of degrees

ZC^F BF is given tangent to the circle.

in Fig. 248,

If,

gents at

in

if

extremities.

is

## Discuss the special case

a diameter of the

circle.

5.

139

In Fig. 249,

6.

Prove that Z

7.

8.

If

CAB

AC
is

is tangent to
^ 0.
equal to

OO

at ^.

## tangent at the vertex of an inscribed angle forms equal

with
the sides of the given angle if these sides are equal.
angles

an

isosceles

triangle

is

inscribed in a circle,

the tan-

gent at the vertex makes equal angles with the legs and
parallel to the base.

AB

is

CD

9. In Fig. 250,
and the chords
equals
Prove that the
are produced to intersect at P.
segment PA equals the segment PD.

two chords intersect in a circle and a segone is equal to a segment of the other,
the chords are equal.
10.

ment

If

of

11. State

of Ex. 10.

Fig. 250

Prove your

conclusions.
12.
circles.

AB

## P and Q are the points of intersection of two arbitrary

PA and PB are the diameters through P. Prove that

passes through Q.
13.

circle

constructed on side

^B

of

A ABC ^

as diameter passes through the feet of the perpendiculars from A and B to the sides BC and
re-

AC

Fig. 25;

PLANE GEOMETRY

140
14. Circles

will intersect

15.

on the third

circle

side.

## diameter passes through the mid-point of the base.

constructed on the sides

If semicircles are

16.

an

## equilateral triangle as diameters, they will

intersect at the mid-points of the opposite sides

of

(Fig. 252).

at-^^

FiG.'252

Church window
detail

17.

18. If

a tangent

is

drawn to a

arc.
circle at

## chord, the mid-point of the intercepted arc

the chord and the tangent.
19.

If

is

the extremity of a
equally distant from

## the extremities of any two diameters in a circle are

formed is a rectangle.

20. If, in
Fig._^53,

and

AB

(S)_0

and

CD

## pass through the

point of contact, prove that ^C is parallel
to BD.

gent at

Fig. 253

Prove Ex. 20

21.

if

22. If, in
Fig^ 254,

gent at

(D

that tangents at

A and B

X, prove

are parallel.
Fig. 254

23.

Prove Ex. 22

and

if

AB

## passes through X. Prove that

diameters from A and B are parallel.

at

Fig. 255

25.

Prove Ex. 24

if

## CIRCLES AND RELATED ANGLES

the
is

common

are tangent at C.

Prove

contact.

of

points

and

of the

that

141

AB

is

one

A and B

ZACB

a right angle.
27. If
is

segment

## two equal circles intersect and a

drawn through either point of inter-

Fig. 256
section terminating in the circumferences, the
segments joining the extremities with the other point of intersection of the circles are equal.

is

at

BD

AC

and
are tangent to
257,
CD
at opposite ends of the diameter AB.

28. In Fig.

OO

## an arbitrary tangent intersecting AC and

C and D respectively. Prove that /.COD

BD
is

right angle.
Suggestion.

If

is

}/i

.'.

OD
prove

## and prove Z2-f Z3 =

Z 1 = Z 2 and Z 3 = Z 4.

## 29. Given a circle (Fig. 258) divided

and the points joined as indicated,

Fig. 257

## into eight equal

parts

prove
a.
b.
c.

d.

AK = KB = BYr
/.A = ZB=ZC.
AK = KP.
OPQRSTU Visa regulsLT

octagon.
e.

WXYZ

30. In Fig.

is

a square.

ber of degrees

in

ZA,

ZAKB,

ZHVB, ZBVC.
31. Construct

## equal parts and joining every seventh point of

or
division,
by dividing the circle into twelve equal parts and
joining every fifth point, and find the number of degrees in the
circle into sixteen

angles formed.

Note.
are

## Stars similar to the above, though often

common

in cut-glass designs.

more complicated,

PLANE GEOMETRY

142
32.

Two

circles intersect at

a variable secant

is

CBD

the points

## drawn cutting the

constant for

is

all

A and B. Through A
C and D. Prove

circles in

33.

In

divided

259 the

Fig.

into

circle

equal

eight

AOC

is

parts.

so that

it

## through the three points

A, 0, and C. Prove that AOC is a

shall pass

semicircle.
34. In Fig.

## the mid-point of OLA

Prove that OL and

is

and OLB.

OM

also

are equal;

35.

'

^
Fig. ^,,,
259

'

## Do you know any

practical uses of

rosettes similar to

the above?
36.

A BCD

## inscribed in a circle. At the

drawn forming a circumscribed
BC=UO, CS = 35. Find the number
is

## points of division tangents are

A^ =

o5,
of degrees in each angle of the inscribed quadrilateral, in each
angle of the circumscribed quadrilateral, and in the angles formed

by the diagonals
37. Fig.

## 260 shows a simple turnout used on

The rails AE and CF are

AB

## arcs of circles tangent to rails

and
and C respectively. Rail
crosses rail

AE

rail

CD

equal to Z2.

^E at H is
AE and CF.

to

CD at A
CD at H.

the center for

is

## shows two opposite turnouts

a straight track. The curved
rails are tangent to the straight ones at C and D
Prove that the angle between the
respectively.
tangents at F is equal to ZX + ZY ii X and Y
38. Fig.

Fig. 260

261

of

## are the centers for the arcs.

|'

Fig. 261

CHAPTER

VIII

Loci

GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
DEFINITIONS

The

176.

tions

point which

ment

moves

so as to

fulfill

some given

The path

## of a point which moves so as to

given requirement is called a locus.

require-

is

line or

group of lines

points which
no other points.
all

fulfill

is

called a locus

if

fulfill

some

they contain

## some given requirement and contain

1.
Find a point which is 2 in. from a fixed point O. Is
more than one such point? If you consider such a point
as so moving that it shall always, remain 2 in. from 0, what will

Ex.

there

be

its

Is this

path?

Ex.

2.

as far from

What

is

A and B

If

are

as from B.

two

How?

How many

which

is

## the path of a point moving so that

distant from

two

fixed points?

Is this

it is always equally
a
fixed path?
path

177.

make up

## the locus can be found directly from a knowledge of the

geometry involved. In other cases the locus may be found

## by locating several positions of the moving point. If

positions enough are located, the locus may often be inferred
from them. This is a method of discovery that is common
to all scientific inquiry.

The
143

144

PLANE GEOMETRY

## then determined by a careful demonstration, the nature

which will be discussed in the next section.

is

of

One

Note.
here

if

or

more

In

many

may

be introduced

cases

## found unless a very large number of points are located. Some of

these exercises lead to other kinds of lines than the straight line and
the circle, lines that are studied in more advanced courses in geometry.
In these latter exercises the locating of the points must be by experiment, as the pupil knows no construction by which he can find them.

Such exercises are valuable in that they force home to the pupil the
possibility and the occasional necessity of finding loci by experiment
and in that they set him to thinking on a subject entirely new to him.

No

## Find the following loci by experiment.

1. The ray a starts from point P on O X

as

## Find the locus of the mid-points of the

chords cut from this ray by the circle as the ray
moves about point P (Fig. 262).

origin.

## Find the locus called

2.

for in Ex. 1

if

Fig. 262

the origin of a

is

without

OX.
3. A ladder stands upright against a wall.
Find the locus of a
point on the middle round if the foot of the ladder is pulled out
until the ladder is flat on the ground.

## 4. OX and OY are two lines at right angles to each other.

Find the locus of a point which is twice as far from OX as from OY.
5.

and

In

any

Fig.

ABCD

263,

line.

Imagine

is

line

parallelogram
to

move

so as

## always to remain parallel to its original position.

Find the locus of the mid-points of the segments
cut from / by the sides of the parallelogram.
6.

in

Ex.
7.

way up

Fig. 263

3.

## Find the locus

given circles
circles

of a point }4 the

when

intersect,

circles are

(1)

(3)

one

circle

is

each of two

## within the other, (2) the

without the other, (4) the
is

circles are

tangent externally.

LOCI

145

## 8. Find the locus of centers of circles which pass through a

given point and are tangent to a given line when (1) the point is
on the given line, (2) the point is not on the given Hne.
9. Find the locus of centers of circles which are tangent to
a given circle and to a given line when (1) the line intersects the

circle,

the line

(2)

without the

What

is

11.

12.

The hub

13.
14.

A
A

circle,

(3)

the line

is

wholly

## point on the side of a spinning top?

of a wheel of

a moving bicycle?

point on the tire of a moving wheel?point on the rim of a plate moving about another plate?

No

Note.

tangent to the

A
A

10.

is

circle.

178.

it

## necessary to give a complete formal proof that the line,

or set of lines, found really constitutes the locus.
It is
is

## necessary to show, therefore, that every point on the line

or set of lines is a possible position of the variable point
and that every possible position of the variable point is

on

## If these two facts can be proved,

evident that the line or set of lines constitutes the whole

it is

locus

To put

it

locus.

more formally:

## In order to prove that a line or set of lines

of a point

which moves so as to

fulfill

is

the locus

certain requirements,

prove
I.

Every point

## in the line or set of lines fulfills the

requirements, and
II.

fulfills

the requirements

is

on the

Note.

It is

## immaterial in which order

and

II are proved.

PLANE GEOMETRY

146

LOGI OF POINTS
THE BISECTOR OF AN ANGLE
Theorem 85. The bisector of an angle

179.

is

the locus

of the angle.

Fig. 264

Hypothesis:
Conclusion:

from

AB

AX bisects
^X is the

Every point

I.

in

lies

The

analysis

in

is,

AX

Z CAB.

is

is

AB and AC.
AB and AC

AX.

## be a point equally distant from

1.

Let

2.

To prove

3.

To

that

lies

in

AX,

AX coincide.
QA
prove that QA and AX

that

join

AB

and AC.

Q and A and

prove

and

coincide,

## show that both

bisect /.A.

Let the pupil complete the analysis and give the proof.
Ex.
sides of

Ex.

## Can you determine a point equally distant from the

an angle without constructing the bisector of the angle?

1.

2.

What

intersecting lines?

is

LOCI

147

## THE PERPENDICULAR BISECTOR OF A SEGMENT

The perpendicular bisector of a seg8G.
the locus of a point equally distant from the ends

Theorem

180.

ment

is

of the segment.

OP

Hypothesis:

the perpendicular

is

of

bisector

the

segment AB.

OP

Conclusion:

from

and

Every point

I.

is,

in

OP

OP.

II.

in

is

that

The

analysis

is

is

and B,

and

lies

1.

2.

3.

Let

QA=QB.

## To prove that Q lies in OP, join Q and 0, the mid-point

of AB, and prove that QO and OP coincide.
To prove that QO and OP coincide, show that both
QO and OP are perpendicular bisectors oi AB.

Let the pupil complete the analysis and give the proof.

## two points are each equally distant from the

extremities of a segment, the line passing through these
points is the perpendicular bisector of the segment.
181.

Cor.

Suggestion.

If

Show

## that the two given points must both

perpendicular bisector.

lie

on the

PLANE GEOMETRY

148

Ex.

1.

The

Ex.

Ex.

2.

One diagonal

3.

If

two

common

Ex.
centers

a perpen-

chord.

## If two equal circles intersect, the segment joining the

and the common chord bisect each other at right angles.

4.

## Ex. 5. The perpendicular bisector of a chord passes through

the center of the circle.

Ex.

6.

the perpen-

is

## dicular bisector of the chord of the arc.

Two

tangents to a circle where the center is O interProve that OX is the perpendicular bisector of
the chord joining the points of contact of the two tangents.

Ex.

7.

sect at point

X.

183.

Find the

loci

and

of a point

which

86.

is

Ex.

1.

Ex.

2.

## At a given distance from a given point.

At a given distance from a given straight

Ex.

3.

two given

line.

parallels.

CONCURRENT LINES
183.

The two

Ex.

1.

may

89.

Suggestion.

Use an

ii

AC and BC

were

indirect proof.

lines.

parallel,

and

DB

are

## A and B. Show that.

Z1+ Z2 would equal two

Join

Ex.

2.

The

bisectors of

of

Fig. 266

LOCI

149

## The perpendicular bisectors of the

184. Theorem 87.
sides of a triangle are concurrent at a point which is equally
distant from the vertices.

Fig. 267

AABC

is any triangle.
Lines
Hypothesis:
of
bisectors
are the perpendicular
AB, EC, and

and

x, y,

AC

respec-

tively.

Conclusion:

x, y,

and

z are

Analysis:
I.

To prove
a.
b.

## x, y, and z concurrent, prove

That x and y intersect at some point, as
That the intersection of x and y is on z.

0.

## IL To prove that the intersection of x and y is on

is equally distant from A and C.
prove that
III.

prove

.'.

and

and B,

also

from

C.

Proof:

STATEMENTS
I.

IL

## X and y intersect at some point, as at 0.

a. X is locus of points equally distant from
b.
O is equally distant from A and B.

and B.

.'.

III. a.
b.

IV.
'

V.

.'.

is

## locus of points equally distant from

is equally distant from
and C.

O is

## equally distant from

a. z is locus of points
b.

.'.

C.

C.

and C.

O is on z.

11

B and

.:

and

z,

PLANE GEOMETRY

150

Theorem

The

88.

## altitudes of a triangle are concurrent.

Fig. 268

Hypothesis:

AABC

altitudes to sides

Conclusion:

is

any

triangle,

## AB, EC, and CA

x, y,

and

x, y,

and

are the

respectively.

z are concurrent.

## Analysis: To prove x, y, and z conctirrent, construct

through A, B, and C lines parallel to the opposite sides of
and prove that x, y, and z are the perpendicular

AABC

## bisectors of the sides of the triangle so formed.

Let the pupil put in the construction, complete the analysis, and
give the proof.
185. Theorem 89.
The bisectors of the angles of a triangle are concurrent at a point equally distant from the
sides of the triangle.

AABC

is any triangle,
Hypothesis:
AA, B, and C respectively.

Conclusion:

x, y,

and

## distant from the sides.

x, y,

z are concurrent at

and

z bisect

a point equally

LOCI

161

Analysts:

To prove

I.

a.
b.

## x, y, and z concurrent, prove

That x and y intersect at some point, as
That the intersection of x and y is on z.

To prove

11.

## that the intersection of x and y is on z,

and BC.
O is equally distant from

prove that
III.

## prove that O is equally distant from

from AB and

.*.

Problem

186.

The

This

12.

problem

To circumscribe a
has

been

Problem

AC
AC and

AB,

^C

also

angle.
Note.

at O.

13.

To

circle

elsewhere

discussed

upon Th.

tri-

(139).

87.

## inscribe a circle in a given triangle.

Fig. 270

Given

To

AABC.

inscribe a circle in

AABC.

I.

To

## construct a circle inscribed in

a
II.

/.

III.

.'.

circle

AABC,
AABC.

construct

find a point, such as O, so situated that perpendiculars from O to the sides, such as OE, OF, and

OG, are

IV.

construct

To prove

them

equal.

Exercise.

and to two

circle

extended

Construct a

circle

sides extended.

## tangent to one side of a triangle and to two sides

said to be escribed to the triangle.

is

PLANE GEOMETRY

152

## DETERMINATION OF POINTS BY THE

INTERSECTION OF LOCI
187.

## the following exercises.

Ex. L Find in a given
from two given points.

line

a point that

is

equally distant

A nalysis:
I.

II.

Let

A and B

## find a point in Hne / equally distant from A and B, find the

intersection of line / with the locus of points equally distant

To

from

and B.

Discussion:

How many

## points can be found as required?

special positions of the given line or the given points
that will alter the results? Give all reasons.

Find

is

## At a given distance from a given point.

Equally distant from two given parallel

Ex.

2.

Ex.

3.

Ex.

4.

Ex.

5.

lines.

## At a given distance from a second given line.

Equally distant from two given intersecting lines.

## In the preceding five problems the required point must

not only be in a given line, but must also fulfill a second
requirement which calls for the construction of a locus. In
the problems that follow, the construction of two loci are
necessary in order to determine the point. The analysis
should state clearly what loci are needed. We have seen
that the intersection of two straight lines locates a point
and that the intersection of a straight line and a circle
locates

two

lines, it is

points.

As some

two straight
more than one point that

loci consist of

## fulfills the requirements.

The pupil should begin by drawing a figure to illustrate the maximum number of points
possible, and after giving the analysis with the directions

draw

LOCI
Ex.

6.

153

## Find a point which is at a given distance from a

C and at the same time equally distant from

given point

A nalysis:
I. To find

## all points that are at a given distance from point C,

construct the locus of

To

II.

## find all points equally distant

from

A and

B, construct the

locus of
III.

construct

.'.

Let the pupil give definite directions for the construction, also the
proof and the discussion.

Ex.

7.

Points

may

be found which

will fulfill

any two

of the

following requirements:
a. Be at a given distance (1>2 in.) frbm a given point.
h. Be at a given distance (1>^ in.) from a given line.
c.

d.
e.

Be equally
Be equally
Be equally

## two given points.

two given parallel lines.
from two given intersecting lines.

distant from
distant from
distant

## State and solve problems

requirements given above.

## LOCI OF CENTERS OF CIRCLES

DETERMINATION OF THE LOCI
188.

## we may think of a circle as changing.

number of circles of the same radius tangent to line
circles

I.

## A great many more such

We might,

Fig. 271

shows a

(^^TT^T^^fHT^'T^

might be drawn.

however, consider these as various positions of one circle which rolls or slides
along the line. In the same way in Fig.

Fig. 27]

272 a number of
to

AB

## circles are shown tangent

and AC\ but we might consider

## them as various positions of one- circle

which expands and contracts as it rolls
or slides between AB and AC.

Fig. 272

154

'

PLANE GEOMETRY

## Find the locus called for in each of the following

and give complete proof for each.
Ex. 1. ^Find the locus of the centers of
tangent to the sides of an angle.
I.

To

To prove

II.

a.

ZA

number
.

Every

The

be the locus.

## AX is the required locus, prove that

point in AX may be the center of a circle
AB

and A

C,

tangent

and

AB

AX

III. Discussion.

which are

that

b.

Let

circles

exercises

it rolls

and AC.

of a circle

which

Ex.

2.

Ex.

3.

Ex.

4.

## tangent to each of two intersecting lines.

Passes through two given points.
Is tangent to a given line at a given point.

Ex.

5.

Is

Ex.

6.

Is

Ex.

7.

## tangent to a given line and has a given radius.

tangent to a given circle at a given point.
Is tangent to a given circle and has a given radius.

Ex.

8.

## Passes through a given point and has a given radius.

Is

CONSTRUCTION OF CIRCLES
189.

Make

exercises.

section of

Ex.
line at

Ex.

follov^^ing

The
two

## center of the required circle is the interloci.

The discussion is often interesting.

## Construct a circle that shall be tangent to a given

a given point and pass through a second given point.
1.

Construct a

2.

circle

Ex.

3.

circle at

## Construct a circle that shall be tangent to a given

a given point and pass through a second given point.

Construct a
Ex.

circle of

Be tangent

to each of

two given

intersecting lines.

## Pass through a given point and be tangent to a given

or to a siven circle.

Ex.
line

4.
5.

LOCI

155

SUPPLEMENTARY EXERCISES
EXERCISES INVOLVING CONCURRENT LINES

To

190.

iv.

## Each triangle has four sets of concurrent lines. The

intersection of each set has a special name as shown below.

The medians

I.

III.

The

circumcenter
orthocenter

altitudes

incenter

## IV. Bisectors of the angles

to prove the theorems
Review Th. 49.

## on which any of the

incenter, circumcenter,

and orthocenter of
do you know con-

Be prepared

Note.

## following exercises depend.

The

1.

centroid,

an equilateral

triangle coincide.

What

facts

the medians

that

ABC

In Fig. 273,

2.

## AYf BZy and

XYZ

CX

is

an

equilateral triangle.

## AF^ BG, and

CE

respectively.

Prove
"

'

is

an

equilateral triangle.

Fig'' 273

ZA

AC

AB

and
equal distances
laid off, perpendiculars erected to the sides of the angle at
C will intersect on the bisector of ZA.
on the

3. If

sides of

are

B and

## 4. The bisector of two exterior angles of a triangle and of the

opposite interior angle are concurrent.
5.

6.

Construct

A = 7.S

cm.,

Suggestion.
7.

A ABC,

given

^5 = 5.8

= 6.4

J5

cm.

Construct

8.

Construct

A ABC,
A

given AC,

AB, and

(Fig. 274).

A ABC,

given

the

three

medians.
Suggestion.

by means

^.

fy"
of

Reduce
Th. 49.

^
Fig. 274

PLANE GEOMETRY

156

## EXERCISES INVOLVING CONSTRUCTION OF CIRCLE3

Notice (1) that a circle can be circumscribed about
a polygon if there is a point equally distant from the vertices, that is, if the perpendicular bisectors of the sides are
191.

concurrent, and (2) that a circle can be inscribed in a polygon if there is a point equally distant from the sides, that
is, if the bisectors of the angles are concurrent.
Construct a

1.

circle of

## two given points.

2. Given the base
the circumscribed
3.

Can a

## an isosceles triangle and the radius of

to construct the triangle.
be passed through four arbitrary points?
of

circle,

circle

Why?
4.

When

triangle

will the

meet on one

triangle?

## When will they

they meet without the

When,

will

Why?

Can a

## circle be circumscribed about a parallelogram?

In case the circumscribed circle is possible, give
In case the circumscribed circle
analysis, directions, and proof.
is not possible, show why.
5.

a. rectangle?

6.

and

for

7.

How many

circles

## three intersecting lines?

8.

Can a

trary lines?
9.

in Ex.

5 for an

isosceles trapezoid

a trapezoid.

circle

Discuss

all

possible cases.

Discuss

all

possible cases.

## a circle in a given kite.

Circumscribe about a given circle an isosceles

10. Inscribe

11.

right triangle.
12.

Construct in

13.

## full Fig. 275.

Fig. 275

equilateral triangle

is

circle

LOCI

157

## Construct the inscribed, the circumscribed, and the three

14.

escribed circles of an equilateral triangle.
of the inscribed circle is ^4 the radius of the circumscribed circle

and

## 15. Make the complete drawing for the

molding shown in Fig. 276. The arc ^40 is
tangent to line AX at A. The arc BO is

^t

## tangent to line BY at B. Both arcs pass

through O, the mid-point of segment AB.
Are the arcs AO and BO tangent to each other?

Note.

Compound

curves

B
Fig. 276

## tangent circles as shown in Fig. 277. These may

be used for moldings as shown in Fig. 276, or for
other architectural details.

/^'
p

V.J

277

## Show by a complete drawing how to construct

Two diagonal streets meet at A. The corner building

Fig. 278-

16.

## is an arc of a circle of a given radius

tangent to each of the streets. If Z /I is 60 and the
radius of the circle 50 ft., what will be the length of
AB and BC d B and C are the points of tangency?

sector of a circle

is

a figure bounded

Fig. 278

by two

and

## the subtended arc.

17.

Construct a

circle inscribed in

a sector of a given

circle.

c
18. Fig.

Z A CB
of

is

ZC.

sides of

a right angle.

A DB

ZC

is

circle

tangent to the

Fig. 279

## 280 shows a decorated tile design. ABCD\

a square with its diagonals. Construct (D O and
19. Fig.

is

O' inscribed

in the

A A DC

and

and 0'.
tangent to (D

Note.

The

ABC

respectively.
as centers

A and C

p^^

## by drawing several figures of the same

them together in various positions.

a design unit

may

280,

280

be seen

and placing

PLANE GEOMETRY

158

is

## 20. Fig. 281 shows a window and rafter

O
Construct
isosceles right triangle.

ABC

an

inscribed in

A ABC

and

(D

and

Y tangent

to

0.
Fig. 281

The

Note.
large circle

and to each

other.

Fig. 282

Show how

22.

Any

23.

two concentric

circles.

## tor of the segment joining the centers of two

equal circles may be used as the center of a
.

## tangent to each of the two given

Use various positions of the two given

circle

The perpendicular

Note.
in Ex.

23

bisector

circles.
circles.

mentioned

## a part of the locus of the center of

a circle tangent to each of two equal circles. The
remainder of the locus is beyond the province
of elementary geometry, but may be readily
found by experiment.
24.

is

In Fig. 283,

DF

and

BC

are concen-

## with point A as center. DE and A C are

concentric with point B as center. DF and
DE are tangent at D. AD = DB. AF and

tric

BE

are

drawn with

Construct

as center

and

J/2

AB

tangent to AC,

_25. In

Fig. 284,

A ABC

is

equilateral.

Fig. 283 a

AB,

## BC, and AC are drawn with AB as radius and

C, A and B as centers respectively. Construct
O tangent to AB, BC, and AC.
,

Note.

Fig. 284

is

## from a church window design.

Fig. 284

LOCI

159

MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES
What

192. 1.

is

all

equal chords

of a circle?
2.

What

is

## the locus of the mid-points of a series of parallel

chords?
3. What is the locus of the mid-points of segments drawn from
a given point to a given line?

t4.

Find

the

locus

of

the

vertices

## given base and a given vertex angle.

given angle is a right angle?

of

What

triangles having a
is this locus if the

## Construct a triangle, given

5. The base, the vertex angle,
tex to the base.
6.

The

and the

7.

The

8.

The

9.

## Find the locus of the mid-points of segments drawn to the

from a fixed point (a) without the circle, (b) on the circle,

circle

within the

(c)

altitude.

and one

angle.

side.

circle.

## circle of radius 5 inches contains a moving chord AB,

8
inches, which is divided into four equal parts by the
length
Determine the loci of P, Q, and R. College Enpoints P, Q, R.
trance Examination Board, Plane Geometry Examination, 1913.
10.

11.

series

## of parallelograms stand on the same base and

Find the locus of the intersection
parallels.

## between the same

of the diagonals.
12.

are

From any

drawn

## point in the base of a triangle straight lines

Find the locus of the intersection

of

## can be thus formed.

13. Find the locus of the points at which two equal segments
a straight line subtend equal angles.

PLANE GEOMETRY

160

14.

circle

15.

circle

meet at a given

of points

angle.

## Find the locus of points of contact of

tangents drawn from a fixed point to a system
16.

of concentric circles.

Construct a series of

17.

each

other

at

the

circles

same point

tangent to
(Fig.

285).

## Find the locus of points of contact of tangents

drawn to these circles from any point in the

common
18.

tangent.

Two

Fig. 285

## tangent to a given straight line at

are also tangent to each other.
Find
circles are

two given

points and
the locus of points of tangency of the two circles.

## Let A and B he the two given

the point of tangency of the two circles.
Prove that CO is always equal to 14 A B (Fig. 286).
Suggestion.

points,

19.

In Fig. 287,

AACB

is

## a right triangle with

the right angle at C. BCDE is the square constructed on side BC. Find the locus of the vertex

## D asC moves about the semicircle BCA Use Ex

20. Upon a line segment AB an arc of a
.

Fig. 287

circle

containing
constructed and in the arc any chord CD having an arc
of 60 is drawn.
Find the locus (a) of the point of intersection oi AC and BD, (b) of the point of intersection oi
and BC.

240

is

College

## Entrance Examination Board, Plane Geometry Exami-

nation, 1906.
21. Let A and B be two fixed points on a given circle and P
and Q the extremities of a variable diameter of the same circle.
Find the locus of the point of intersection of the straight lines AP
and BQ. College Entrance Examination Board, Plane Geometry

Examination, 1908.
22.

From a

bisected

by

## given point on a circle draw the chords that are

a given, chord. Is it always possible to draw such

Give reasons for your answer. College Entrance Examination Board, Plane Geometry Examination, 1907.

chords?

CHAPTER IX
Ratio and Proportion

MEASUREMENT OF SEGMENTS
193.

that

it

To measure a

segilient

is

number of times
taken as a unit.

to find the

is

## In measuring the segment two methods are possible. By the first

is actually laid down successively on the segment to

## be measured. This method might be used in finding the length

of a room if nothing but a yardstick were at hand.
By the second
method another segment, upon which the unit and its subdivisions
are already marked, is laid beside the segment to be measured.

is

called the

194.

segment

is

said to be

measured exactly

if it

will

segment that

is

may

be measured

approximately.

we have

## The unit chosen may be contained in the given

remainder. The length of the segment is
without
segment
The segment is measured exactly.
an
then
integer.
First:

## If the unit chosen is a segment of one inch, it may

Illustration 1.
be contained in a given segment 5 times with no remainder. The
length of the given segment is 5.

## Second: The unit chosen may not be contained in the

given segment without remainder. In such cases it may
happen that some fraction of the unit can be found that
will

161

If

one inch

is

the unit

PLANE GEOMETRY

162

## chosen, 3^ in., J^ in., 34 in., or .1 in. may be used. If such

a unit can be found, the segment is said to be measured
tn such a case the length will be an integer when
exactly,

## expressed in terms of the new unit, but a fraction when

expressed in terms of the old unit. In either case the seg-

exactly.

## chosen is one inch, it may be contained

in a given segment 7 times with a remainder less than one inch; but
when 3^ inch is chosen as a unit the measure may come out exactly 31.
The length is 31 quarter-inches, or 7% in.; or
Illustration 2.

If the unit

Illustration 3.
The unit chosen, one inch, may be contained in a
given segment 3 times with a remainder less than one inch; a smaller
unit, .1 in,, maybe contained in the segment 32 times with a remainder
less than .1 in.; a still smaller unit, .01 in., may be contained in the

segment 324 times with a remainder less than .01 in.; but the unit
.001 in. may be contained exactly 3247 times.
The length of the segment is 3247 thousandths of an inch, or, as it is usually written, 3.247 in.

## Third: It may happen that no subdivision of the unit

can be found that will measure the segment exactly. In
such a case we may obtain an approximate measure. By
subdividing the unit used the approximation may be made
as close as desired.
Illustration 4.
The unit chosen, one inch, may be contained in the
given segment 5 times with a remainder less than one inch. In this
case 5 would be an approximate length of the segment.
If we choose .1
in. as a unit, it may be contained in the given segment 56 times with a

remainder

less

than

.1 in.

We now

have 5.6

in.

## But if we should choose .01 in. as a unit,

length.
closer approximation.
It might happen that .01 in.

as an approximate

we could

get a

still

would be contained
in the segment 562 times with a remainder less than .01 in.
The
approximate length is now 5.62 in. This process might be continued
indefinitely.

## 195. In actual practice an exact measurement can never

be obtained. We cannot be sure that a segment is exactly
7 in. or 7J4 in. long. In trying to measure the segment, the
end will fall between two marks on the scale. Either of
these gives an approximation to the length of the segment,
one a little too small and one a little too large. It is the

'

163

## usual practice to use the nearest one as the approximate

length of the segment. Often extremely close approximations are necessary, but the degree of accuracy depends

## upon the fineness of the scale used and the definiteness of

the end of the segment to be measured.
Draw a segment 3)4 in. long. Measure it in centimeters
Ex. 1
and millimeters. Make two approximate measures, one as close
.

as possible but a
a little too large.

little

## too small, the other as close as possible but

result compute the number of centi-

From each

meters to an inch and the number of inches to a centimeter. Compare your result with the government standard equivalent (p 300)
Ex. 2. Draw a segment 5.6.cm. long. Make two approximate
.

From your

make

results

and sixteenths

in inches

of

an

inch.
.

RATIOS
DEFINITIONS

## two numbers is the relation expressed

by dividing one number by the other. The ratio of a to 6
a :b or|-. It is read the ratio of
is written in two forms
are
numbers
a to b. Two
involved, the first term or divithe
antecedent, and the second term or
dend, also called*
196.

The

ratio of

## say that the ratio of 12 to 4 is 3, or ^ = 3, we

that 12 is 3 times 4; when we say that the ratio of a
to b is r, or -J =r, we mean that a is r times 6, or a = br.

When we

mean

The quotient
It is

the

## sometimes called the value of the ratio.

practice to use the term ratio to mean

r is

common

or 3.

## or the quotient r; either ^

-f
In any case the two numbers or terms a and b are

always involved.

Two ratios

## Exercise. Express the following ratios in decimals of three places

5^

45

12

_3

9'

27'

59'

25'

19'

24'

44'

PLANE GEOMETRY

164

RATIO OF SEGMENTS

## By the ratio of two segments is meant the ratio of

measures when expressed in the same unit.

197.

their

Exercise.
Draw two segments, one 2 cm. and one 3 cm. long.
Measure each in inches and sixteenths of an inch or in inches
and tenths of an inch. Find an approximate ratio.
198. Two segments are said to be commensurable if they
can be measured exactly by a common unit of measure.
Two segments are said to be incommensurable if there is
no common unit that will measure each exactly. We shall
later prove that the side and the diagonal of a square are
incommensurable. If the side of a square is one inch, the
diagonal is V2~ inches, an irrational number.

as

be expressed

## an integer or as the quotient of two integers.

The ratio of two commensurable segments is an integer

or a fraction.

The

ratio of

tional

number.

## Other illustrations of incommensurables

especially may be mentioned:

will

is

an

be met

irra-

later.

Two
1.

The

side of

of

## the same triangle are incommensurable.

2.

The diameter

of a circle

circumference of the
Note.

is

circle.

The nature

to irrational

are rational

## of the decimals that correspond to rational and

numbers is interesting and should be noted. Fractions
and when reduced to decimals give decimals that either

## terminate or repeat, for example:

He = -0625

K = .1666+

>^
or .16

= .333+

or

.3

H = .142857142857

or .1-12857

## on the other hand, give decimals which neither

terminate nor repeat. An inexact root like V2~or V 3" is an irrational
number, but not the only kind of an irrational number. Another
example is the number called T (pi) (see 298, 301, and 311).
Irrational numbers,

165

The

## following assumptions will be used; As. 56

fundamental characteristic of ratios:
the
expresses
As. 56. Multiplying or dividing both terms of a ratio by
199.

the

## same number does not change the value of the ratio.

Ratios equal to the same ratio are equal.

As. 57.
As. 58.

Equal ratios

may be

## substituted for equal ratios.

THEORY OF PROPORTION
^

DEFINITIONS
200.

proportion

## an equality of ratios; that is, if two

numbers involved are in proportion.
be written in two forms, a:b = c:d or
is

## ratios are equal, the four

may

proportion

r- = t' and

is

is

to 6 as

<;

is

to d, or the ratio a to 6

## equals the ratio c to d. The extremes of the proportion are

a and d. The means are b and c.

## Since in dealing with ratios we are dealing with numbers,

the laws of algebraic equations apply to proportions.

Exercise.

^'

""

55~64

201.

Theorem

90.

extremes.

The

proof

is left

If

four

means

is

numbers are

in proportion,
the
to
product of the
equal

to the pupil.

## If the product of two numbers equals the

91.
two
other
numbers, either pair of factors may be
product of
and the other pair the means of a
extremes

Theorem

proportion.

Hypothesis:
Suggestion.

12

ay = bx.

Conclusion:

## Divide both sides of ay = bx by

-r =
by.

PLANE GEOMETRY

166

Given ay = bx,prove- = X

Ex.1.

= -and

-7

Ex.

= -.

## Derive at least two proportions from each of the

2.

following equations:
a. ab = xy
b.

-^

aia+b)=:x(x+y)

Theorem

92.

(x^y) = ab
{a-1) {x+l) = {a-{-l) (x-l)

c.

{x-\-y)

d.

If

Hypothesis:

The proof

-t

## terms are equal.

= - and

-r

=-

>

x = y.

Conclusion:

to the pupil.

is left

TRANSFORMATIONS OF PROPORTIONS
202.

the
is,

Theorem

93.

four

If

Hypothesis:
Suggestion.

Theorem

numbers are

first is to

by
If

=
X

= bx;

numbers are

four

in proportion,

alternation.

Conclusion:

94.

mean

is to

## fourth is to the second as the third

in proportion, the

the

is to

first;

that

is,

Hypothesis:

= -

Conclusion:

by

^b = a

'

## Let the pupil give the proof.

Theorem
second

is to

95.

If

the

four

first

numbers are

as the fourth

in proportion, the

is to

is,

Hypothesis:

by

Conclusion:

_-=-2_.

ax

## Let the pupil give the proof.

Ex.

1.

Verify proportion
28 15
8

..
and mversion

^ri

j^

^^

9

^, and

a2

-^

= ac
y^^

alternation

## RATIO AND PROPORTION

Theorem

96.

If

four

numbers are

167

in proportion, the

## plus the second is to the second as the third plus the

fourth is to the fourth; that is, they are in proportion byfirst

This

is

sition.

Hypothesis:

Conclusion:

PLANE GEOMETRY

168

Ex.

4.

a-\-b
a.

b.

li

-r =

169

Verification:
I.

Let the

common

AB

BC be

c.

## unit of measure of segments

segment p.
Let the measure of AB = m. (In the figure m = 3.)
Let the measure of BC = n. (In the figure w = 4.)

d.

The

a.

b.

II. a.

and

ratio of f77^=

BC

The Hnes

the figure
(In
^
*=*

= -t'^
w

## CZ divide XY into m equal

YZ into n equal segments (Th. 45).
segments may be taken as the unit

parallel to

segments and
b.

One
of

c.

III.

.*.

^^
The

of these

ratio

1.

For

Note

2.

Since

YZ.

-rr^='
YZ n

the ratio of

Note

YZ

XY and
.XY m
of

measure oi

-^^

d and II

the ratio of

c see 197,

we assume

y-y

## number of divisions on X F and

number of divisions on AB and BC,

that the

## are respectively equal to the

the formal reasoning above has been called a verification rather than a
proof.

## Case B: When AB and BC are incommensurable. Since

not possible in this case to express the lengths oi AB
and BC in integral or fractional terms of the same unit,
the argument given for Case A cannot be used. Case
B will be assumed without proof. The proof is possible,
but too difficult for this course.

it is

## In the next six exercises the letters refer to Fig. 288.

Ex.5.

AB = 7,
BC=9, XF = 17K,
=
AB 12, XF=15, FZ= 18,
AB = S, BC=yl2,XY = 5,
AB = 3}^, BC=IK YZ = 7,
AB = 2^J^,XY = 5, FZ = 7,

Ex.

BC=2.3,

Ex.1.
Ex.2.
Ex.3.
Ex.4.

G.

XF = 5.7, FZ = 9,

find

FZ.

find

5C.

find

YZ.

find

XF.

find

5C.

find .45.

PLANE GEOMETRY

170

APPLICATION OF THEOREM

Theorem

204.

99.

If

a line

98

TO TRIANGLES

is parallel to

the base of a

## triangle, the ratio of the segments on one side equals the

ratio of the corresponding segments on the other side.

Cor.

If

a line

## the base of a triangle, one

segments as the other side is to its

is parallel to

side is to either of

its

corresponding segment.
Suggestion.

Ex.

1.

Use Th.

^=^
CE be'
Ex.

2.

96.

A-^

9A-9R

cb~eb' cb~ce'

Prove Th. 99

if

Fig 289

## Ex. 3. Verify Th. 98 and Th. 99 and its cor-, by measuring

each of the segments in Figs. 288 and 289 in inches and sixteenths
(or tenths) of an inch, also in centimeters
finding the ratios from the measurements.

and

millimeters,

## In the next eight exercises the letters refer to Fig. 289.

Ex.4.
Ex.5.

CD = S}^, DA = 3H,

CE = 2}4,

find

5.

and

171

## EQUAL RATIO TEST FOR PARALLELS

Theorem 100. If a line divides the sides

205.

## of a trione segment as a second side

corresponding segment, the line is parallel to the

is to its

is to

Fig. 291

AABC

Hypothesis:

is

any

triangle with

DE

so

drawn

CB

CA

DE

Conclusion:

AB.

\\

line AB,

I.

that

\\

DE

coincides with a

II

II.

construct

.*.

DX

coincides with

To prove

III.

E falls

that

from

D AB
||

DE

DX.

DE

coincides with

DX, prove

that

on X.

CA _CB
CA_CB
M
u
that.rT7
CE = r^
and
V. To prove ,u
CX, show
To prove

IV.

that

rr.

t^

The

proof

Cor.

If

ratio of the

is left

to the pupil.

For

Yy)

'rx'

## a Hne divides the sides of a triangle so that the

segments on one side is equal to the ratio of the

## line is parallel to the third side

of the triangle.
Exercise.

If

base?

Give proof,

a trapezoid
the line be parallel to the

same

ratio, will

PLANE GEOMETRY

172

## CONSTRUCTION OF PROPORTIONAL SEGMENTS

206. Ex. 1.
By algebra divide 120 into parts that shall be

in

## the ratio of 7:8.

Ex.

2.

Using Prob.

Ex.

3.

By

in the ratio of 4, 5,

Problem

7, 111, find

^f of a given segment.

and

To

14.

9.

## divide a segment into two segments

ratio as two given segments.

same

Fig. 292

XY

## the given segment, show how to construct

Suggestion.
h k
the figure so that you can prove that = t"
Segments lettered alike
If

is

'

are equal.

Give proof.

Problem

To

15.

proportional to

## divide a given segment into segments

any number

of given segments.

Y^

;i

Z'

Fig. 293

Suggestion.

It is

..

Ex.

4.

.h = k = n

-7-

a

Show

"

that Prob. 15

may

## be solved as follows (Fig. 294)

From
A draw ray / and from B draw m\\l.
Lay off the given segments on / and 7n
:

as

shown

pomts

in the figure

of division.

and

a
c

J---

join the
Fig. 294

173

207. Ex.

1.

a,

and

b,

^ *
Suggestion.

The

construction

## Th. 99. How are the segments

off on the sides of Z 0?

Ex.

a, b,

and

Ex.

o^*:::

3.
a:?

Do any of
Why?

a = b
c

^i.

c laid

,
^

pj^

295

so

-be
= -, so that- = -, so that -b = aax
ex
ax

value for

## Using the three segments given

2.

in Fig.
^ 295,' construct x so that

that

based on

is

construct a

c,

J.

so that-r =
*

ox~-

same

## The fourth term of a proportion in which the other three

terms are the three given numbers taken in order is called
the fourth proportional to the three given numbers; for
if

example,
Ex.

b.

5a, 3a,

is

a, b,

and

c.

4.

a. 21, 5,

t=-,

and 4
and 2b

Problem

e.

To

16.

a+1, and Qa^

d. a,

e.

a+l,

f.

Qj^, 26,

a,

and a+4
and 35

given segments.
Analysts:

## Let a, b, and c represent the given segments and x the

fourth proportional.

To

X so that

=-

a, 6,

and

c,

construct

## Using three given segments a, b, ,and c, find a fourth

Are the
a, c, and b; to b, c, and a; to c, a, and b.
words "in order" essential in the definition of the fourth proporEx.

5.

proportional to
tional?

Why?

PLANE GEOMETRY

174

## Ex. 6. Find by geometry a fourth proportional to the segments

whose lengths are given below. In each case verify by measurement and computation.
a. 4.2 cm., 2.5 cm., 37 cm.

## 3.5 cm., 4.9 cm., 2.5 cm.

cm., 3.5 cm., 4.2 cm.

b.
c.

Ex.

If a, b,

7.

and

c represent three

x=

(b)

-;

(c)

x = %-b

## MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES INVOLVING

RATIOS AND PARALLELS
208. 1. In

Fig. 296,

ratio of

DF

CD = 1

^=

DE

If

3*

AB.

y^

DE\\AB and
What

the

is

to CJ5?

'f~^
Fig. 296

2.

shall

## Construct between two sides of a triangle a segment that

be parallel to the third side and equal to
of the third side.

3.

If,

prove

in Fig. 297,

ED CB

and

\\

^^-^^ AB-Jf'

^^^

CF EB,
\\

AB _AF
DB-Jp-

A nalysis:
To prove

## them each equal

to a third ratio.

## 4. A line is drawn through the intersection of the medians

a triangle cutting two of the sides of the triangle and parallel
to a third.
In what ratio are these sides divided? Why?

of

c
5.

In Fig. 298,

O is any

point within

A ABC,

## A'B'\\AB from A', an arbitrary point in AO,

and intersects OB at B'
B'C BC from B' and
intersects OC at C. A' and
are joined. Prove
.

\\

that

^'C'MC.

## 6. Would Ex. 5 be true if point

the figure and give the proof.

^^^^^^
were outside

A^^C? Draw

In Fig. 299,

7.

X is a point

on CO.

example,

(for

CA?

KH

\\

:r^

AB

to

is

as

and
^

AB.

line

In Fig. 300,

8.

= liAB, and

If

^^), find

to

CO is

175

is

OC.

## the mid-point oi AB,

What is the ratio of

this question

\i

AK
CH

AK=% AB.

/^^ (f

Fig. 300

AB = BC,
AC\\DE FG.

10.

and

FB^

\\

## Prove by Th. 99 that

if

line is parallel to

the other also.

it

bisects /^^V^f^
Fig. 301

Th. 100. Cor.
12.

## trapezoid and bisects one side,

the converse of this be proved
13.

it

## line is parallel to the bases of a

bisects the other side also.
Can

by proportion?

Given any angle and P, any point within it. Draw a line
P meeting the sides of the angle in two points M, N, such
= 2PN. College Entrance Examination Board, Plane

through
that

if

MP

## Geometry Examination, 1912.

14. Show that a carpenter's steel square may be used to solve
problems in proportion. Fig. 302 shows a steel square graduated
to half-inches. ACD is a frame made of
two pieces of wood hinged at C. AC can
slide

## on the long arm

a number x so that

=
9

16

arm

## (12 half -inches)

of the square.

12

Place

Find

ACD

so

CD is on 6 on the long
and 4>^ on the short

p^^

3Q2

## of adjustment of the frame,

to the left until the outer edge of CD passes
through 8 on the long arm. How is the value of x found? Why?

arm.

## move the frame

PLANE GEOMETRY

176

SIMILAR TRIANGLES
I FOR SIMILAR TRIANGLES

TEST

## 209. Theorem 101.

If two triangles have the angles of
one respectively equal to the angles of the other, the corresponding sides have equal ratios.

## AABC and ADEF are any

ZA=ZD, ZB=ZE, and ZC= ZF.
= = Conclusion
DE EF FD

Hypothesis:

two

triangles

with

AT?

T^

To prove r-=,

I.

of
II.

.*.

/\DEF.

## /lABC upon ADEF with point B on point E,

DE, and BC along EF. Then prove

place

AB

along

A'a DF.
II

Let the pupil complete the analysis and give the proof.

T^
It IS

^
necessary also to prove
1

BC =
CA

FD
-

EF

## If a and a', b and b', c and

mutually equiangular triangles, find

Exercise.
sides of
1.

^j'andc',

if

2.

yandc',
and c,

if

3. b

210.

it

o =12,
a =3M,
a

= lOH,

6=18,
6=4,
a'

= 16,

=24,

=5>i
= 20,

b'

c'

anda' = 20.
and a' = 25.
and c' = 27.

similar

a.

The

b.

## Corresponding sides have equal

are corresponding

if

## angles of one are equal to the corresponding

angles of the other and
ratios.

Theorem 101

We

will state it

Theorem

177

formally as

102.

Two

Why?

similar.

## popular language, similar figures have the same

shape. All enlargements and drawings to scale are practical

In

examples of similar
Ex.

1.

Prove that

Ex.

2.

Are

two

figures.
all

## equilateral triangles are similar.

all isosceles

triangles similar?

Why?

When

are

## isosceles triangles similar?

3.
If two isosceles triangles have equal vertex angles, the
have the same ratio as the bases.

Ex.
legs

4.

Are

Ex.

5.

Is

Ex.

6.

## Construct two rectangles that are similar.

Ex.

two

all

right triangles
right triangles similar?

similar?

Why?

When

are

Why?

## TESTS FOR EQUAL PRODUCTS AND EQUAL RATIOS

At the beginning of the course in geometry considwas spent on the use of congruent triangles in
proving segments and angles equal. So important is this
that when it is necessary to prove two segments equal we
211.

erable time

## a pair of congruent triangles. In this

are studying especially equal ratios, which are
The tests for equal
just as important as equal segments.
ratios are as important as the tests for equal segments.
often look

chapter

When two
bilities

first for

we

ratios are to

## be proved equal, the following possi-

must be considered:

1.

2.

By
By

## parallels and transversals.

similar triangles.

## B. Before either of these mechods can be applied it is

often necessary to find a third ratio to which each of thei

PLANE GEOMETRY

178

The use

## of similar triangles in proving ratios equal is of

The following considerations are

considerable importance.
:

To

First:

select the

The

proper triangles:

definition of

have equal

## similar figures says that corresponding sides

ratios.

then,

This gives

we

= 77
two

are to prove

and by alternation
c

-7-

ir

If.

77
e

we may

## choose the triangles so that one of them shall have c and e

as sides and the other shall have d and / as sides, or so that
one of them shall have c and d as sides and the other shall

## have e and / as sides that is so that the numerators shall

be sides of one triangle and the denominators sides of the
other, or so that the terms of one ratio shall be sides of one
triangle; and the terms of the other ratio sides of the other.
;

Second:

To

## corresponding sides of a pair of

In Fig. 303 the triangles are so placed

select the

similar triangles:

## that corresponding sides can be selected immediately by

When the triangles are not thus conveniently

inspection.

## placed it is necessary to remember that corresponding sides

are always opposite equal angles. The corresponding sides
should be selected carefully from the equal angles as illustrated in the proof to Ex.

may be designated by
When it is required
of equal ratios may be

on p.

179.

Z2 and Z2'.

## two products equal, a pair

obtained from the equal products by
Th. 91 and the ratios proved equal as explained above.
Note.

If

to prove

## we say that corresponding

a
equal ratios, the ratios should be read ~'

b
'^

~y'

If>

## corresponding sides of similar triangles are proportional,

either -^

= -77 or -?- = ^-

divided proportionally,

we may

if

have

we may

we say the

use

sides are

1,

204.

179

## EXERCISES INVOLVING THE USE OF TEST

SIMILAR TRIANGLES

FOR

## The diagonals of a trapezoid divide each other into

have the same ratio (see Fig. 304).
that
segments
212.

1.

Analysis:

To prove

X = y prove

the angles of

^^^' ^O^

AOBA.

Proof:

STATEMENTS

Z1=Z1'.
Z2=Z2'.

1.

2.

3.

## X (opposite Z2) _ y (opposite Zl)

z (opposite Z2')
zy (opposite Zl')

## is any point in segment AB.

drawn through point O not perpenFrom A and B perpendiculars
dicular to AB.
are drawn meeting this line at points F and X.

In Fig. 305,

2.

Any

line is

A BCD

3.

line

a parallelogram with

is

drawn through

;,

'^"'^

intersecting

its

AC

diagonal

\^
j^

Fig, 305

BX

AC.

Y and ^D

at

at X.

is a
Prove

BY = BC
XY A-X
In Fig. 306, ABC is an isosceles triangle.
Prove that b^ = cm.

4.

Z 1 = Z 2.

y^^^^^
^^'.k..J^.B
F^c. 306

Analysis:
I.

y^

To prove

b^

= cm,

tn

## the product of two segments equals the square of a

third segment, the last segment is called a mean proporIf

tional

In Ex.

or X = Va6,
5.

:!c

is

If

4,

h'^

= cm,

4, in

a mean

d
%
OC

is

which

AA

>

Z.C.

h.

Why

PLANE GEOMETRY

180

Z5

## 6. In Fig. 307, AABC is a right

DE is drawn AC from any point

AB

on

Z.

rt.

extended.

7.
is

triangle with
in AB.
Prove

(.

Fig. 307

extended.
8.

6,

in

which point

is

on

BA

## parallel sides of a trapezoid have the same

segments into which one diagonal is divided by the

## Prove that the

9.

ratio as the

other.
c
10. In Fig. 308, AABC is isosceles and BX = BA.
Prove that c is a mean proportional between AC

^>

and AX,

11.

d09,CXAB

In Fig.

and

BYAC.

Prove

AC = CX

^,

^^^^AB
12,

BY'

BO BY=^BA

BX.

X B
Fig. 309

## 13. In Fig. 310, lines h and k are parallel and are

cut by the pencil of rays from point 0. Prove that
a _c

~b~l'
Suggestion.

## Prove that each ratio

is

equal to a third
Fig. 310

ratio.

14.

What

ratios

on opposite sides
15.

with

would be equal

of point

In Fig. 311,

if

O?

## AABC is a right triangle

CDAB from C. Prove

Z C a right angle.

AACD^ACBD
spending

sides.

ratios of corre- ^.
Fig. 311

181

## a diameter of OO, BD tangent

from A cutting the circle
at E and the tangent at D.
Prove that AB \s2i mean
a.t

B.

any

is

is

line

## In Fig. 312 draw BE.

17.

mean

^B

In Fig. 312,

16.

circle

proportional between

AE

Prove that

BE

is

and ED.

## In Fig. 313, CZ) is a diameter perpendicular to

Prove that ^C is a mean proportional

18.

chord AB.

between

tional

CE

and CD.

19.

between

20. In Fig.

is

a mean propor-

and ED.

Fig. 313

CE-ED = AE^EB.

The

circle;

21.

of

CE

is

the arc

is

30

ft.;

## the rise of the center of the street above the gutter

7 inches. What is the radius of the circle?
22. In Fig. 314,

XF ^5 and FZ
II

II

is

## BC. Prove that

Fig. 314

b~l'
23. Draw a square A BCD and the diagonals AC and BD.
Let E, F, G, and
be the mid-points of the sides AB, BC, CD,
and DA respectively. Join each vertex to the mid-points of the two
non-adjacent sides, that is, join A to points F and G, and so on.
Find pairs of similar triangles and read the ratios of corresponding

sides.

24. Fig.

315

shows

three

concurrent

Prove that

j y

lines

## 25. In Fig. 316 the circles are tangent at X,

the point of tan-

cb

Prove that

## 26. Investigate the case, Ex. 25, in

circles are

13

tangent internally.

which the
Fig. 316

PLANE GEOMETRY

182

## IMPORTANT SPECIAL CASES

INTERSECTING CHORDS
213.

Theorem

103.

If

## circle, the product of the segments of one

product of the segments of the other.

is

equal to the

Fig. 317

Hypothesis:

and
of

Circle

AB

is

any

circle

AB

## so that a and h are the segments

intersecting at
and c and d the segments of CD.

Conclusion :

The

CD

ab

= cd.

analysis, construction,

left to

the pupil.

Ex.

1.

Ex.

2.

Ex.

3.

Ex.

4.

Ex.5.
Ex.

6.

## Find b, if a = 12, ^ = 2%, and c=15.

Find a and b,iiAB = 22,d = 8, and c = 12.
Find a and d, if AB = 19, 6 = 10, and c = 6.
Find d, if a = 5>^, = 43^, and b = 5.
<;

## I^mda,iid = 8li,c = 2%,sindb = 3y5,

Find c and d,iiAB = 2Q,b = 8, and c = d.

AC

and
214. If point C is between A and B on line AB,
is said to be divided
C-5 are said to be segments oiAB and

^B

internally at C.
internally at C.

AB

ylC+C5 = A5.
on

is

divided

^
i

-5"

c'

AB

## but not between

said to be segments of AB.
In Fig. 318,
said to be divided externally at C.

If point

In Fig. 318,

and 5,

is

line

## AC and -BC are

still

AB is
AB is divided externally at C. AC'-BC' = AB if C is
on AB extended. BC'-AC'=BA if C is on BA extended.

## RATIO AND PROPORTION

183

INTERSECTING SECANTS

## Theorem 104. If two secants intersect without a

the product of one secant and its external segment
is equal to the product of the other secant and its external segment.
215.

circle,

Fig. 319

## Hypothesis: Circle O is any circle with the two secants

h and k intersecting without the circle at E so that a and b
are the external segments of h and k respectively.

ah = bk.

Conclusion:

The

analysis, construction,

left to

the pupil.

The

## following data refer to Fig. 319; c and d are the

Find the length of the
internal segments of h and k respectively.

Ex.

1.

segments required.

and

a.

Find

b.

Find

b, if

Find
Find

a, if

c.

d.

a, if

d, if

a = 9,

## A=15, a = 7, and ^ = 35.

k= 12, and c = 4.

= 8, c= 13, and 6 = 4.
c=10, b = 4, and d = 20.

<f

2.
If in QO the chords AB and CD
kind of segments are AX, BX,
what
320),
CX, and DX? If point B moves along the
circle until AB' intersects CD without the
circle at X', what kind of segments are AX',
B'X', CX', and DX'? Show that the chords
are divided in one case internally and in the

Ex.

intersect at

(Fig.

Fig. 320

## other case externally so that the product of the segments of one

chord is equal to the product of the segments of the other.

'

PLANE GEOMETRY

184

## INTERSECTING TANGENT AND SECANT

If a secant and a tangent meet
216. Theorem 105.
without a circle, the tangent is a mean proportional between
the whole secant and its external segment.

Fig. 321
is any circle with secant k and
Hypothesis: Circle
tangent h meeting without the circle at C so that a is the

external segment oi k.
h'^=ak.

Conclusion:

The

analysis, construction,

In the next

left to

the pupil.

## five exercises the letters refer to Fig. 321.

a = 4: a.nd h = 6.

Ex.

1.

Find

Ex.

2.

Find kanda^ii

Ex.

3.

Find

k, ii

a, if

AB = 7

and h = 12.

and the

Ex.
Ex.

Find k and

4.

Find

5.

a, if

.45 = 27 and h =

Ex.

6.

if

18.

a = 4, h =

l2,

and the

circle.

AX'

will

show the

relation

## Draw a segment AC=S cm. On AC from C lay off

Draw any circle passing through points A and B.
Draw a tangent to this circle from point C. Draw several figures,
Ex.

CB = 2

7.

cm.

and

Can you
Ex.

8.

## drawn, but using always ^C = S cm.

the lengths of the various tangents.

circle

C5 = 2 cm. Compare
explain the results?

## Tangents drawn to two intersecting

common chord are equal.

point in their

circles

from any

185

OF A TRIANGLE

## The bisector of an angle of a tri217. Theorem 106.

angle divides the opposite side internally into segments
that have the same ratio as the other two sides of the
triangle.

Fig. 322

Hypothesis:

ZBCA

## AABC is any triangle with CO

AB into segments r and

and dividing

Conclusion:

=t
5
b

bisecting

s.

I.

Two

II.

III.
'Let

.*.

## ratios may be proved equal by use of Th. 98,

Th. 99, or Th. 101. (Why?) We will use Th. 99.
a
T
construct AD from A OC and get = r,'
\\

Y
a
To prove = t, prove

= h' and

substitute in

In the next
Ex.

1.

six exercises

-T = a
j-,-

PLANE GEOMETRY

186

## SEGMENTS MADE BY THE BISECTOR OF AN

EXTERIOR ANGLE OF A TRIANGLE
Theorem

218.

The

107.

bisector of

an

exterior angle of

## a triangle divides the opposite side externally into segments

that have the same ratio as the other two sides of the triangle.

Fig. 323

## AABC is any triangle with CO bisecting the

ZACE and dividing BA externally into segments

Hypothesis:
exterior
r

and

5.

Let

Conclusion :

BC = a, CA = b,
L-^.
s

The

an

CD = b'.

analysis, construction,

Theorem 107

Discussion.
of

and

is

left to

the pupil.

## not true for the vertex angle

isosceles triangle.

## In the next four exercises the letters refer to Fig. 323.

Ex.

2.

Find

= 24, 5 = 6, and 6 = 5.
r,iia= 18, 6 = 5, and ^ = 7.

Ex.

3.

Find

and

s, if

Ex.

4.

Find

and

s, if

Ex.

1.

Find

a, if r

## AB=S, a=12, and & = 6.

AB = a = 9, and b = 6.
4:,

two points divide a segment internally and extersame ratio, the segment is said to be divided
harmonically by the two points.
^^^
219. If

nally in the

Ex.

1.

In Fig. 324,

ABC

is

any

triangle.

CX bisects ZACB

## and CX' bisects the exterior

Prove that AB is divided harmoniat X and X'.

/.BCD.
cally

Ex.

2.

Show how

Suggestion.

^ ^
^'^- ^^4

AB

as base.

187

## Theorem 108. If a perpendicular is drawn from the

vertex of the right angle of a right triangle to the hypotenuse,
the perpendicular is a mean proportional between the segments of the hypotenuse.
220.

Fig. 325

## A ABC is any triangle with ZC = rt. Z,

AB
AB = c\ m and n are the segments of c.
from
C.
p
Conclusion: ^ is a mean proportional between m and n.
Hypothesis:

The

analysis

## and the proof are

left to

the pupil.

Theorem 109. If a perpendicular is drawn from the vertex of the right angle of right triangle to the h3rpotenuse,
either leg is a mean proportional between the whole hypotenuse and the segment adjacent to that leg.
The analysis and the proof are left to the pupil.
Exercise.
(6) 6

= Z cm. and = 7
(a) m
= 2.4 cm. and w = 1.2 cm. In

## = 6 cm. and c = 9 cm.;

(c) 6

cm.;
each case measure the remaining segments and compare them with
the results obtained by computation.

221.

Problem

17.

To

construct

mean

proportional

## between two given segments.

Solution I. The solution may be based on Fig. 326, by making the
hypotenuse of the right triangle equal to the sum of the two given
segments. Construct the right triangle by means of a semicircle.
II.
The
by making

Solution

solution

may

be based on

## equal to the longer and

equal to the shorter of the given segments.
Fig. 326,

m
Fig. 326

PLANE GEOMETRY

188

Ex.

1.

If

X so that (1)

## a and_b are two given segments, cons truct a

segment
ylah; (2) x= ^2ab; {S)x= V^^a^; (4) x = }^ ^|ab,

x=

## Ex. 2. JTaking any given length to represent 1, find

segments
equal to V2, V8, V12. Measure the results and compare them
with the approximate square roots of 2, 8, and 12.

Suggestion.

If

x=yl2,x'^

2
= 2. Then " = X
^*

## Theorem 110. The sum of the squares of the legs

of a right triangle is equal to the square of the hypotenuse.
222.

Fig. 327

AABC

rt.

## is any right triangle with

Hypothesis:
Z c the hypotenuse, and a and b the legs.

ZC

Conclusion:

a^-\-b^=c'^.

I.

To prove
for b^

II.

III.

.*.

b^

## above suggest the use of the mean

proportional theorem.
draw a perpendicular from

and

b^

and a value

in terms oi

C to AB and
AB and its segments.

find a^

Proof:

STATEMENTS
1.

2.

3.

= nc and b^ = mc.
a^-]-b^ = nc-]-mc={n-\-'m)c.
a2 +62 = ^2.
a^

Let the pupil give the reasons. For 2 use: the sum of numbers
having a common factor is the common factor multiplied by the sum
of the coefficients.

189

## Note. Th. 110 is one of the most important theorems of geometry

and one of tlie most frequently used. More than one hundred proofs
are known. It is called the Pythagorean theorem. Pythagoras, a
Greek, is supposed to have given a general proof, although the fact was
believed to be true much earlier. We do not know the nature of the
proof that Pythagoras gave, but it is probable that it was something
one given above. Pythagoras settled in Crotona, Southern
where he founded a brotherhood, the members of which were

like the

Italy,

pledged to secrecy.

They spent

ethics,

in geometry.

What

Exercise.

is

B.C.

if

the

The

## sides are 3, 4, and 5 is a

were known to the Egyptians
more than three thousand years before the time of Pythagoras.
The Egyptians used ropes knotted at equal distances. These were
stretched about three poles so as to form a. right triangle. The

Note.

## fact that a triangle

relation 3^+42

and the

right triangle

whose

= 52

Egyptians called the men who knew how to use these ropes ropestretchers.
Surveyors use similar methods to-day. How many knots
must there be in the rope and how is it used to construct a right
triangle?

## The pyramids of Egypt have an angle nearly equal to an acute

angle of a triangle whose sides are 3, 4, and 5. The Chinese and
date.

223. Ex.

are 25

Ex.

ft.

2.

1.

What

and 60

3.

Find

b.

m=

8,

c.

p=

9,

Ex.

4.

all

of the

6=17.
w=12.

The

center.

of a rectangle

is

50

ft.;

one side

is

14

ft.

side.

= 16, p=12.

a.

The diagonal

Ex.

is

ft.?

## segments in Fig. 328,

d.
e.

/.

if

6=10, a = 24.
c=50, 6 = 30.
w = 28, = 63.

of a circle is 11 in.
a tangent drawn from a point 61

of

in.

from the

PLANE GEOMETRY

190

## In a given circle let r represent the radius, c a chord,

Find the missing
of the chord from the center.
terms as indicated below:

Ex.

5.

d = 8,

a,

d=?,

b.

Ex.

= 32,

r=?

c=28,

d=12,

c.

r=18.

d = 5,

d.

c=?,
c=?,

= 36.

r=45.

## Find the sides of an isosceles

side of a square is 12.
formed by joining the mid-point of one side to the opposite

One

6.

triangle
vertices.

## One side of a square is 14. Find the sides of an isosceles

formed
by joining one vertex to the mid-points of the sides
triangle
not passing through that yertex.
Ex.

7.

Ex.

8.

diagonal

if

Ex.

9.

Ex.

10.

Find the

## If one side of a square is 8, find the diagonal.

one side is 6; 10; 12; 20; 5.
If

a diagonal of a square

If

is

is

12,

Theorem HI.
is s

V2.

If

Ex. 11.
are 18.

Ex.

tude

is

Ex.

whose
Ex.
side.

The base

What
12.

If

of

13.

14.

an

## Find one of the

is s, its diagonal
d, the side is ^/id yl2.

## isosceles triangle is 12; the equal sides

legs of

an

isosceles triangle

if

the

alti-

is 12.

## Find the altitude of an equilateral triangle one of

Find the altitude if the side is 5; 10; 12; 5.

is 4.

If

## the altitude of an equilateral triangle

if the altitude is 6; 8; 7>^; a.

is

Theorem

112.

its altitude is

V2

If

## one side of an equilateral triangle is s,

If the altitude is a, one side of the

s ^3.

a VJ.

## Ex. 15. One side of a rhombus

Find the diagonals.
Ex. 16.
is 12.

is

altitude?

is its

sides

One

Find the

angle of a
side.

is

rhombus

is

60.

The

is

60.

longer diagonal

191

## APPLICATIONS OF EQUAL RATIOS

MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES
329 shows proportional compasses used
reduce drawings to scale. How must
the instrument be adjusted so that b is twice a ? so that
224.

to

1.

Fig.

or

enlarge

times a

b is three

2.

of

a tree

is

the tree

8-ft.

is

36

ft.

pole

is

at the

same time

How

ft.

high

Fig. 329

How may

## the height of a flagpole be found by noticing just

when the length of the shadow of a certain post is equal to the
height of the post? Why?
3.

## Note. It is said that the Greek Thales astonished the Egyptians

by measuring the heights of the pyramids from their shadows. Whether
he used the method of Ex. 2 or the special case mentioned in Ex. 3
is not known.
Thales lived from about 640 to 548 B.C. and introduced
x
the study of geometry into Greece.

An

4.

may

point

8-ft.

'' '^

## pole is placed at B (Fig. 330). How

located and what lines must be meas-

CX?

Xb

A be

5.

Fig. 330

Why?
Can you use

## the method of Ex. 4 in determining the length

on the comer of a building? Could the length
using the special method of Ex. 3?

of a flagpole placed

be determined by

## Show that an inaccessible distance AB (Fig.

by the following method: Make
AC LAB. Take C, any point on .4 C from which
6.

be obtained

is visible.

CD

E, the point

331)

may

^'

## and BA would intersect. What

lines must be measured?
7. Show how the measurement suggested in Ex. 6 may be
performed practically by the aid of a pole and a carpenter's steel
at which

square.

Note.

## In Ex. 6 stakes are set up at the points indicated and the

on the ground. In Ex. 7 the figure is set up in a vertical

## figure laid out

plane.

PLANE GEOMETRY

192
8.

Show that an

obtained as follows:

AC

CD

AB

inaccessible distance

Make CA AB and

(Fig. 332)

## some convenient part oi AC i}4

DEAD. Find E, the point at
which BC and DE would intersect. What measurement must be taken? Is it necessary that AB and
until

be

is

Make

or H).

9.

may

extend

Fig. 332

## the cross-staff was sometimes used to measure inaccessible heights

and distances. The cross-bar c was made to slide
Tp^--^
-^
''^
up and down the staff a (Fig. 333). Show how this
^
instrument could be used to find the width of the
Fig, 333

How

stream R.

could

it

## be used to find the height of a steeple?

TRIGONOMETRIC RATIOS

225.

AABCc^AA'B'C
or

T = T}' Why?
b
h'

(Fig. 334)

that

if

^=y

The second

pro-

## may be translated thus: The ratio of two sides of

one of two similar triangles equals the ratio of the two corresponding sides of the other. In right triangles we have:
portion

## two right triangles have an acute angle of one equal to

an acute angle of the other, the ratio of any two sides of
one is equal to the ratio of the two corresponding sides of
If

the other.
Ex.

In Fig. 335,

1.

similar

right

given above.

Note.

triangles.

AABC

## and A'B'C are

Apply the proportion

ratios.

## In Fig. 335 the triangles are lettered so

is opposite A A, side b is opposite Z.B,

that side a

## Z C. Angle C is the right angle.

in the discussion that follows, the
right triangles will be lettered in this way.

side c is opposite

For convenience

The

ratio

is

Why?

ratios

having the

said of the

therefore, that

If

I.

193

is

known, we can

XL

find the angle.

If

is

known, we can
These same

much importance

ratios are of so

in relation

## to the /.A that they have been given special names.

names of the ratios are as follows:

a or

:;

^-^-:

IS

## called sine oi Z.A

and

is

The

written

hypotenuse
sin A.

h or

T-^

ZA

,,

called cosine of

/.A and

is

r
. ^
4.
called tangent 01

Zy Aa andj

is

IS

hypotenuse

written cos

ZA
TH
ZA

side opposite
TT-^
-r or -T-;
7

written tan
Ex.

but

2.

IS

## Construct two right triangles with angle A = 50 in each

In each triangle measure a, ft,

and

-I

Ex.

3.

ratios

a b
,

and -r-

Compare the

## and 4 with the tables

given on page 299 showing the values of these ratios for angles
of all degrees from 1 to 90.
The ratios in the tables are given

## approximately with three figures. With your crude methods of

measuring you cannot expect to be as accurate.
Q
Ex. 4. Construct a right triangle so that the ratio -r is %.

## Measure ZA with a protractor and compare the result with the

Look for the tangent that is nearest
and note the angle.

table.

PLANE GEOMETRY

194

## 226. It is important to notice that every acute angle has

a particular value for each of the three ratios. If the angle
is given, the ratios, sine, cosine, and tangent can be read
from the table; for example,

sin 23 is .391.

Ex.

1.

So also

the ratio

if

is

## given, the angle can be found

from

the table.

What is Z^ if
sin ^ = .515 sin ^ = .966 sin ^ = .777.
cos ^ = .961 cos yl = .839 ,cosA = .292.
tan A = .325; tan ^ = 1.00; tan ^ =3.73.

Ex.2.

If the given ratio is not found in the table, use the one
nearest to it; for example,

Ex.3.

sin yl

if

tan

Find
sin

227.

A = .472

cos

The trigonometric

and angles
Ex.

## = 239, Z A is about 14,

A = 1 56, Z A is about 57.
Z^ when

if

(;

tan

^ = .726.

## ratios are used to find the sides

of right triangles.

In

1.

a = 23 and

^ = .395

## A ABC (Fig. 336)

= 30;

find

it

is

known

that

ZA.

Solution:
Select the ratio involving the opposite side

and the

hypotenuse.
Fig. 336
sin

A =
c

_23
"30

= .767
.-.

(by division).

## RATIO AND PROPORTION

Ex.2. Find side b of the
/.A =35 and c=42 (Fig. 337).

AABC

195

when

Solution:
Select the ratio involving the adjacent side

and

y^

hypotenuse.

Fig. 337

cosA=c
cos

A =cos

35

= .819

(from table).

..A=.819.
Let the pupil complete the solution.

Ex.

3.

Find

side

a = 42

when

and

Z^=65.
Solution:

tan

A =-r

tan

A =tan

'

65

= 2.14

(from table).

Why?

## ..2.14=^Let the pupil complete the solution.

These exercises illustrate the general method which maybe stated in words: To find any particular part of a right
triangle, select the ratio formula involving that part and the
two known parts; form an equation and solve it for the

unknown

part.

= 31,
and a = 54,

Ex.

4.

If

Zyl=64 and

Ex.

ZA= 32

5.

li

Ex.6.

If

Ex.

If

7.

Ex.

8.

If

Ex.

9.

If

find

c.

find

b.

= 19andc=16, finda.
a = 35 and c = 47, find Z^l.
6 = 52 and c = 73, find ZA.
a = 62 and 6 = 26, find ZA.
Zyl

## 228. The methods illustrated above are especially used

in solving problems involving heights and distances.
tape for measuring distances and some instrument for

PLANE GEOMETRY

196

## For measuring angles the surveyor uses a transit which is

two protractors, a leveling tube, and a telescope for
easy and accurate seeing. For accurate work he measures
angles to the nearest minute or even closer and uses more
extended ratio tables. Rough approximations may be
made with instruments that any ingenious pupil can make.
A good protractor, a plumb line, and a couple of pegs for
In
sights are all that is needed for a rough angle measurer.
Measuring Implements of Long Ago Mr. W. E. Stark
describes some ancient forms of such instruments.
really

## In finding heights the angle of elevation is

If B is the top of a tower (Fig. 339), the
Z CAB is the angle of elevation. Notice that j^

used.

line

AC is horizontal.

^,

Fig. 339

## It is suggested that after solving the following exercises

the pupil apply his knowledge to some practical problems

of his

Ex.

own
1.

devising.

ft.

from

its

base

The angle
is

of elevation

## Find the height

43.

of the tower.
2.
What is the angle of elevation of the sun
high casts a shadow 18 ft. long?

Ex.
32

ft.

is

19

Ex.

below

3.

What

is

a tree

if

## the height of a balloon if its angle of elevation

place 10 miles from a point directly

## when seen from a

it?

4.
The length of a string attached to a kite is 300 ft.
Find the height of the kite if its angle of elevation is 56.
Note. Ex. 4, of course, assumes that the string is straight, which

Ex.

is

## never really true.

Ex.

5.

perpendicular

of elevation of 48.

Ex.

6.

How

Show how

cliff

far is

it

650

ft.

i/rea,t

to measure

or too small?

cliff ?

an angle A

## without the use of a protractor by

measuring the segments marked on Fig. 340.
If ZA is given, how is the remainder of the^.indirectly

figure constructed?

Fig. 340

197

229.

IN

CHAPTER

IX

A. Tests.
I.

To prove two

## products equal, use the factors of one

and the factors of the others as

as the extremes

## the means of a proportion and prove the ratios

equal (Th. 91 and 211).
II.

To prove two
a.

Two

## ratios equal, look for

similar triangles (211 and Ths. 101

and

102).
b.

Two

transversals cut

and Th.
c.

d.

Two

parallels (211

98).

and Th.

by three

99).

ratios equal to

As. 57).

## B. Algebraic equations indicating constructions.

I.

PLANE GEOMETRY

198

A BCD

In Fig. 342,

3.

and

a parallelogram

is

an arbitrary point

is

in

DC

extended.

Draw any

4.

triangle

342

p^^,

## and its three altitudes. Find all possible

and read the ratios of corresponding sides.

## 5. In Fig. 343, P is the mid-point of the arc CD.

PA and PB are arbitrary chords intersecting chord
CD at X and Y respectively. Prove that PY PB= j
PA PX.
-

## Fig. 344 is a square with its diagonals A C

bisects Z BAC. The other segments

6.

and BD.

AE

angles

tri-

DB

## First prove that AE, CG, and

Suggestion.
and CF are parallel.
are concurrent and that

AE

What
What

## other segments must be proved concurrent?

ones must be proved parallel?

1 7. If

two parallel lines are cut by a pencil of rays, correspondon the parallels have equal ratios. Investigate two

ing segments
cases.

t8. State

In Fig. 345,

9.

XW

II

ABC

BC and YZ AC.
\\

II

10. If,

WZ

^B,

11.

in
is

Fig.

FZ

345,

ll^C?

is

of Ex. 7.

## any triangle. AX = BY.

Prove that WZ AB.
\\

AX = BY,

XW\\CB, and

## The common tangent

to

two

/^

Give proof.

Fig. 345

the segment

circles divides

joining the centers into segments that have the same ratio as the

12.

a
that

-7-

In Fig. 346,

= by

CO

bisects

ABCA.

Prove
-P

CD = CA

13. If,

bisects

in

Fig.

ZBCA.

346,

J-,

prove that

CO

>

Fig. 346

CO

In Fig. 347,

14.

/.ACE.

## bisects the exterior

= by making CD = CA

199

Prove that

BO = r and AO = s.
15.

in Fig. 347,

If,

bisects

= ,

prove that

CO

Fig. 347

Z.ACE.

AB

In Fig. 348,
is a diameter of OO, CB and
If
are tangents at the ends of the diameter.
intersect on the circle at E, prove that
and

16.

BD

AC
AB

'

17.

In Fig.

inscribed in

AB

ting

at

ABC

an isosceles triangle
drawn from C cutProve that
and the circle at D.
349,

OO.

Any

is

line is

AC^ =CD'CE.
18.

Investigate the
extended.

case, Ex.

17, in

which

CE

AB

cuts

19.

If

is

double the

## A BC is any triangle inscribed in

CQ bisects ZC. Prove that CA CB =

the

circle.

CP

A\

CQ.

21. If

two chords

## one of them is bisected by the other, half of the first

chord is a mean proportional between the segments
of the second chord.
22.

segments.

231.

1.

2.

The

Make a

## two chords which are 72

cases are possible?

THEOREM

ft.

is

48

ft.

and 36

ft.

respectively.

What two

PLANE GEOMETRY

200

## 3. In Fig. 351, ED is a perpendicular bisector of the chord AB.

In each case given below construct the figure to scale from
the data given. Compute the lengths of the segments

CE = i,
AB = S6,
AE = 26,
AE = Q1,

a.
b.
c.

d.

AB = 20.

by measurement.
EC, ^, and ^Z>.
AB, EO, and A D.

Find
Find
Find
Find

0 = 30.

CE= 10.
AB = 120.

## Find the length

4. The radius of a circle is 12 in.
drawn from a point 13 inches from the center.

AX

BX

of a tangent

OO

from point X.
In Fig. 352,
and
are tangent to
the chord joining the points of contact. In each case given
below construct the figure to scale from the data
5.

AB

is

Compute the

given.

## quired and verify your

results

by measurement.

d.

AX = 6, OX = 10. Find^Oand^^.
AX = 40, A0 = 9. Find OZ and ^5.
A0=15, 0X = S9. Find ^Z and ^5.
A0 = 5, AB = 8. Find ^X and OX.

6.

The

a.
b.
c.

two concentric

of a

circles are 9

circle

and 15
which

respectively.
is

a tangent

of the inner.

## In the middle of a pond 10 ft. square grew a reed. The reed

projected one foot above the surface of the water. When blown
aside by the wind, its top reached to the mid-point of a side of
7.

How

the pond.

16

## length of the common chord of two intersecting circles

Find the disthe radii are 10 and 17 in. respectively.

The

8.
is

in.,

## tance between the centers.

9.

The span

circle of

which

of a circular arch

it is

a part

is

720

is

ft.,

120

ft.

If

of the arch.
10.

## Find the altitude of an isosceles trapezoid if the parallel

40 in. and 58 in. respectively and the non-parallel sides

sides are

are 41

in.

Two parallel

11.

Is there

of this problem?

## two expressions each equal to the square of the

and form an equation. Solve the equation.

parallel to

CY.

Show how

CY

to

^C and

## isosceles right triangle.

so constructed as to equal

XY

to construct

YO

## XO and hence the length of XO

In Fig. 355 the arcs

AB

a.s

The

tively.

circle

to the semicircle.

OO

and

find

"*

jf

the

12).

inscribed circle.

its

15.

to V2.

## 354 shows an isosceles right triangle

Find the ratio of CX to

14. Fig.

with

353 shows an

13. Fig.

XY is

ratio of

Find the

2.

with

circle are

Find
Suggestion.
1

chords in a

if

201

find r in

is r,

O
If

AC

ii

AB = ^.

and

BC

are

drawn

B and A

is

AB = s

terms of

## and the radius of i

and construct the

d
^^^- ^^^

A church window

figure.

design

0D =

DB = ^s,

OB=s-r,
}4s-\-r,
Suggestion.
the substitutions and solve the equation.

OB^ = 0^ -^-Dl^

Make

## Find the shortest path that an insect can take (without

one corner of a room to the diagonally opposite corner
from
flying)
if the room is 15 ft. long, 12 ft. wide, and 10 ft. high.
16.

17. Choose two points, A and B, upon a given straight line, and
two other points, C and Z>, upon a straight line perpendicular to
AB. Prove that the hypotenuse of a right triangle whose legs
are equal to ^C and BD is equal to the hypotenuse of a right
triangle whose legs are equal to ^Z> and BC.
College Entrance

## A BCD is a rhombus with A and C as opposite vertices.

a point within the rhombus such that OB = OD. Prove
that A O, and C are on the same straight line, and that OA OC =
18.

is

AB OB

2
.

College

PLANE GEOMETRY

202

embankment

## rises from a level field.

One end
on the ground 16 ft. from the foot of
the embankment, and the other end rests 9 ft. up the embankment,
measured along its sloping side. How high is the upper end of
the prop above the level field? Result in feet to one decimal.
College Entrance Examination Board, Plane Geometry Exami-

19.

of

sloping

a prop, 20

ft.

long, rests

nation, 1914.

AB = AC = \, show that
=
AD BC, what is the length of

## 20. If, in Fig. 356,

BC=

yJ2.

BD}

If

If

AE = BD,

Show how

what

the figure

may

is

the length of

BE?

be continued so as to

D E

Fig. 356

21. In Fig. 357,
is

A BCD

and

a square.

is

BE A
;

is

is

## the center and

the center

j>

EF; D is the
and DF is the radius for the arc FG,
Find the length of DE, AF, DG, AH,

DB
g

is

center
etc.

etc., if

AB = 1.

Fig. 357

232. 1.
if

the base
2.

One

base angle
3.

The

## Find the legs and the altitude of an

is 24 and each acute angle is 49.

an isosceles triangle
Find the base and the altitude.

is

68.

## distance across a stream

follows

as

isosceles triangle

(Fig.

358):

Lay

may

off

is

45 and each

be found

AC

AB,

## AC to some point from which B is visible.

Measure AC and angle C. Find ^15 if ^C = 300
ft. and ZC = 56.

extending

4.

Fig.

359.

CB

is

AC

across a

perpendicular

to

pond as shown in
AC, Z5 = 34,

C5 = 165ft.
Fig. 359

5.

circle

chord of a

an angle of

203

## 8 in. It subtends at the center of a

Find the radius of the circle and the dis-

circle is

36.

## tance of the chord from the center.

Find
6. An angle at the center of a circle of radius 6 ft. is 40.
the length of the subtended chord and the distance of the chord
from the center of the circle.
7.

## From the figure find sin

Suggestion.
divide one equation by the other.
8.

65,

~.

sin

>

A and

sin

and
^

## Find the sides of a triangle if Z^=42, ZB =

AB = 8. Use the formula obtained in Ex. 7.

and

9.

and

Find

the

sides of

triangle

ZC = 49,

Z^=68,

if

= 25.

## 10. Two observers IX miles apart observe at the same moment

the altitude of the base of a thundercloud that is between them.
If

how

## Note. Ex. 10 illustrates a method actually used by weather bureau

men. The two observers are in telephonic communication, select some
singular part of the cloud that neither can fail to recognize, and take
the observation at a stated time

by the watch.

MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES
233.

Be prepared

Note.

on which any of

## the following exercises depend.

1.

In drawing a certain

ratio

What

100 000

coimty which
2.

is

lengths

ABC

CE-=EB = CF = FA.

is

the value of

an

represent

the sides

respectively.

II?

iscsceles triangle.

'
is

all

will

of

In Fig. 301,

from F, C, and

map

If

EH are
CO =
^
BO

A.

AB

'^

-^,

8'

^-b

^-^f^^'^^k
g
o
h
'-

what

'^

Fig. 361
^'"""^

IS^'''^''

PLANE GEOMETRY

204

## A BCD is a square. AK = BF==

and ZW are medians. GN is parfrom G. li DG=H DC, what is the
= % HK, what is the
?
If
to

to

HM
DG

ratio of

XY

ratio of

allel

G Z

In Fig. 362,

3.

CG = DH,

HM

MK

DC?

to

Fig. 362

## 104 so that two From a

Pompeian
mosaic
ratios, rather than two products, are to be proved
In Th. 103 the segments of the chords, and in Th. 104 the
equal.

Restate

4.

Ths.

103 and

## segments of the secants, are inversely or reciprocally proportional

Why?
In Fig. 363, 0)0 and

5.

A and

B.

X intersect at points

AC are tangent

and

(DX and

to

Prove that
mean proportional between DB and BC.
respectively at point A.

Fig. 364

6.

ABC

is

an

isosceles

HK

is

of a roof truss.

The equal

triangle.

## are each divided into 3 equal parts.

AB. If AC=35, and
are

and

AB

CD, EF,

CD=^ AB,

In Fig. 365,

ABC

k^^tv.

sides

d k

Fig. 364

From

any inscribed

triangle.

and that

is

AC'TB = CT-AR,

7.

^S<1\ /fS^
a roof truss
design

a^

Fig. 365
8.

point

Two

tangents each 24

in.

in.

to.

## long are drawn from the same

Find the length of the chord

t9.

angle of

## perpendicular is drawn from the vertex of the right

a right triangle to the hypotenuse. Prove that the ratio

## of the squares of the legs equals the ratio of the adjacent

of the hypotenuse.
10.

CN

In Fig. 366,

## ABC is any inscribed triangle.

AB and CD is a diameter.
AN = CN DB; (2) AC NB =

perpendicular to
Prove that (1) CB is

(3)

segments

AC- CB = CD'CN.

DE

11. Fig.

with DE.

## AD and FD make equal angles

If ^ = 26 ft., AD = ZO ft., and

Z?C = 13

find

The

205

rafters

ft.,

CB

CB.

is

AF.

A_

^F.
Pig. 367

## Find by geometry two segments whose sum is equal to

a segment 5 cm. long and whose ratio is 3:7. Find by algebra
a
3
the value of a and b if a-{-b = 5 and -r=='^'
12.

13.

## Find by geometry two segments whose difference is 1.5

is 5 to 8.
Find by algebra the value of

a and 6
^

if

a^6

1.5

## and -r= -38

ABC

an isosceles triangle.
FG, CO, and EH are
AB from F, C, and E respectively. Prove that if
G O H
B
EFGH is a square CO=OB. What must be the
Fig. 368
ratio of CO to OB if CE = )4 CB and EFGH is From a roof truss
design
a square? Construct the figure in each case.
14.

In Fig. 368,

is

15. Inscribe

Suggestion.
)9.

The

To prove

construction

that

## 16. Solve Ex. 15

HG = HE,

17.

18.

(2) as

prove

^ = ^.
HG HE

Fig. 371

Show how
;

suggested in Fig.

Fig. 370

Fig. 371

is

Fig. 369
in Fig. 370.

Fig. 372

in Fig. 372.

shown

in

shown

Suggestion.

Solve

method employed
Fig. 373.

by

by
A

Pig. 373

PLANE GEOMETRY

206
Let

19.

CD

ABC

## be a triangle with a right angle at C. Draw

equally inclined to CB, and meeting AB (or AB proD and E respectively. Let be the mid-point of AB.

CE

and

longed) in
Prove that

MB

MD

and ME.
College Entrance Examination Board, Plane Geometry Examinais

mean

proportional between

tion, 1910.

The

20.

distance between

two

parallel chords

cm.

on the same

side

## the chords are 36 cm.

If

and 48 cm. respectively, find the radius of the circle. What would
be the distance between the chords if they were on opposite sides
of the center?
21. If two circles are tangent externally and a segment is
drawn through the point of contact terminated by the circles,
the chords intercepted in the two circles have the same ratio as

22. Fig.

The

arcs

## 374 represents a gable over an equilateral Gothic arch.

are drawn with B and A as

CA and CB

DE

and A B as

## The sides of the gable

are tangent to the sides of the arch from a
point in the common chord GC extended.
centers

and

DF

DE = DF.

a.

Prove that

b.

AB = 6

cm. and

AB = Q

cm. and

DC = 4cm.
c.

DE=

10 cm.

d.

AB = Q

Fig. 374

cm. and

23.

of Fig. 375.

## Let a represent the distance OB, b repreSuggestion.

O, and c represent the half chord
perpendicular to ^ C at B. Prove that {ba) {b+a)

or &2_a2

x=

= c2.

24. Construct a

and

2^2
,

where

a, b,

ZZ)F = 30'

207

## 25. Show that the following construction will give graphically

the solution of the equation x^ 2x = 24:
circle whose diameter is 2.
_At any point on the
a tangent whose length is V24. From the end of
the tangent draw a secant which passes through the center of the
The entire secant will be one of the roots of the given
circle.

Construct a

circle construct

equation.
26. Ovals are of frequent use in landscape gardening and other
Agreeable ovals may be laid out as

branches of engineering.
follows (Fig. 376):
Let

AB

be the total
ofi on AB
two equal intersecting circles with any radius.
Draw the common chord CC and extend CC\
equal to a diameter of the circles.
making
length of the desired oval.

Lay

CD

Through

draw

lines

O and

## O' intersecting the circles at

With
as radius draw XY: In a similar

the circles

DX
X and Y.
draw ZW Show that the
and AB==lo ft., find DD'

circles are

tangent at

If

manner
^0' = HAB

## ABC is any triangle inscribed in

CX is the altitude to AB, A Y is the altitude
CB. OK is the perpendicular from the center of
27. In Fig. 377,

OO.
to

## the circumscribed circle to

Prove

of the altitudes.

A B.

H is the intersection

OK = 14

CH.

Fig. 377

28. Find the locus of points from which the distances to two
given intersecting lines are in a given ratio.
29. Investigate the case, Ex. 28, in

lines

are parallel.
30.

Two

## equal circles intersect in such a manner that the

is equal to the segment joining the centers.
If the

common chord
common chord

is

in.,

If

is

in.,

find the

common chord

## 31. Find the hypotenuse of a right triangle

and K(""~l); (2) and(>^)2 1. Verify
substituting numbers for n.

if

## the legs are (1) n

each case by

in

CHAPTER X
Area and Equivalence

INTRODUCTORY
MEASURING SURFACES

## To measure the surface inclosed by the sides of a

polygon is to find how many times it contains another sur234.

## face chosen as a unit of measure.

The area

of a polygon is the

## common practice to use as a unit of surface a

Thus if the unit of
side is a unit of length.
whose
square
a
is
of
surface
unit
the
is
an
square whose side
inch,
length
is an inch and is called a square inch.
It is the

## may be used as a unit of length with

corresponding unit of surface, it is most convenient pracof length,
tically to use one of the recognized standard units
such as the inch, foot, yard, mile, tenth of an inch, centiWhile any segment

its

## with their corresponding units of surface

inch,
square mile, etc. The particular unit chosen
square
depends upon the surface to be measured.

meter,

etc.,

EQUIVALENT POLYGONS
235. Ex.

and

CD

Show
the

that

In Fig. 378,

1.

is

## perpendicular from C to AB.

and h are congruent. Draw
cut out Aa and b and place

Aa

AABC;

them together
so as to

form

congruent?

AABC is isosceles

AXYZ. Are AABC and XYZ
so that

Do

of surface?

208

209

## Two polyp^ons that cover the same extent of surface are

The symbol ( = ) is used for
called equivalent polygons.
Since
area
is
the
measure of surface,
equivalence.
1.

2.

## Since congruent polygons can be made to coincide, they

may be made to cover the same surface and are equivalent.

polygons.
It

## congruent. The following exercise gives illustrations of

polygons that may be made to cover the same surface but
are not necessarily congruent.
Construct two congruent right triangles that are not
Cut them out and place them together in different
positions so as to form two isosceles triangles, a rectangle, a kite,
two oblique parallelograms, and other polygons, all of which are
Make careful drawings of these figures. The use of
equivalent.
Ex.

2.

isosceles.

cross-section paper

is

suggested.

## combinations of congruent polygons

are equivalent but not necessarily
that
polygons
The
following definitions are necessary:
congruent.
236. It is evident that

will give

## If two polygons are so placed that a side of one falls upon

a side of the other, but neither polygon overlaps the other,
the polygon inclosed by the entire perimeter is the sum of
the two polygons.
If one polygon is placed entirely within another, the space
between the perimeters is the difference between the

polygons.

A
it

polygon

into

is

bisected by a segment

two equivalent

if

## the segment divides

the diagonal

for example,

parts;
of a parallelogram bisects the parallelogram.
Similarly, a
be
or
be
trisected
divided
into any
polygon may
may

number

of equivalent parts.

PLANE GEOMETRY

210

One

## figure is transformed into

equivalent to the

a second

the second

if

is

first.

237. The following assumptions will be used in the discussion of equivalent figures:

## As. 59. If equivalent polygons are added to equivalent

polygons, the results are equivalent polygons.
As. 60.

If

## alent polygons, the results are equivalent polygons.

If equivalent polygons are divided into the same
As. 61.
number of equivalent polygons, each part of one is equivalent
to any part of the other.
As. 62. Polygons equivalent to the same polygon or to

238.

We

## have then the following preliminary

equivalent polygons

test for

## I. To prove two polygons equivalent, prove that they are

made up of parts congruent in pairs.
II. To construct two polygons equivalent, construct them

Ex.

Given

1.

point of AC.

AABC

with

the mid-

||

AABC=OJABFD

Prove

(Fig. 379).

^/..[\e._..^f

a^

"y'''

i/
Fig. 379

A nalysis:
I.

To prove
are the

II.

III.

Ex.

.-.prove
.*.

prove

2.

AABC=OJABFD,
sums

of

congruent parts.

AI ^ AIL

a paral
A

Fig. 380

A nalysis:
To

## transform A BCD into a parallelogram, construct the parts of

the parallelogram congruent to the parts of A BCD.

211

Ex.

3.

Ex.

4.

## Transform a triangle into a rectangle.

Transform a trapezoid into a rectangle.

Ex.

5.

## nals of a parallelogram and terminated

parallelogram into two equivalent parts.

Ex.

6.

## dicular to the base

and

(2) parallel

line (1)

perpen-

to the base.

MEASUREMENT OF POLYGONS
FUNDAMENTAL ASSUMPTION
As. 63.

239.
is

The number

## of units of area in a rectangle

number of units of length in

If

base,

## represents the area of a rectangle, b the length of its

of its altitude, As. 63 may be stated

as a formula,

S = ab.

The assumption

will

## A. When the sides of the rectangle are both commensurable

with a given unit of length.
In this case the unit of length can be applied an integral
of times to both the base and the altitude of the

number

## The assumption is evident at once.

rectangle.
of length chosen may be contained in the base

The

unit

m times and

in the altitude

n times,

if

## drawing the proper lines the rectangle

n rows with m unit squares in a row.
Illustration 1-

is

may

## the rectangle is 3 cm. long and 2 cm. wide (Fig. 381).

length is contained in the base 3 times and p,

The

## in the altitude 2 times.

By drawing

seg-

ments through the points of division parto the sides, the rectangle is divided
into 2 rows with 3 sq. cm. in a row, or into
2X3 sq. cm., or 6 sq. cm. The measure

number

a"

allel

surface

of the surface
is

sq.

cm.

is

By

be divided into

3 cm.

Fig. 381

unit of
,0

PLANE GEOMETRY

212

## sides of the given rectangle

unit
divisible
the
not
are
chosen, but are divisible
by
exactly
unit.
In this case this part
of
this
by some aliquot part
a new unit of length,
as
be
taken
unit
of the chosen
may
linear
is
this
new
unit may be conwhose
side
a
and square
of
area.
The
unit
sidered as the
assumption is then evident

as above.
Illustration

2.

is

a square inch.

AB

or

AC.

In

One

## is, however, exactly contained

both AB and A C. One quarter-inch may
be used as a convenient linear unit. The
measure number of ^5 is 5 and of A C is 3.
A square quarter-inch may be considered as

quarter-inch

in

## By drawing the proper

that the rectangle con-^
sists of 3 rows with 5 units of surface in a
row. The measure number of the area is 15.
the unit of area.

lines

we can show

Fig. 382

In this case we may express the unit, the measure of the sides, and
the area in fractional terms of a larger unit.
in.
The unit one quarter-inch is
in.
The measure of AB, 5 quarter-inches, is

## The measure of ^C, 3 quarter-inches, is ^ in.

The area, 15 square quarter-inches, is i^e sq. in.
B. When one or both sides of the rectangle are incommensurable with the chosen unit.

## not possible to measure one side or perhaps

both sides of the rectangle in integral or fractional terms of
the chosen unit. Since the ratio of two incommensurable
segments is an irrational number ( 198), these sides may be

In this case

it is

## expressed in irrational terms of the chosen unit, and are

measured approximately. From these approximate lengths

an approximate area

## computed by the rule contained in

have seen (194) that by subdividing

is

the assumption. We
the unit of length we can obtain approximate measures for
the sides of the rectangle that are as close as we choose to
make them. It is evident that the approximation for the

area

may

we choose

to

make

it.

213

## Suppose the unit chosen is one square centimeter.

2 cm. and is commensurable with the unit; AC
is equal to the diagonal of a square whose side
is 2 cm. and is incommensurable with the unit.
The length oi AC cannot be expressed in integral
or fractional terms of the unit. We know, however, that we can express i4 C as 2 V2 cm. AccordIllustration 3.

In Fig.

3S3,AB

is

## ing to our_ assumption,, therefore, the area of R

While the length of
is 2X2 V2"or 4 V2'sq. cm.

AC

## cannot be expressed exactly, an approximate

length can be found for it. From this approximate
length an approximate area can be found for R.

Fig. 383

## These approximate values can be made as close as_we choose.

Suppose that 1.4 is taken as the approximate V2, then 2X1 .4 cm.,
or 2.8 cm., is the approximate length of AC, and 2X2.8 sq. cm., or
5.6 sq. cm., is the approximate area of R. In Fig. 383, the area of the
rectangle ABGH represents this approximate area of R.
Suppose, again, that 1.41 is taken as the approximate V2, then
41 cm., or 2 .82 cm., is the approximate length of A C, and 2X2 82

2X 1

## 5.64 sq. cm., is the approximate area of R. Although this

approximation cannot be represented on the figure, we know that
it is closer than the other but a little less than the area of R.
sq. cm., or

1.

The

that unit.
2.

The

## unit can be expressed in irrational terms of that unit.

illustration 3,
is expressed as 2V2 cm.

In

AC

3.

It

is

## which the sides of the rectangle can be expressed only in

The proof is, however,
irrational tenns of the chosen unit.
too difficult for this course.
4. Sometimes when the sides of the rectangle can be
expressed only by irrational numbers, it is possible to express
the area of the rectangle by rational numbers.

## Connect the mid-points of the sides of a square whose

Find one side of the square so formed and its area.

Illustration 4.
side is 4

15

cm.

PLANE GEOMETRY

214

When

it

is

desired to use

## the rule contained in As. 63 to compute the area of a given

rectangle from measurements actually made, an approximate
area only is possible.

We

## have seen, 195, that the exact length of a given

segment cannot be obtained in terms of a unit chosen in
advance. Since the measures of the sides must of necessity
be approximate, the area must of necessity be approximate
The approximate area may, however, be made as
also.
close as

we choose

if

## only the divisions of the scale are

sufficiently small.

## EXERCISES INVOLVING AREA OF RECTANGLES

241. 1. Draw a rectangle whose sides are 3.4 cm. and 2.6 cm.
Find the approximate area of this rectangle in inches, measuring
(1)

to the nearest inch, (2) to the nearest half inch, (3) to the

## nearest quarter inch, (4) to the nearest sixteenth inch. Make an

accurate drawing for each approximation and compare it with

2.

4^2
3.

3M

in.

and

in.

If

in.,

is

321^6

sq. in.

and one

side

is

## 4. Find the area of a walk 3 ft. 6 in. wide which completely

surrounds a lot 300 ft. X 500 ft. The dimensions of the lot are
taken on the inside of the walk.

>'
7^^"

Fig. 384
5. Fig.

## 384 shows forms of columns in cross-section.

outside measures and the width are the same in each case.

The
Find

## Note. The area of the cross-section

determining the strength of the column.

is

an important element in

## AREA AND EQUIVALENCE

Using any three given segments

6.

and

a,

b,

215

and

c,

construct a

Show how

c.

this figure

c(a-\-b)=ac+bc.

## c(a-\-b)=ac-\-bc may be translated into geometry:

rectangle whose side3 are c and {a-\-b) may be divided into two
rectangles whose sides are a and c, and b and c, respectively.
Suggestion.

The

7.

Suggestion.

c{a

b)=ac bc may

be

b) = ac bc.

translated

into

geometry:

## b) may be obtained by cutting

rectangle whose sides are c and {a
a rectangle whose sides are b and c from a rectangle whose sides are
The

a and

c.

## Using any two given segments a and b, construct a square

on the segment {a-\-b) and illustrate geometrically the identity
8.

## Translate {a-\-bY = a'^-\-b'^-\-2ab into geometry. Draw

Suggestion.
the segments necessary to divide the square on a-\-b into the required
parts.

## Illustrate geometrically the identity {a

9.

bY = a^-\-b^ 2ab.

bY=a^-\-b'^ 2ab
{a

Translate
into geometry.
ConSuggestion.
struct a figure formed by adding a square whose side is a to a
square whose side is b. Show how two rectangles may be cut from
What will be the sides of these
this so as to leave the desired result.
rectangles?
10.

{a-\-b) {d

b.

{a^-l)^)

the area

is

70

= {a-b) (a + 6).

a.

a rectangle

## the length of a rectangle

360, find the dimensions.

12. If

area

is

13.
its

14.

and

its

15.
in.

The

diagonal

and

is

ft.

the dimensions.
is

2K

## length of a rectangle is 14 ft. more than

is 26 ft., find the dimensions and area.

area 84 sq.

of a rectangle

if its

its

width.

If

is

38

in.

diagonal

is

13

perimeter

in.

## Find the dimensions of a rectangle

its area 60 sq. in.

if

its

PLANE GEOMETRY

216

242.

Theorem

113.

## product of the base

The area

and

altitude.

of a parallelogram is the

217

## MEASUREMENT OF THE TRIANGLES

Theorem

243.

The area

114.

of a triangle is one-half

Fig. 386

Hypothesis:

ABC

Conclusion:

Area

is

A with

ABC = \

a.

ah.

## Analysis and construction:

that area ABC = \ ah, compare
ABC
with a parallelogram whose sides are AB and BC.

To prove

I.

II.

.*.

construct

Proof:

STATEMENTS
1.

A ABC

2.

Area EJ=ah.

3.

.'.

area

is

A = i a6.

## Ex. 1. Find the area of a

whose altitude is 2 ft. 7 in.

Ex.

and

its

Ex.

2.

is

is

ft.

is

## Find the area of an

leg is 34 ft.
8

area

is

isosceles triangle

if its

base

6.

and

sq. ft.

if

is

32

ft.

each side

in.

## Ex. 5. The base of a triangle is 3 ft. more than its

Find the base and the altitude if the area is 90 sq. ft.
Ex.

in.

S%

if its

in.;

ft.

in.

3.

Ex. 4.
4 in.; 6

whose base

base

and one

triangle

The base

of a triangle

if

is

the area

3 times
is

336

altitude.

its altitude.

sq.

ft.

Find

PLANE GEOMETRY

218

244.

## MEASUREMENT OF THE TRAPEZOID

Theorem 115. The area of a trapezoid is

equal to

Fig. 387

ABCD

Hypothesis:
tude a.

Area

Conclusion:

is

ABCD = |

a{b-\-b')

II.

.'.

triangles

alti-

ABCD

into

b'

## Analysis and construction:

I. To prove area ABCD = l
a{b+b'), divide

two

and

their areas.

construct

## Let the pupil complete the analysis.

Proof:

STATEMENTS

ABC = i ab.
Area ABC+avea, ADC = i ab+i
Area
Area

1.

2.
3.

a'b'.

a = a'.

4.

Area

5.

ABCD = \

a{b+b').

## Let the pupil give the reasons.

Ex.

1.

One base

If its altitude is

Ex.

2.

one base 9
Ex.

3.

The
ft.

ft.

of

a trapezoid

and

its

is

area 81 sq.

ft.

ft.,

## area of a trapezoid is 96 sq.

Find the other base.

The area

of

a trapezoid

is

ft., its

sides.

means

of Fig.

i)

ABCD

## construction lines in the trapezoid

(Fig.
388) so as to divide it into parts whose areas

altitude 8

ft.,

## and the median drawn between the non-parallel

"
Ex. 4. There are other methods of drawing

may

other.

"\

/j
j.

Fig. 38S

figures.

219

The

## finding of the area of a field shaped like an

irregular polygon is one of the important problems that a
surveyor must solve. One method frequently used is to
246.

## divide the field into triangles and apply the

finding the areas of the triangles.
Ex.
in Fig.

Compute

1.

Ex.

shown

;/

= 104ft.

= 82it.

2.

of the field

shown

BD=U
13

for

AC = 270 It.

in Fig.

method

ft.

CI = 9

ft.

EK=\0

ft.

in.

ft.

BL= 11 ft. 2 in.
in.

in.

Sometimes the

## field to be surveyed is bounded on one side

shore
of a lake, or a curved road.
the
a
In such
by stream,
cases a straight line is run near the curved boundary, and
the inclosed figure is cut into trapezoidal shaped figures by

## run perpendicular to the line, as shown in Fig. 391.

In such cases care should be taken that the curved
boundaries of the figures are as nearly straight as possible.
offsets

Ex.

3.

and the

## Find the area inclosed between the fence

from the following data:

AF

(Fig. 391)

river

## 5 = 150 ft. DE = 250 ft. CC = 180 ft.

5C=140ft. F=100ft. DD' = 95it.
CD=160ft. BB'=UO(t. ' = 120 ft.

yl

Pig. 391

The distances along the straight line (AF, Fig. 391) are
equal, as the computation is then much easier.
usually
Compute the area referred to in Ex. 3 if the offsets are run as
indicated below. Draw the figure to scale.
Ex.

4.

Distances on ylF

Length

of offsets

55

100

200

300

400

76

83

80

50

500
42

600
65

PLANE GEOMETRY

220
Ex.

Find the

5.

^5 = 300

area

BC = UO

of

ZB

the

ft.

field

shown

,^

yV \\
y^ j\c

The

ft.

at 50

ft.

at 100

Ex.

ft.

6.

^^-'^^^^^^'^^^^

at 150

ft.

22

at 200

ft.

26

at 250

ft.

...

the

area

Find

shown

20

^^^=^^

in

Z^^!^"'"''"^
'^

Fig. 392

18

Fig.

A BCD

is

AE = BF.

a rectangle.

392.

Fig.

is

## lengths of the offsets are

at

in

a right
Offsets are run every
ft.,

## DE= 125 ft.

from D to A. ^D = 310

angle,

50

ft.,

-^

*^'

7
/-

Fig. 393

Ex.

7.

Two

two at angles

of 30

and

f1||||pi||r"

60.

The

LiF

## shortest side of the triangular park left is 200 feet.

If the streets are 60 feet wide each, find the area of

pavement at

their intersection.

^B'^

Fig. 394

The

area of an irregular polygon may be found approximately by weighing. Cut the figure and also a square unit

## from the same sheet of paper or cardboard and weigh them

The areas have the same ratio as the weights. Archimedes used this method to find the areas of certain figures.
Surveyors sometimes use it to-day.
both.

EQUIVALENT POLYGONS
TESTS FOR EQUIVALENCE
246.

The

For

A ABC

## following notations will be used:

or EJABCD, S for area, b for base,

and a

for

altitude.

For

AA'B'C

or

EJA'B'CD',

h'

for base,

and

## preliminary test for equivalent polygons was given in

Others are given in the assumptions of 237. The

238.

for convenience

now

221

## Test a: for equivalent triangles or parallelograms.

is really a corollary of Ths. 113 and 114.

Th.

116

Theorem
equivalent

Two

116.

if

1.

## are between the

same

parallels.

a = a^ and b = b\
ab = a'h'.

2.
3.

## Test b: for triangles and parallelograms.

corollary of Ths. 113 and 114.

Th. 117

is

## Theorem 117. If a triangle and a parallelogram have

equal bases and equal altitudes, the triangle is equivalent
to half the parallelogram.
the

By

equivalent

## assumptions of 237 any two polygons are

they are sums, dijBferences, or equal parts of

if

equivalent polygons.

EXERCISES IN TRANSFORMATION
247.
2.

1.

Find

in Fig.

How many

## on two given parallels?

3. Using any OJABCD, construct two
parallelograms equivalent to it, (1) using
as the common base, and (2) using

AB

4.

What

be found

same
allel

in

,'

\ \^

\\/-^\',C^
Fir
a.s

the

'iQ'i

common

base.

## equivalent parallelograms can

Segments with the
Fig. 396?

Transform

lelogram having

The

## lines are par-

m n, r
EJABCD into

as indicated: k\\h,

5.

ed

jkh g f

>/

its

\\

\\

s.

a paral-

base equal to

## one side equal to a given segment.

problem always possible?

AB

and

Is the

Fig. 396

## Transform OJABCD into a parallelogram having its base

AB and one angle equal to a given angle. Is this problem
always possible?
6.

equal to

PLANE GEOMETRY

222

How many

7.

The

are
alike

lettered

segments

## equal. The lines are parallel as in.

dicated: k h and

II

||

Transform a given

^ABC

8.

into

the

triangle having
and one angle
equal to
to a given angle.

AB

9.

base
equal

Fig. 397

## triangle having the base equal to

BC

and one

side equal

to a given segment.
10.
(1)

An

AB,

11.

BC,

(3)

AC.

triangle having

Suggestion.

248.

isosceles or
(2)

Two

two

## transformations are necessary.

The transformations

may

be

## Problem 18. To transform a given parallelogram into

a rectangle which shall have a given segment as its base.

Fig. 398

Given the
b'

EJ ABCD with

Let

h its

base and a

P represent

the

its altitude,

and

CO ABCD.

h'

as its base.

Let
I.

R represent
To

IL

.*.

in.

.'.

construct

R = P,

its altitude.

h

full

6', 6,

and give

and

proof.

a.

## AREA AND EQUIVALENCE

Problem

To transform a given

19.

223

parallelogram into

a square.
Analysis and construction:

## To construct the square = P,

I.

unknown side
.'.construct x sl mean

where x
II.

Ex.

is

the

construct x so that ab

## Transform a given triangle into

1.

a given base,

(2)

= x^,

of the square.

(1)

b.

a rectangle having

a square.

## Transform a given parallelogram into an isosceles

triangle having a given base.
Ex. 3. Construct a square which shall be equivalent to three
Ex.

2.

## Construct on a given base an isosceles triangle which

4.
be equivalent to twice a given square.

Ex.
shall

Problem

249.

ABCD

20.

To transform a given

## base in the line

AB

and the

vertex at point D.

Fig. 399

To transform it into a
AB and its vertex at D.

ABCD.
triangle with its base in the line

I.

## Since the base

is

to be in the line

AB

## AABD will be a part of the required triangle.

transform ADBC into a triangle with DB for one

at D,
.*.

side
II.

.'.

and another

side

on

## construct a line from .C

\\

AB extended.
BD and join DE.

Let the pupil name the required triangle and give analysis for the
proof and then the proof.

PLANE GEOMETRY

224
Ex.

1.

A BCD

into a triangle

a.

AB

b.

c.

BC and vertex
BC and vertex

and vertex

at C.
at

d.

Its

e.

Its

DC and

Problem

21.

at D.
C.

vertex at B.

## To transform a given polygon

into

triangle.

Fig. 400

The

analysis, directions,

left to

the pupil.

The

figure

## Let the pupil extend the method so as to

transform a given hexagon into a triangle.

Ex.

2.

Ex.

3.

given 4-side.

Ex.

4.

## EXERCISES INVOLVING EQUIVALENT FIGURES

250.

1.

The median

of a triangle divides

it

into

two equiva-

lent parts.
2.

3.

The

it

lent triangles.
4.

Given the

in the diagonal

AAXB

AC.

Prove that

AAXD =

## Investigate the case, Ex. 4, in which ^'^

is on ^C extended.
point
5.

Fig. 401

6.

points

225

## Given A BCD, any quadrilateral, with E and

Prove
oi AB and CD respectively.

AECF=AAFD-^AEBC

the mid-

(Fig. 402).

Draw AC.

Suggestion.

## 7. Two triangles are equivalent if two sides

of one are equal respectively to two sides of the
other and the angles included by these sides are supplementary.

## A BCD is a trapezoid with its

AC and DB. Prove AAOD = ABOC.
First compare AABD and A ABC or
Suggestion.
In Fig. 403,

8.

diagonals

In

9.

Fig. 403

404,

Fig.

a.^

AE\\DB.

Prove

AABE =

Fig. 404
10.

Can

Show how

this

## to divide a triangle into four equivalent parts.

be done in more than one way?

## 11. If one base of a trapezoid is twice the other, the diagonal

divides the trapezoid into two parts one of which is double the

other.

## a parallelogram. E and F are the mid-points

Prove that CF, CA, and CE divide
the parallelogram into 4 equivalent parts.
12.

o(

AB

13.

parts

is

respectively.

Show how

by

14.

parts

A BCD

and

lines

vertex.

## Show how to divide a parallelogram

lines drawn from the same vertex.

by

15.

An

constructed on
16.

The

a square

K of the square

hypotenuse.

is

Suggestion.
17. Is

its

## equivalent to J4 of the square.

Construct the medians of the given square.

PLANE GEOMETRY

226

## THE SQUARE ON THE HYPOTENUSE OF A

261.

RIGHT TRIANGLE
Theorem 118. The square constructed on

## hjrpotenuse of a right triangle is equivalent to the

the squares constructed on the other two sides.

of

the

sum

Fig. 405

Hypothesis:

I, II,

and

ABC

is

rt.

III constructed

with

on the

ZA = 1
sides

rt. Z and
AB, AC^ and

the

BC

respectively.

Conclusion:

nUl=\JI+ nil.

I.

## Dili can be proved equivalent to DI+DII by

dividing Dili into two parts equivalent to DI
and nil respectively.

III.

## D III into the two parts required

from A BC and proving
=
BEML D I and CDML = D II.
To prove CDML = D II, compare them with con-

ly.

The

II.

## One way of dividing

is by drawing a

line

gruent triangles.
triangles desired

may

be obtained by joining

2. AACD = HCDML.
1.
AACDmBCK.
=
3.
ABCK }4 OIL

227

## AACD ^ ABCK, prove AC = CK, BC = CD,

ZACD=ZKCB,
To prove AACD = H CDML, show that CD is the
To prove

V.

Vr.

common

base and

CL

is

## equal to the altitude of

each.

To prove ABCK = M II, show that CK is the common base and AC is equal to the altitude of each.
To prove AC equal to the altitude of ABCK, prove

VII.

VIII.

that

HAB

is

a straight Hne.

## Let the pupil give the analysis to prove that

details of the proof,

BEAfL^DI,

full

## and the conclusion.

For other methods of proof see 255; 254, Ex. 23; 233,
Ex. 23.

Problem

sum

22.

To

of

Fig. 406

Given

DI

and

D II

## constructed on the segments a and b

respectively.

To
The

construct
solution

a square equivalent to

is left

ni+ nil.

to the pupil.

## To construct a square equivalent

23.
between two given squares.

Problem
difference

The

is left

to the

to the pupil.

;c=

Ex.

1.

Ex.

2.

Ex.

3.

## The sum of three given squares.

The sum of two given parallelograms.

Ex. 4.

## The diderence between two given triangles.

The sum of a given triangle and a given

Ex.

If

5.

Va'^-l-62;

rectangle.

so that

x=

yla^-b'^.

PLANE GEOMETRY

228

252.

## SUMMARY OF IMPORTANT POINTS

IN

CHAPTER X

A. Formulae obtained.

## Area of rectangle = a6 (239).

Area of parallelogram = a& ( 242)
III. Area of triangle = 3^ a6 (243).
IV. Area of trapezoid = M a (b+b') ( 244).
V. If a and b are the legs and c the hypotenuse
I.

II.

of a right

(251).
For area of triangle see 253, Ex. 41 and Ex. 44.
Ex.41. S = }i be sin A.
triangle, a'^-^b^

^s{s a) (sb)

S=

Ex. 44.

sides of

c''

(s

c)

where

a, b,

and

are

A.

263.

Be prepared

Note.

any

of

the

1.

whose
2.

25

ft.

side

The

is

36

ft.

## ft. has the same area as a square

Find the difference between the perimeters.

altitudes of

and 40

two

## triangles are equal

ft.

respectively.
equivalent to their sum having
3.

What

and

## the base of a triangle

an altitude 2}^ times as great?
is

## The base and altitude of a triangle are 18 ft. and 24 ft.

At a distance of 10 ft. from the base a line is drawn

respectively.

triangle
4.

is

divided.

## the same area as a parallelogram whose base

altitude is 15 in.

12
'

5.

The area

6.
ft.

## Find the area of a rhombus if the sum

and their ratio is 3 5. Use Ex. 5.

7.

of

a rhombus

is

is

18

in.

which has

in.

and whose

## the product of the diagonals.

of the diagonals

is

rectangular field

is

30X80

ft.

It is

## of uniform width the entire area of which equals the area

field.
Find the width of the road.

of the

## AREA AND EQUIVALENCE

229

The legs of a right triangle are 15 ft. and 20 ft. A perpenis drawn from the vertex of the right angle to the hypotenuse.

8.

dicular

## Find the areas of the two triangles formed.

9. The area of a rectangle is 120 sq. ft.; one side

is

Find

ft.

the diagonal.

The perimeter

10.
is

14

ft.

of a rhombus
Find the area. Use Ex.

is

100

ft.;

5.

The

## area of a rhombus is 2184 sq. ft.; the shorter diagonal

Find the longer diagonal and one side. Use Ex. 5.
12. A house is 45 ft. long, 32 ft. wide, 24 ft. to the roof, and
30 ft. to the ridgepole. Find the number of sq. ft. in the entire
11.

is

26

ft.

exterior surface.

13.

and

ft.;

ft.

its

perimeter

is

84

ft.

## height of a lean-to roof

the span is 15 ft. Find

21

if

3:4:5.

The

14.
is

its sides

if

the length

is

## (see Fig. 407).

Fig. 407
15.

40

The

parallel sides of

an

30

## respectively; the non-parallel sides are each 13

the altitude and the area.
ft.

16.

The area

of a kite is

ft.

and

ft.

Find
JO

## the product of the

diagonals.
17. In Fig. 408, /LA = l rt. Z.
^5 = ^Z)and
^C is the perpendicular bisector of DB. If ^5 = 4
in. and AC = ^}i in., find the area of A BCD

18.

The

of

design

DC.

shown

in Fig.

409

is

symmet-

## with regard to both diagonals of the square.

If AY = )4 AB and OX = }iOA, find the area of
the. kite AYXZ and hence of the Maltese cross
ric

shown,
19.
ft.

if

^5 = 6

Upon

in.

16

Fig. 409

## the diagonal of a rectangle 11 ft. wide and 60

is constructed whose area equals the area of the

long a triangle

rectangle.

Find

its altitude.

230

PLANE GEOMETRY

IT

## AREA AND EQUIVALENCE

231

31. Fig. 413 represents a square with each side divided into 4
equal parts and the points joined as indicated. If AB = 12 in.
find the area of' the star.
figure similar to Fig. 413, dividing
each side into 3 equal parts. Find the area of the

star

formed

if

is

lO

L-fe^<^-J

in.

p-^-^^^3^^.
^
"
^

33.

g-

i>(

Draw a

32.

-*^

^^^' ^^^

## a perimeter of 60 ft. Find the ratio of their areas.

34. Fig. 414 shows a square with each side divided
into three equal parts and the points joined as indiIf each side of the original square is 12 in.,

cated.

## find the area of the eight-pointed star

irregular octagon in the center.

The

Note.

in industrial

designs shown

ornament.

Fig.

and

of the
Fig. 414

## 413 and 414 are extensively used

from a parquet floor design. See

in Figs.

415

is

Fig. 181a.

-Dciw

^(?

AX

and CY
35. Fig. 415 shows a square with
each one-fourth the diagonal AC. If the points are
is a rhombus
joined as indicated, prove that

XBYD

and

AB = Q

in.

its

altitude

is

Fig. 415

in.,

## and 20 in. and

the two triangles formed by

a trapezoid are 8

in.

## XF = 50, ZF = 20, ZW = ob,

aF = 00. Find the
AX, DY, BZ, and CW are each

In Fig. 410,
YD =120,

37.

y4X = 63,

A BCD.

area of

perpendicular to

BZ = SO,

XW.

rz

ht

Fig. 416

38.

A BCD

ZA = }4

Tt.

is

Z.

If

BC = 8

in.

AC

and ^Z>=15

and

in.,

rt.

A and

39.
If

The area

of

relation

40.

one rectangle
first is

between their

The area

of

is

## twice the base of the second, find the

altitudes.

a certain rectangle

is

3K

## the base of the triangle is twice the base o^ the

rectangle, find the relation between their altitudes.

triangle.

If

PLANE GEOMETRY

232

41. lie and b represent two sides of a triangle and A the included
angle, prove that the altitude upon side ft is c sin ^ that the altitude
upon side cis b sin A, and that the area is >2 be sin A.
,

## AABC, using the trigonometric

=
.4j5
8.3cm., ^C = 3.9cm., ZA=37.
=
^5 9. 6cm., ^C = 5. 4cm., ZA=54,

42.
43.

t44. If a,

b,

and

if

is

-^sis

a)

{s

b)

(s

c),

s = }4{a+b-\-c).

where

tables,

^^

Fig. 417

A nalysis:
To

I.

## find the area of a triangle in terms of the three sides, find

the area in terms of the base and altitude and express the
altitude in terms of the three sides by means of the Pythago-

rean theorem.

= y2ch (Fig.
= b^-x\
h^ = a^-{c-xy.

II. Ave3.

417).

III. h^

IV.

Solve the two equations for h and x and substitute the value of h in
the area formula.
Outline of algebraic proof:

i2-x2 = a2_(c-x)2
b^-x^ = a'^-c^+2cx-x'^

2c

(2bc-b^-c^+a^) (2bc+b^+c^-a^)
4c2
,,,

"

4c^

## may be put in a more concise form by noting that

a+bc = a-\-b+c2c

This

a-b+c = a+b+c-2b
b-\-ca

We may

let

= a-\-b-{-c2a
a-\-b-^c=2s for convenience.

## Then a-\-b-c=2s-2c = 2{s-c)

a-b+c = 2s-2b = 2{s-b)
b-{-c-a = 2s-2a = 2{s-a)

## AREA AND EQUIVALENCE

Substituting in the value for
^^,

2(s-b)

2{s-c)

233

/t',

25

2{s-a)

4c^

= 2 V5(5-a)

n
/.

area of

Note.

(s-b) (s-c)

A = 5 ch=

What

"^

s{sa)

changes must be

b)

{sc), where

in the details

(s

= ^{a-^b-{-c).

above

if

falls

Note.
surveyor,

Hero

45.
a.

13, 14, 15

b.

8, 10,

46.

shown

15, 18,

21

d. 24, 33,

41

c.

12

A B = 210

ft.

BC = 210
CD = 210

it.

it.

DE = 305 it.
EA =225 it.
BD = SMit.

*

## EXERCISES INVOLVING EQUIVALENT POLYGONS

254. Note.
Be prepared to prove the theorems on which any of
the following exercises depend.
1.

Make a

2.

The area

3.

The

of a triangle

is

is

one-

## half the product of the perimeter

of the inscribed circle.

## 4. Given the isosceles right A ABC with OF and

GE drawn from the mid-point oi AC parallel to AB
and BC respectively, prove area EBFG=}/2 area

ABC
5.

The

line

"

F J. 419

## joining the mid-points of the parallel sides of

it into two parts that have equal areas.

a trapezoid divides

PLANE GEOMETRY

234

## 6. Given A^ BC with A" an arbitrary point on the

median CO. Prove AACX equivalent to ABCX.

The

7.

## three medians of a triangle divide

it

into 6

equivalent triangles.

EC,

ZADC+ZBDE = 2 rt.A, prove area DBE = y>

area

8.

from

(Fig. 420).

Given

9.

to

Fig.

A ABC

AB, divided

ACB

(Fig. 421).

## Construct a square whose area shall be

the area of a given square.
10.

421
of

ABC is an isosceles right triAE = EB; BF = FC; G and Ffi^ are per-

angle.

pendicular to

AC.

Compare

areas

AEG, EBF,

*

## In Fig. 423, ABC is an isosceles A. AC

are each divided into 3 equal parts.
CD,
and GN are A_ AB. Compare the areas of

12.

and

FM,

CB

## Given the quadrilateral A BCD with the

diagonal BD bisected at X, prove that AX CD is
13.

equivalent to

AXCB

fJg.^423

King-rod and
Queen-rod truss

design
^

## (see Fig. 424).

Transform quadrilateral A BCD into quadABCE so that (1) Z ECB shall be equal to
a given angle, (2) side AE shall be equal to a given
14.

rilateral

segment.
15.

nals

if

16.

Is the

is

bisected

Given

equivalent to

Fig. 424

AABC
ABCE

is

by one

bisected

with EF\\AB.

of its diago-

by the

Prove

first.

AACF

(Fig. 425).
Fig. 425

235

## 17. In Fig. 426, A BCD is a square with its

diagonals and medians. The semi-medians, OE,
OF, OG, and OH, are bisected at X, F, Z, and W,

## Prove that the star formed

respectively,

is

the square.
18. Construct in a given square a star
that shall be ^i of the given square.

19. If

## through any point on the diagonal

of a parallelogram segments are drawn parallel to the sides, the parallelograms on opposite sides of

## the diagonal are equivalent (see Fig. 427).

[sj
428, ABC is any triangle,
and BFEC have the common side CE
and have AC and BC as bases. Prove that if d
20. In Fig.

AC ED

Z?F

is

ABFD is a parallelogram
ACED and BFEC.

joined,
sum of [sJ

to the

Suggestion.

Extend

EC

equivalent

## can be broken up into parts equivalent to

21. In Fig. 429,

and

BCED

AC

and

ABC

is

any

MC.

Prove that

to

to

CJ ACFG-]- CJ BCED.

22.

of

23.

EJACED
ACFG

and

CO BFEC.
^

DE

lel

sum

^28

## are any parallelograms on the sides

BC respectively. GF and
are

extended to meet at M. On
is constructed with one side

Note.

triangle.

p^^

CO ABFD

Ex. 21

Show

is

known

AB

a parallelogram

## AH equal and paralCJABKH is equivalent

as Pappus' theorem (about 300 a.d.).

## Deduce the Pythagorean theorem from Pappus' theorem.

A BCD is a square with its diagoand medians. HE, EF, FG, and GH are each

D_

nals

## divided into 3 equal parts and the points are joined

as indicated. Compare the area of the shaded
portion with the area of the square

A BCD.

JSL.

e^

Fig. 430

PLANE GEOMETRY

236

ABCD

## is a square with its

25. In Fig. 431,
diagonals and medians. OX, OY, OZ, and
of the corresponding semi-diagonal,
are each
of the star with the area of the
area
the
Compare

OW

square

^'f^^f^^
a

ABCD.

ji

Fig. 431

Note.

floor designs.

## 26. If the mid-points of two adjacent sides of a parallelogram

are joined, the triangle formed is equivalent to
the parallelo-

gram.
27. If the mid-points of

any point

two

## of the base, the quadrilateral

formed

is

equivalent to

3^ the triangle.
28. The triangle formed by joining the mid-point of one of
the non-parallel sides of a trapezoid with the extremities of the
opposite side is equivalent to >2 the trapezoid.
29.

Given the

EJ ABCD and
/\AOB

-\-

0,

is

equivalent to

parallelo-

EJABCD.

## were without the OJ ABCD, what

between AAOB and DOC and EJ ABCD}

## 30. If in Ex. 29 point

would be the

relation

CD is
is isosceles.
31. In Fig. 432,
perpendicular to AB. AB, AC, and CB are
each divided into 3 equal parts and the points
are joined as indicated.
Compare the areas of

AABC

Fig. 432

From

## the triangles formed.

t32. Construct a rectangle so that its area
be equal to the area of a given square
sum of its base and altitude equal to
the
and

shall

a roof truss

design
^"
;

## a given segment (see Fig. 433).

a^

'

Fig. 433

A nalysis:
Let X represent the base and y the altitude of the rectangle.
construct a rectangle so that its area is equal to the area of the
X=a
=
square, construct x and y so that xy a^, or so that

To

/,

x-\-y

## must be divided into two segments

and y.

portional between x

so that a

is

mean

pro-

237

## t33. Construct a rectangle so that its area shall be equal to

the area of a given square and the difference between

and

base

its

altitude

to

equal

segment

given

## be one side of the square and x

of the rectangle. An analysis
similar to that for Ex. 32 will show that a will be the
mean proportional between two segments x and y whose
Let a

Suggestion.

difference

Fig. 434

is

## two triangles have an angle of one equal

an angle of the other, the ratio of the areas

134. If
to

## equals the ratio of the products of the sides that

include the equal angles (see Fig. 435).
Fig. 435

A nalysis:
I.

area

To prove

ABC = be
,^, Tj-y
.

area

A B'C

be

'

triangle
^ wi th

## the area of a third triangle having the same altitude.

TT

.
. .

II.

J
/-D/
LB andJ cfindJ 4.U
draw
the

^-

.area

ratio of

ABC

and

area

,>;
A B'C
.

area

of

AB'C
t-^ttt^,

area A B'C

and multiply.
Let the pupil give the proof.

and

35. If s

shown

s'

A ABC

and A B'C

## = 15,c=lS, and s = s'.

= 35, c = 70, and s = 2s'.
c' = 28, c = 45, and s=r2s'.

1.

c',iib =24,

b'

2.

c', if

6'

3. b,

if

=56,

6'=

18,

## field A BC, show how to divide

two equivalent parts by running a fence from
point X on one side (see Fig. 436).

36.

it

Given a triangular

^/jy

into

Fig. 436
Suggestion.

Represent
.'.

^ C by

a' are to

struction in

Let
b,

## be the point at which the fence meets BC.

XC by b\ CF by a', and 5C by a. Point Y and

be found,
full.

Find

a' so

that

ab_
a'b'

Why?

Give con-

PLANE GEOMETRY

238

256.

1.

Th. lis as

THEOREM

## In the details of the proof of

given above, prove that

them

A nalysis:
To prove

I.

Fig. 437

that

## and AABE have equal bases and equal

and AB as bases and prove the altitudes

ACBF

altitudes, use

BF

equal.

## drop perpendiculars from E and C to ^B and

and prove ABEP^ ABRC.

II.

BF

extended

respectively

2. Give the details for the proof for Th. 118 (1) if square CE is
constructed on the opposite side of CB from that shown in Fig. 437;
(2) if square AF is constructed on the opposite side oi AB from

AF

are on opposite
(3) if both CE and
respectively from thovse shown in the figure.
Fig. 438 may be used to prove

sides of
3.

CB and AB

Show how

## Pythagorean theorem. A EH is the given

Extend AE and AH, making AB =
right triangle.
AD = a-\-b, Complete the square on a+b. Make
BF = CG = DH = a. Join E, F, G, and H. From E
and F draw lines parallel to AD and AB respecProve that EFGH is a square equivalent to
tively.
the

4.

Show how

Fig.

439

be used to prove

may

## the Pythagorean theorem. ABE

Construct the square
triangle.

is

## the given right

on AB.
AK = BE. JoinDK. Construct DCF and
congruent to AABE. Prove KHFD and
squares whose sum is equivalent to c^.

5.

Show how

squares
6.

'4a^

If
b'^

BGHE

Fig. 439

and

KHFD

438
a^-\-b^

may be

x*,^

Make

A C5G
BGHE

constructed

Fig. 439

by constructing

first.

is not a+b.

## AREA AND EQUIVALENCE

7.

and

If a, b,

segment x so that
8.

239

(I)

x= ^|a^^Tc^,

(2)

x=

+ f^-c^.

yja^

H of

the difference

## between the areas of two given squares.

9. Construct on a given base a right triangle whose area
be equal to the sum of the areas of two given triangles.

AB

10.

is

located that
circle at

1 1

E.

D is a point on ^5 so
AB D and cuts the semiProve that the square on ^ is H the square on AB.
the diameter of a semicircle.

^ BC

If

is

a.t

a,

and

6,

Z A an

S.

c are the'

\.y^

y^
^^^

B^ and C respectively,
2cp where p is the projection of
-\-c'^

sides opposite
6

is

triangle with

any

a'^

upon

AA,

= h^-{-(c-p)^

The

Note.

'V
\

l''

^.L.

A^

Fig. 440

c (Fig. 440).

a^

shall

c.

drawn

## to a given line from the ends of a segment is called the projection of

the segment upon the line.
12. Give the proof for Ex. 11 for a figure
which h falls on AB extended.

ABC

tl3. If

is

any

in

triangle with

Z A any

and

opposite

a, b,

c are

is

## Outline of algebraic proof:

''^

/
^^ :/-pJ
I

= b'^-\-c^-{-2cp b
respectively, a^
the projection of b upon c (Fig. 441).

A A, B, and C
where p

^^,
>''^^/i^

^^^^-

## Let h be the altitude upon

^^^

c.

= A2 + (c+p)2
h2 = b^-p2
a^ = i,i^p2^(^c-{-pr-

a2

...

## and prove the converse of the proposition that the

on
the
hypotenuse of a right triangle equals the sum of
square
the squares of the other two sides.
14. State

15, 36,

39

(1)

20,39,36?

(2)

is

the largest

15,30,39?

(3)

CHAPTER XI
Similarity

INTRODUCTORY
DEFINITION
256. Similar

## polygons have been defined as polygons that

have
1. The angles of one equal to the corresponding angles of
the other, and

2.

By the ratio of

similitude of

two

similar polygons

## corresponding sides will be lettered alike,

is

meant

For convenience
as AB and A'B\

BC and B'C.
TESTS FOR SIMILAR POLYGONS
TEST

## The first test for similar triangles is given in Th. 102.

mutually equiangular triangles are similar.

257.

Two

## Ex. 1. Two triangles are similar if two angles of one are

equal respectively to two angles of the other.
Ex. 2. Two right triangles are similar if an acute angle of
one is equal to an acute angle of the other.
Ex.

3.

Two

## equal to a corresponding angle of the other.

Ex. 4. Construct two similar triangles
similitude

Ex.

5.

if

an angle

with

the

of

one

ratio

is

of

%.

Two

other.

240

SIMILARITY

241

## n FOR SIMILAR TRIANGLES

Given ABC any triangle, and A'B' of AA'B'C,
258. Ex. 1.
AB AC
construct AA'B'C so that Z^ = Z^' and
TEST

A'C

A'B'

Theorem

Two

## triangles are similar if an angle of

angle of the other and the ratios of the

119.

equal to an
including sides are equal.

one

is

Fig. 442

Hypothesis:

In

AABC

and AA'B'C,

ZA=

ZA' and

AB =

ZB' and

A'C'

A'B'

Conclusion:

AABCooAA'B'C.

/:c=zc'.
II.

To prove

ZB=

ZB', place

of
III.

prove

AABC

is left

## BC\\ B'C, prove

^, = ^,.

to the pupil.

2.
Construct AA'B'C similar to
A'B' and B'C is given.

Ex.
sides

## Ex. 3. If a segment is drawn

and terminated by the sides, the
given triangle. Give two proofs.
Ex.

4.

upon AA'B'C

To prove

The proof

ZA

Solve Ex. 3

if

AABC

if

the

sum

of

triangle

formed

is

similar to the

PLANE GEOMETRY

242

TEST
Ex.
A 7?

259.

SO that

1.

III

Given
A

J^r*

jr^'^'^X'^AX^'

Theorem

Two

120.

Construct

AA'B'C

(^

if

the corre-

ratios.

Fig. 443

cab

Hypothesis:

In

Conclusion:

AABC ~ A A 'B'C

I.

## To prove AABC<^ AA'B'C compare

,

each with a

third triangle.
II.

III.

IV.

CX = b\

on CB construct CY = a\
and prove 7i ~ Tg and Tz ^ Tg where T^ = AABC,
T2 = AA'B'C\ and T^ ^AXYC.

On CA

construct

c' = z.
(Use Th. 4.)
=
c'
z, compare two proportions containing
z and c'\ t- = - from A Ti and 7,
and 7- = - given.
^

To prove
To prove

T2 ^Tg, prove

be

b'

V.

be

^

Ex.
its

2.

T^

00

Tg.

92.

Ex.

3.

## the median to one of

parts of the other.

them

if

two

sides

and

SIMILARITY

243

260.

to

Problem

## Upon a given segment corresponding

24.

a side of a given

triangle, to construct

a triangle similar

261.

Theorem

121.

Two

if

diago-

## nals drawn from two corresponding vertices divide the

polygons into the same number of triangles similar each
to each and similarly placed.

E^AP

Fig. 444

## Hypothesis: Polygons P and P' are divided into triangles

by the diagonals drawn from the corresponding vertices

## AI~ AI', AII~ AlF,

Polygon P co polygon P'.

Conclusion:

etc.

Analysis:
I.

<

^^

ZB= IB\
_^_^

/.C= AC\

etc.

<^

'a'~~h'~7'
(

To prove

=
be
r>

-/.

## prove each ratio equal to

777^,C

yi

Let the pupil complete the analysis and give the proof.

## CONSTRUCTION OF SIMILAR POLYGONS

Problem 25. Upon a given segment corresponding
a given side of a given polygon, to construct a polygon

262.

to

Can

this

PLANE GEOMETRY

244

## PROPERTIES OF SIMILAR POLYGONS

COMPOSITION OF SIMILAR POLYGONS

Theorem

263.

122.

If

similar, diago-

## drawn from two corresponding vertices divide the

polygon into the same number of triangles similar each to
each and similarly placed.

nals

The

analysis

left to

the pupil.

264.

of

Theorem

123.

The

## ratio of the bases.

Fig. 445

In

Hypothesis:

sponding altitudes
Conclusion :

and

c'

h and

h'

are corre-

## are the bases.

ri^-r
h

To prove

Analysis:
third ratio

AABC^ AA'B'C,
and

ti =

compare

-t-,

and

with the

Let the pupil complete the analysis and give the proof.

## Prove that in two similar triangles the ratio of the

following segments equals the ratio of similitude of the triangles:
Ex.

1.

a.

## Bisectors of corresponding angles.

h.
c.

Corresponding medians.

d.

The

circles.

## Ex. 2. Are there any other segments in two similar triangles

whose ratio is equal to the ratio of similitude of the triangles?
Give proofs.

SIMILARITY
Ex.

## In two similar polygons the ratio of corresponding

equal to the ratio of similitude of the polygons.

3.

is

diagonals

Ex.

245

4.

If b

and

b'

two

= -

and

similar

if

Theorem

265.

triangles

rr

if

and a and

a'

## In a series of equal ratios the sum

sum of the consequents as any

124.

## of the antecedents is to the

antecedent
TT

is to its

consequent.

e
= "7 = "7
= etc.

Hypothesis: T"

Conclusion:

6-f-fi+/+ctc.

Proof:

STATEMENTS
a

2.

__ e

= ab
be = af

ab
be

3. ab+bc-{-be-\-etc.
4.

^'

## b{a-{-c+e+etc.) =a{b+d-{-f +etc.).

a + c + e 4-etc. _ _a
^
'

+^H-/+etc.~

## Let the pupil give

all

reasons.

Ex.

1.

and
Prove Th. 123 by provmg that
Jji^'^r^t

Theorem

125.

The

= DB

^/

^/^/'

two similar

## triangles is equal to the ratio of similitude.

Let the pupil give the analysis and the proof. Use Th. 124.
equal ratios is obtained from the ratios of corresponding

series of

Ex.
the

2.

same

17

The
sides.

## Corresponding diagonals of two similar polygons have

ratio as the perimeters.

PLANE GEOMETRY

240

RATIOS OF AREAS
266.

Theorem

The areas

126.

## of two similar triangles

of the bases or the squares

of the altitudes.

Fig. 446

AABC^

l\A'B'C h and
Hypothesis: In
a'
the
altitudes.
and
and
a
bases
sponding
Area
Conclusion.

ABC

STATEMENTS
1.

Kve2iABC=y2ah.

2.

AreaA'^'C' = 3^a'6'.
area

0.

52

^2

To" ^^"^"
prove each
prove area
_^^ A\'i'Dtnt
a''
'^'C ^TJ'i.^~''i"
h'^

Proof:

are corre-

ABC ^^_a^

I.

h'

area

Analysis:

ABC

ah

SIMILARITY
Ex.
b

and

Ex.
sq.

ft.

b'

## In two similar triangles let s and 5' represent the areas,

the bases, and a and a' the altitudes. Find

a.

s', if 5

b.

a\

c.

b', if

if

=45 and a=

a'.

= Hs''
and 5' = 35.

a =16 and s
^>= 10

The sum

2.

of the areas of

Two

areas and
267.

247

ft. and 15 ft.
Find the

the altitudes.

Theorem

127.

The areas

of

## two similar polygons

two corresponding

sides.

Fig. 447

Hypothesis:

sponding

In polygons

and

P', a

and

sides.

Conclusion :

Area P _a^
Area P'

I.

To ^prove

PP = a^
a

area
'

area

tt,

-?.>,

tri-

## angles that are similar in pairs and find the ratio of

the sums of the areas of the triangles; that is, draw

A-fB+C+ete.

a2

A'+B'+C'+etc.

a'2

PLANE GEOMETRY

248
Ex.

If

1.

polygon, what

## the area of one polygon is twice that of a similar

is the ratio of the bases?

## Ex. 2. The area of one polygon is three times the area of

a similar polygon. If the base of one is 15, find the base of the
other.

## Ex. 3. Two corresponding sides of two similar polygons are

5 and 9 respectively. If the area of the first is 30, find the area
of the second.

Ex.

The

4.

The sum

## two similar polygons

Find the area.

of the areas of

ratio of similitude

is

%.

is

910.

268.

IN

CHAPTER

XI

I.

## To prove two triangles similar, prove that

a. They are mutually equiangular (257).
h.

c.

An

(259).

and the
II.

similar,

I.

equal ratios

sides

have

(256).

IL Two

## similar polygons may be divided into triangles,

similar in pairs by, etc. (263).

III.

Ratios of corresponding segments in similar polygons equal the ratio of similitude of the polygons

(264,265).
IV. Ratio of the areas of similar polygons equals the
square of the ratio of similitude of the polygons
(266, 267).

SIMILARITY

249

## EXERCISES INVOLVING SIMILAR POLYGONS

269. 1. Make review diagrams for Ths. 122 and 127.
If the segments which join the vertices of a polygon with a given
point are divided in the same ratio from the given point and the points
of division joined in the same order as the vertices of the polygon,

the polygon so formed and the given polygon are radially placed.
point may be without the polygon as in Fig. 448a, or within the

The

polygon as in Fig. 4486. In each case 7yTi = 7JW}^^^^- "^^^ radial point
is called

o<-

FiG. 4486

Two

## polygons that are radially placed are similar.

the proof for the two cases.
2.

Give

## Show how a polygon may be constructed

similar to a given
with a given segment A'B' corresponding to side
and with any arbitrary point O as a center of similitude.

3.

polygon A BCD

AB

The

Note.

may be

of

4.

falling (1)
5.

If

sides of
6.

on point A;

(2)

## the perimeter of an equilateral triangle

a similar triangle with half the altitude.

On

On

8.

What

is

## one side and on the diagonal of a square construct

equilateral triangles.

shall

areas?
7.

is

What

is

## Construct a triangle similar to a given triangle whose area,

be ^4 the area of a given triangle; ^2 the area; 14 the area;

}i the area.

PLANE GEOMETRY

250

## t9. If the hypotenuse of a right triangle is twice the shorter

one of the acute angles of the triangle is 60.

side,

The

10.

AC

A BC

triangle

so that

## has a right angle at C, and D trisects

then found that AD = BD. Find

It is

## College Entrance Examination Board, Plane

1907.

Geometry Examination,

two

## triangles have their corresponding sides parallel

each to each, the triangles are similar.

fll. If

tl2. If two triangles have their corresponding sides perpendicular each to each, the triangles are similar.
13. Fig.

If AC
A'C, prove the

\\

## Construct a quadrilateral similar to a given

quadrilateral having one diagonal equal to a given
14.

^^

Fig. 449

segment.

The perimeters

15.

The

of

two

is 8.

## similar triangles are 21 and c

Find the altitude of the second.

## In Fig. 450, ABC is an isosceles triangle.

C to the base AB. PQ is the perA DC
Prove that
bisector
of AC.
pendicular
is similar to AAPQ and find the length of ^Q
16.

CD

J_

from

in

"*

## In Fig. 451, ABCD is a square. AE = BF=

the points are joined as indicated.

17.

CG = DH and

## pairs of congruent triangles and of similar

Read the ratios between corretriangles formed.
= S6
sponding sides of the similar triangles. If

Find

''^

all

AB

cm. and
18.

10.

AE=y3AB,

The equal

sides of

19.

What

4^2 sq.
20.

sides of

in.?

The

is

find

of

an

base

is

is 4.

## the area in acres of a portion of a map that covers

scale of the map is 1 inch = l mile.

The

## sides of a polygon are 10, 15, 9, and 22.

a similar polygon if its perimeter is 140.

Find the

SIMILARITY
If

t21.

similar

251

## right triangle as corresponding sides, the area of the

polygon constructed on the hypotenuse is equal to

the

sum

two

on the other

Fig. 452

Analysis:

To

triangle,

To

t22.

## construct a polygon equivalent to one of

similar to the other.

two given

polygons and

Fig. 453

Analysis:
I.

II.

## Suppose it is required to construct a polygon

and similar to i4.
Since Cis to be ^^1

III. Since

IV.

C is

A
a*
=

C equivalent

to

A =A
^

to be equivalent to 5, 7;

## B are not similar, we cannot compare their areas by

reduce A and B
comparing squares of corresponding sides.

As A and

.'.

to equivalent squares.

Let
Let
__

V.

A
B

## be equivalent to a square whose side

be equivalent to a square whose side

_,,

is

m.

is n,

Then^=-.

VL ..^=^.
n
a
VII.

.*.

to find

a',

find

a fourth proportional to m,

the proof.

full,

make

n,

and

the drawing,

a.

and give

CHAPTER

XII

Regular Polygons

DEFINITION

270.

with

all

of its sides

Ex.

1.

Ex.

2.

An

and

## of its angles equal.

all

equilateral triangle

is

a square.

is

a regular polygon.

GENERAL THEOREMS
271.

Theorem

128.

If

equal

form a regular

polygon.

The

analysis

left to

the pupil.

## Theorem 129. If a circle is divided into n equal

the
arcs,
tangents drawn to the points of division form a
272.

regular polygon.

Fig. 434

Hypothesis:

YZ,

etc.,

points of

## and tangents AB, BC, CD,

division, X, Y, Z, etc.

Conclusion:

A BCD

etc. is

etc.,

are

a regular polygon.

252

XY,

drawn to the

REGULAR POLYGONS

253

I.

To prove

ABCD etc.

that

AA= Z.B=
II.

## is a regular polygon, prove

ZC; = ctc., and >lB = 5C: = CD = etc.

## To prove that Z A = ZB= ZC = etc., and that

AB = BC = CD = etc., join WX, XY, YZ, Z\\ etc..
and prove AWXA m AXYB ^ AYZC m, etc.
Notice that

Suggestion.

AX = BY= CZ = etc
BX = CY = ZD =etc

By
By

congruent triangles.
congruent triangles.
Equal segments added to equal segments.

AB = BC= CD = etc
The proof

is left

to the pupil.

RELATED POLYGONS
273..

Problem

No.

To

2G.

No. 3

No. 2

Fig. 455

## Analysis and construction (Fig. 455, No.

I.

To

inscribe a square in

4
II.

circle,

1)

eqiial arcs.

circle

## into 4 equal angles.

III.

.'.construct

Let the pupil complete the directions and give the proof.
274.

Problem

Ex.

1.

What

27.

No.

To

2).

Ex.
of 4, 8,

2.

Show how

and 16

No.

3).

PLANE GEOMETRY

254

## CONSTRUCTION OF THE REGULAR INSCRIBED

HEXAGON AND RELATED POLYGONS
276.

Problem

To

28.

inscribe a regular

hexagon in a

circle.

No.S
Fig. 456

## Analysis and construction (Fig. 456, No.

I.

To

a regular hexagon in a

inscribe

circle into
II.

1)

circle,

divide the

6 equal arcs.

.'.divide

III. Since

of 360

IV.

.*.

is

## 60, construct 6 angles of 60

each at

circle.

.....

construct

Let the pupil complete the directions and give the proof.

Ex.
is

1.

an

circle.

Ex.

2.

Inscribe

Ex.

3.

Ex.

4.

## What other regular

equilateral triangle in

circle.

inscribed polygons

may be obtained

Ex.
of 3, 6,

5.

Show how

and 12

## to construct regular circumscribed polygons

sides.

Note. Regular polygons are in very common use for towers, spires,
bay and dormer windows, hoppers, nuts, and the like. They are
extensively used in ornament. Even the less common forms, such as
polygons with

7, 9, 11,

REGULAR POLYGONS

255

## CONSTRUCTION OF THE REGULAR INSCRIBED

DECAGON AND RELATED POLYGONS
The

## construction of the regular inscribed decagon

depends directly upon the following problem.
276.

Problem

29.

## portion is a mean proportional between the whole

and the smaller portion.

segment

Fig. 457

## Given the segment

a.

= X
Ci

To find a segment x
Analysis and
I.

To

so that

find X so that

=
a

1.

a'^ax = x'^

2. x'^-^ax

3.
4.

ax

construction:

solve for x.

a'^.

x^+ax+{\aY = a^-^(Aa)\
{x+\ay = a^+{\a)\

## Equation 4 suggests the Pythagorean theorem.

construct a right triangle with a and \a
II.
.*.

dicular sides.
III.

.'.

and
1.

(^
x'^

x-\-\a.

## X will be the difference between the hypotenuse

\a.

Outline of proof:
2.

for perpen-

+ ia)2 = a2 + Ga)^
+ ax + {\ay = -Vilay.
a''

3. x^-^-ax

i2_ ax = a{a x)

4.

x''

5.

^ = ^^x a X

PLANE GEOMETRY

256

## a segment is so divided that the larger portion is a mean

proportional between the whole segment and the smaller
portion, the segment is said to be divided into extreme
and mean ratio. Problem 30 may be stated To divide a
segment into extreme and mean ratio.
If

The

Note.

It was known to

division of a

## the Pythagoreans. It is an interesting fact, often used in

the theory of design, that that division of a rectangle which

## the most pleasing to the majority of people is the one

that most closely approximates the golden section. It might
^^- ^^^
be used in designs for doors or windows (Fig. 458)

is

Exercise.

Show

that

if

3-

the ratio

is

approximately

8:13.
277.

Problem

To

30.

circle.

Fig. 459

Given

circle 0.

Analysis:
I.
yo construct

Z0=

:.

II.

Ho

construct

AB, a
of 4

rt.

A ABO

## side of the decagon, construct

or Vs of 2 rt. A.

isosceles so that

ZA=2Z0.

## The problem is reduced to the construction of AAOB,

The fact that ZA = 2Z0 suggests drawing the
bisector of Z A. A ABC and ABO would then be
similar

and

.*.

=
-r^

-^^

or

AB =0B

'

BC.

REGULAR POLYGONS

257

Construction:
1.

mean
IL Use the
in.

.-.

circle,

ratio at C.

larger segment,

make AB = OC.
makeAB

Join

OA and

Proof:

STATEMENTS

prove

ZO = M

of a

PLANE GEOMETRY

258
278.

Problem

31.

To

circle.

The

analysis

Ex.

1.

What

Ex.

2.

Show how

left

1).

## other regular inscribed polygons can be obtained*

from the regular inscribed decagon?

and 10

of 5

279.

in

Problem

32.

To

circle.

Suggestion.

No.

sides.

The

central angle

:

(Fig. 461,

2).

## What inscribed and circumscribed regular polygons

be obtained from the regular inscribed pentadecagon? How?

Exercise.

may

280. Note.

From

## the time of Euclid until 1796

it

was supposed

that the regular polygons mentioned in 273-279 were the only ones
that could be constructed with ruler and compasses. This includes

polygons with 3 2", 4 2", 5 2", and 15 2'* sides. The smaller polyin
included
this
set
not
are
those
of
7, 9, 11, 13, 14, 17, 18, 19
gons
In 179G, however, Karl Friedrich Gauss, then a young man
sides.
of nineteen in one of the German universities, proved that regular
polygons with a prime number of sides could be inscribed in a circle
by means of a ruler and compasses if and only if the prime number was

## form 2" + l. That no polygons of 7, 9, 11, 13, 19, etc., sides

can be constructed in the given manner follows from Gauss's proof.
A polygon of 7 sides can be constructed by the use of a parabola and
a circle; one of 9 sides by the use of a hyperbola and a circle.

of the

REGULAR POLYGONS

259

## While regular polygons of 7, 9, 11, 13, etc., sides

cannot be constructed exactly with ruler and compasses,
methods for constructing them approximately are frequently
given in courses in mechanical drawing. The accuracy of
these methods can be tested by trigonometry.
281.

## PROPERTIES OF REGULAR POLYGONS

THE CIRCUMSCRIBED CIRCLE
282.

Theorem

130.

circle

Fig. 462

Hypothesis:
Conclusion:

A BCD

## A BCD etc. is any regular polygon.

A circle can be circumscribed about polygon

etc.

Analysis:
I.

To prove

ABCD etc.,
is

XL

## prove that a point can be found which

from the vertices.
distant
equally

## .'.construct perpendicular bisectors of

BC

secutive sides,
and
meet at O and prove that
III.

IV.

V.

To prove
To prove
To prove

that

OS = 0C,
OC = OZ),

that

OE = OB,

that

CD.

## Let the bisectors

OB = OC = OD = OE = etc.

prove
prove

.....

prove

Let the pupil complete the analysis and give the proof.

Cor.

The

## radius of the circumscribed circle of a regular

whose vertex it passes.

PLANE GEOMETRY

260

283.

Theorem

131.

circle

regular polygon.

Fig. 463

Hypothesis:
Conclusion:

ABCDE

ABODE etc. is
A circle can

be

inscribed

in

polygon

etc.

An

I.

## inscribed circle will be tangent to the sides of the

polygon,
perpendiculars from the center to the sides of
the polygon must be radii and .*. equal,

.'.the

11.

III.

## pendiculars OX, OY, OZ,

to the sides, and prove

etc.,

draw the

per-

## from the center

OX = OY = OZ etc.

The

proof

is left

Suggestion.

to the pupil.

Show

## that Th. 131

may

be proved by Th. 67 or by

## PROPERTIES DEPENDENT UPON THE CIRCUMSCRIBED AND

INSCRIBED CIRCLES

The

## center of the circumscribed and of the inscribed

a regular polygon is called the center of the polygon.
The radius of the circumscribed circle of a regular polygon

284.

circle of

is

The

## radius of the inscribed circle of a regular polygon

apothem of the polygon.

is

called the

is

ineant the

REGULAR POLYGONS
Cor.
is

Vn

I.

The

261

sides

of 360.

## Cor. n. The radius of a regular polygon bisects the

angle between two consecutive apothems, and the apothem
bisects the angle between two consecutive radii.

## Cor. Ill The radius of a regular polygon bisects the

arc between the points of contact of the inscribed circle.
Ex.

1.

Ex.

2.

pentagon
Ex.
gruent

Any two

Two

same vertex

of a

regular

3.

Show how

## to divide a regular hexagon into two conthree congruent rhombuses, or six

isosceles trapezoids,

Ex.

4.

On a

Ex.

5.

## given base construct a regular hexagon without

circle.
the
circumscribed
constructing
passes through the center of the circumscribed circle
and is parallel to a pair of opposite sides (Fig. 464).

## Ex. 6. If a regular polygon has an even number

of sides, the diameter of the circumscribed circle drawn

## from any vertex passes through the opposite vertex.

Ex. 7. If a regular polygon has an even number of

sides,

the

## Ex. 8. If any regular polygon has an odd number of sides, the

diameter of the circumscribed circle drawn from any vertex is a
perpendicular bisector of the opposite side.

## A side of an inscribed equilateral triangle bisects the

9.
drawn to the mid-point of the subtended arc.
Ex. 10. The central angle of a regular polygon is the supplement of the interior angle of the polygon.
Ex.

## Ex. 11. The area oC a square circumscribed about a circle

twice the area of the square inscribed in the same circle.

Ex.

12.

If

is

## squares are described outwardly on the sides of a

regular hexagon, the outer vertices of the squares are the vertices
of a regular duodecagon.
18

PLANE GEOMETRY

262

## THE ANGLE OF A REGULAR POLYGON

285.

Theorem

.,

271-4

sides is

The proof

rt.

Each angle

132.

of a regular polygon of

A.

to the pupil.

is left

## THE AREA OF A REGULAR POLYGON

133.
The area of a regular polygon is
of
the perimeter and the apothem.
the
one-half
product
286.

Theorem

Analysis:

To

## find the area of a regular polygon

of the triangles formed.

draw the

and

287.

## SIMILAR REGULAR POLYGONS

TEST FOR SIMILAR REGULAR POLYGONS
Theorem 134. Two regular polygons of the same

number

Hypothesis:

same number
Conclusion:

The two

regular polygons

O and

of sides.

Polygon

0~ polygon

0\

Analysis:
I.

, I.
. r>/ = .
=
ZB'
ZB=
etc., and

prove
.ABBCCD
=

J7^f

To prove
IL ^
^^

The

proof

is left

AB = BC
-^7^,

^T^f

AB

ZA=

to the pupil.

= ^^^-

-^^f

A'B'

=
= 1^
ve
^,^' pro -^^ -^^

LA',

REGULAR POLYGONS

263

288.

Theorem

135.

If

same number

## of sides, the ratio of the perimeters is equal

to the ratio of the radii or of the apothems.

Fig. 466

## Hypothesis: In the two regular polygons O and O' with

the same number of sides, r and r' are the radii, a and a' the

## apothems, p and p' the perimeters, and

Conclusion:
Outline

,
p'

and

s'

are sides.

= -,'=,
r'

of proof:

a'

s _r
J'~?

r__a

?~a'
Let the pupil make an analysis and give

Cor. The

all

diameter of the

same number

same

for all

of sides.

RATIOS OF AREAS
289.

Theorem

136.

If

same number

## of sides, the ratio of the areas is equal to the

ratio of the squares of the radii or of the apothems.

The

analysis

left to

the pupil.

PLANE GEOMETRY

264

290.

CHAPTER XH

IN

I.

To

## construct a regular inscribed or circumscribed

polygon of n sides, divide the circle into n equal

## by constructing an angle ^/n of 360 at the

center of the circle (271 and 272).
II. To construct regular 4-, 8-, or 18-sided polygons,
arcs

274).
III.

To

IV.

To

## construct regular 3-, 6-, or 12-sided polygons,

construct a central angle of 60 by means of an
equilateral triangle ( 275).

## construct regular -, 10-, or 15-sided polygons,

divide the radius of the circle into extreme and

mean

I.

II.

III.

A
A

circle

circle

can be inscribed

The

polygon
IV.

etc. (282).

## bisects, etc. (282).

Each angle

of a regular polygon

2w
is

4
rt.

ft

(285).

V.

The

is

V of

360

(284).

C.

is

## Regular polygons are similar

if

The area

of

a regular polygon

per.

apothem

(286).

I.

they have,

etc.

(287).
II.

III.

For

The
The

REGULAR POLYGONS

265

## CONSTRUCTIONS FOR REGULAR POLYGONS

1. In a regular hexagon the secondary diagonals
are parallel to each other (Fig. 467).

291.

AC

## In Fig. 467, prove that

2.

UVWXYZ

is

FD

and

a regu-

lar

hexagon.
Note. The star shown in Fig. 467 is extremely common. It seems to be an ancient symbol of Deity. It
is used in such modern instances as the policeman's

The

3.

## area of the inscribed equilateral triangle

hexagon inscribed in the same circle.

Fig. 467
is

of the regular

is

## 4. Show that the area of a regular hexagon inscribed in a circle

a mean proportional between the areas of the inscribed and

5.

The

6.

Given a

## central angle of a regular octagon

side of

the circumscribed
See

Suggestion.

Zl=22>^^
7.

is

45.

circle.

Fig.

construct

468.

order

In

to

construct

Z2=45.

Fig. 468

AB

## Given the secondary diagonal

oi

a regular octagon

## (Fig. 469), to construct the octagon.

Suggestion.

Since the

AAEB may

known,

then to construct

Note.

Ex. 7

number

DCllAB
is

Zl
The problem

of degrees in

be constructed.
so that

is
is

## a problem which might occur

in

would be the
building octagonal bay windows.
outline of the window and
the line on the house.

AB

## 8. Show that a regular octagon may be inscribed

a square by the following method (Fig. 470):
With O as center and OF, the half median, as
radius cut the diagonals at F, Z, W, and X. At

Fig. 469

in

F, Z,

W, and

diagonals.

J/

-*j>--

Fig. 470

PLANE GEOMETRY

266

## 9. Show that a regular octagon 'may be inscribed in a square

by the following method (Fig. 471): With the j^ ^
s_o
'^'^^^
vertices of the square as centers and the semi-

## diagonal as radius cut the sides of the square at

Xy Y, Z, etc., and join the points as indicated.

Pig. 473

## Note. Exs. 8 and 9 are extremely useful. They can be used

as shown in Fig. 472 to construct a tiled-floor pattern composed of
regular octagons and squares, or as in Fig. 473 to cut a square timber
down into an octagonal one. The cuttings at the sawmill would be
along the lines AB and BX, DC and CY, and so around the timber.
Ex. 9 gives the common method for cutting out an octagonal table top.
10. Fig.

diagonals.

Prove

## {\)AX = XB = BY^Qtc. {2)AB = AY. {Z) AC

is divided into extreme
and mean ratio at F.
(4) ^ F is divided into extreme and mean ratio at X.
CB
Suggestion

for

(3).

Prove

that

CB=AY.

CY

its

and

## 11. From the foregoing exercises show how to construct the

diagonal of a regular pentagon, given one side, and therefore how to
construct the regular pentagon, given one side.

## 12. Show that if AD \^ taken as the radius of a circle, AB

be a side of the regular inscribed decagon (Fig. 474).
13. Prove that VWXYZ is a regular pentagon (Fig. 474).
14.

will

## form a regular pentagon.

pentagon
Note. The star shown in Fig. 474 is called the pentagram star
and was used as a symbol of recognition among the Pythagoreans,
an ancient Greek brotherhood that studied geometry. They called it
in order

Health.

used in the

flag of

REGULAR POLYGONS

267

## EXERCISES INVOLVING THE MEASUREMENT OF

292.

REGULAR POLYGONS
1. Show that if a square is inscribed in a circle of radius 1
the side of the square is V2, and that if the radius is R the side of
the square is i? V2. What is the area of the inscribed square?

2.

## Find one side of a regular octagon inscribed in

without the tables.

## In Fig. 475, ^45

Suggestion.

square and

^4

A0 = l,AD = D0 = yzyl2.
3.

Find

regular octagon.

CD and

If

^ C.

.'.

Fig. 475

of the circle
4.

is

of the_inscribed

if

R.

is

triangle

if

(1)

is

(2)

R.

is

5.

and

If

0D = }4^^'

Find

and

BD = }4,

then

BC.

Fig. 476

is

is 1

is

if it is

the

if

R.
if

1.

Let

is

Show

that

of the circle

if

R.

Suggestion.

9.

.:

the circle

may

of the circle
8.

a.

DC and

7.

BC

BO = l, AB = 1,

duodecagon.

6.

In Fig. 476,

Suggestion.

regular hexagon

if

R.

## 10. Using the side of the regular inscribed decagon

found in Ex. 9 and the radius of the circle as 1, find

## a side of the regular inscribed pentagon.

In Fig. 477, BC is a mean proportional
Suggestion.
between DC and CE. BE can be found from BC and CE.

Fig. 477

PLANE GEOMETRY

268

## 11. Find the ratio of the side of a square inscribed in a circle

to the side of an equilateral triangle inscribed in the same circle.

ABCDEF is a regular hexagon. X, Y, and Z are the midAF, BC, and DE respectively. Prove that XYZ is an
AB = 20 in.
equilateral triangle and find its area
12.

points of

if

STAR POLYGONS
293. Fig. 474 shows a star polygon of five points and
There are one or more regular
Fig. 467 one of six points.
star polygons related to each of the

They can

circle

n equal

## parts and joining each

of
division
to the ^th one from
point
it, where k is an integer greater than
into

one and

less

than -

another illustration.

Fig. 478

shows

## These figures have been studied

258.)
wherever geometry has been studied. They abound in cutThe five-pointed star mentioned in the note,
glass designs.
Ex.
14, and the six-pointed star mentioned in the
291,
aote, 291, Ex. 2, are of special importance.
Exercise.

circle is

## divided into 16 equal parts

it.

The

following questions

1.

How many

2.

## Find the number of degrees in one angle of each

3.

Prove that

AH = HB = BK = etc.

How many
How many

4.

## sets of equal angles are there?

set.

5.
regular polygons of 16 sides can be formed
joining corresponding intersections? Give proof for each.
6.

Can

intersections?
7.

## regular octagons be formed

by

joining corresponding

How?

How many

by

CHAPTER

XIII

DEFINITION
294.

as the

## The length of a straight-line segment was defined

number of times a certain straight-line segment

taken as a unit can be applied to the segment to be measIt is at once evident that we cannot measure a circle
in this way.
We shall, however, assume that the circle can
be measured in terms of a straight-Hne unit. The measure
of the circle is called its length or its circumference.

ured.

GENERAL METHOD
295.

The perimeter

polygon of

many

## the length of the

sides

an inscribed or of a circumscribed
may be used as an approximation to

of

circle.

## If a regular hexagon is inscribed in a circle and the arcs

between its vertices are bisected, the chords joining the
points of division form a regular inscribed polygon of 12 sides.

## the same process regular polygons of 24, 48, 96, 192

may be obtained, and so on indefinitely. If such a
succession of polygons is constructed, one is soon found

By

sides

## difficulty be distinguished from the circle.

Instead of the regular inscribed hexagon, the inscribed
square might have been used as the starting point.

## which can with

Ex.

gon

1.

is less

The perimeter of a regular inscribed polythan the perimeter of the regular polygon

of double the

number

same

Fig. 479

269

PLANE GEOMETRY

270

## If a regular hexagon is circumscribed about a circle and

the arcs between the points of tangency are bisected, the

## tangents drawn at the points of division form a regular

circumscribed polygon of 12 sides. By the same process,
regular circumscribed polygons of 24, 48, 96, 192 sides may
be obtained, and so on indefinitely. Just as in the series of
regular inscribed polygons, so in this series of regular cir-

## cumscribed polygons, a polygon is soon found which can

with difficulty be distinguished from the circle. The starting point of this series might have been the circumscribed
square instead of the regular circumscribed hexagon.

## The perimeters of the polygons in these series have been

computed. The computations can be made as indicated in
the next two problems.
Ex. 2. The perimeter of a regular circumscribed
polygon is greater than the perimeter of the regular
polygon of double the number of sides circumscribed about the same circle (Fig. 480).
Fig. 480

## 296. Problem 33.

To find a side of a regular inscribed
polygon of 2n sides, given a side of a regular inscribed

circle.

Fig. 481

Given a side

AC

(or a) of

of

2w

sides.

r.

(x) of

271

I.

To
x^

= d^-\-{i

a)-,

^
J ^ use a
J=r
find
a,

TT a>
II.

To

known;

is

I
i
[

III.

To

known

lengths use

must be found.

fi

ri^ known.
r
y must be found.
.

find y, use
J"

= r^ {\

make

a and

ay.

r are

known.

when ^ C

a side

is

## the inscribed sciuare, (2) of the regular inscribed hexagon.

Use
for the radius of the circle (1) \, (2) r.
The following f ormula gives
(1) of

and a jc= V
:

2r'^

r \'4r'- a^.

## 297. Problkm 34.

To find a side of a regular circumscribed polygon of 2n sides, given a side of a regular circumscribed polygon of n sides and the radius of the circle.

Fig. 482

Given a side

AB

## Required to find a side

polygon of 2w sides.

of

{%)

sides

a regular circumscribed

I.

To

''

y
II.

To

a and

2^'~2^

r are

known.

[>'tobe found.

## Let the pupil make the numerical computation when

of the circumscribed square.

The

general formula

is

x=

Use

2r+

AB

-7 o

..

V4r2-f a-^

\s,

o.

side

(2) r.

PLANE GEOMETRY

272

## PERIMETERS OF REGULAR POLYGONS INSCRIBED IN OR

CIRCUMSCRIBED ABOUT A CIRCLE WITH DIAMETER ONE
298. The methods indicated in Probs. 33 and 34 have been
used in obtaining the results given in the tables below.

TABLE
Number
OF
Sides

## MEASUREMENT OF THE CIRCLE

273

Table I shows the perimeters of a series of inscribed polygons and of a series of circumscribed polygons that start
with the regular inscribed and circumscribed hexagon
Table II shows the perimeters of two series
respectively.
that

start

respectively.

## with the inscribed and circumscribed square

The diameter of the circle is 1 in each case.

to

results

## In higher mathematics it is proved that the perimeters

of the polygons in Tables I and II approach a definite number.
This number cannot be found exactly. It has been

named w

(pi).

## COMPUTATION OF PERIMETERS OF REGULAR POLYGONS

INSCRIBED IN OR CIRCUMSCRIBED ABOUT ANY CIRCLE
35.
To find the perimeters of regular
in
inscribed
or
polygons
299.

Problem

Solution:
I.

Let d and

d' represent

circles.

p and

## p' represent the perimeters of two regular

polygons of the same number of sides inscribed in

II.

Then

=^
^
p a

(see

## Th. 135 Cor.).

= d,whend' = l.
P
p = dp' if the diameter

^,
.'.

The perimeter

of circle

of a regular polygon of

p' is 1.
of sides

any number

## from the equation p = dp\ if the perimeter of a similar

polygon inscribed in or circumscribed about a circle of
diameter 1 is known.

## The perimeters of polygons inscribed in or circumscribed

about any circle and similar to those in Tables I and II
may be found by multiplying the diameter of the given
circle

in the tables.

PLANE GEOMETRY

274

## LIMITING VALUES OF PERIMETER OF INSCRIBED AND

CIRCUMSCRIBED POLYGONS
300. As. 64. The limit of the perimeters of a series of
regular polygons inscribed in or circumscribed about the
same circle as the number of sides is increased indefinitely

the same.

is

## This limit doe? not depend upon the number of sides of

the initial polygon nor upon the method of increasing the
number of sides. This limit is ird.
This assumption

is

The assumptions

301.

definition

in

## The length or the circumference of a circle is defined as

the limit of the perimeters of a series of regular polygons
inscribed in or circumscribed about a circle as the number
of sides

is

increased indefinitely.

The perimeter
as

## of any one of the polygons may be regarded

an approximation to the length of the circle.

## From As. 64 and the definition above, we have

Theorem 137. The circumference of a circle of diameter

is Tvd,

If c is

We

have

.*.

c=

ird

The number

or c =

2Trr.

## a very important number in mathematics.

but very unHke such irrational
numbers as V2 or V3. We found it possible by means of a straightedge and compasses to construct a straight-line segment to represent
V2 (Ex. 2, 221). The ancient Greeks could do this. They failed,
however, in the attempt to construct a straight-line segment to represent TT. In modern times it has been proved that it is impossible to
construct such a segment for tt by the use of straightedge and com-

Note.

It is

tt is

an irrational number

(see 198),

## passes. It can, however, be done by means of an instrument called an

integraph, invented by a Pole about 1878.

275

## AREAS OF CIRCLES, SECTORS, AND SEGMENTS

THE AREA OF THE CIRCLE
The

## limit of the areas of a series of regular

in
or circumscribed about the same circle
inscribed
polygons
as the number of sides is increased indefinitely is the sam:'.
302. As. 65.

This limit
circle

and

is

the

circumference.

its

This assumption

## proved in higher mathematics.

303. We shall define the area of a circle as the limit of
the areas of a scries of inscribed or circumscribed regular
is

## polygons as the number of sides is increased indefinitely.

304. From 302 and 303 we have

Theorem
product of

Using

The area

138.

of

circle

one-half the

is

its

## for the area of the circle, r for the radius, c for

the circumference,
A = y2cr

=H
Note.

we cannot

'

We know
find that

2Trr=Trr^
that

tt

number

since c

= 27rr.

## represents a definite number, although

have learned that a straight-

exactly.

We

## segment can be constructed which is equal to the circumference

of a given circle, although it cannot be constructed with compasses and
We will, therefore, assume that there is a triangle,
straightedge.
line

figures

## any given circle, although these

cannot be constructed with straightedge and compasses.

AREAS OF SECTORS
The area of a sector has

it is

the

same

ratio to

Using

5 for

sector,

Solvingfor

## the area of the sector, a for the angle of the

for the area of the circle,

7rr-

5,

-^-

PLANE GEOMETRY

270

AREAS OF SEGMENTS

306.

and

The

circular

segment

is

chord.

its

## between circular segments and

be
shown
may
by constructing the sector
arc
as
a given circular segment.
the
same
having
It is at once evident (Fig. 483) that the area
of a circular segment can be obtained if the
Fig. 483
areas of the associated sector and triangle can be obtained.
relation

sectors

307.

The

formulae

:.

Theorem
diameter

139.

the

is

The ratio
same for all
If c

Theorem

The

140.

= wd,

circles.

then -r
a

## circles equals the ratio of their

Using

and

ci

_Ci

and
c

^
"

^.

Smce

d
d

di

= ?r~=~">
2ri
n

Theorem

141.

The

'~r
c^

ratio

ri

two

circles,

two

d and

we have:

_d
di

Ci

2r

-r
di

diameters or of their

= tt.

ri

of the areas

of

two

circles

diameters.

Using

## and Ai for the areas of two circles, r and n for

d and di for their diameters, we have:

7rr2

Ai

Trn^

B.

PLANE GEOMETRY

278

## 10. Fig. 48-4 shows the construction of certain types of

Find the entire area if one side of the equilateral

triangle
11.

is

ft.

Find the

circle to

the

## area of the inscribed square and to the area of the

circumscribed square.
12.

One

Show how

is

and

13.

Fig.

14.

Fig.
if

ft.

formed

formed and

is

is

## figure in the square in

find its area if one side of the

Fig. 485

in.

Show how

figures

in

## one side of the square

15. If the equatorial

mi.,

is

486

square

Fig. 484

485

trefoils.

what

is

is

in.

is

7926

## the length of a degree of longitude at

the equator?

Fig. 487

(a)
circle, radius onehalf inch, which rolls around an equilateral triangle, altitude two
inches,
(b) Compute to two decimals the area inclosed by the

## Construct the locus of the center of a

16.

locus

and the perimeter of the locus. College Entrance ExaminaGeometry Examination, 1914.

## around a square whose side is

circle, and find to two
decimal places both the length of the locus and the area inclosed
by it. College Entrance Examination Board, Plane Geometry
17.

in.

in. rolls

## Construct the locus of the center of the

Examination, 1915.
18. If

circle is

## triangle as diameter, the area of the circle on the hypotenuse

is equal to the sum of the areas of the other two circles.
19. Find by geometrical construction the diameter of a pipe
the area of whose cross-section is equal to the sum of the areas of
the cross-sections of two given pipes.

## MEASUREMENT OF THE CIRCLE

279

20. A 12-in. water pipe branches into three equal pipes whose
combined capacity is the same as that of the 12-in. pipe. If the
quantity of water carried depends upon the area of the cross-section
of the pipes, what must be the diameter of each of the three pipes?

## 21. Semicircles are constructed on the sides

a right triangle as shown in Fig. 488. Show

of

sum

that the

two crescents

is

equal
^
^

Note.
solution

This problem
the

is

first

is

case of

Fig. 488

## due to Hippocrates (about 470 B.C.). His

the area of a curvilinear figure proved equal

22.

## ft. in diameter is cut by a straight

wide, one edge of which passes through the center
What is the area of the remaining grass plot?

gravel path 3
of the plot.

ft.

The diameters

## of two circular pulleys are respectively 12 ft.

and
the
distance
between their centers is 10 ft. Find
ft.,
the length of the shortest string which will go around the pulleys,
correct to three significant figures.
College Entrance Examina23.

and 2

## Geometry Examination, 1910.

24. There are many reasons why an eggshaped sewer is more satisfactory than a circu-

## The cross-section of the sewer in

made up of four circular arcs A By
BC, CD, and DA. The center of arc AB is
F; of arc yl D is P; of arc DC is X. The figFig. 489
ure i^ symmetric with respect to line XY.
If ;?= 1 .2 ft., r= .7 ft., ^ = 2.0 ft., Z P = 30, find the entire
lar sewer.

Fig. 480

is

AB is

a,

circum-

semicircle.

## 25. Find the length of a circular railway curve of radius

mile and central angle 30.
26,

The

rail of

a street-car track

is

12

ft.

from

## In rounding a square corner it cannot

be closer than 3 ft. from the curb. What is the

the curb.

far

(Fig.

490.)

How

6
Fig. 490

PLANE GEOMETRY

280
27.

To

relieve the

a tangent to a

curves are

jolt

## curve, many railway

of arcs of different curva-

sharp

ture.

in Fig. 491.

## ^O(5^)=300 ft. C is center of AM.

CO = C'O = OD=150 ft. C is center of NB.
ZP = 60. Z) is center of ikfiV. The figure
is

28.

if

its

arc

is

60;

45^

## 492, the arcs AC and BC are

constructed with B and A as centers respecas radius.
Show that the entire
tively and
29. In Fig.

AB

## area of the circular figure may be found by

subtracting the area of the triangle from twice
the area of the sector. What is the number
of degrees in the angle of the sector?
30.

The

figure

shown

in Fig.

^
Fig. 492

493

is

if

AB = 8

ft.

a form

## frequently used in church window designs. Show

how it is constructed and find its area if ^J5 = 6 ft.
31.

centric circles

in.

if

of the ring

Fig. 493

respectively.

32.

^'

centric circles

if

and

r respec-

tively.

33. Fig.

494

## shows two concentric

circles.

AB

Show how

so that the
to find the segment
as diameter shall have
circle constructed on

AB

## the same area as the ring.

34. The circumferences
Compute the width of the

three

significant figures.

Fig. 494

two concentric

## circles differ by 6 in.

two circles correct to
College Entrance Examination Board,

of

## Plane Geometry Examination, 1909.

35. Compare the area of a circle with the area of a square if
the perimeter of the square equals the circumference of the circle.

Show how

36.

area of

Fig. 405

HKLMFEH

of the square

and

A BCD

is

if one side

is

HKLMFGH

of

281

in.

## 37. If the sum of the radii of two given circles

equal to the radius of a third circle, prove that
the circumference of the third circle is equal to the

Fig. 495

is

sum

two given

## of the circumferences of the

circles.

whose circumference

From an

old

Roman
pavement

is

of

two given
39.

area

if

circles.

Show how

Fig.

490

is

is

are

its

Fig. 496

ft.

40. In Fig.

shown

circle

Show how

was

the arcs a

equal parts.
Fig. 497

41.

area of

Show how

OABCD

if

Show how
by the arcs

42.

parts

lem be solved

Fig. 498

in

05 = 5

is

formed,

Find the

ft.

of circles only.

Can

this prob-

## more than one way?

Note. Ex. 42 is said to be a problem which Napoleon once proposed to his staff. The figure formed by dividing the circle into two
equal parts (Fig. 498) is the trademark of one of the western railroads.
43. In Fig. 499, C is the mid-point of radius ^0 of
perpendicular to AO at C. Prove that the circle
with O as center and OX as radius has half the

OO.

is

44.

parts

## Show how to divide a

by concentric circles.

equal
Fig. 439

CX

PLANE GEOMETRY

282
45. It

and

is

The

start

## be straightways intersecting at right angles at

the goal. The rest of the track is to be an arc of a circle tangent
to the two straightways. Find the radius of the arc and the length
finish are to

## also the area inclosed

(Results to be correct to

two

decimals.)

by
College
Entrance Exami-

## nation Board, Plane Geometry Examination, 1914.

APPROXIMATION CONSTRUCTIONS
310.
We have seen that numbers can be found which
more or less closely approximate the value of tt, although
a number cannot be found which is exactly equal to ir.
Similarly, segments can be constructed whose lengths more
or less closely approximate the value of tf, although no
segment can be constructed with ruler and compasses whose
length exactly represents the value of tf. The following
exercises give some of these constructions.
They are used

by draftsmen
by carpenters

## in obtaining the development of cylinders,

in obtaining the dimensions of veneers for

and windows, and by mechanitradesmen generally. The computations for the true
lengths of the segments often involve considerable geomesemicircular heads of doors
cal

try,

## in order to ascertain the degree of

approximation obtained.
Ex.

AB

its

1.

In Fig. 500,

diameter.

as one side.
parallel to

ACB

AABD

is

a semicircle with

is

AB

## EF is a tangent to the semicircle

DA and DB are extended to meet
EF at F and E respectively. Using

## AB = Q, find the difference between the length

EF and of the semicircle ACB. Find the ratio
this difference to the length of

Ex.

2.

AB.

the tangent

its

/.

equilateral, with

In Fig. 501,

diameter.

CO

ACB

of
of

A CB.

is

a semicircle with

bisector of

AB.

AB

ZOCZ) = 30.

## Find the difference between the length oi AD and of

^
the arc AC, using AB = 5. Find the ratio of this
difference to the length of the arc AC.

n b

^^^- ^^^

## MEASUREMENT OF THE CIRCLE

Ex.

3.

OELAB.
and the

Z ^0 is a central angle of 45
0 = 8, find the length of DE

In Fig. 502,

Using

WE -{-DE

between
Find the ratio

difference

circumference.

283
in circle O.

and the

of this difference

to the circumference.

## Ex. 4. Inscribe a square in a given circle.

Find the value of three times the diameter of the
circle plus one-fifth of

'

## Find the difference between this sum and

the circumference of the circle. Find the ratio of this difference
of the circle as d.

(From

Ball's

Mathematical

## Recreations and Essays.)

5.
Determine the value of w by the following experiment:
a
Wrap
paper about a cylinder. Stick a pin through the overlapped paper. Measure the distance between the two pinholes
and the diameter of the cylinder and compute w.

Ex.

We do not know who made the first attempt to compare the area
a circle with the area of a square. But the first record that has so
far been found is on an Egyptian papyrus by Ahmes (about 1700 B.C.).
He says, "Cut off }i of a diameter and construct a square on the
256
remainder." This implies that the area of the circle is {% d)^ or-^r';
81
311.

of

that

is,

the approximation to

256
is -^^j-

ox

This

is

a much

## better approximation than was used by some other ancient peoples.

In the countries of Asia 3 was commonly used. Both 3 and 33^^ are found

## Archimedes (287-212 B.C.)

Kings 7: 23; Daniel 7: 25).
used inscribed and circumscribed polygons of 96 sides and showed that
TT was less than Sl'j and greater than 3 ^^f i
His method was practically
the only method used for the next 2,000 years until the invention of the

in the Bible (I

## modern times. S}<i is an approximation close enough for

most practical work. In India a value appear^ before the Christian
Era.
In later times the Hindus used 3M, Vl0 = 3.162,_and 3.1416.
This last value was given in 476 a.d. The Chinese used V 10 as early as
In 1610 a European published a result correct
the second century a.d.
to 35 decimal places. Since the invention of the calculus new methods
In 1874 there was a value found
of computation have been devised.

calculus in

## showing 707 decimal places. The first 97 digits are as follows: 7r

3.141.592653r)89793238462643383279502884197169399375105820974944
5923078164062862089986280348253421 17 +
.

CHAPTER XIV
Maxima and Minima

INTRODUCTORY
312. Of all geometrical magnitudes that fulfill a given
requirement, that which is the greatest is called the maximum; that which is the least is called the minimum.

TRIANGLES
AREAS OF TRIANGLES WITH TWO SIDES GIVEN
313.

Theorem

sides, that in

## Of all triangles having two given

142.
which these sides are perpendicular to each

A ABC
ZCAB = 1

In

Hypothesis:

and

Area,

Analysis and

construction:

II.

III.

ABD

side

area,

area,

and prove

## To prove DE<AC, prove

The proof

is left

common

prove altitude of

DE from DAB

.-.draw

is

ABD.

area ABO
ABD,
AASO altitude of AABD.

To prove

AB

rt.Z.

ABO

Conclusion:

I.

and

to the pupil.

284

DE<AC.

Ex.

Of

1.

all

285

## has the greatest area.

Ex. 2. Of all parallelograms having given diagonals, which
has the greatest area?

## Ex. 3. Of all triangles having a given base and a given

median to the base, which has the greatest area?

MINIMUM PERIMETERS
Of all triangles having the same
314. Theorem 143.
base and the same area, the isosceles triangle has the least
perimeter.

Hypothesis:
area

mon and

Conclusion:

## In AABC and AABD the base AB is

ABC = a,resL ABD. AABC is isosceles.
Perimeter ABC < perimeter ABD.

com-

I.

II.

## ABC <^er. ABD,

extend AC, making CE CB.

To prove
.'.

per.

and prove
III.

IV.

V.
VI.

AB

prove
Join

DE

and

,

^^^^^

## To prove DE = DB, prove ACDE ^ACDB.

To prove ACDE ^ACDB, prove Z 1 = Z 2.
To prove Z 1 = Z 2, prove CD AB.
To prove CD\\AB, draw a perpendicular from
\\

## and prove the

The proof

DC

is left

figure

formed a parallelogram.

to the pupil.

to

286

PLANE GEOMETRY

MAXIMUM AREAS
Of all triangles having the same
Theorem
base and equal perimeters, the isosceles triangle has the
315.

greatest area.

144.

## MAXIMA AND MINIMA

POLYGONS

IN

287

GENERAL

PRELIMINARY THEOREM
145.
Of all polygons having

Theorem

## all sides but

in
that
with the
taken
order,
segments
semicircle
with
can
in
a
the
area
be
inscribed
greatest
undetermined side as diameter.

316.

one equal

to given

Fig. 508

## Hypothesis: The polygon ABCDEF is the maximum

polygon that can be formed with all sides but one equal to
the segments AB, EC, CD, DE, and EF taken in the order
given.

ABCDEF

Conclusion:

^F

with

as diameter.

## Analysis and construction:

To prove

I.

circle

that

with

as D, lies

To prove

11.

To prove
mum.

III.

The

proof

is left

on the

that

DF and

ABCDEF can

A Fas

be inscribed in a semi-

semicircle.

rt.

Z, prove area

## Suggestion for step III. Use indirect proof.

may increase or decrease A
/^

## along the line

hypothesis.

ABCDE

If

area

is

not

by sliding points
XFuntilarca/lD/''is a maximum. If, as points
figures A BCD and DEFrviwixxn unchanged,
would be increased, which is contrary to tlie

the area of

and

to the pupil.

a maximum, we

A and

DA

rt.*Z.

PLANE GEOMETRY

288

317.

Theorem

Of

146.

all

polygons

that

have

their

## sides equal respectively to given segments taken in order,

that which can be inscribed in a circle has the greatest area.

## The polygon ABODE is inscribed in a circle

cannot be inscribed in a circle.
A'B'C'D'E'
and polygon
Hypothesis:

## AB = A'B\ BC = B'C\ CD = CD\ etc.

Conclusion: Area ABODE > area A'B'C'D'E'.
Analysis and construction:

## To prove area ABODE > area A'B'O'D'E',

Draw diameter AX.
Join OX and DX.

ABOX

Compare area
area

Subtract area
area

The proof

is left

## AEDX with area A'E'D'X'.

DXO from area ABOXDE and
D'X'C from

area A'B'0'X'D'E\

to the pupil.

ABODE

## have the same

Discussion.
Might one part of
area as the corresponding part of A'B'O'D'E'l Could both
have the same area as the corresponding
parts of

ABODE

parts of

A'B'O'D'E'l

Why?

289

## THE MAXIMUM AREA WITH GIVEN PERIMETER

318. Theorem 147.
Of all polygons with a given perimeter and a given number of sides, that with the maximum
area

is

regular.

Fig. 508

Suggestion.
circle

and

mum

by

is

To prove P

## regular, prove that

To prove AC=CB,

equilateral.

it

can be inscribed in a
a, maxi-

prove

AABC

indirect proof.

## THE MINIMUM PERIMETER WITH GIVEN AREA

319. Theorem 148.
Of all polygons with the same
and the same number

area

has the

least perimeter.

Fig. 509

## Analysis and construction:

I.

To prove

P<per. P\ compare

per.

third polygon.
II.

.*.

of sides

prove per.
III.

IV.

## Q with the same

and same perimeter as P' and
P<per. Q.

## construct the regular polygon

number

To prove
To prove

The proof

is left

per.

P<per.

area

Q, prove area

P<area

to the pupil.

P<area

Q, prove area

Q.

P'<area Q.

PLANE GEOMETRY

290

REGULAR POLYGONS
THE MAXIMUM AREA WITH GIVEN PERIMETER
320.

Theorem

Of

149.

all

number

## regular polygons with a given

area has the greatest

maximum

of sides.

## Analysis and construction:

I.

To prove

P>area P\ compare

area

third polygon.
II.

## any point in AB, with C and construct

and prove (1) area P'=area

join E,

.*.

ACDE^AACE
BCDE;
III.

To prove

P>area BCDE.
P>area BCDE, prove

area

(2)

area

per.

P = per.

BCDE.
In the same manner it can
be proved that a regular polygon of five sides has a greater
area than a square of same perimeter and that a regular
hexagon has a greater area than a regular pentagon of same
Discussion and conclusion:

perimeter,

and so

on.

circle

## limit of the areas of a series of regular inscribed

as the

number

As. 67.

of sides

The area

any polygon

As. 68.

increased indefinitely,

of a circle is greater

polygons

we have:

## than the area of

of equal perimeter.

In higher mathematics

circle

is

Of

has the

all

figures

maximum

we prove

area.

291

## THE MINIMUM PERIMETER WITH GIVEN AREA

322.

same

Theorem

150.
Of all regular polygons with the
that
the
area,
having
greatest number of sides has the

least perimeter.

Fig. 511

To prove

I.

per.

P<per.

P',

compare

third polygon.
II.

## construct the regular polygon Q with the

sides as P' and same perimeter as

.*.

number of

same

P and

To prove

III.

The

proof

is left

per.

to the pupil.

circle

## as the limit of the perimeters of a series of regular inscribed

polygons as the number of sides is increased indefinitely,

we have:
As. 69.

The perimeter

polygon of the

same

of

circle is less

area.

## In higher mathematics we prove

As. 70. Of all figures having the same area, the
has the minimum perimeter.
:

circle

## Note. As. 70 has an important application in engineering. The

flow of water in an aqueduct or sewer is checked by the friction of the
water on the walls. The friction is proportional to the perimeter of
the cross-section.
possible.

In case

The

it is

## keep this perimeter as small as

the best form to meet this condition.

It is desirable to

circle,

then,

is

FRACTIONS

The

324.
lies all

## Multiplying or dividing numerator and denominator of

a fraction by the same number does not alter the value of
the fraction.

## A. The sum or difference of two or more fractions that

have a common denominator is the sum or difference of the
numerators divided by the common denominator.

Two

or

more

## have not a common denomicommon denominator before

To reduce fractions to a common

fractions that

## nator must be reduced to a

denominator, apply the fundamental law given above.

1
^'

^'

^+^

12^18

24^36

## B. The product of two fractions is the product of the

numerators divided by the product of the denominators.
Where possible, divide numerator and denominator by com-

mon

factors.

16

15

be
292

293

## C. The quotient of one fraction divided by a second is

the product of the first multiplied by the reciprocal of the
second.
Divide the following:
,.

?^^6a6
8*3

14,33
25

2.

The

## rule for square root

20

3.
"

"'-"*
Uab^

"-*
2a

ROOTS
is based on the algebraic
formula {a-^by = a^-\-2ab-}-b\ Notice that a^-{-2ab-\-b^ may
be written a^-\-b{2a-{-b). The method is illustrated below:

325.

Illustration 1.

Find

V 694. 563

694.56,3

26.3

4_

= 40
40+6 = 46
2(260) = 520
520+3 = 523

294

2(20)

276
1856
1569

287

## In the illustration above, notice:

(1) The number was divided into periods of two figures
each, counting to the left and to the right from the decimal
point.
(2)

The

under 6 is 4. The 4 was suband the next period annexed. This gave a
294.
The square root of 4, or 2, was written

largest square

tracted from 6

remainder of
as the

first figure in

the root.

## making 20. The 20

The 40 is used as a trial divisor
for the remainder 294.
The next figure of the root is either
6 or 7. The 6 is added to the 40, making 46. The 46 is
multiplied by 6, giving 276. The 276 is subtracted from
The next period is annexed, giving 1856.
294, leaving 18.
The
(4)
process above is repeated at each step of the
was placed
(3)
was doubled, making 40.
zero

giving the 520.
20

is

after the 2,

## placed after 26 and the result doubled,

is then continued as above.

The work

PLANE GEOMETRY

294

## In general we may say: Annex a zero to the part of the

To this result
root already found and double the result.
add the next figure of the root. Multiply the result by the
last figure of the root found.

Show

lation of

may

{a-\'b)^

4. 106276
1. 1369
2.
3.

3744
2304

7.

5.

8.

15

6.

9.

## Because of the frequent occurrence of the square roots

and 3 in geometry work, the application of the following
law should be noted
of 2

The square

326.

36

Illustration 2.

This law
roots

is

when one

=4X9

/.

V36 = Vi X V9

## used most conveniently for inexact -square

factor is a perfect square.

V 18
V9 X V2 3 V2
Illustration 3^ 18
9X2
Notice that V2 occurs when the side of a square and n
diagonal of the square are used in the same exercise.
.*.

12 = 4X3

Illustration 4.

.-.

Vr2 = Vi

V3 = 2 V3

## Notice that V3 occurs when the side of an equilateral

angle and its altitude occur in the same exercise.
20

Illustration 5.

The V5 occurs

=4X5

/.

V20 = Vi

tri-

V5 = 2 VS

decagon and

pentagon.
Find the value

of

the following

correct

to three

decimal

1.

Vl28
10. Vl50
4. Vl08
V8
7.

13.

V54

2.

Vl8

5.

V32

8.

V75

11.

Vl25

14.

V45

3.

V27

6.

V80

9.

V320

12.

V98

15.

Vl80

places.

16.

V20

295

PLANE'

29G

GEOMETRY

EQUATIONS
The method

328.

below

Illustration

Solve for

I.

:;:

2=4

-.

## Multiply both sides by the L. C.

denominators

M.

of the

-24 = 48 -4(::-hl)
Ox+S 24 = 48 4x 4

3(3a:-fl)

Performing multiplications
Combining terms

9jc-21=44 4;c

= 65
x=b

to each side

13a;

## Divide both sides by 13

Solve the following equations:
1

= ^-

c-7_ 3+2a;
7

"^

x-b

2.r+7

3.

_^

'83

5-2x ^

3-4:y

## an equation contains both the first and the second

powers of the unknown, two methods of solution are
329. If

suggested.

## The equation may be

A.

Illustration 2.

Solve for

solved by factoring.

x = 20
a;2-x-20 =

a;:

x'^

(:r-5)

(jc+4)=0

x-b =
=5

:r+4 =
x=^

a;

## Notice that to solve an equation by factoring, one

of the equation must be zero.

Solve for ac:
Zx^-bx =

B.

Illustration Z.

'7

member

side

%)

bx 7
^''--3=3"

square.

(1)

(2)

=
x^-^^-Oi %)^ |+|

(3)

to each
'

## NOTES ON ARITHMETIC AND ALGEBRA

Take the square root of each

side

....

of the equation

.t-^

^=

= Vl09

3-^

10.44

(4)

(5)

5.44

^ 15.44
6

= 2.57+

=-.90+

## H)^ is added to the left side to make the

(3), (>i
a perfect square. It is added to the right side to

Notice in
left side

10.44

*~6

Vl09

....

^10.44

x-^=-j*"6"^

297

## preserve the balance of the equation.

(H H^y or ^He, is
obtained by squaring half the coefficient of x. Notice that
in step (2) the equation is divided by 3 to make the first

term

ic^,

which

is

a perfect square.

## Solve the following equations:

1.

2.

a;2+3:c=18
2x''-x = \b

3. 3:^2-ll:x:

=2

4. 2x''-\-bx

=17

330.
To solve a system of equations consisting of two
equations containing two unknowns, eliminate one of the
unknowns and solve the resulting equation for the other.
A. When both equations are of the first degree, eliminate

Illustration

subtraction.

Ai.

Solve for

aj

5:c-4y = 6.5
7jc+53; = 38.25
35;c-28y = 45.5
35:c+25>'= 191.25

-53y= -145.75
^ = 2.75
Notice that x

and

5:r-4y = 6.5
y:

,-

oo or
(1)
(2)
(1)
(2)

X7
X5

## be found by multiplying equation (1)

and
5
(2)
by 4 and adding the results or by
by
equation
substituting 2.75 for y in either equation (1) or (2) and

may

PLANE GEOMETRY

298

## B. When one of the equations is of the first degree and

one of the second, solve the first-degree equation for one of
the unknowns in terms of the other unknown and substitute
in the other equation.
Illustration 5.

y:

\x -hy
|x2+3;2

## Solve (1) for x,

Substitute 8 3; for

=8
= 34

(1)

(2)

x=8y
:v

in (2)

64-163;+2/ = 34
2^2-16^+30 =
y^-8y+15 =
(y-5) (3'-3)=0
y = D and y = 3

To

(3)

332.

Deg.

## TABLE OF SINES, COSINES, AND TANGENTS

299

PLANE GEOMETRY

300

333.

Units of Length

English

= 1 foot (ft.)
=
1 yard (yd.)
3 feet
5J yards = 1 rod (rd.)
or 5280 ft. = 1 mile (mi.)

12 inches

320 rods

(in.)

Metric
10 centimeters (cm.) = 1 decimeter (dm.)
10 decimeters = 1 meter (m.)
1000 meters = 1 kilometer (km.)
1
1

meter = 39. 37
.

1 foot
1

334.

in.

kilometer = 62 of a mile

= 30.48

centimeters

## mile =1.6093 kilometers

Units of Surface

English
144 square inches (sq. in.) =
9 square feet =

=
square yards
160 square rods =

30M

640 acres =

square foot

## square yard (sq. yd.)

square rod (sq. rd.)

(sq. ft.)

l acre (A.)
1 acre (A.)
1

square mile

(sq. mi.)

Metric
100 square centimeters = 1 square decimeter
100 square decimeters = 1 square meter

OUTLINE SUMMARY
PARALLELS AND PERPENDICULARS
Tests for parallels

Two
1.

2.

3.

## same plane are parallel if;

The alt. int. angles are equal
61, Th.
The corresponding angles are equal
63, Th. 10
The int. angles on the same side of the transversal

## straight lines in the

Th. 11
Th. 12
66, Th. 13

are sup
They are perpendicular to the same line
5. They are parallel to the same line

63,

4.

63,

## one side of a triangle if:

through the mid-points of the other two

line is parallel to
6.

It passes

sides
7.

114, Th. 48

two

## It divides the other

sides proportionally

## 20o, Th. 100

a trapezoid if:
It passes through the mid-points of the legs

and Cor.

## line is parallel to the bases of

8.

118, Th. 51

Construction of parallels
Tests for perpendiculars:

64, Prob. 6

3.

A
A

4.

If

## a ray starts from a point in a straight hne

one of two parallels
line tangent to a circle is perpendicular to
any two circles intersect the line of centers.

5.

If

two equal

the

common

6.

An

## angle inscribed in a semicircle

1.

2.

If

line perpendicular to

## circles intersect the line

chord

Construction of a perpendicular:
1. To a line from a point in the
2.

To a

3.

To a segment

line

18

Th. 17
145, Th. 69
151, Th. 73
of centers and
152, Th. 74 Cor.
70,

162, Cor. II

line. 43,

in the line

## bisecting the segment

45, Prob. 5

CONGRUENCE
Tests for congruent triangles

## Any two triangles are congruent if:

1. Two sides and the included anglj
2. Two angles and the included side
3.

Three sides

3o,
36,
39,

301

Th. 1
Th. 2
Th. 4

PLANE GEOMETRY

302

Two

if:

## The hypotenuse and an acute

The hypotenuse and a side

4.
5.

angle

82,

Th. 22
Th. 23

98,

Th. 35

81,

Two

included angle

congruent

Two

Sums,

they can be

if

they are:

30,

22, 29

3.
4.

Vertical angles

5.

## Corresponding angles of congruent triangles

Base angles of an isosceles triangle
Alt. int. angles of parallel Hnes

6.
7.

8.

47

equal angles

## Right angles or straight angles

Supplements or complements of equal angles

2.

.... 33

1.

if

if

24, 25, 29
28, 29

38

Th. 3
68, Th. 14
69, Th. 15
37,

lines.

## third angles of two triangles that have two

75, Cor. II
angles of one equal respectively
10. Angles with their sides parallel right side to right side 73, Ex. 3
9.

The

11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.

## Angles with their sides perpendicular

Opposite angles of a parallelogram
Ceatral angles subtended by equal arcs
Central angles subtended by equal chords

39
Th. 32
135, As. 50
136, Th. 61

95,

## Angles measured by equal arcs

Corresponding angles of similar figures
Angles of a regular polygon

40, Prob.

173, II
210, 256
78, 270
1

41, Prob. 2

Two

## segments are equal if they are:

Sums, differences, equal multiples, or equal parts of
equal segments
2. Radii of the same or equal circles
3. Sides of an isosceles triangle
1.

4.
5.
6.

30, 47
12, 29

34

38
Corresponding sides of congruent triangles
95, Th. 31
Opposite sides of a parallelogram
Parallel or perpendicular segments between parallels
104, Ths. 39, 40

OUTLINE SUMMARY
Equal segments are formed when:
7. The diagonals of a parallelogram
8.

9.

303

intersect

95,

## bisector of an angle to the sides of the angle.

179, Th. 85
point in the perpendicular bisector of a segment
.

10.

180, Th. 86

## joined to the extremities of the segment

radius is perpendicular to a chord
12. Perpendiculars are drawn from the center of
is

11.

Th. 33

## equal segments on one

transversal intersect a second transversal
111, Th. 45
Perpendiculars are drawn from a point in the
series of parallels cutting

137, Th. 63
a.

## two equal chords

141, Th. 67
tangents are drawn to a circle from a point
without
146, Th. 70
14. Three terms of one proportion are equal respeccircle to

13.

Two

..

201, Th. 92

111, Prob. 7

Two

if:

2.

## They have equal central

They have equal chords

3.

1.

## is perpendicular to' the chord of an arc

137, Th. 63
are intercepted by parallel chords
166, Th. 80
are intercepted by a chord and a tangent
171, Th. 82
parallel to it

5.

They
They

6.

4.

Two
1.

2.

3.

135, As. 49
136, Th. 62

angles

173, II

angles

if:

## They have equal central angles

They have equal arcs
They are equally distant from the

136, Th. 61

center

136, Th. 62
140, Th. 66

SIMILARITY
Tests for similar triangles

Two

if:

## 210, Th. 102; 257

angle of one equals an angle of the other and
the sides including the angle are proportional .... 258, Th. 119
3. Corresponding sides are proportional
259, Th. 120
1.

They

2.

An

PLANE GEOMETRY

304

Two

## polygons are similar if:

1. The angles of one are equal respectively to the
angles of the other and the corresponding sides are

2.

3.

proportional
256
Diagonals from corresponding vertices divide the
polygons into triangles that are similar and similarly placed
261, Th. 121
They are regular polygons of the same number of
sides

## Properties of similar figures:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

The corresponding

## angles are equal.

210, 256
Corresponding sides have equal ratios
210, 256
Diagonals from corresponding vertices divide the
polygons into triangles that are similar and similarly placed
263, Th. 122
The ratio of corresponding segments equals the
ratio of simiHtude
264, Ths. 123, 125

The

## ratio of the areas equals the square of the

ratio of similitude

Equal

ratios

and

circles:

1.

The

2.

## 307, Th. 140

equals the ratio of the diameters or of the radii
The ratio of the areas of any two circles equals the

any two

circles
.

Two
1.

2.
3.

## two products are equal when

Parallels cut two transversals

ratios or

211
:

## 203, Th. 98; 204, Th. 99 and Cor.

210
Polygons are similar
Two ratios are equal to a third ratio
199, As. 57

1.

The
to

2.

3.

## division of a segment into parts proportional

of given segments
206, Prob. 15
fourth proportional to three given segments 207, Prob. 16

any number

The
The mean

## Important cases of equal ratios occur when:

1. Two chords intersect within a circle
2. Two secants intersect without a circle.

OUTLINE SUMMARY
3.

4.
5.

6.

305

## A secant and a tangent intersect without a circle. 216,

A line bisects an angle of a triangle
217,
A line bisects an exterior angle of a triangle
218,
A perpendicular is drawn from the vertex of the

Th. 105
Th. 106
Th. 107

## 220, Ths. 108, 109

EQUIVALENCE
246, Ths. IIG, 117

Two

## parallelograms or two triangles are equivalent or a

triangle is half of

1.

2.

a parallelogram

if:

## They have the same base and the same

The product of the base and altitude of

altitude.

one, etc.

Any two

## polygons are equivalent if they are:

Sums, differences, or equal parts of equivalent

figures.

## Construction of equivalent figures:

1. To transform a parallelogram into a rectangle on a
248, Prob. 18
given base
2. To transform a parallelogram into a square
248, Prob. 19
3. To transform a polygon into a triangle.
249, Probs. 20, 21
.

4.

To

## construct a square equal to the

sum

of

two

251, Prob. 22
squares
5. To construct a square equal to the difference
between two squares
251, Prob. 23

MEASUREMENT
Meastirement of angles:
1. Of central angles
157, As.
2. Of inscribed angles
161, Th.
3. Of an angle formed by a chord and a tangent. 170, Th.
4. Of an angle formed by two chords that intersect. 164, Th.
5. Of an angle formed by two secants, two tangents,
or a secant and a tangent ..165, Th. 79; 172, Ths. 83,
.

6.

By

trigonometric ratios

53
77
81
78

84

225

Angle-sums:

The sum

of

1.

## Adj. angles on one side of a

common vertex is 2 rt. -4

2.

3. Int. angles

on one

4.

The

side of

is

st.

rt.

line

26, 29

26, 29

## a third st. line is 2 rt.

a triangle is 2 rt. ^

interior angles of

having a

zi

69,
74,

Th. 16
Th. 18

PLANE GEOMETRY

306

The sum
5.

of

Two

angles of a triangle

is

exterior angle
6.
7.

8.

76,

## The acute angles of a right triangle is 1 rt. Z

The interior angles of a polygon of n sides
2{n2) rt. A
The exterior angles of any polygon is 4 rt. A
.

is

79,

80,

Measurement of polygons:
1. The area of a rectangle is ab
2. The area of a parallelogram is ah
3. The area of a triangle is ^ a&
"
"

y2 he sin

Th. 20
Th. 21

239, As. 63
242, Th. 113
243, Th. 114

.^.

^|s{s-a){s-

5.

## The area of a trapezoid is 3^o(6+6')

The area of a regular polygon is %

6.

apothem
For the area

4.

Th. 19

h) {s'-c)

per.

^.
.

253, Ex. 41

253, Ex. 44
244, Th. 115
.

X
286, Th. 133

## Measurement of circles and sectors

1. The circumference of a circle
2. The area of a circle is tt^-^

245

3.

The area

of a sector

is

2itr

## 304, Th. 138

305, As. 66

is -rr-TTr

3b0

ELEMENTARY FIGURES
Properties of triangles:
1. The sum of the angles of a triangle is 2 rt. A
74, Th. 18
2. Thd angle opposite the greater side of a triangle. 129, Th. 55
3.
4.

5.

0.
7.

## The side opposite the greater angle of a triangle. 128, Th. 54

The medians are concurrent
115, Th. 49
The perpendicular bisectors of the sides are con184, Th.87
current
184, Th. 88
The altitudes are concurrent
185, Th. 89
The bisectors of the angles are concurrent
.

Construction of triangles:
55, Ex. 4

## Two sides and an angle opposite one

Properties of isosceles triangles:
1.

Two

2.

The base

3.

34

## angles are equal

Bisector of vertex angle,

37,

## median to the base coincide

50, Th. 6; 51, Th.

7; 84,

Th. 25

Th. 3

OUTLINE SUMMARY
Tests for isosceles triangles

triangle
1.

2.

is isosceles if

307

## Two sides are equal

Two angles are equal

34, 83
83,

Th. 24

2.

## The acute angles are cornplcnienLary

The median from the vertex of the right angle

3.

## one-half the hypotenuse

If a and b are the legs and c

1.

## 75, Cor. Ill

is

116, Th. 50
is

a2+62=c2

the hypotenuse,
222, Th. 110; 251, Th. 118

Properties of parallelograms:
1.

2.
3.
4.
5.

## The opposite sides are parallel

The opposite sides are equal
The opposite angles are equal
The diagonal bisects the parallelogram
The diagonals bisect each other

Th.
95, Th.
95, Th.
96, Th.
95,

95
31

32
30
33

105-110

## quadrilateral is a parallelogram if:

1. Each side is parallel to its opposite
2.
3.
4.

99

## One side is equal and parallel to its opposite

Each side is equal to its opposite
The diagonals bisect each other

100, Th. 36
'.

101, Th. 37
102, Th. 38

1.

The

sides

3.

## A circle can be circumscribed about the polygon

A circle can be inscribed in the polygon

4.

The

5.

Each angle is

2.

4
rt.

polygon
1.

2.

is

b.

78, 270
282, Th. 130

## 285, Th. 132

regular if
The sides and angles are equal
A circle is divided into equal arcs
a.

## 283, Th. 131

282, Th. 130 Cor.

27

78,

270

and

## The points of division are joined

271, Th. 128
Tangents are drawn to the points of division 271, Th. 129

## Construction of regular polygons

273-280, 290

PLANE GEOMETRY

308

INEQUALITIES
Tests for unequal segments

1.

The sum

2.

If

3.

of

two

## one angle of a triangle

etc

is

128, Th. 54
shortest distance, etc.
130, Th. 56
perpendicular to a line oblique

from a point in a
segments are drawn cutting

4. If

## greater than another,

off

unequal distances,

130, Th. 57
from a point in a perpendicular to a line two
130, Th. 58
unequal oblique segments are drawn, etc
If two triangles have two sides of one equal to two
sides of the other but the included angles, etc.
131, Th. 59
If from a point within a triangle segments are
drawn to the extremities of one side
127, Th. .53

etc

5. If

6.

7.

1.

The

## exterior angle of a triangle, etc

125; 58, Th. 8
one side of a triangle is greater than another,
etc
129, Th. 55
If two triangles have two sides of one equal to two
sides of the other but the third side of one, etc.
132, Th. 60

2. If

3.

INDEX
[References are to page numbers)

Abbreviations

19

Acute angle

167

209

of polygons

formed by rotation..

included
inscribed in

22
128
126

an arc

inscribed in a circle

measurement of

11,

137

obtuse

222
Algebraic analysis
Algebraic equations indicating
constructions 197; 227, Ex. 5

of elevation

196

of sixty degrees
of regular polygon

60
262

## Algebraic notation in proof s

re-entrant

51

Ahmcs

63
9
58
6
6

283
Alternate exterior angles ....
49
Alternate interior angles. ...
49
166
Alternation: extreme
166
mean

right

supplement of

12

trisection of

vertex of

32
6

## vertex, of isosceles triangle.

20

lateral triangle

190
85

of parallelogram
of trapezoid

84
70

of triangle
Altitudes of triangle, concur-

rent

make an

Analysis, to

Angle
acute

arms

9
6

of

bisector of

8,

central, in circle

central,

of

regular

gon

complement

of

degree of
designation of
division of
exterior, of triangle

21

and

left sides of

sides of
size of

straight

9,

31

108, 124

poly260, 261
12
11

6
31
48, 61

309

16

150
244
25
6

ratio of

right

alternate exterior
alternate interior

49
49

complementary

12

congruent
consecutive

7
of

parallelo-

gram

79

construction of equal

7,

30

20

by a transversal

49

definition

of

(See

## exterior, of lines cut

by a

equal,

11

Equal angles)
transversal

49

INDEX

310

Arcs: congruent

Angles {continued)
:

48

Area

by a

## interior, of lines cut

transversal

by

54

maximum

15

parallelo79 80

gram

subtraction of

sum
sum

assumptions

of, in

polygon .......

64

in triangle

of,

concerning
211, 275, 290

opposite

of

Area: of

284, 290

circle

275, 277
of irregular polygons
219
of kite
229, Ex.16
of parallelogram
216

59

of rectangle
of regular polygon

supplementary
symmetric

12

of

75

of sector of circle

vertical

15

of

## Angles and parallels

Angle-sums
Antecedent

54, 57
16,

305
163

Apothem
Apothems, ratio of
Approximate constructions.
Approximate measure of

16, 17

i6
211, 275, 290

circles

congruence
equal angles

108

equivalence

126

## 48, 99, 100

inequality
location of lines, rays, and

inscribed

108
of. ..108, 123,

from

Carpentry
gable
Church windows; Gothic
{See

## arch Mouldings Rafters

;

Roof
trusses;
beams)

137
108

220, 283

exercises

20

123
central

Architecture,

angles

angle-sums
area

98

angle

major
measurement
minor
Archimedes

35

angle
of

of trapezoid
of triangle

275
276
218
217, 228

Assumption

of 7r..272, 283

of

intercepted,

circle

Assumptions concerning;

degree of
intercepted,

segment of

228, Ex. 5

263
282

161, 162

Approximate value
Arab
Arc

262

rhombus

Areas, ratio of
237, Ex. 34; 246, 247, 263, 276

## of surface of rectangle .212, 214

of heights and distances.
196
.

211

260

length

108

208

49

and

parallels

transversals

opposite,

108

## equal {See Equal arcs) ....

segments
location of points

maximum
minimum

16

210

15
15

area

290

perimeter

291

parallels

perimeters
ratios

sectors

53
274, 291

165
275

Steel

segments
straight angles

16, 17

16

INDEX
Axial

symmetry

relation

to

76

central

metry

78

Axis of symmetry

18,

chord)

117

19

20

of angle

## Base of an isosceles triangle

Bases of parallelogram

79

of trapezoid
Bisection: of an angle
of a polygon

84
8,

31

209
of a segment
4, 35
Bisector of an angle: as locus 146
construction of

8,

of

Bisectors:

angles

31

185, 186

of

## triangle, concurrent ...

Common

{See

fundamental theorem of
Chord and tangent, measure

76
1

Chord

common

sym-

of circles

311

Equal chords)

303

ing chords)
132

parallel

Church windows
140, 158, 201,

Circle

275, 277
108

central angle of
chord of

5
269, 274

circumscribed
exercises

Carpentry,

from

## 31, 129, 157, I75 265,

Center: of a circle
of gravity
of regular

polygon

of similitude
of
of

symmetry
symmetry
gram

249

escribed

117
.

equal

angles;

test for

5
151

inscribed.

120, 151

126

## inscribed, of regular poly-

gon
measurement

260
of

277, 306

sector of

275
276
114, 134
157,

segment of

Unequal
108

124
Central angle of a regular
260
polygon
measure of
261
Central symmetry
77
relation to axial symmetry 78

Chinese

113

of.

inscribed angle of

## Centers of circles, loci of

158
Central angle of a circle {See
angles)
measure of

## 151, 154, 156

definite location of

## Centers, line of {See Line of

259

polygon
construction of.

diameter

81

regular

155

parallelo-

centers)

of

260
77

of

120, 151

circumscribed,

266

77
189, 283

280
5

arc of

circumference of

dicular bisector)

1 1 1

135

area of

150

tangent to
Circles: assumptions concerning

16,

109, 118,

## 275, 290, 291

concentric

117
108

congruent
construction of.
inequalities in

.J

51, 154,

156

125

inde:

312
Circles {continued)

Coiicurrcnt lines

Ii8

intersecting
loci of centers of

153

tangent
tangents to
Circles and equal ratios
Circles

117, 119

137

276

and symmetry

Circumference
formula for
ratio of, to diameter

Congruence
Congruent angles

20, 301

7
108

arcs
circles

## 109, 118, 119

Circular segments

91

exercises involving
155
special cases of
115, 148, 150

276
269, 274
274
276

Circumferences, ratio of
Circumscribed circle

20

parallelograms

81

segments

triangles

301

276

Consecutive angles
Consecutive sides

120

Consequent

151

Construction lines

of regular polygons

259

Construction: of

Circumscribed polygon
Coincident rays

120

79
79
163
57

construction of

Collinear rays

Commensurable segments.

Common

chord

as bisector

'.

Compasses: proportional

angles

Compound

of circles

...

curves

## of circumscribed circle ...

of decagon, regular
of equal segments

151

256
88

## 210, 222-224, 227

12

of extreme

12

167

of fourth proportional
of hexagon, regular

254

157

of inscribed circle

151

of

regular

267
polygons
perimeters of regular
inscribed polygons. .270, 272
Concave polygon
63
Concentric circles
117
Conclusion
36
Concrete representation: of
of straight lines

31

of equivalent figures

mean

I
I

151

and mean

ratio.

256
1

73

187

proportional

of octagon, regular
of parallels

of pentagon, regular

253
53
258
258

of perpendiculars

of

points

30

of escribed circle

of

7,
.8,

164

## 214, 228, 277

trigonometric ratios

measurement

117

Computations: of areas

by

32

6,

Complement
Complementary

191

use of

equal

angles
of bisector of an angle.

119
118

bisected

108

6,

figures

## 9-10, 33-35, 133

1 72
of proportional segments
of regular polygons.
.252-258
.

of similar

## 115, 134, 137

of triangles
2 1 Ex. 4 24, Ex.
,

243
253

polygons

of square
of tangents

47, Ex.

INDEX
Constructions:

by

algebraic

222

analysis
indicated by equations

## 197; 227, Ex. 5

Contact, point of
Converse theorems

114
56

313

Direct proof
51
Distance between two points
4
from a point to a line
104
Division or subtraction
167
Division of angles
31
:

Convex polygon

63

182

## Corresponding angles: of congruent figures

of lines cut by a transversal

20

harmonic
186
in extreme and mean ratio

of similar figures
of similar triangles

176,

20
240
178

36
Corollary
Cosine of an acute angle. ... 193
Cross-sections of columns.
214
.

Decagon

141, 268

Cut-glass designs

## {See Regular deca-

gon)
Definite location of circles
:

255, 256

49

## Corresponding sides: of congruent figures

given segments
Draftsman's methods,
chanical drawing

to

172

me-

Duodecagon

{See

63

Egypt, Egyptians
112

I,

## 69, 189, 191, 283

Elements, Euclid's

45
196

of lines

2,

15

Elevation, angle of

of points
of rays

2,

15

5,

15

## Engineering, problems from

Sur{See Architecture

of segments
Degree of angle

4, 15

123

of

## 71, 79, 157, 231,

Determination of points

256
152

of polygons

63
80, 81

190

## Diagrams for review

Diameter of circle

angles

43
5
1

279, 291

Equal angles

1 1

tests for

16, 37,

16

302
108

Equal arcs
have equal central angles. 109
have equal chords
no
measure equal angles
137
measured by equal angles.. 137
.

79, 80

Diameters, ratio of
Difference : between

assumptions concerning.

Diagonals: of parallelograms

tests for

veying

11

of arc

282

Regular

duodecagon)

63
.

88

in equal parts
in parts proportional

12, 1 16

276

two
8

tests for

303

## Equal central angles of a

circle: have equal arcs.
109
have equal chords
no
.

## Equal chords: equally distant

from center
113
have equal arcs
no
have equal central angles. no
.

INDEX

314

179, 197

involving
important cases of

182

tests for

Equal

177

## ratios: applications of.

191

exercises involving

important

245
177, 304
4
302
296
20

tests for

Equal segments

tests for

Equations

Equilateral triangle
altitude of, formula for...

angles equal

190

25

## side of, formula for

value of each angle

190

60

Equivalent polygons
assumptions concerning.

209
210

construction of
210, 220, 236, Ex. 32; 237,

## Ex. 33; 251, Ex. 22; 305

exercises involving .... 224, 233
tests for
210, 220, 305

Escribed circle
Euclid

151
45,

137,258

Exact measure

306
190

## for side of square

190

Fourth proportional

173
173

construction of

Fractions

292

Fundamental assumption: of
measurement of poly211

gons

53

regarding parallels

Fundamental

characteristic:

80

of parallelograms

of ratios

165

## Fundamental relation between arcs and angles.

124
Fundamental test: for in.

equality
for parallelograms. ...'.,.
for parallels
f ov

Fundamental

theorems

100
82

50
84

of

165

proportion

161

## Exterior angle of triangle

Exterior angles of lines cut

by

gons
228,
for side of equilateral triangle

## 174, 179, 197

special cases of 182

series of

measurement of circles
and sectors
277, 306
for measurement of polyfor

exercises

Equal products:

transversal

48
49

External division

182

Extreme alternation
Extreme and mean ratio.
Extremes

166
.

256
165

## Fixed line, ray, or segment.

58
Floor designs
69, 79, 97,
157, 204, 230, 235, 266, 281

Gable

206

Gauss

258

General assumptions
Generation or formation of

16

angles

## Geometric forms, occurrence

of
69,71,79, 106,
158, 231, 236, 254,

Formula:

for

altitude

equilateral triangle
for angle-sums
for diagonal of square

## 265, 266, 281, 291

Geometrical

problem

Construction)

of

190
305
190

Golden section
Gothic arch
Gravitv, center of

{See

36
256
206, 280
I55

INDEX
Greek geometry
21,

2>2,

## 235. 256, 258, 266, 274, 283

186

Harmonic division
Heptagon
Hero of Alexandria

Hexagon

63
233

## {See Regular hexa-

189,283

279
Hippocrates
Moderndiscoveries258,274,283
235
Pappus
164, 274 275. 283
Pi(7r)
59, 189

Pythagoras
Pythagoreans
Thales

189, 256,

266

27, 191

Trisection of angles

32
279
66

Hippocrates

Hypotenuse

36

Hypothesis

## Inscribed angle in an arc. ..

Inscribed angle in a circle.

measure

128
26

126

of

## Inscribed angle in a semicircle 128

1 20
Inscribed circle

construction of

in regular polygons

260
120

Inscribed polygon

63
Hindus
189,283
283
Historical notes: Ahmes
98
Arab
220, 283
Archimedes
Chinese
189, 283
Egyptians. i, 69, 189, 191, 283
Euclid
45. 137,258
Gauss
258
Greeks
32, 59 274
Hero of Alexandria
233
gon)

Hindus

315

Inscribed

regular

Integraph
Intercepted arc

polygons
253-258
274
108, 126

## Interior angles: of a polygon

64
262
of a regular polygon
of lines cut

by a transversal

118, 119
Intersecting circles
Intersecting chords: measure
of angle
130
1 82
of product of segments of.
.

## Intersecting loci, use of: in

determination of points
in construction of circles.

Intersecting secant

152

Incommensurable segments.

of angle of
product of segments of

Intersecting

tangents:

131

Indirect proof
Inequalities

angles;

23

Irrational

51

1 1

5
13^
204
166

assumptions

48,99
in circles

for

properties of

concerning

fundamental test

numbers
164, 274
219
Irregular polygons, area of..
Isosceles trapezoid
84
legs of

{See
Unequal
Unequal sides);

183

are

equal
Inverse proportion
Inversion

164

54

and tan-

## gent measure of angles of 136

184
product of segments of
Intersecting secants: measure

22

155

Included angle
Included side

49
182

Internal division

measure of angle of
Incenter

51

Isosceles triangle
base angles of

100

properties of

125

tests for

84
86
20
24
3^6
..68,307

INDEX

31G
Kites.

84
229, Ex. 16

area of

86

properties of

108

## Maximum and minimum.

Mean alternation
Mean proportional

..

179

construction of

## Legs of an isosceles trapezoid

of a right triangle

84
66

Length of circle
of segment

269

4, 161

units of

300

Leveling device
Limiting values of perimeter
of inscribed and circum-

41

Mean

ratio,

187

extreme and.

exercises

involving

165

proximate
exact

161

of angles
of arcs

9, 90,

170

## straight {See Straight line)

Line of centers
as axis of

118

as bisector

Lines

concrete

211-220, 306

208

Measure number
of a

segment

162, 214
11
of angles
161
.

208

of a surface

{See

161

of segments
of surfaces

Mechanical drawing

representa-

tion of

concurrent

practical

117
118

symmetry

123, 137

parallel

triangle

256

to base of

Line:

...

Means

Limits,

284
166

Concur-

## 9, 10, 32, 53,

Median: of right

259, 282

triangle. ...

92
42
85

rent lines)
construction

91

definite location of

15

Medians

50

current
91
Mid-point of .segment, determination of
4, 35
Minimum
284

57

## perpendicular {See perpendicular lines)

9
75

symmetric
Location, definite {See Defi-

of a triangle con-

108

Minor arc
Minutes

nite location)

Loci

of a triangle

143

## complete proofs for

145

finding of

143

Modern

discoveries in

n, 123
geom-

258, 274,283

etry

I57

Moldings

152, 154

intersecting

miscellaneous exercises on

59

of centers of circles

53

of points
of vertices of triangles

146

159, Ex. 4

Nature

of

theorems

and
35

proofs

Numbers:
ratio of

irrational

164,

71

274
163

INDEX

317

Obtuse angle
Octagon {See Regular octa-

gon)
Opposite angles
Opposite angles of a parallelo-

63

Pentagram

15

Perigon
Perimeter

80

minimum
285, 289, 291
ratio of, to diameter
263
Perimeters: computation for

gram

gon)

79.

gram

## Pentagon (See Regular penta-

79.

Origin of ray

80

63

266

star

9
63

270, 271

Orthocenter

i55

lengths of

272

ratio of

235

Pappus
Parallel chord

Parallel chords

132

Parallel lines

fundamental
tests for

9
Perpendicular lines
construction of .9, 10,33-35, ^33

95

89, 90, 170

and

transversals

angles formed by

98
168

bases of

consecutive

angles

79. 85

of

and

## 63, 79, 80, 81

diagonals of
opposite angles and sides of 79
:

congruence
81

properties of
test for

82, 83,

Pencil of rays

point
contact

4,

of

line

circle

contact

307
307
5

63

35

and
114

of

tangent

circles

79

of

of. .273,

283
274
283
history of
is irrational
164, 274
Point: determination of midof

sides of

273
282

approximate value

85
216

area of

ig6, 138

approximate constructions

79. 85

altitude of

301
.

construction of

88,

Parallelograms

tests for

for

proportional segments

formed by

10.

Pi (tt)

54. 55

## equal segments formed by

Parallelogram

147

construction of

53
53. 301

.*

Parallel rulers

53

assumption

regarding

bisector

locus

35
Perpendicular bisectors concurrent
149

50

construction of

Parallels

Perpendicular

245, 263
as

20

of tangency

114

variable

143

## Points: concrete representation of

definite location of

determination of
locus of

symmetric
Polygon
area of

15

2,
1

52

146
75, 118

63
208

INDEX

318
Polygon (continued)

direct synthetic

bisection of

209
1 20

circumscribed

concave
convex

63
63
63
1 20

diagonal of
inscribed

perimeter of

sides of

63

of parallelograms
of rectangles

307
86

64

of regular polygons
of rhombuses

307
87
307
87

63

209
63
209

vertices of

figures;
gruent
parallelograms;

between
209

220, 305

lence)

measurement

names

of

## regular (See Regular poly-

252
similar (See Similar figures) 240
star (See Star polygons)
141, 268
gon)

of right triangles
of squares
of similar polygons
of trapezoids

304
93
306

of triangles

Proportion

165

167
166

by alternation
by composition
by division
by inversion
by subtraction

167
167
166

167

fundamental theorems of

inverse

63

of

86

306
86

## star (See Star polyrons) 141, 268

surn of angles of
64
trisection of

51

## Properties: of isosceles trapezoids

of isosceles triangles
of kites

gon)

36, 51

indirect

165

204
204

reciprocal

## Proportional compasses (See

Compasses)

subtraction of

209

sum

209

of

transformation of

210, 221

Pons asinorum

46
Practical measurements. .162, 214
Problem, geometrical (See
36
Construction)

Proportional: fourth

173

mean

179, 187

Proportional

Equal

segments

178

Construction of

304
182, 304
172,

special cases of

## Proportionally, divided.'. ...

Equal products)
Proof

by superposition

178
239
36

36

178

Proportions, transformations

166

of

Protractor

124

## Products, test for equal (See

Projection

(See

ratios)

59, 189

Pythagoras

Pythagorean theorem

89

exercises involving
189, 199, 238

INDEX
Pythagorean theorem
proofs for

(cont'd)

fixed

related theorems

58

origin of

Rays: coincident

collinear

## 239, Exs. II, 12; 251, Ex. 21

189, 256,

Pythagoreans

3m

266

definite location of

15

pencil of

204

Reciprocally proportional

63

84
249
263, 276

5
of a regular polygon.
260, 261
Rafter designs, decorated
.

(See Truss).:

157. 158

from

142, 270,

mean

244
263

apothems

of areas

of

## 237, Ex. 34; 246, 247, 263, 276

circumference to dia-

meter
of
of

of
of
of

of

276
circumferences
276
corresponding sides. 176, 240
diameters
276
263
perimeter to diameter
245, 263
perimeters
263
.

of

segments

parallels
of similitude

of

by
168, 170

240

two numbers

163

## Ratios: assumptions concern-

trigonometric
Ratios and circles

Ray

## exercises involving area of 214

86
properties of
Rediictio

Re-entrant angle
Regular decagon

165
192
276, 304
5

51
63.

construc-

tion of

256
267

exercises involving

duodecagon

con-

struction of

254
267

exercise involving

Regular hexagon,

construc-

tion of

254

occurrence of
69, 265,

Regular

octagon

construc-

tion of

253

occurrence of
265, 266

258

## Regular pentagon: construction of

258'

exercises concerning
occurrence of

Regular polygon
angle of
of

area of
center of

## (See Equal ratios)

fundamental characteristic

equal
of

211

apothem
165

ing

85

area of

Regular

280
256

of altitudes

of

Rectangle

central angle of

266, 267

266
64
262

260
262
260
260
260

253-258, 265
occurrence of

254

INDEX

320

## Regular polygons {continued)

270-272
perimeters of
properties of. 259, 260, 265, 307
measurement of
262, 267
262
similar
:

tests for

307

## Representation of points and

straight lines

43
85
228, Ex. 5

Rhombus
area of
properties of

Rigid figures
Right angles

87
41
{See

Perpen9

diculars)

66
66
66

Right triangle
hypotenuse of
legs of

properties of

307
250, Ex. 9
sixty-degree
Roof trusses, exercises based on

236
42, Ex. 15

## 42, 127, 203, 204, 205, 234,

parts of
rigidity of
Roots, rules for

41

293-295
298

table of square

Rosettes

142

95

Rulers, parallel

136, 184

{See

intersecting

Division

58
4, 161

161

mid-point of
Segments: commensurable.

157
275, 306
center of

Line

area of

Segment, straight-line

4
.

35

164

congruent
4
equal {See Equal segments)
4
incommensurable
164
proportional
178, 304
ratio of

164

Semicircle

108

measure of angle in

128

245

Sewers

279, 291

Side included

23

## Side: of equilateral triangle.

of square

190
190

Sides: consecutive

79

## corresponding {See Corresponding sides)

of

an angle

of a parallelogram
of a polygon

79
;

and

left,

of

Similar figures,

an angle

63
79
58

or polygons

240
243
corresponding angles of 176,240
corresponding sides of 176, 140
properties of 244-247, 248, 304
tests for 240-243, 248, 303, 304
Similar regular polygons 262, 264
Similar triangles
176
176,

256

118

circles as bisector

{See

35

4, 15

construction of

Section, Golden
Sector of circles.

centers)
Segment of circles

length of

131

Intersecting secants)

bisected

of {See
of segments)
fixed

right

Secants,

Segment joining

division

opposite

Secant
Secant and tangent

area of

4.

definite location of

measure of
I

Review diagrams

bisection of

of

119

276
276
3

corresponding sides of
tests for

Similitude, center of
ratio of

178

## 240-244, 248, 303

249
240

INDEX
Sine of an angle
Sixty-degree

193

right

triangle

250, Ex. 9

60

Sixty-degrees
Size of an angle

exercises concerning

Square
construction of inscribed.

diagonal

of,

formula

for.

properties of

84
96
85
253
190
190
87

## Square roots {See Roots)

266
Star pentagram
Star polygons: formation of.. 268
occurrence of
141, 265, 266
Steel square, carpenter's
31, 129, 175

Straight angle

32
1,2

Straightedge
Straight line

of polygons

Subtraction or division

Sum

of angles

55

Supplement
Supplementary

209
305
36
12

Supplementary angles
Surface: measure of
units of

## between axial and

and central
Symmetry and circles
relation

13
12

208

300

196, 202

78

81

Synthetic form

36

## Tables: of square roots

298
299
114
Tangency, point of
Tangent and chord parallel 136
measure of angle of.
135
Tangent and secant {See
trigonometric

Intersecting

secant and

tangent)
circles

117

119
193
114
1

tests for

114

## Tangents to two circles

Tests: for congruence

138
301, 302
112, 116

for diameters
for equal angles
for equal arcs
for equal chords

## for equal products.

for equal ratios

for equivalence

angles

76
77

central

construction of ...

## interior of parallel lines

Sum of polygons
16,

79

axial

167
7

Superposition

209

64
59
65

Sums, angle

occurrence of

Symmetry

Tangent of an angle
Tangent to a circle

a polygon
of a triangle
exterior, of a polygon
of

tests for

## Symbols and abbreviations.

19
Symmetric figures
75
Symmetric points
75, 118

Tangent

segment {See
Segment, straight line)

Straight-line

Subtraction of angles

321

for inequality
for isosceles triangles

302
303
303
.178, 304
177, 304
305
100

307

for parallels
for parallelograms

301

for pehpendiculars
for regular polygons ......

301

## for similar polygons

307
307
304

INDEX

322
Tests (continued)

for tangents

## for unequal angles

for unequal segments

Thales

303
85

exterior angle of
incenter of

median

155

114
308
308

properties of

306
59

35

converse of

sum

36
235

of angles of

Triangle:

(See

equilateral

Equilateral triangle)
isosceles (See Isosceles tri-

56

## Tiles (See Floor designs)

42

orthocenter of

Theorems

Pappus'
Pythagorean (See Pythagorean theorem)

of

119

27, 191

proof of

48
155

angle)
right (See Right triangle)

## equivalent, tests for

1

89

230

Transformation of polygons

305
303
192, 202
32

## similar, tests for

Trigonometric ratios
Trisection of angles

210, 221

Transformation

of

propor-

and

Transversals

parallels

altitude of

85
218

area of
bases of

84
93

properties of

area of
center of gravity of
centroid of

measure of angles
of measure of arcs
of surface.

1 1

300

Variable point

143

angle

20

Vertex of an angle

70

of isosceles triangle
Vertical angles

217, 228

155

155
circumcenter of
1 55
construction of
21, Ex. 4; 24; 47, Ex. 4

Width

of

board

tri-

20
6
20
15

63
159, Ex. 4

of polygons
Vertices, loci of

Windo#

308
308
300

108, 123

## Vertex angle of isosceles

(See

Isosceles trapezoid)

altitude of

84

Triangle

of

Trapezoid

isosceles

Units of length

(See Parallels)

Trapezoid,

## Unequal angles, tests for.

Unequal segments, tests for.
.

166

tions

89

YB 35952