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iiir'^

SYKES

CMStOCK
I

GIFT OF
Publisher

EDUCATION DEPT.

PLANE GEOMETRY

PLANE GEOMETRY
By

MABEL SYKES
Bowen High School. Chicago
Source Book of Problems for Geometry"

Instructor in Mathematics,

Author of

"A

and

CLARENCE
Professor

E.
of

COMSTOCK
Mathematics,

Bradley Polytechnic Institute

RAND M9NALLY & COMPANY


CHICAGO

NEW YORK

c^
3^
Copyright, 1918, by

Rand M?Nally

St

Company

Edition of 1922

Kf
{

c-22

THE CONTENTS
The Preface

ix

Chapter

I.

Introductory

p^^g

Points and Straight Lines

Circles

5
6

Angles

Summary and Supplementary Exercises


Chapter II. Congruent

15

Triangles

Introductory Definitions
Tests for Equal Angles and Equal Segments
Application of Congruent Triangles to Constructions

20

....

Nature of Theorems and Proofs


Miscellaneous Theorems and Exercises

Chapter

III.

21

30
35
37

Parallels, Perpendiculars,

Angles, Angle-Sums

48
50
54
59
63
66
69

Introductory
Parallels

Angles Made by Parallels and Transversals


Angles in Triangles
Angles in Polygons
Miscellaneous Theorems

Supplementary Exercises

Chapter

IV.

Quadrilaterals

75
79
84
88
94

Symmetry
Parallelograms
Special Quadrilaterals

and Segments on Transversals


Supplementary Exercises
Parallels

Chapter

V.

Inequalities

Assumptions for Combining Inequalities


Fundamental Tests of Inequality
Tests for Unequal Sides and Angles in One Triangle
Tests for Unequal Sides and Angles in Two Triangles
Supplementary Exercises

99

....
.

100
102
105
106

571779

THE CONTENTS

vi

Chapter

VI.

Circles

and Related Lines

Introductory
Related Arcs, Chords, and Central Angles
Chords in General

108

Tangents

114

Two

Circles

110
Ill

and Related Lines

117

120

Supplementary Exercises

Chapter

VII.

Circles

and Related Angles

Relation between Central Angles and Their Arcs


Relation between Inscribed Angles and Their Arcs
Relation between Angles
Their Arcs

Summary and

Formed by Tangents and Chords and


135
137

vSupplementary Exercises

Chapter

VIII.

Loci

General Considerations
Loci of Points
Determination of Points by the Intersection of Loci
Loci of Centers of Circles

143

....

Chapter IX.
of

146
152
153

155

Supplementary Exercises

Measurement

123
126

Ratio and Proportion


161

Segments

Ratios

163

of Proportion
Ratios of Segments Made

165

Theory

by

........

Parallels

Similar Triangles

182

Important Special Cases


Applications of Equal Ratios

Summary and Supplementary

191

Exercises

197

Area and Equivalence

Chapter X.

208

Introductory

Measurement

168
176

of

Polygons
Equivalent Polygons
Summary and Supplementary Exercises

Chapter

XL

Similarity

Introductory
Tests for Similar Polygons
Properties of Similar Polygons

Summary and Supplementary

211

220
228

Exercises

240
240
244
248

THE CONTENTS
Chapter XII.

Regular Polygons
252
252
259
262
264

Definition

Construction of Regular Polygons


Properties of Regular Polygons
Similar Regular Polygons

Summary and Supplementary


Chapter XIII.

Exercises

Measurement

of the Circle

The Circumference of the Circle


Areas of Circles, Sectors, and Segments
Ratios and Circles

Summary and Supplementary

Exercises

Chapter XIV.
Introductory
Triangles
Polygons in General

Regular Polygons

Notes on Arithmetic and Algebra


Tables
Outline

Index

Summary

vii

269
275
276
277

Maxima and Minima


284
284
287
290

292
298
301
309

THE PREFACE
This book

is

written with the firm conviction that

possible to give to high-school


tematic training in the science of

it is

young people a more sysgeometry than is furnished

by any textbook on the market to-day. In this connection


the two main features of the book should be noted
:

The analytical method of attack is employed throughout.


Analyses of proofs serve several purposes. When it has
been found by actual classroom experience that any particular proof is so difficult that the pupil cannot reasonably
be expected to think it out for himself, the analysis gives
1.

him

at the outset the gist of the argument, calls his attention


method of proof employed, and gives him some idea

to the

how the proof may have been originally invented. In


such cases not only is the analysis given, but as much of
In this conthe proof as experience has found necessary.
of

nection the treatment of the proofs of Theorems 3, 4, 9, 14,


64, 77, 113, and 120 may be noted and compared with the

usual treatment of these same proofs.


More important, however, is the fact that the pupil can,
with proper training, invent many of his own proofs. While
nothing can do away entirely with the element of inspiration

method of
method by which every trained mind attacks
The teacher should see to it that the pupil is

in getting originals, the fact remains that the

analysis

is

difficulties.

the

continually asking himself the necessary questions, that he


sees clearly how each step follows from the preceding, and

down in the orderly form here emThe statements given in the analyses may seem

that the results are set


ployed.

formal, but clearness

and

definiteness are essential.

No

statement should be permitted which does not clearly indicate that the pupil sees

ment.

all

The proof should

the essential steps of the arguin every case be obtained by

working backward from the analysis.

THE PREFACE

2.
he work is so arranged as
important theorems and methods.
'J

to

throw emphasis on the

Without emphasis effective analysis is impossible. It is


said to be a fundamental characteristic of the mind that
lasting impression of a vast field requires distinctions in
Moreover, it is just here that much of our

any

emphasis.

geometry teaching has failed. Attention is called to the


following points in arrangement and presentation:
a) The division into chapters is based on the important
general ideas in geometry, such as congruence, loci, ratio,
If the work is so prearea, equivalence, and similarity.
sented that each chapter is made to serve the special, definite

purpose intended, many of the details in both analysis and


proof for later theorems may be left to the pupil. Otherwise such details should be given. The purpose of chapter ii,
for example, is to train pupils in the use of congruent triIf this purpose has been accomplished, the pupil
angles.

can work out for himself the details for such congruent
triangle work as that used in the proofs of Theorems 33, 36,
and 37. Similarly, it is only on the assumption that chapter
vii and
209-212 have served their purpose that the
and
proof for Theorems 103, 104, and 105 may
analysis
be safely

left

to the pupil.

worked out
theorems and exercises.
In the minds of the pupils the importance of a theorem
depends solely upon the frequency with which it is used.
To this end the dependence of the minor theorems upon
b)

The purpose

in the order

the

of each chapter is carefully

and grouping

more fundamental ones

of the

is

made

evident,

and

all

exercises

given in connection with the various theorems are intended


On pages
to illustrate the use of those special theorems.
50-54, for example, Theorems 10, 11, and 12 depend directly

on Theorem 9, while 67 consists entirely of exercises in


which it is required to prove two lines parallel. The purpose of chapter

ix is to train pupils in

the use of equal ratios.

THE PREFACE
The

outline of this chapter

xi

>

and the arrangement and group-

ing of the exercises in it should be noted.


c) Theorems and problems whose interest

is

largely theo-

which have no important place in


the plan of the work are inserted in the supplementary exerThese are marked with a
cises at the end of the chapters.
it
is desired to extend the
when
can
be
and
(f)
given
dagger

and

retical

historical or

course or to prepare for the examinations of the College

Entrance Examination Board.


traditional order is the most convenient,
has been preserved except where emphasis required a
This accounts for the separation of the work on
change*.
This subject involves
ratio, proportion, and similarity.

Inasmuch as the

it

two

points.

Pupils should not only be familiar with the


and the properties of similar figures,

tests for similar figures

The work is
two chapters. The chapter on
the chapter on area and equivalence

but should be able to prove ratios equal.


therefore

divided

into

similarity is given after


to permit of grouping

together all theorems involving


properties of similar figures.
Attention is also called to certain minor features:

The

introduction

to the point.

is

natural and interesting, concise


of the exercises in this

The nature

and
first

chapter should be noted, as well as the preliminary use of


paper folding in construction work.

The
cises

and

algebraic form of statement for theorems and exerSee especially chapters ix, x,
extensively used.

is
xi.

The formal theory

of limits

is

omitted.

The

idea of a

limit is presented informally by exercises, but proofs that


are either lacking in rigor or are too difficult for the pupil

are omitted entirely.


The treatment of the measurement
of the circle will be found satisfactory and comprehensive.

There is a great variety of exercises with concrete setting.


These include exercises taken from surveying, physics,
For illustrations of
architecture, and industrial design.

THE PREFACE

xii

exercises in surveying, see pages 27, 46, 72, 191, and 219;
for exercises from physics, see page 106; for exercises from

architecture, see pages 157, 158, 204, 206, 265, and 280;
for exercises from industrial design, see pages 69, 71, 97, 230,

and 235. Illustrations of similar problems will be


found on pages 141, 142, 214, 266, and 279.
The Notes on Arithmetic and Algebra and the Outline
Summary preceding the Index will be found convenient
Attention is also called to the unusually
for reference.
231,

complete character of the index.


Thanks are due Professor G. A. Miller of the University
of Illinois for his criticisms of the historical notes.

C.
Chicago, Illinois
May, iQi8

M.

S.

E.

C.

PLANE GEOMETRY
CHAPTER

Introductory
1.

Geometry

treats of points, lines, surfaces,

and

solids.

Plane geometry deals with lines and points on a plane


surface.
A plane surface is a flat surface, like a plain. In
years ago the name was "plain geometry," that is, the
geometry of the plain. In the early part of the seventeenth
century the spelling was changed from "plain geometry" to
fact,

The word geometry comes from two


"plane geometry."
From
Greek words meaning the earth and to measure.
earliest times the results of geometry have been used for
The
practical purposes, such as building and surveying.
work of the early Egyptians furnishes an illustration.
* '

' '

' '

' '

POINTS AND STRAIGHT LINES


CONCRETE REPRESENTATION

We

by a dot made with a


and
it
sharp-pointed pencil
designate
by a capital letter
near
the
dot
A,
placed
(see point
Fig. 1).
^^
We represent a straight line on paper by a
^^^- ^
mark made with a sharp-pointed pencil and a
straight ruler and designate it by a small letter placed on
2.

represent a point on paper

**

the

mark

(see line n, Fig. 1).

straight line resembles a tightly stretched string, such

as a thread

by which a weight is suspended. The word


comes from the Latin word linea meaning "a linen
thread." The word straight comes from the Anglo-Saxon
verb meaning "to stretch."

line

'jE

:_

p.L^m GEOMETRY

".

LOCATION OF STRAIGHT LINES


Ex.

3.

How many

1.

one given point?


points?

(2)

any four given points?

(4)

drawn through

straight lines can be

any two given points?

(3)

Illustrate

(1)

any three given

answers by

figures.

If two points are given, the sljraight line passing through


these points is said to be located definitely.
^
When two points are given, as points and ^

Fig. 2
often best to designate the
line passing through them as the line AB, rather than by a
small letter. This method of designating the line locates it

(Fig. 2), it is

definitely with respect to the

We

two given points

and B.

assume as apparent that


Only one straight line can pass through two given
shall

Ex.

drew

points.

Designate each of the points in the figures that you


by a capital letter. Read each of the lines by

2.

for Ex. 1

naming two

of its points.

LOCATION OF POINTS
4,

Ex.

Ex.

2.

How many

1.

What

straight lines

Ex.

3.

Ex.

4.

is

points are there in a straight line?

the greatest

number

of points in

which two

can intersect?

Draw two straight lines with no


What is the greatest number of

possible intersections.

points in which three

straight lines can intersect?

Ex.

5.

Draw

sections; (2) only


intersections;

Ex.

6.

one possible intersection;

(3)

only two possible

(4) three intersections.

Name

straight lines

three straight lines with (1) no possible inter-

the greatest number of points in which four


Draw a figiire to illustrate your answer.

can intersect.

If two given straight lines intersect, the point of intersection is said to be located definitely. When two inter-

secting straight lines are given, such as lines a and 6, it is


often best to design 2'*:e the point of intersection as the point

INTRODUCTORY

In Fig. 3 the two


letter.
a and b were first given; their intersection
then locates point 0, which may be
^^ o
This method of
called the point ab.

ab rather than by one capital


straight lines

designating the point locates

it

We
Two

shall

^""^

^^^^

definitely

with respect to the two given Hnes.

Fig. 3

assume as apparent that

different straight lines can intersect in only

one

point.

Ex.

Designate each of the lines in the figures you drew for

7.

Exs. 5 and 6 by a small letter. Read each of the points whose location is determined by these lines; show how each point is located.

STRAIGHT-LINE SEGMENTS

The

i)ortion of a straight line terminated by two given


of
the line is called a straight-line segment. Herepoints
after the single word segment will be used to indicate a
6.

straight-line segment.
If two segments are parts of the
are said to be collinear.
6.

We

transfer segments

same

straight line, they

from one Hne to another by

the use of the compasses,


the dividers, or a strip of
paper.

To

transfer

given

segment.

Open the

viders

the

to

di-

segment

required by laying them


on the given segment.
Without changing the adjustment place one leg on point
A and mark off the segment
on the line c (Fig. 4).

AB

Ex.
ments.

1.

Find a segment which

is

the

sum

of

two given

seg-

PLANE GEOMETRY

4
Ex.

2.

Find a segment which is the difference between two


Can any segment be subtracted from any other

given segments.

segment?
Ex.

3.

Show how

to multiply a given segment

by 3 by 5 by
;

w.

The problem of dividing a segment by any given number


not as simple as the three foregoing problems. It will be studied
In 9 we learn how to divide a given segment by 2.
later.
Note.

is

7. Two segments are said to be congruent if they can


be placed upon each other so as to fit exactly. To make
two segments coincide, their extremities must be made to

coincide.

We

assume as apparent that


one
segment can be drawn joining two given points.
Only

is

shall

If the end points of a segment are known, the segment


located definitely.

segment has a definite length. The length of a


segment may be obtained by the successive application
of some standard unit.
8.

The

length of a segment joining'two given points


between the two given points.

is

often

called the distance

Segments that have the same length are called equal


segments. Equal segments are congruent and congruent
segments are equal.
9.

To

folding.

falls

sharply.

find the mid-point of a given

segment by paper

Fold the

paper so that point


on point B. Crease the paper ^

Hold

it

to

the

light

and see

^
Fig. 5

that one part of the segment falls exactly


upon the other part. The crease marks the mid-point
of the segment.

We shall assume as apparent that


A given segment has only one mid-point.
Exercise.

Divide a given segment into four eqval parts.


1

INTRODUCTORY

RAYS

portion of a line which starts at a given point


extends indefinitely in a given direction is
10.

The point is called the origin


called a ray.
of the ray (see ray a, origin O, Fig. 6).

Two
same
same

rays that have a common origin


direction are said to be coincident.
origin

and extend in opposite

and

^^^- ^

and extend in the


If they have the

directions, they are

collinear.

A number
rays.

of rays

from the same origin form a pencil of

Make a drawing showing a

11. If

the ray

pencil of rays.

the origin and any other point of a ray are known,


is located definitely.

We

shall assume as apparent that


Only one ray can be drawn having a given

origin

and

passing through a second given point.

CIRCLES

12.
closed curved Une every point of which is equally
distant from a given point in the same plane is called a circle.
The given point is called the center of the circle. In Fig. 7,

is

the center of the

circle.

A segment drawn from the center to the


circle is called a radius.
A segment
drawn through the center and terminating
in the circle
7,

is

called a diameter.

OC, OEy and

a diameter of

are radii and

In Fig.

DE

is

^^^-

circle 0,

'^

segment joining two points on a circle is called a chord


In Fig. 7,
and DE are chords of circle 0.

of the circle.

OD

XY

a circle is called an arc. In Fig. 7 the part of


between points A and B is an arc of circle 0.

part of

the circle

Note. Arc comes from the Latin, and means "a bow"; chord,
from the Greek, and means "the string of a musical instrument."

PLANE GEOMETRY

6
If

two

circles

can be made to coincide, they are said to be

congruent.
Circles with equal radii are congruent.

The

truth of this fact

may

be shown thus:

different circles with equal radii.

Cut them

same pin through the center of each

We shall assume
Congruent
Note.

Draw two

out.

Put the

circle.

as apparent also that

circles

have equal

circle is usually

radii.

drawn with the compasses. In place


and a string

of compasses a pencil and a thread or a piece of chalk


can be made to answer the purpose.

ANGLES
DEFINITIONS

13.
figure formed by two rays which have the same
The rays are called the sides or
origin is called an angle.
arms of the angle. The origin of the rays is the vertex of

the angle.

An

angle

may

be designated in various ways.

Fig. 8

In Fig. 8 we have the following angles, reading from left


to right:
LA, Zab, /.a, Z2, ABAC. Notice that in the
last case the letter at the vertex of the angle is read between
the other two letters.

An angle may be considered as


formed by the rotation of a ray about
its origin.

The

size of the angle de-

pends upon the amount of rotation.


In Fig. 9 which is the larger angle?

Why?

INTRODUCTORY

ADJACENT ANGLES
Angles that have a common vertex and a common
which separates the angles are called adjacent angles.
Make a drawing to illustrate this definition.
14.

side

Ex. 1. How many angles are formed when a ray starts from
a point in a given straight line? Illustrate your answer by a
drawing and designate the angles in as many ways as possible.

Ex.

How many

2.

the angles in as

Ex.

angles are formed when two straight lines


your answer by a drawing and designate

Illustrate

intersect?

many ways

as possible.

In the drawings that you

3.

pairs of adjacent angles can


that are not adjacent?

many

made

you

for Exs.

find?

Can you

and

2,

how

find angles

CONGRUENT ANGLES
16.

Two

To

construct an angle that shall be congruent to a given

angles are said to be congruent


that
their sides are coincident.
placed

if

they can be so

angle.

Method
this

I.

method

Method

By means of tracing paper.


are left to the pupil.
By means

II.

of

an

The

angle-carrier.

details of

Fasten two

pieces of cardboard or very stiff paper together


as shown in Fig. 10.
Open the instrument
until

the edges

a and b coincide with the

sides of the given angle.


Without changing
the adjustment of the angle-carrier transfer

the

instrument to

the

desired

position

angle formed.
16. Two angles may be added by placing
them adjacent to each other. The angle
formed by the two exterior arms is the sum of
the two adjacent angles.
In Fig. 11, Z3 is
the sum of Z and Z 2.
Z 3 - Z 1 + Z ?..
1

i^^io.

lu

and draw the

PLANE GEOMETRY

smaller angle may be subtracted from a larger angle


by placing the smaller inside the larger so that they have
a common vertex and a common side. The

remaining part of the larger angle is the


In Fig.
difference between the two angles.
and
between
Zl
Z2.
Z3
is
the
difference
12,

Z3=Z1-Z2.
Ex.

1.

Fig. 12

Draw two angles

an angle equal to

their

that are not congruent and construct

sum.

Ex. 2. Draw two angles that are not congruent and construct
the angle equal to the difference between the larger and the smaller
angle.

Ex.

3.

Construct an angle that

is

twice as large as a given

angle.

At point on line AB draw a ray


make with the line AB an angle
Can this line have more
congruent to Z 1
Ex.

4.

that shall

than one position?

To

17.

(Fig. 13.)

construct

the

bisector

of

o
Fig.

given angle.

To

construct the bisector of

i;

ZBAC.

paper folding. Fold the paper on


extending through the vertex A
(Fig. 14) so that the ray AB will be
coincident with the ray AC.
Crease

By

line

the paper sharply.

ZA.

We

Why?

The

crease bisects
Fig.

14

assume as apparent that


one
Only
ray can be drawn bisecting a given angle.
shall

Divide a given angle into four congruent parts.


angles that are not congruent. Construct
an angle that is one-half the sum of the two angles just drawn.
Ex.

1.

Ex.

2.

Ex.

3.

Draw two

Draw two

Construct
angles that are not congruent.
one-half the difference obtained by subtracting
the smaller angle from the larger.

an angle that

is

INTRODUCTORY

RIGHT ANGLES AND PERPENDICULARS

When

a ray starts from a point in a straight line and


forms two congruent angles, the angles are called right
angles, and the ray is said to be perpenIn Fig. 15, Z 1 is
dicular to the line.
Z
Z
1
and Z 2 are called
2,
congruent to
is said to be perBC
and
right angles,
18.

pendicular to Z) A

^''''

^^

In Fig. 15 the ray

BA may

be supposed to rotate about

One complete rotation would carry it


BA. A right angle is obtained by one-

as origin.
point
the
to
back
position

quarter of a complete rotation.

The ray OA

(Fig. 16)

may

start

from

the position OA and rotate until it extends in a direction exactly opposite to


It has made oneits original position.

The figure
half of a complete rotation.
AOAf, is called a straight angle. The angle formed
complete rotation is called a perigon.

by one

An angle less than a right angle is called an acute angle.


An angle greater than a right angle and less than a straight
angle

is

called

19.

To

To

construct

an obtuse angle.

construct a perpendicular to a line from a given


line.
in
the
point

By

a perpendicular to

paper folding.

that the ray OA


the paper sharply.

is

AB

from point O.

Fold the paper through point


so
with
the
OB.
Crease
coincident
ray

The

crease

Fig.

is

_L

AB. Why?

(Fig. 17.)

17

Note.

In ordinary practice a perpendicular to a line from a point


in the line is usually drawn by means of a rectangular card or a drafts-

man's

triangle.

Place one edge of the card on line ^45 with the corner
O and draw a line along the other edge of the card.

of the card at point

PLANE GEOMETRY

10

We shall

assume as apparent that


one
Only
perpendicular can be drawn

to a line

from a

point in the line.

To

20.

construct a perpendicular to a line from a point

not in the line.

To

construct a perpendicular to line

By

from point O.

Fold the paper through point

paper folding.

18) so that line / will fall upon itself.


Crease the paper sharply. The crease is
the perpendicular to line / from point

Ex.

Fig.

Show how

1.

from a point not

to

in the line

18

perpendicular to a line
means of a rectangular card or a

construct

by

(Fig.

.^

Why?

O.

draftsman's triangle.

We

assume as apparent that


one
Only
perpendicular can be drawn to a
shall

point not in the


Ex.

may

2,

line

from a

line.

How many s

can be drawn to a given

How

line?

one of these be located definitely?

21.

To

construct the perpendicular bisector of a given

segment.

To

construct the perpendicular bisector of

AB,

By paper folding. Fold the paper so that point


on point B. Crease the paper
sharply.

The

crease

pendicular bisector of

is

the

AB.

per-

falls

Why?

fig.

19

(Fig. 19.)

We

22.
I.

II.

of

shall

assume as evident that

All straight angles are congruent.


All right angles are congruent.

Ex.

1.

Show how

Ex.

2.

Construct by paper folding an angle that

a straight angle.

to bisect a straight angle.


is

one-fourth

INTRODUCTORY

11

MEASUREMENT OF ANGLES
23.
it

of

An angle is measured by the successive application


some other angle considered as a unit.

to

Sometimes angles are measured by comparing them with


Thus an angle may be H of a right angle;
Si
For most purposes,
oi
H
right angle; ^ of a right angle.

a right angle:

however, the right angle

too large a unit.

is

good practical unit for measuring angles


is called a degree ().

is -g-J^

of a

perigon and
1.

How many

Ex.

2.

How many degrees in

Ex.

3.

How many

Ex.

degrees in a straight angle?

in a right

angle?
/^,

degrees in

H, Ks,

^3'^4, ^^

%, H, H,

}^i,

of a perigon?

oi

a.

right

angle

Each degree may be divided into 60 congruent parts


Each minute may be divided into
minutes (')

called

60 congruent parts called seconds

The number

that

tells

(").

how many

contained in a given angle


number of the given angle.

is

times the unit angle

the measure or the

is

measure

Angles that have the same measure number are said to


be equal. Since congruent angles can be so placed that
their sides take the same direction, congruent angles represent the

same amount

of rotation

and have the same measure

Also angles that have the same measure number


same amount of rotation and can be made to
the
represent
coincide.
In other words, equal angles are congruent and

number.

congruent angles are equal.


Ex.

4.

times the

number

The sum
first,

of three angles

and the

third

of degrees in each.

is

is

Can you

folding to illustrate your answer?

360.

The second

four times the

first.

is

three

Find the

construct a figure by paper

PLANE GEOMETRY

12

IMPORTANT SPECIALLY RELATED ANGLES


24.

Two

an angle

of

is

is

their

if

other.

Find the complements

1.

Note:

Each

complement of the

called the

Ex.

sum

two complementary angles

angles are called complementary

of 90.

of the following angles:

a.

60

d.

62 27'

g,

33

b.

44

e.

59 18'

h.

42 2'

c.

39 10'

/.

25 20'

i.

Many

of the exercises that follow

ic

can and should be solved

by an algebraic equation.
Ex.
the

If

2.

number
Ex.

the complement of an angle

and

of degrees in the angle


If

3.

an angle

is

of degrees in the angle

and

of its

its

is

K of the angle, find

complement.

complement, find the number

its

complement.
Ex. 4. Draw any acute angle. Construct the angle which
the complement of the first angle.
Ex.

Draw two

5.

is

equal acute angles. Draw the complement


Cut out these complements and place

of each of these angles.

Are they congruent?

one upon the other.


Ex.

How

6.

are the complements in Ex. 5 obtained

tracting equal angles

The

fact illustrated in Exs. 5

evident.

It

may

Complements
26.
is

Two

and 6

will

be assumed as

be stated as follows:

of equal angles are equal.

angles are said to be supplementary

an angle

by sub-

from equal angles?

of 180.

Each

of

if

their

sum

two supplementary angles

is

called the supplement of the other.

Ex.

1.

Find the supplement of each of the following angles:


a.

75

d.

59 22'

g.

90 21'

b.

18 25'

e.

63 18'

h.

16 18'

INTRODUCTORY
Ex.

ment

Draw any

4.

angle.

Draw

13

the angle which

is

the supple-

of the first angle.

Ex. 5. Draw two equal angles. Draw the supplements of


each of these angles. Cut out these supplements and place one
upon the other. Are they congruent?
Ex.

How

6.

are the supplements in Ex. 5 obtained

by sub-

tracting equal angles from equal angles?

The

and 6 will be assumed as


be stated as follows:

fact illustrated in Exs. 5

evident.

It

may

Supplements of equal angles are equal.


Certain important facts concerning sums of angles
It is evident

26.

are illustrated in the next three exercises.

sum of all the parts of an angle is equal to the


whole angle. Show which is the whole angle and what are
its parts in each of these three exercises.
that the

Ex.

1.

If in Fig.

20 the ray

OB

from

starts

in the line CA, how many degrees are


point
there in the sum oi A\ and 2?

Ex.

what

is

Ex.

2.

the

3.

In Fig. 21,

sum

of

if

AOB

is

a straight

line,

Z1+Z2+Z3+Z4?

In Fig. 22 what

is

the

sum

of

Z1+Z2+Z3+Z4+Z5?
Fig. 22

The
dent.
I.

of the

facts illustrated in Exs. 1-3 will

They may be

be assumed as evi-

stated as follows:

a ray starts from a point in a straight line, the sum


two adjacent angles formed on one side of the

If

line is 180, or

a straight angle.

Such angles are

called supplementary adjacent angles.

PLANE GEOMETRY

14

The sum

11.

of the adjacent angles on one side of a


formed by any number of rays having a comon the line is 180, or a straight angle.

straight line

mon

origin

The sum

III.

Ex.4.
is

of the adjacent angles

from the same

of rays

Zl+/2+Z3 = 180,

If

three times Z2, find the

Ex.

each?

in

each?

Ex.

If

7.

number

and Z2

is

equal angles form a perigon,

Zl+Z2+Z3+Z4 = 360,

twice Z2, and

Z2

twice Zl,

twice

Zl,and Z3

of degrees in each angle.

four equal angles form a perigon,

If six

6.

Ex.

Z3

If

5.

in

formed by a number

origin is 360, or a perigon.

how many

degrees

how many

degrees

and Z4

how many

is

twice

Z3,

degrees in each?

Statement I in the preceding section indicates a very


between supplementary adjacent angles and a
The next two exercises illustrate another
straight angle.
27.

close relation

phase of this relation.


Ex. 1. Copy two right angles from cards or
draftsman's triangles (Fig. 23). Place them so
falls on point 0', side OA along side
that point
What kind of an
O'A', and OB opposite O'B'.

A BOB'}

is

angle

Ex.

and 2
ment

Draw any two

2.

(Fig. 24).

of

Why?

How

Z2.

an angle

The

is

Zl and
angles.

occupied by

Z2.

related?

Place

What

It

kind
Fig

/.B'OC}

and 2
be stated as follows:

fact illustrated in Exs. 1

evident.
If

are

Cut out the three

in the position
of

equal angles, A 1
Construct Z3, the supple-

may

will

be assumed as

two supplementary angles are adjacent,

sides are collinear.

24

their exterior

INTRODUCTORY
Two

28.

15

an^'lcs arc called vertical or opposite if the sides

one are prolongations of the sides of the other. If two


Thus
lines intersect, two pairs of vertical angles are formed
in Fig. 25 lines h and k intersect, forming vertical angles,
Z 1 and Z 3, also Z 2 and Z 4.
of

Ex.

Show

Draw two

1.

A2 and

that

intersecting

same angle. Show that A


ments of the same angle.
Ex.

and 3 are the supple-

Zl=Z3and Z2=

fact illustrated in Exs.

evident.

It

may

and 2

Z4?
Fig. 25

will

be assurned as

be stated as follows:

two straight lines

If

25).

(Fig.

In Fv^. 25 why is
why are vertical angles equal?

2.

In general,

The

lines

4 are the supplements of the

intersect, the opposite or vertical

angles are equal.

SUMMARY AND SUPPLEMENTARY EXERCISES


SUMMARY OF GEOMETRICAL ASSUMPTIONS
29.

The

foregoing definitions and exercises justify the

following assumptions:

A. Concerning the definite location of points:

As.

1.

Two

different straight lines

can intersect in

only one point, or two intersecting straight lines locate a


point (4).
As. 2.

segment can have only one mid-point (9\

B. Concerning the definite location of segments, rays,

and

straight lines:

As.

3.

Only one segment can be drawn between two

points, or a segment
are given (7).

is

located definitely

if its

extremities

4.
Only one ray can be drawn having a given
and
origin
passing through a second given point ( 11).
As. 5. Only one ray can be drawn bisecting a given

As.

angle (17).

PLANE GEOMETRY

16

As.

6.

Only one straight

line

can pass through two

given points (3).


As. 7. Only one perpendicular can be drawn to a
line fjcom a given point in the line (19).
line

As. 8. Only one perpendicular can be drawTi to a


from a given point not in the line (20).

C. Concerning circles:

As.

9.

As. 10.

Circles with equal radii are congruent (12).


Congruent circles have equal radii (12).

D. Concerning equal angles:


As. 11.

All straight angles are equal (22).


All right angles are equal (22).

As. 12.
As. 13.

Complements

As. 14.

Supplements of equal angles are equal (25).

As. 15.

Vertical angles are equal (28).

of equal angles are equal (24).

E. Concerning angle-sums:

a ray starts from a point in a straight


two adjacent angles formed on one side
of the line is 180, or a straight angle (26).
As. 17. The sum of the adjacent angles on one side
of a straight line formed by any number of rays having a
common origin on the line is 180, or a straight angle (26).
As. 18. The sum of the adjacent angles formed by
a number of rays from the same origin is 360, or a
As. 16.

line,

the

sum

If

of the

perigon (26).
F. Concerning straight angles:

As. 19.

If

two supplementary angles are adjacent,

their exterior sides are coUinear (27).

GENERAL ASSUMPTIONS
30.

The

following assumptions are also true:


If equal segments (or angles) are added to

As. 20.

equal segments (or angles), the results are equal segments


(or angles).

INTRODUCTORY
As. 21.

If

17

equal segments (or angles) are subtracted


(or angles), the results are equal seg-

from equal segments


ments (or angles).
As. 22.

If

equal segments (or angles) are multiplied

by the same number, the


angles)

As. 23.
the

results are equal

segments (or

If

equal segments (or angles) are divided by

same number, the


As. 24.

same segment

results are equal

Segments

(or angles)

segments (or angles)

that are equal to the

(or angle) are equal.

As. 25.

Equal segments

(or angles)

may

be substi-

tuted for equal segments (or angles).


Note.
Hereafter when these assumptions are used they should be
quoted in the form in which they apply; for example: Equal segments
may be substituted for equal segments, or equal angles may be substituted for equal angles, as the case

may

require.

MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES
31. After solving each of the following exercises state
clearly and in full the definitions or assumptions which it
is

intended to
1.

illustrate.

two supplementary angles


Find the angles.
Find an angle whose complement

One

of

is

40 15' larger than

the other.
2.

angle
3.

angle
4.

Show
all

}4

as large as the

that

if

two

lines intersect so that

one angle

is

a right

the angles are right angles.

Find an angle whose complement is }4 of its supplement.


angle by paper folding?
the hands of a clock make at 5 o'clock?

Can you construct this


5. What angles do
at 10 o'clock?
6.

is

itself.

If,
fl.
^>.

c.

in Fig.

Z
Z
Z

26,Z2= Z6, show that


6
(/.
Z 1=Z 8
7
d.
Z 4=Z 5
Z 4=Z 8
5
/.

3=Z
2=Z
1=Z

PLANE GEOMETRY

18
7.

Which

of the following

a.
b.

Construct a perpendicular to line AB.


Construct a perpendicular to line AB from point
of

c.

d.
e.

J.

g.

directions locate the required line

Why?

or rays definitely?

outside

AB.

Connect points C and D.


Bisect A A.
Draw a line through point A.
From point O outside of line A B draw a ray cutting line
AB.
Draw a ray which shall make a given angle with a given
line.

h.
i.

Draw a perpendicular bisector to a given segment.


Draw a segment bisecting a given segment.

on the same side of line AB.


8. Two rays start from point
Of the three angles formed the second is 3 times the first and the
Find the angles.
third is 5 times the first.
9.

angle
10.

Find an angle whose complement

is

25 smaller than the

itself.

Can you

find

an angle whose complement

is

of its sup-

plement?
11.

Draw

four straight lines so that there will be:

possible
tion;

c.

intersections;

h.

Only one possible

Only three possible

12.

Can you draw

four

straight

lines

d.

intersections;

e. Five possible
possible intersections;
/. Six possible intersections.

so

a.

No

intersec-

Four

intersections;

that there can be

only two possible intersections?


13.

ment

How many
is

degrees in the supplement of

/.x

\i

its

comple-

23?

In Fig. 27 show that Z H- Z44-Z5+ZGWhat other combinations of angles in


Fig. 27 will be equal to two right angles?
14.

2rt. ^.

Fig. 37

INTRODUCTORY

19

Draw two complementary adjacent angles and the bisecHow many degrees in the angle made by the

15.

tor of each.
bisectors?

Why?

Draw two supplementary adjacent angles and the bisecHow many degrees in the angle made by the
tor of each.
bisectors?
Why?
16.

17.

Show

Draw AABC (Fig.


Z 3 = Z 4.

18.

How many

the supplement of

32.

>

Exs
Def

exercises

<^

As

assumption
assumptions
theorem
theorems

Th
Ths
Cor

comp
sup

complementary
supplementary

adj

Adjacent

section

degree
'

c^

rt.

rt.

A
Z
A

angle, angles

right angle
right angles
to
(perpendicular
-^us perpendicular
to

-^

'

(parallel to
II

A,
rt.

n
D

(is parallel

A
CS

[s]

(is equal to
(congruent to
(is congruent to
(similar to
I

is

similar to

EJ,

'

CsJ.
/-g-\

right triangle
/rectangle, rec(
tangles

square, squares
(parallelogram
(parallelograms
(trapezoid, trap(

O,

(D

to

triangle, triangles

minute
second
centimeter
millimeter
(equal to

than
than

(is less

therefore

.*

(less

corollary
alternate interior

alt. int

(greater than
(is greater than

definition

Ass

mm

if

Fig. 28

figure
exercise

Fig.

cm

Z6

degrees in the complement of


Z ft is 110?

ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS USED

Ex

"

Z1=Z2.

28) so that

that

ezoids
circle, circles

.15

arc^B

AB

chord

area

per

perimrjter

^5

'

CHAPTER

II

Congruent Triangles

INTRODUCTORY DEFINITIONS
33.

Any two

figures that

can be made to coincide are

called congruent figures.

In congruent figures corresponding sides or angles are


or angles that coincide or that can be made to

sides

coincide.

We

shall

As. 26.

add the following to the

Any

list

of assumptions:

figure can be moved about in space withits size or its shape.

out changing either

As. 27. Figures congruent to the same figure are congruent to each other.

34.
figure formed of three segments joined end to end
consecutively is called a triangle. Such a figure has three
Unless it is othersides, three angles, and three vertices.

wise stated, a triangle should be drawn with

its sides of

different lengths (Fig. 29).

triangle that has at least two sides equal is called an


isosceles triangle. The angle included by the equal sides
is called the vertex angle, and its vertex, the vertex of the
triangle.

The

third side is called the base of the triangle.

triangle with all its sides equal

triangle.

20

is

called

an equilateral

CONGRUENT TRIANGLES

21

TESTS FOR EQUAL ANGLES AND

EQUAL SEGMENTS
TESTS
35. Ex.

AND

Draw a

1.

ments a and

FOR CONGRUENT TRIANGLES

II

triangle with

two

sides equal to the seg-

30).

(Fig.

Draw this triangle with a soft


pencil

too

on paper that

is

not

hesLvy.

Compare your

figure with

your neighbor's

j,

Fig, 30

by placing one paper upon the other and holding them to the
Ex.

Draw a

2.

light.

tri-

angle with two sides equal


to the segments a and b

and the included angle

ZC

equal to

Compare your

31).

(Fig.

figure with

your neighbor's as
plained in Ex. 1.
Ex.

Draw a

3.

exFig. 3]

triangle

with two angles equal to A A


and B and the included side
equal to segment

Compare your

c (Fig. 32).

triangle with ^^

your neighbor's by placing


one paper upon the other and

them

holding

Ex.

4.

triangle

angle of

to the light.

Draw any

and

letter it

AXYZ

Fig~~32

triangle

and

ABC.

letter it

XYZ, but make two

sides

Draw

another

and the included

equal to two sides and the included angle of


the two triangles.

AABC. Compare

Note.

In Ex. 4 and in all exercises requiring


the construction of figures the pupil should not
only make the drawing but should tell how he did ait.

Sentences should

example
(1)

be

short and exact.

For

(Fig. 33):

Make ZX=/.A.

(2)

Make

XY = AB.

^
Etc.

Fig. 33

PLANE GEOMETRY

22

Theorkm

1.*
If two sides and the included angle of one
are
equal to two sides and the included angle of
triangle
another triangle, the triangles are congruent in all corre-

sponding parts and are called congruent triangles.

Fig. 34

AABC

Given

and

ADEF, ZA=ZD, AB = DE,

and

AC = DF.
To

prove

AABC and ADEF

congruent in

all

correspond

ing parts.

Proof:

STATEMENTS
1.

Place

REASONS

AABC on ADEF so

1.

Swill iallonDE,A
on D, B on E, and C and
F on the same side of DE,
that

2.

yl

Segment

AC

the line of
3.

Point

4.

BC

will fall

along

ZA=

ZD.

DF.

C will fall on point

will

2.

This can be done


because AB = DE.

coincide

F.

3.

exactly

4.

with EF.

AC = DF.
If

the extremities of

two segments
cide, the

coin-

segments will

coincide exactly.
5.

AABC ^ ADEF.

5.

Two

triangles

coincide

that

exactly

are

congiTient.

Note: An angle
two adjacent sides.

The

of a triangle is said to be included

formal proof of Th.

teacher desires.

may

between

its

be jjostponed imtil such time as the

CONGRUENT TRIANGLES

23

Theorem 2.* If two angles and the included side


one triangle are equal to two angles and the included
side of another triangle, the triangles are congruent in all
corresponding parts and are called congruent triangles.
36.

of

Fig. 35

AABC

Given

and

ADEF, /.A=

An=

Z.D,

Z.E,

and

AB = DE.

A ABC and ADEF

To prove

congruent in

all

correspond-

ing parts.
Proof:

STATEMENTS
1.

A.4^Con

Place

REASONS

ADEF so

1.

on DE, A
on D, B on E, and C and F
on the same side of DE.

AB

that

2.

AC

can

This

along the line

2.

Why?

along the line

3.

Why?

C \^all fall on the line of DF

4.

Why?

will fall

be

because

falls

done
?

oiDF.
3.

BC

will fall

ofF.
4.

and
5.

.*.

also

on the

will

fall

line of

EF,

on point F.

5.

Two

lines

sect at only
6.

.*.

AABC ^ ADEF.

Note.

f).

Why?

side of a triangle is said to be included

angles adjacent to

can interone point,

between the two

i1.

The formal proof of Th. 2


teacher desires.

may

be postponed until such time

the

PLANE GEOMETRY

24
*

Draw any

Exercise.

triangle

and

letter

ABC.

it

Draw

another triangle and letter it XYZ, but make two angles and the
included side of
equal to two angles and the included
side oi AABC.
In how many ways can you construct a triangle

AXYZ

congruent to a given triangle?


Construct an isosceles triangle with
37. Ex. 1.
base 3 cm. and each of the equal sides 5 cm. (Fig. 36)
.

Notice the wording for the directions for this

Note.
I.

II,

-*^

^s

Fig. 36

drawing.

Draw segment
With A

as

a,

AB=S

cm.

and 5 cm. as a radius make an arc above AB,

center

Etc.

Ex.

Construct an equilateral triangle with each side 4 cm.

2.

angles opposite the equal sides of an


are
isosceles triangle
equal.

Theorem

3.

The

Fig. 37

Given the isosceles

To prove

A ABC, AC = BC,

AA^ LB.

Analysts and construction:


I.

To prove

ZA= ZB,

prove A A and

correspond-

ing angles of congruent triangles.


II.

To

obtain the

bisector
III.

IV.

.-.

CO

to

ZC, continue the

meet the base at

0.

ZA=ZB, prove AAOCmABOC.


AAOC ^ ABOC, prove two sides and the

to prove

To prove

triangles, bisect

included angle

CONGRUENT TRIANGLES
Proof:

STATEMENTS

25

PLANE GEOMETRY

26

Construct Fig. 38. Make AD and BC perpendicular


Find 0, the mid-point of AB. Make
AD = BC. Join DO and CO. Prove DO = CO.
How might AAOD be made to coincide with
Ex.

to

1.

AB.

ABOC?
Ex.

2.

Construct Fig. 39.

Make BC

perpen-

AO. Make Z 1 = Z2. Prove AB = AC


and BX = XC. How might AAXB be made to

dicular to

coincide with

Ex.

3.

AAXC?

Construct Fig. 40.

Draw XY,

the per-

pendicular bisector of segment AB. Join F, any


point in XY, to A and to 5. Prove PA=PB.
Fig. 40

Ex.

4.

Make

ment.
sides

How

Construct Fig. 41.

Z1=Z2

and

^i5

Z3=

is

any seg-

Which

Z4.

can be proved equal? Prove them equal.


might A^^A' be made to coincide with

AABY?
Ex.

5.

Construct Fig. 42.


bisecting Z B.

Draw BO

angle.

Connect A, any point


Prove ^A = CA.
Ex.

6.

triangle.

in

Draw ABC, any


Make AB = BC.

OB, with

A and

C.
Fig. 42

Construct Fig. 43. ABC is an isosceles


= BY.
is the mid-point of AB.

AX

OX = OY.

Prove
Ex.

7.

Draw any
mid-point. Draw

Construct Fig. 44.

ment AB. Find O, its


and k so that Z 1 = Z 2.

43
seg-

rays

Through O draw
any line that will intersect h and k. Call the
])oints of intersection D and C respectively.
Prove that AD = BC and that DO = CO. How
h

might

ABOC be made to

coincide with

AAOD ?

Fig. 44

CONGRUENT TRIANGLES
Ex.

8.

Show

that congruent triangles

27

may be

the distance across a pond as follows (Fig. 45)

used to find

First set up a stake at any convenient point, as


Set
0, from which points A and B are both visible.
up a stake at Z) in a straight line with O and A so
= 0A. In the same way place stake C so qz
that

OD

that

CO = OB.

Fig. 46

Measure CD.

Ex. 9. Explain from Fig. 46 how to find


the distance across a stream. Notice that the

AB

3^^^5^-^
^Sa^g^rrSv

\J

is perpendicular to a line
required distance
along the bank of the stream.

^
Fig. 46

Ex.

10.

Show

that the distance across a stream

measured as follows

up at A with a

Z DC A may be

(Fig.

47):

pole

is

set

stick fastened at the top so that


altered by moving the stick CD.

may

be

c
^'''''^Pv

A person stands with the eye at C and ^7


T^^^^^^^^"^
Fig. 47
moves the stick CD until he just sees point B.
The pole is then turned around. Standing with eye at C and
looking along CD' he locates point B'. He then measures AB'

Could you do this using the visor of your cap rather than a
Is it necessary to turn through 180?
This
pole and a stick?
device is said to be an old one.*
Note. Theorems 1 and 2 were probably known to Thales. Thales
regarded as the founder of one of the earliest Greek schools of matheIt is said that Th. 2 was used in those days to
matics, about 600 B.C.
is

determine the distance of a ship at sea. It is not known how this


was done; but a tower or a cliff might have been used as the base of
a triangle of which the ship formed the vertex. The base angles of
this triangle could be found by observation.
Show from Ex. 10 how
the solution to the problem could be completed.

Ex.

11.

intersecting

Prove that
prove

AB and CD are
AO = OB and CO =

In Fig. 48,

two

lines.

OD.

AC = BD.

Join

CB and AD and

CB = AD.

See W. E. Stark, "Measuring


Science and Mathematics, 1910,

^\''y;^:^C\

^^^

^^- ^^

Instruments of Long Ago,"

School

PLANE GEOMETRY

28

Construct Fig. 49. Draw AB any segment,


and k perpendicular to ^j5 at A and B
respectively. Find 0, the mid-point oiAB. Make
Z 1 = Z 2 and extend the sides imtil they interCall the points of intersection D
sect h and k.
and C respectively. Prove that AD = BC and
DO = OC.
Ex. 12.

Con-

struct h

Construct Fig. 50. ABC is an isosceles


Prove
is the mid-point oi AB. Zl= Z2.

Ex. 13.
triangle.

AX = BY

and OX=-OY.

TEST
39. Ex. 1 .

III

FOR CONGRUENT TRIANGLES

Construct two triangles ABC and

XF, BC=YZj and CA=ZX.

Draw

X YZ so that AB =

these triangles with a soft

Compare them by
pencil on two pieces of fairly thin paper.
placing one paper on the other and holding the papers to the
Before these triangles can be proved congruent what must
light.
you know?
Ex.

Construct a triangle having

2.

its sides

equal to three

given segments.

Theorem 4. If three sides of one triangle are equal to


three sides of another triangle, the triangles are congruent.

Fig. 51

Given

AABC

and

ADEF, AB = DE, AC = DF,

CB=^FE.
To prove

AABC m ADEF.

and

CONGRUENT TRIANGLES

29

Analysis and construction:


I.

II.

To prove
"

"

AABC ^ADEF, prove AC = /.F.


ZC=ZF, place AABC so that AB,

longest side of
longest side of

AABC,
ADEF,
CF and

coincides with

the

DE, the

and point C is opposite


prove that ZC^and
point F. Join
are made by adding the base angles of two isos-

celes triangles.

Proof:

ZF

PLANE GEOMETRY

30

APPLICATION OF CONGRUENT TRIANGLES

TO CONSTRUCTIONS
CONSTRUCTION OF ANGLES
Problem

1.
At a given point in a given line to conan angle equal to a given angle.

40.

struct

B
Fig. 53

Given line

To

/,

point

construct at point

in line

and Z BAG.

/,

X in line

an angle equal to Z BAG,

Analysis and directions:

WXO

In order to construct an angle


equal to /.A,
construct two congruent triangles that shall contain

I.

AA
With

II.

at

andX
A

as a center and any radius cut the sides of

ZA

D and E.

With

and the same radius draw an arc


Hne
/
at
W.
cutting
IV. With 1^ as a center and DE as a radius cut the last

III.

as a center

arc at O.

V. Join

and O.

Proof:

REASONS

STATEMENTS
I.

a.
b.
c.

d.

AE = XO.
AD = XW.
DE = WO.

reasons in

all

full.

.'.ADAE^AWXO.

,CA==ZX.
Exercise.
How is

II.

Let the pupil give

.-.

it

than one position on the


ments?

possible to construct the


line

and

still

have

ZX

it fulfill

in

more

the require-

CONGRUENT TRIANGLES

31

DIVISION OF ANGLES
41.

Problem

2.

To

construct the bisector of a given

angle.

Given

To

ZBAC.

construct the bisector of

ZBAC.

Analysis and directions:


I.

II.

In order to construct the bisector of Z.A, construct


a line through point A so that Z 1 equals Z 2.
In order to construct

Zl = Z2,

triangles that contain


III.

With

V.

With

construct congruent

and

2.

i4 as a center and any convenient radius draw


an arc cutting the sides of /.A Sit E and D.
IV. With as a center and any convenient radius draw
an arc.

Z) as

a center and the same radius cut this

last

arc at O.

VI. Join

and 0.

Let the pupil give the proof.

Ex.

may be

Show that a carpenter's steel square


used to bisect an angle as follows: Mark o

1.

equal distances OA and OB on the sides of


the angle. Place the square as shown in Fig. 55.
Mark point D. Join
and O.

off

Fig. 55

Ex. 2. Construct
Exs. 4 and 5, 38.

with ruler and compasses the figures for

PLANE GEOMETRY

32

Show by

Ex. 3. Draw two vertical angles and bisect each.


As. 19 that the two bisectors are collinear.
Ex.

4.

Construct one-half the supplement of any given angle.

Ex.

5.

Construct a triangle congruent to a given triangle.

how many ways can this be done?


Ex. 6. Draw any triangle and
angle of

an equilateral

Bisect each

triangle.

Note.

Trisection of Angles.
can bisect any angle that we choose.
42.

bisect each angle.

In

By

the

The

method given in 41 we
an angle is a

trisection of

problem. We shall find a little later how to


In elementary geometry we confine ourselves
to the circle and straight line and use no instruments except the compasses and the straightedge. A straightedge is a ruler that is not
graduated to any scale. It has been shown that angles generally
cannot be trisected by the use of these instruments only. The Greeks
learned How to trisect any angle, and since their time many ways of
These methods, however, have
trisecting angles have been found.
always required other curves than the circle and other instruments

much more
trisect

difficult

a right angle.

than the compasses and straightedge.


Draftsmen's methods for trisecting angles are approximations.

number

have been
56 shows one such instrument. What segments are
made equal? Show that Fig. 54 is used twice in Fig. 56. Why is the
angle trisected? How could an instrument for bisecting angles be
made? Such an instrument is sometimes used by carpenters for
made.

Fig.

cutting

and

of different instruments for trisecting angles

fitting

moldings.

CONGRUENT TRIANGLES

33

CONSTRUCTION OF PERPENDICULARS
Problem

43.

3.

To

construct a perpendicular to a line

from a given point in the

line.

V
/

\\

/
\.

t-

Fig. 57

Given line

To

and point

construct

in line

/.

a perpendicular to

line

from point 0.

Analysis and directions:


I.

In order to construct

OX

at

0,

construct

Z1=Z2.
II.

In order to construct

Zl=

Z2, construct two con-

gruent triangles.
III.

With

as center

an arc cutting

and any convenient radius draw


/ at Y and Z.

line

With

as center and a longer radius

V. With

as center

IV.

draw an

arc.

and the same radius cut the

last

arc at X.

VI. Join

X and 0.

Let the pupil give the proof (see 18 for the proof to

Ex.

1.

Construct at point

of 135; of 22>^; of

in a given line

I).

an angle

of 45;

157K.

Ex.

2.

Divide a given angle into four equal parts.

Ex.

3.

Construct Fig. 39 with ruler and compasses.

Ex.

4.

Construct the complement of any acute angle.

Can

the complement have more than one position?

Ex.

5.

Construct two complementary adjacent angles.

struct the bisector of each.

by the

bisectors?

How many degrees

in the angle

Con-

made

PLANE GEOMETRY

34
44.

Problem

To

4.

from a point not

construct a perpendicular to a line

in the line.

q
\

4\

r\^

Fig. 58

Given line

To

and point

not in

line

construct a perpendicular to

/.

from 0.

Directions:
I.

With O
ting

11.

III.

as center and

at

any radius draw an arc

cut-

and Z.

With Y as center and a radius greater than half


YZ draw an arc opposite O.
With Z as center and the same radius cut this arc
at X.

and X.

IV. Join

Analysis:
I.

II.

To prove
"

"

OX

/,

prove Z

Z1=Z2,

join

= Z 2.

OY

and

OZ

and prove

AYOAUAZOA.
III.

IV.

To prove /\YOA ^ AZOA, prove Z3= Z4.


'*

"

Z3=Z4,

.....

Let the pupil complete the analysis and give the proof.

The proof

Note.

circles are studied.

Ex.

1.

be much simpler after intersecting


reasons for the directions are then apparent.

for Prob. 4 will

The

Draw any

triangle

from each vertex to the opposite


^

Make

and construct the perpendicular


side.

the drawing called for in Ex. 1 for an equilateral


triangle and also for a triangle containing an obtuse angle.

Ex.

2.

CONGRUENT TRIANGLES
Pkoblkm

46.

of

To

T).

35

construct the perpendicular bisector

a given segment.

01
i
I
I

Fig. 59

Given the segment

To

AB.

construct the perpendicular l:)isector of

Directions:
I.

With

i4

III.

and any radius greater than


above and below AB.

as a center

construct arcs
II.

AB.

H AB

B as a center and the same radius intersect these


arcs at C and D.
Join C and D.

With

Let the pupil give the analysis and the proof.

Note.

Like the proof for Prob.

4,

the proof for Prob. 5

is

simpler

after one studies intersecting circles.

Ex.
equal?

1.

and give the

radii

directions,

varying the radii as


Ex.

2.

5, which radii must be made


need not be made equal? Draw the figure

In the solution for Prob.

Which

analysis,

much

and proof

for this problem,

as possible.

Divide a given segment into four equal parts.

NATURE OF THEOREMS AND PROOFS


The statements

46.

of geometrical facts in this


different

preceding chapter have received three


assumptions, theorems, and corollaries.

theorem

is

a statement of a fact that

is

and the
narnes:

to be proved

true.

An

assumption

is

a statement of a fact that is taken


Its ^mth is taken for granted.

as true without proof.

PLANE GEOMETRY

36

Many

the assumptions in chapter i were obtained by


Many were shown to be true informally.

of

observation.

The
known

proof of a theorem shows that if certain facts are


to be true a certain other fact must be true. The

known

facts that are

The

fact to be

proved

or given constitute the hypothesis.


is called the conclusion.

In Theorem 3 the hypothesis


sides.

equal

The

conclusion

is:

The

The

is:

triangle has

two

angles opposite these

sides are equal.

In Theorem 4 the hypothesis is Three sides of one triangle


are equal to three sides of another triangle. The conclusion
is: The triangles are congruent.
:

The hypothesis and conclusion of a theorem may be


found by studying the grammatical construction of the
statement of the theorem. If the sentence contains a clause
beginning with "if," this clause is the hypothesis. If there
is no such clause, the complete subject is the hypothesis and
the complete predicate the conclusion.

In each case the proof consists in showing that the confrom the hypothesis. The analysis
shows how the proof has been or may be thought out.
The proof is the analysis worked backward and is set

clusion must follow

down

in

method

The synthetic
is called the synthetic form.
the opposite of the analytical method.

what
is

The
is

special method used for the proofs of Ths. 1 and 2


This word is derived
called proof by superposition.

from two Latin words.

What

is its literal

translation?

theorem that follows easily from another theorem

is

called a corollary of that theorem.

theorems and exercises that


statement is made to the conIn all proofs a warrant must be given for each step.
trary.
Some of the exercises have been called problems. Any
Proofs are required for

follow unless

some

all

specific

geometrical problem calls

for the construction of

some

CONGRUENT TRIANGLES

37

geometrical figure to fulfill certain stated requirements.


Unless it is otherwise stated, these constructions must be

performed with compasses and straightedge only. In all


problems it is necessary to prove that the completed figure
fulfills

the stated requirements.

MISCELLANEOUS THEOREMS AND EXERCISES


47.

A.

OUTLINE REVIEW

We have the following methods for proving two segments


or two angles equal
I.

In the case of segments look for


differences, equal multiples, or equal

a.

Sums,

b.

parts of equal segments.


Sides of isosceles or of equilateral triangles.
Corresponding sides of congruent triangles.

c.

11.

In the case of angles look for


differences, equal multiples, or equal

a.

Sums,

b.

Right angles.
Supplements of equal angles.

parts of equal angles.


c.

Complements

e.

Vertical angles.

Corresponding angles of congruent triangles.


Base angles of an isosceles triangle.

/.
g.

of equal angles.

d.

Either segments or angles


ing

may

be proved equal by provof congruent tri-

them corresponding parts

angles.

To prove
I.

the triangles congruent compare

Two

II.

III.

Two

and the included angle of one with two


and the included angle of the other.

sides

sides

angles and the included side of one with


angles and the included side of the other.

two

Three sides of one with three sides of the other.

PLANE GEOMETRY

38
48.

Theorem

5.

If

a perpendicular be erected to a

straight line, oblique segments drawn from the same point


in the perpendicular cutting the straight line at equal distances from the foot of the perpendicular are equal.

XY

l.iQ line I and the oblique segments


Hypothesis: Line
are drawn from Cso that AO = OB.

CA and CB

CA=CB.

Conclusion:

Analysis:

To prove CA=CB, prove AAOC ^ ABOC.


IL "
AAOC ^ ABOC, compare
I.

**

The proof

is left

to the pupil.

How

Exercise.

could you

make

the congruent triangles in

Fig. 60 coincide?

In the following exercises segments and angles are


to be proved equal.
The analysis given for Th. 3 may now
be shortened as shown under Th. 5.
49.

The

Note.

figures for all exercises

and theorems should be conand compasses.

structed according to the hypothesis with ruler

Construct an isosceles triangle ABC. Let CO, the


Prove that the segZ C, meet the base A B at 0.
with the mid-points of ylC and BC are equal.
ments joining

Ex.

1.

bisector of

Ex.

same

2.

base.

Two

isosceles triangles stand on opposite sides of the


Prove that the segment joining the vertices bisects

both vertex angles.


Ex.

-3.

Investigate the case, Ex. 2, in which the


on the same side of the same base.

triangles stand

two

isosceles

CONGRUENT TRIANGLES
50.

Theorem

The

6.

39

bisector of the vertex angle of

an

isosceles triangle is the perpendicular bisector of the base.

AADC

Hypothesis:

is

AC = BC,

isosceles,

CO

Conclusion:

is

bisector of

AB.

Analysis:
I.

CO

and

Z C.

bisects

To prove CO

_L bisector oi

Z2=

AB, prove

Z3.

^AO==BO.

Z2= Z3
AO = BO

II.

prove

Let the pupil complete the analysis and give the proof.

Theorem

The segment which joins the vertex


7.
triangle with the mid-point of the base
bisects the vertex angle and is perpendicular to the base
61.

of

an isosceles

(Fig. 61).

= BC, and
is isosceles,
Hypothesis:
the vertex C with 0, the mid-point of base AB.

A ABC

COtic lus ion

AC

1.

CO

2.

COAB.

bisects

CO

ZC.

Analysis:
I.

11.

To prove
'

"

that
'

CO

bisects

COAB,

ZC, prove
prove

Z2=

Z5=
Z3.

"^-

lz2=Z3

I'P^^^^

Let the pupil complete the analysis and give the proof.

Z6.

joins

PLANE GEOMETRY

40

EXERCISES INVOLVING CONGRUENT TRIANGLES


In the exercises that follow, special care is needed
making the analysis. Study carefully the analyses given
As compared with
for Ths. 6 and 7 and for Ex. 1 below.
62.

in

the analyses for Ths. 3 and 5, one or more extra steps are
The pupil should carefully ask himself the
required.

proper questions at each step and should be perfectly sure


that he understands how each step follows from the preceding one.
1.

The segments

isosceles triangle

joining the mid-points of the sides of

form an

an

isosceles triangle.

Analysis:
I.

To

prove

IL "

"

AXYZ

isosceles,

ZZ=Z7,

prove

XZ=XY.

prove

Let the pupil complete the analysis and give the proof.

A ABC

How

would Ex. 1 have read if


had been an equilateral triangle? Give
2.

(Fig. 62)

Fig. 62

proof.

the segment which joins the vertex of a triangle with


the mid-point of the base is perpendicular to the base, the triangle
3. If

is isosceles.

CX

a perpendicular bisector of AB.


along the ray CX, how will the
sides of
ACS change? What are the upper and
lower limits to these sides? No proof is needed.
4.

In Fig. 63,

is

C moves upward

the segment which bisects the vertex angle


of a triangle is perpendicular to the base, the tri5.

angle
6.

If

is isosceles.

In

Fig.

64,

CX

bisects

ZACB.

the segment AB moves to the right


and to the left along the ray CX but is
always perpendicular to CX, how will the
If

sides

of

ACBA

change?

What

is

C-*

the

lower limit to the length of these sides?


What is the upper limit? No proof is
needed.

.^j^

Fig. 64

CONGRUENT TRIANGLES

41

Given the equilateral AABC with equal segments AX,


off on the sides as shown in

7.

BY, and CZ measured


Fig. 65, prove that

Given the

8.

AXYZ is equilateral.
AABC with the mid-point

isosceles

of the base AB.


The equal sides
extended beyond the base so that

that

CA and CB

AE = BF.

are
Fig. 65

Prove

OE = OF.
Frames

9.

pieces of

of various shapes can be made by fastening together


or iron as shown in Fig. 66. Could you change

wood

the shape of any of these figures by pressing upon opposite sides


Which ones could be so changed?

or vertices?

Fig. 66
10.

How

and the
11.

like

are roof trusses, elevated train structures, bridges,

made

rigid?

segment drawn from the center of a

point of a chord

circle to

the mid-

perpendicular to the chord. Is there any


special position of the chord for which the exercise and its proof
is

have no meaning?

Show how the instrument shown in Fig. 67


be used as a leveling device. The pieces are
so fastened together that AB = AC. AD is a
plumb line. How must the framework be placed if
BC is level? This instrtmient is said to be very
12.

may

Fig. 67

ancient.*

Notice that a level line


Suggestion.
to a plumb line.
13.

Join

Draw any

CX

triangle

ABC.

and extend so that

is

one that

is

perpendicular

Find X, the mid-point of AB.


Prove AC = BY.

XY = CX.

See D. E. Smith. The Teaching of Geometry,

p. 178.

PLANE GEOMETRY

42
14. Fig.

CO

joins

AABC. The

isosceles

with

common form of truss.


with the mid-point of AB in the

68 shows a

and

OF

^C

of

OE = OF

Prove that

respectively.
is

OE

braces

and F, the mid-points

The king-rod

O
CB
CO

join

and

and that

AB.

perpendicular to

^^

Fig. 68

The segment joining any vertex of a triangle with the


mid-point of the opposite side is called a median of
the triangle.
In Ex. 14 the king-rod is the median of
the isosceles triangle that forms the truss.

AD

In Fig. 09,

15.

and

and
If

respectively.

BC

are

AD = BC,

^^

at

yl

prove that

AC = BD.
16.

Given ABC, an

isosceles

triangle

with the

equal sides extended through the vertex to


and BY are AB at points A and B.
Y.

AX
that AX = BY

and
Prove

(Fig. 70).
Fig. 70

17.

Given the

extended beyond
18.

with

and

AABC with the equal sides CA and CB


the base so that AX = BY, prove that AY = BX.
isosceles

ABC

In Fig. 71,

AC = CB.
AC and BC

prove that
19. If

is

an

isosceles triangle

the mid-point of AB,


are extended so that CE = CD,
If

is

OE^OD.

in the bisector of the vertex angle of an


any point
be joined to the extremities of the base AB,

isosceles triangle

AAOB
20.

an

is isosceles.

The segments drawn from the

extremities of the base of

isosceles triangle to the mid-points of the opposite

sides are equal.


21. In Fig. 72,

and

CY

AXCY

are

ABC

drawn

is isosceles.

is

an

so that

isosceles triangle.

Z1=Z2.

CX

Prove that

CONGRUENT TRIANGLES
22. In Fig. 73,

and

CY

ACXY
23.

are

ABC

if

is

drawn so that

43

given an isosceles triangle and


Z 1 = Z 2, prove that

is isosceles.

The

three medians of an equilateral triangle


'^

are equal.
^
24.

'*

Fig. 73

The segments that

bisect the base angles of

and are terminated by the equal

triangle
25.

CX

Draw

an

isosceles

sides are equal.

several figures for Ex. 24.


Let the diff'erent triangles
Are there
legs of different lengths.

have the same base but

any

limits to the angle that the bisector of

makes with the base?


26.

triangle

No

proof

one of the base angles

needed.

is

The segments that bisect the angles of an equilateral


and are terminated by the opposite sides are equal.

27. If from the ends of the base of an isosceles triangle segments are drawn making equal angles with the base and terminated by the opposite sides, these segments are equal.

REVIEW DIAGRAMS
53.

Review the proofs of Ths. 3 and 4 by means


and diagram:

of the

following scheme

Theorem 4
three sides of one triangle arc equal to three sides of another,
the triangles are congruent.
If

Hyp.

Th.3

Def. iaoBcelea
triangle

Aa.go

Th.l

Fig. 74

The theorem

to be proved

horizontal line below


tical lines

shown

it

is

written

(Fig. 74).

down

in full

with a

Below the various

ver-

are written the references to the authorities

on which the proof depends. Some of these references


will be theorems.
These theorems (2 and 3 above) should
then be proved and the references to the authorities used
4.
This process should be continued until only definitions and assumptions remain.

written in as for Th.

PLANE GEOMETRY

44

MAY INVOLVE MORE THAN ONE PAIR


OF CONGRUENT TRIANGLES

EXERCISES THAT
Note.

54.

When

the next section

from

exercises are selected for review

often well to require the proofs for


used in proving the exercises assigned.

is

it is

from
theorems

this or
all

L Any point in the median to the base of an isosceles triangle


equally distant from the extremities of the base.

2. Are there any


special positions of the arbitrary point
mentioned in Ex. 1 for which the proof given does not hold?

BE

intersect at O, prove that

5.

X ^

which

^^^- ^^

Investigate the case, Ex. 6, in


are on
and
extended.

which

CO

are

B.

extended.

AD

AC

In Fig. 78,
so that Z 1 =

9.

CO

AC=-AD, BC = BD, AX=^AY.

8.

CO

AB

prove that

BX = BY.

C
A and

CX = CYy

AC

Prove that
7.

If

Investigate the case, Ex. 4, in


are on BC and
extended.

In Fig. 77,

6.

the median to the base

ZXOY.

bisects

and

CO is
AABC.

In Fig. 76,

4.

of the isosceles

and

CA = CB and CD = CE. If AD
CO bisects ZC.

In Fig. 75,

3.

and

Z 2,

line h,

Fig 77

Rays

drawn from point

h at points
are joined with any point in OC
Prove that
is isosceles.
intersecting

line

A and B

AABD

Investigate the case, Ex.

8, in

which

is

in

extended.
10.

In Fig. 79,
point in

DC

CA = CB and AD = BD.
extended, prove that

is

any

is

between C and D.

11. Investigate

the

case,

Ex. 10,

in

If X
AX = BX.

which

X
Fig. 79

CONGRUENT TRIANGLES
In Fig. 80,

12.

CD

Prove that

is

45

CD is any segment. Zl= Z2 and


a perpendicular bisector of AB.

13. If, in Fig. 80,

A ABC

Z3=

Z4.

constructed isosceles

is

and Z>, any point in the bisector of Z.C, is joined to


A and B, DA and DB make equal angles with AB.
14.

C and
15.

^ABC

In Fig. 81,

In Fig.

AC = BD

82,

AAOB

Prove that

CO

isosceles.

is

median to the base AB. If Z


CX = CV and that OX = OY.

16.

Fig. 80

Construct the figures for Exs. 12 and 13 with


the same side oi AB.

D on

= Z 2,

and

is

the

prove that

AD = BC.

isosceles.

is

Fig. 82
17.

ABC
In Fig. 83,
Prove that

BD = AF.
18.

is

equilateral,

CE =

AXZY is equilateral.

In Fig. 83,

Z1=Z2=Z3,

if

A ABC

prove

that

is

equilateral

AXYZ

is

and
equi-

lateral.

19.

Fig. 83

Prove that the base angles

triangle are equal

shown in
CX = CY.

Fig.

by means

of

A ABC

is

84.

of

an

isosceles

the construction
the isosceles

A.

Analysis:

To prove Z1=Z2,
/.YAB^ AABX.

prove that

/.YAC= /.CBX and

that^

This method of proving the theorem is given in Euclid's


In the thirteenth century the students of Oxford, England,
that is, "the flight of the
nicknamed this theorem "elefuga"
because most of them found it so difficult that few cared
wretched"

Note.

Elements.

to study the subject further.

Two

or three hundred years later

PLANE GEOMETRY

46
the students called

Very

little is

"pons asinorum," or "the bridge of asses."


He was a Greek who
himself.
Alexandria about 300 B.C. Some of the earlier
it

known concerning Euclid

and taught in
students of geometry kept the results of their studies secret. Euclid's
Elements was a great advance lipon the work of his predecessors, both
lived

arrangement and in rigor. It is said that Ptolemy once asked him


was in geometry any shorter way than that of the Elements,''
and he answered that "there was no royal road to geometry." Another
story told of him is that some one who had begun to read geometry
with EucHd asked, when he had learned the first theorem, "But what
Euclid called his slave and said,
shall I get by learning these things?"
"Give him threepence since he must make gain out of what he
in

"if there

learns."

20.

as

Show

that the distance between two inaccessible points,


opposite sides of a stream, may be found as follows

A and B on

(see Fig. 85):

Set a stake at C, sighting it in line with AB.


be any convenient distance. Take
any
point from which A, B, and C are visible. Sight

BC may
E

in line

in line

D and C, making ED = DC. Sight F


D and B, making FD = DB. Sight
^^^ 85
will be in line with F and E and also
D and A. What line should be measured to find

with

with

so that

it

in line with

the distance .45?

Suppose (Fig. 86) that P represents a fence post on one


stream and line / a fence on the other side of the stream.
fence is to be built in line with P and
21.

side of a

perpendicular to fence
following

/.

Show

that the

method may be used:

Let P be the point and / the line.


At any point A in the line / construct a
perpendicular to line / and set stakes
Fig. 86
making AB = AC. On line / sight D
Then sight
in line with P and B, and E in line with C and P.
F in line with D and C and at the same time in line with E
and B. PF is 1. I and S is the point where the cuts the
line

/.

CONGRUENT TRIANGLES

47

EXERCISES INVOLVING PROPERTIES OF AND TESTS FOR


CONGRUENT TRIANGLES AND CONSTRUCTION
OF TRIANGLES
66.

1.

Corresponding medians of congruent triangles are equah

Note. Two proofs may be given: one by means


angles and one by superposition.

of congruent

2. Two triangles are congruent if two sides and the


to one of these sides are ecjual respectively to two sides
corresponding median of the other.

3.

A ABC so
AC = cm.

Construct

the median to
Suggestion.

that

AB = 7

cm.,

AC =10

tri-

median
and the

cm.,

and

4:

Draw any

Write the numbers

7, 10,

triangle

ABC and

and 4 on the

the median to the side

proi)er segments.

figure until it is evident to you wliich segments must


in order that each may have the required lenjiith.

A C.

Look at the

be constructed

first

t4. Construct a triangle, given two sides and an angle opposite


one of these sides.

ZA

Let a and h be the given sides and


he opposite
Suggestion.
side a.
Show how Fig. 87 is constructed. DescTil)e changes in the
data given that will alter the results, using
the following outline:
I.

Let

II.

Let

III.

Let

ZA
ZA
ZA

be an acute angle.
be

a.

right angle.

be an obtuse angle.

^^'"
In each case start with side a longer than
side b, then suppose side a to decrease gradually and note results.

Note.

This problem

is

used in trigonometry and surveying.

Construct an isosceles triangle so that one leg shall be


9.4 cm. and the median to that leg shall make with that leg an
5.

angle of 22K.
6.

Construct A.-li5C so that

the median to
7.

The

AB

makes with

AB = H.6 cm., 5C = 6.5


AB an angle of 45.

cm.,

and

bisectors of corresponding angles of congruent triangles

are equal.

be

8.

Constmct an

of a right angle

isosceles triangle so that

and one

leg 5

cm.

one base angle

shall

CHAPTER

III

Parallels, Perpendiculars, Angles, Angle-Sums

INTRODUCTORY
PRELIMINARY THEOREM: TEST FOR UNEQUAL ANGLES
one side of a triangle is extended, an angle

56. If

which

is

called

Thus

angle.

an exterior angle

in Fig. 88,

is

formed

of the tri-

AB is extended.

an exterior angle of AABC, The interior


angle numbered 2 is adjacent to Z 1 Z 3 and
is

Z4

are the non-adjacent interior angles.

How many exterior angles has a


We may add the following to the

Exercise.
57.

assumptions

triangle?
list

of general

As. 28. If one angle or segment is greater than a second


and the second is equal to or greater than a third, then the
first is

greater than the third.

As. 29.

The whole

is

greater than any of

its parts.

58. Theorem 8. An exterior angle of a triangle


than either of the non-adjacent interior angles.

Hypothesis: In
the exterior Z.
Conclusion:

AABC the

side

AB

Zl > ZCor /.BAC.


48

is

is

greater

extended, forming

PARALLELS AND ANGLES

49

Analysis and construction:

A.

Zl= ZC
part of Z1=ZC, bisect CB at D, join
AD, and extend, making DE = AD. Join EB

To prove Zl > ZC, prove

I.

"

II.

part of

"

and prove Z 2 = ZC.


III.

B.

I.

To prove Z2= ZC, prove ADBE ^ AADC.


"
"
Zl > ZBAC, extend CB and prove
c
Z5 = Zl and Z5 > ZBAC.

Let the pupil give the proof.


1. How many illustrations can you find in
90 of an exterior angle of a triangle? Show
how Th. 8 applies in each case.

Ex.

Fig.

Ex.

2.

In Fig. 90,

any point

is

inside

Fig. 90

AABC.

Prove that

ZAOB>ZC.
TRANSVERSALS AND ANGLES
59.
line,

When two

straight Hnes are crossed

by a third

straight

various angles are formed which have special names.

Thus, in Fig. 91:


Zc, Zd, Zw, and

Zx

are interior

angles.

Za, Zb, Zjy and Zz are exterior


angles.

Zc and Zx,

Zd and Zw,

also

Fig. 91

are alternate interior angles.

Za and

Zz, also

Zh and Zy,

are alternate exterior

angles.

Zaand Zw, Z6and Zx, Zc and

Z;y, also

Zd and

are corresponding angles.


Exercise.

alternate

In

interior

Fig.

sponding angles, and


terior

angles.

92,

How

name 8

pairs

of

16

pairs of corre8 pairs of alternate exmany pairs of supple-

angles,

mentary adjacent angles are there?

Fig. 92

Zz,

PLANE GEOMETRY

50

PARALLELS
60.

far

Lines in the same plane that do not intersect however


follow them are called parallel lines.
Two

we may

arbitrary straight lines in the

same plane

will ordinarily

Two parallel lines do


point.
This definition is the fundamental

and determine a

intersect

not determine a point.


test for parallels.
Five other tests for parallels are contained in the group that follows.
Th. 9 is the fundamental

theorem

of the group.

Exercise.

Find

in the

tions of parallel lines

and

room

in

of lines

which you are sitting illustrawhich do not intersect and yet

are not parallel.

FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM: TEST FOR PARALLELS


61. Exercise.
Construct two straight Hnes cut by a third
straight line so that the alternate interior angles are equal.

Theorem
cut

by a

9.
If two straight lines in the same plane are
third straight line so that the alternate interior

angles are equal, the two straight lines are parallel.

Fig. 93

Hypothesis:

Lines a and b are cut by Hne

Conclusion:

Line a

\\

line

and Z

= Z 2.

6.

Analysis:
I.

To prove

line b, show that Hne a and Hne


line a
cannot meet either on the right or on the left.
\\

IL To prove that

met

line

a cannot meet line

b,

an exterior angle
would be equal to an opposite interior

line

line b,

show that

if

of a triangle
angle.

PARALLELS AND ANGLES

51

Proof:

I.

a.

STATEMENTS
Line a might meet

REASONS

on the right.
would be greater
than Z2.
Zl = Z2.

a.

Supposition,

6.

Why

c.

Given.

line h

6.

c.

d.

:.

line

meet

line

does
b

not

d.

on the

diction.

Line a might meet


line b on the left.

a.

Supposition

leads to a contra-

right,

IL

II.

a.

Supposition,

Let the pupil complete the proof.


62.

The ordinary

direct synthetic proof is explained in


for theorems and exercises in

46 and has been used

chapter ii. The proof used for Th. 9 is an indirect proof.


In technical terms it is called proof by reductio ad absurdum.
This is a Latin phrase. What is its hteral translation?

For such proofs we must


1.

Determine

all

the possible cases obtained by contra-

dicting the given conclusion.

Then, since either the conclusion or one of the contradictory statements must be true, we must eliminate all
but one of these by proving them absurd.
2.

Proofs of this character are very

mathematics, but in

among

all

argument.

common, not only in


Their validity depends

other things upon the presentation of

all possibilities.

The proofs for many of the theorems and exercises that


In
follow are clearer if expressed in algebraic notation.
some cases the solution of an equation is necessary. In
other cases the use of algebraic manipulations and identities are required without the solution of an equation.
Be definite and accurate.

PLANE GEOMETRY

52

DEPENDENT TESTS FOR PARALLELS


If two straight lines in the same plane
63. Theorem 10.
are cut by a third straight line so that one pair of corresponding angles are equal, the two straight lines are parallel.

Fig. 94

Lines a and b are cut by line n so that

Hypothesis:

Z1 =

Z2.
Line a

Conclusion:

\\

line b.

Analysis:

To prove a
IL
Z
I.

b,

\\

''

'*

prove Z 2

=Z

3,

=Z

3.

compare Z 2 and Z 3 with Z

1.

Let the pupil give the proof.

Ex.

1.

Prove Th. 10 by proving that

Z4=Z5.

Use sup-

plements of equal angles.

Theorem

11.

If

two straight

lines in the

same plane are

cut by a third straight line so that the interior angles on the


same side of the transversal are supplements, the two
straight lines are parallel.

Lines a and b are cut by line n so that

Hypothesis:

Z24-Z4 =

2rt. Z.

Conclusion:

Line a

\\

Analysis (see Fig. 94)

L To
II.

"

prove a
"

supplements of

Z
Z

\\

b,

line b.
:

prove

=Z

3,

4.

Let the pupil give the proof.

=Z

3.

show that Z 2 and Z 3

are each

PARALLELS AND ANGLES


Theorem

Two

12.

pendicular to the

Would Ths.

2.

straight lines in the same plane perstraight line are paralleL

Prove the alternate interior angles equal.

Suggestion.

Ex.

same

53

9,

10,

11,

and 12 be true

if

the phrase

in the same plane were omitted?

CONSTRUCTION OF PARALLELS
64. Problem 6.
To draw a straight line through a given
point parallel to a given straight line.

Show
Th.

may be solved by using Th. 9,


Make the construction by each method
How many lines may be drawn fulfilling the

that the problem

10, or Th. 12.

and prove

it.

requirements ?
Exercise.
Show how to solve Prob. 6 by paper folding, or with
a ruler and a card, or two draftsman's triangles.

FUNDAMENTAL ASSUMPTION REGARDING PARALLELS


65.

As. 30.

Only one

line

can be drawn through a given

point parallel to a given line.

DEPENDENT TEST FOR PARALLELS


66.

Theorem

13.

Two

lines parallel to a third line are

parallel to each other.


Suggestion.

Prove by the indirect method.

EXERCISES INVOLVING TESTS FOR PARALLELS


67. To prove two lines parallel,
the following:
1.

2.

3.

we must prove one

The alternate interior angles are equal;


The corresponding angles aYe equal;
The. interior angles on the same side

of the trans-

versal are supplements;


4.
5.

They

are perpendicular to the

They

are parallel to the

same

same
line.

of

line;

PLANE GEOMETRY

54

Ex. 1. If two straight lines in the same plane are cut by a


third straight line so that the alternate exterior angles are equal,
the two straight lines are parallel.
2.
If, in Fig. 95, lines h and k are cut
n so that Za4-Zft = 2 vt.A, prove line k

Ex.
line

by

\\

line h.

Ex.

3.

If

any two segments

bisect each other,

the segments joining the extremities are parallel.

Ex.

4.

In Fig. 96,

=y
figure with x

II

z.

and

ABCD
= 'w.

is

a four-sided

Prove x

\\

y and

Fig. 96

ANGLES MADE BY PARALLELS AND TRANSVERSALS


FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM: TEST FOR EQUAL ANGLES
Theorem

14.
If two parallel lines are cut by a third
alternate
interior angles are equaL
the
straight line,
68.

PARALLELS AND ANGLES


ProoJ:

55

PLANE GEOMETRY

56

APPLICATION OF PARALLELS TO TEST FOR PERPENDICULARS


70.

of

Theorem

two

17.

parallels is

line

which

is

perpendicular to one

perpendicular to the other.


k

PARALLELS AND ANGLES


EXERCISES INVOLVING ANGLES
J2.

If,

in Fig. 100, h

\\

57

MADE BY PARALLELS

and Z 6 = 27

30', find

the

number

of

degrees in each angle formed.


2. If two parallel lines are cut by a third
straight line, the alternate exterior angles are

a/i

equal.
3. If,

in Fig.

100, line

line

k, prove
^^^ ^^^
other angles
in the figure can be proved supplementary in the same way?

/.a-\- /.x

that

4.

If,

=2

rt.A.

in Fig. 101,

\\

What

Z6 = 44,

find the

number

of degrees in each

angle of the figure.


5.

the

If,

in Fig.

number

101,

Ax- Zy = 33,

find

of degrees in each angle of the

figure.
6.

the

If,

in

number
7.

Fig.
Fig. 101, ZA is ^^ of Z.y, find
of degrees in each angle of the figure.

In Fig. 102, /.BAC is any angle.


starts at point
If the point

ray AB.

is

101

any point on the

and moves along the ray AC indefinitely,


what are the limiting values of the Z XOA and
of the Z BOX ?
Investigate the case in which
the point X moves from A along AD.
Fig. 102

MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES
In several theorems which we have proved, certain
were constructed and used which were not given in the
hypothesis. Such lines are called construction lines. Their
use is not only permissible but often necessary. Occasionally
they may be more or less arbitrary. When such lines are
located defiftitely care should be taken that no facts are
assumed which require proof. In general, two points or one
point and a direction locate a line. For methods of locating
73.

lines

points, lines, rays, or


1.

segments see Ass. 1-8.

What theorems have we had


Tell how the

of construction lines?

that were proved by the aid


line was located in each case.

PLANE GEOMETRY

58

line, ray,

a fixed

called
'

The use

or segment that is located definitely


or segment.

is

often

line, ray,

of construction lines in the following exercises

should be carefully noted


2. Lines which are perpendicular to
:

parallel lines are parallel

(Fig. 103).
t3.

two angles have their sides


and left side to

If

parallel right

side to right side

left

side,

the

angles are equal (Fig. 104).

Fig. 103

Note. The right side of an angle


stands in the angle and faces out.

two angles have

t4. If

their

is

the side on the right as one

sides

right side to left side and left


side to right side, the angles are supple-

parallel

//
^-

/
^'

F'

Fig. 104

mentary.
5.

/
/

'

The

bisectors

of

pair

of

alternate

interior

angles

of

parallel lines are parallel.


6.

through the vertices of an

If

drawn parallel to the opposite


has two angles equal.

sides,

triangle lines are

isosceles

a triangle

is

formed which

How

would Ex. 6 read if the given triangle had


If it had none of its angles equal?
angles equal?
Give proof.
7.

all

of

its

If,

in Fig. 105, line h

\\

line k

and

trary point between the parallels, prove


9.

a four-sided

If

figure

is

an

Zb= Za

arbi-

-\-

Zc.

.
Fig. 105

has both pairs of opposite sides

parallel, the opposite angles are equal.


10. If

parallel

a four-sided figure has both pairs of opposite sides

and one angle a

right angle, all of its angles are right

angles.
11. A ray parallel to the base of an isosceles triangle through
the vertex bisects the exterior angle at the vertex.
12. What would be true in Ex. 11 if the ray parallel to the
base of the isosceles triangle cuts the sides of the triangle or the
Give proof.
sides extended?

PARALLELS AND ANGLES


13. If

a segment between two parallel lines

59
is

any

bisected,

other segment between the parallels and through the point of


bisection is also bisected by this point.

In

14.

Prove

In Fig.

15.

BX = AY,

106,

Fig.

BZ = AW.

that

106,

if

prove that

AW\\BZ, BX = AY, and


XZllYW.

AW

\\

BZ, XZ\\

YW, and

BZ = AW.

Fig. 100

ANGLES IN TRIANGLES
74.

FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM
Theorem 18. The sum of the interior

triangle is

angles of

two right angles.

Fig. 107

Hypothesis:
Conclusion:

A ABC any triangle.


Zl+Z2+Z3 = 2rt.^.
is

Analysis and construction:


I.

To prove Zl + Z2 + Z3 = 2 rt.Z, compare Z 1


-h Z 2 + Z 3 with angles whose sum is 2 rt. Z
.

II.

Construct
pare Z

XY
1, 2,

through

parallel to

and 3 with A

4, 5,

AB

and 3

and com-

respectively.

Let the pupil give the proof.

Note.

Th. 18 is one of the most famous theorems of geometry.


supposed that the ancient Greeks knew that it was true for equilateral and for isosceles triangles before they l<:ncw that it was true
for all triangles.
The proof given above is supposed to be that of
Pythagoras (about 500 B.C.) and may be one of the earliest proofs for
this theorem.
It is

Ex.

by Al,

1.

2,

Can you
and 3 in

by tearing off the corners made


and rearranging them?

verify Th. 18
Fig. 107

PLANE GEOMETRY

60

Are there any other ways of putting in construction


Z2 Z3
Th. 18 so that Z1
may be compared with angles whose sum
Give proof. (See
is two right angles?
Ex.

2.

lines for

Fig. 108

Fig. 108.)

Ex.

Find the number of degrees in the third angle of a


the other two angles are:

3.

triangle

if

d,

59 25', 58 42'

b.

29, 58 10'

e.

72 16', 68 42'

c.

38 40', 72 18'

/.

58

56

a. 40,

18',

79 53'

COROLLARIES: VALUES AND COMPARISONS OF INTERIOR


ANGLES OF TRIANGLES
Cor.

75.

Ex.

I.

Each angle

Construct angles

1.

an equilateral

of
of

30,-

15,

75,

triangle is 60.
7 30',

67 30',

165, 150.

Cor.

If two angles of one triangle are equal respectwo angles of a second triangle, the third angles

II.

tively to

are equal.

Fig. 109

Hypothesis:

A ABC

and

AXYZ

have

ZA= ZX

and

ZB=ZY.
Conclusion:

Analysis:

ZC=

To prove
Prove-

Ex.
of

an

2.

ZZ.

ZC=

ZZ,

ZA-\-ZB-}-ZC=ZX-\-ZY-}-ZZ,

ZA+ZB==ZX-{-ZY.

Segments drawn from an arbitrary point in the base

isosceles triangle perpendicular to the opposite sides

equal angles with the base.

make

PARALLELS AND ANGLES


Cor. IIL

The acute angles

of

61

a right triangle are com-

plements of each other.


Ex. 3. The vertex angle of an isosceles triangle is 42. The
perpendiculars are drawn from the ends of the base to the opposite
Find the number of degrees in the angles that these persides.
pendiculars make with the base.

THE EXTERIOR ANGLE OF A TRIANGLE


76.

Theorem 19. The exterior angle of a triangle is


sum of the two non-adjacent interior angles.

equal to the

Fig. 110

AABC the side AB is

Hypothesis: In
the exterior Z XBC.

Z XBC= Z

Conclusion:

extended, forming

+ Z 2.

Analysis and constrtcction:

L To

prove

ZXBC=

Z1

+ Z2,

divide

ZXBC

parts and compare these parts with Z

two
and Z 2

into

respectively.
II.

.*.

draw BY through B\\AC and compare Z 4 with Z 2


and Z5 with Zl.

Let the pupil give the proof.

Ex.

1.

An

exterior angle of a triangle

opposite interior angles is 62. Find the


each of the angles of the triangle.

Ex.
triangle

2.
is

If

is

145,

number

one of the

of degrees in

the exterior angle at the vertex of an isosceles


number of degrees in each of the angles

128, find the

of the triangle.

Ex. 3. Find the sum of the exterior angles formed when the
hypotenuse of a right triangle is extended in each direction,

PLANE GEOMETRY

62

EXERCISES INVOLVING THE ANGLES OF A TRIANGLE


77.

third

one angle of a triangle is double the second, and the


first, find each angle of the triangle.

If

1.

double the

is

2. How many degrees in each angle of an isoscples triangle


the vertex angle is (1) three times the sum of the base angles?
(2) ^2 the sum of the base angles? (3) \i the sum of the base

if

sum

angles? (4) equal to the

3.

4.

have only one right angle or one obtuse


a triangle have a right angle and an obtuse angle?

triangle can

May

angle.

of the base angles?

the vertex angle of an isosceles triangle

If

is

42, find the

number

of degrees in the angles at the intersection of the bisectors


Find also the number of degrees in the angles
of the base angles.

at the intersection of the bisectors of the exterior angles at the

base of the triangle.

In Fig. Ill, J\,ABC

5.

what

in length,

6.

is

and

the legs
to decrease

bisect

What

AO

is isosceles.

A A and B respectively.
CA and CB are made to increase and

OB

If

the upper limit to

AAOB'i
^i^-

the lower limit?

is

the vertex angle of an isosceles triangle

If

is

62, find the

of degrees that the bisector of one base angle

number

makes with

the opposite side.


7.

If

the vertex angle of an isosceles triangle

is

70, find the

number

of degrees in the angles at the intersection of the perpendiculars drawn to the equal sides from the extremities of the base.

In Fig. 112, l\ABC is isosceles.


pendicular to BC and AC respectively.
8.

AC

and

BY

the legs
to increase and to decrease in

and BC are made


what is the upper

length,
its

AX

limit to

If

ZAOB ? What

are perc

is

lower limit?
9.

times

If,

AABC, ZA

in

Z C,

find the

is

4 times

number

ZC

and

of degrees in

ZB

is

^ig. 112

each of the angles of

the triangle.
10.

Find the number of degrees

isosceles
(2)

triangle

if

each base angle

3 times the vertex angle.

in
is

each of the angles of an


(1) >! the vertex angle;

PARALLELS AND ANGLES

63

ANGLES IN POLYGONS
segments are joined end to end and the
end of the last is joined to the free end of the first, the
The segments are called
figure formed is called a polygon.
the sides of the polygon; the common end points of the
segments are called the vertices. Segments joining any two
78. If several

free

non-consecutive vertices are called diagonals.


the sides is called the perimeter of the polygon.

polygon

is

said to be convex

if

no

side

The sum

of

can be extended

so as to enter the polygon. Otherwise it is said to be


concave and has one or more re-entrant angles.

Fig. 113

In Fig. 113 polygon 1 is convex; polygon 2 is concave with


one re-entrant angle; polygon 3 is concave with two reentrant angles; polygon 4 is a cross polygon. Hereafter
unless otherwise stated a convex polygon is intended.

Polygons are named according to the number of sides:


a polygon of 3 sides is called a triangle ;

a polygon of 4 sides
a polygon of 5 sides

a polygon of 6
a polygon of 7

a quadrilateral;

is

called

is

called a

pentagon
a hexagon;
called a heptagon;

sides is called

sides is

a polygon of 8 sides is called an octagon


a polygon of 10 sides is called a decagon;
a polygon of 12 sides is called a duodecagon;
;

a polygon of 15 sides is called a pentadecagon.


Polygons are sometimes called by their English instead of
by their Latin or Greek names, thus: 4-side, 7-side, 8-side,
9-side, etc.

PLANE GEOMETRY

64

A
is

polygon with all of


a regular polygon.

and

its sides

all

of its angles equal

THE SUM OF THE ANGLES OF ANY POLYGON


79. Ex.

Ex.

Find the sum

2.

Find the sum of the four angles of a quadrilateral.


of the five angles of

a pentagon

(Fig. 114).

Analysis:

To

find the value of

ZA + ZB+ ZC+ ^D-\- ZE,

divide the polygon into triangles whose vertices are the


vertices of the polygon and find the sum of all the
.*.
draw the diagonals from
angles of all the triangles.
one vertex and multiply the sum of the angles in one

triangle

Ex.
of

by the number
3.

i
//' |\

\
j

>^^

^^^p

of triangles.

pj^

j^

Find the sum of the angles of a hexagon; of an octagon;

a decagon.

Theorem

20.

gon of n sides

The sum
is

of the iriterior angles of a poly-

2(n-2) right angles.

Let the pupil give the analysis.

Proof:

STATEMENTS
1.

The

diagonals

divide

the

polygon into

tri-

angles.
2.
3.

The sum of the angles of each


The sum of the angles of the

triangle is

triangles is

Ex. 4. By substituting the proper number for n in the formula


given in Th. 20 find the sum of the angles of a hexagon; of an
octagon; of a 15-side; of a 16-side; of a 20-side; of a 24-side; of a
32-side.

Fig. 115

Ex.

5.

Fig. 115.

Prove Th. 20 by means

of the constructions

shown

in

PARALLELS AND ANGLES

65

Ex. 6. How many degrees in each angle of a regular octagon?


of a regular pentagon? of a regular decagon? of a regular 12-side?
of a regular 16-side? of a regular 20-side? of a regular 24-side? of
a regular n-side?

Ex.
angles

Is it possible to have a regular polygon each of whose


108? 150? 144? 128? 160? If such polygons are

7.
is

possible,

how many

sides

would there be

in

each case?

Ex. 8. Find the sum of the interior angles of a peAtagon that


has one re-entrant angle; of an octagon with two re-entrant angles.

Ex.

How many

9.

regular triangles can be placed adjacent with


the same point? Will the space about the

their vertices

at

point be

exactly?

Ex.

filled

Can

10.

Why?

regular hexagons be placed with their vertices at

the same point and the space be


regular quadrilaterals be so placed?

filled

exactly?

Why? Can

regular pentagons?

regular

Why?

octagons?

THE SUM OF THE EXTERIOR ANGLES OF ANY POLYGON


Find the sum of the exterior angles of a pentagon.

80. Ex. 1.

Analysis:

To

sum of the exterior angles of ABCDE,


sum of the interior angles from the sum

find the

subtract the

and

of the interior

exterior angles (Fig. 116).

Let the pupil give the proof.

^^

-_

Fig. 116

Ex. 2. Find the sum of the exterior angles of an octagon; of


a decagon; of a 12-side.

Theorem 21. The sum of the exterior


gon of n sides is four right angles.

angles of a poly-

Let the pupil give the analysis and the proof.

Ex.

3.

Is

it

exterior angles

possible to have a regular polygon each of


24? 36? 40? If so, how many sides

is

these polygons have?

whose
would

PLANE GEOMETRY

66

MISCELLANEOUS THEOREMS
TEST
81.

triangle.

FOR CONGRUENT RIGHT TRIANGLES

triangle that contains a right angle is called a right


The side opposite the right angle of a right triangle

The perpendicular sides are called


called the hypotenuse.
the legs of the right triangle.

is

Ex.

1.

Construct a right triangle with the hypotenuse equal


and one acute angle equal to a given angle.

to a given segment

Theorem

22.

Two

right triangles are congruent

hypotenuse and an acute angle of one are equal


hypotenuse and an acute angle of the other.

if

the

to the

Fig. 117

Hypothesis:

In

AABC

Z X, and Z B and Z Y
Conclusion:

Analysis:

are

AABC
To prove

and
rt.

AXYZ, AC = XZ, AA =
A

m AXYZ.

AABC

Let the pupil give the proof.

^ AXYZ, prove

Use Cor.

II,

ZC=

ZZ.

75.

Ex. 2. Perpendiculars dropped from the mid-points of the


equal sides of an isosceles triangle to the base are equal.
Ex. 3. Perpendiculars from the mid-point of the
base of an isosceles triangle to the legs are equal.

CO is the perpendicular
are the limiting values of the
length of the perpendicular from O to the segment
as
moves along the ray OC?
Ex.

4.

bisector of

BX

If,

in Fig. 118,

AB, what

PARALLELS AND ANGLES


TEST

II

67

FOR CONGRUENT RIGHT TRIANGLES

Construct a right triangle with the hypotenuse and


82. Ex. 1.
one side equal respectively to given segments.

Theorem 23. Two right triangles are congruent if the


hypotenuse and a side of one are equal to the hypotenuse
and a side of the other.

Fig. 119

In the

Hypothesis:

YZ, and Z

and

Conclusion:

A ABC

ZY are

AABC

rt.

and XYZ,

AC = XZ, BC =

^ AXYZ.

Analysis and construction:


I.

II.

Toprove

AA^C

^ AXYZ, prove

ZA= ZX,

prove ZA = ZX, place AABC so that BC


falls on YZ, B on Y, C on Z, and A opposite X,

To

XYAZ an isosceles triangle.


XYAZ a triangle, prove XYA

and prove
III.

To

prove

a straight

line (As. 19).

Let the pupil give the proof.

Cor.

For

use Th. 22.

a perpendicular is erected to a straight line,


equal segments drawn from the same point in the perIf

pendicular cut off equal distances from the foot of the


perpendicular.
Ex.

2.

chord of the

line

from the center of a

circle bisects

circle

perpendicular to a

the chord.

Ex. 3. Construct an isosceles triangle, given one leg and the


perpendicular from the vertex to the base.

Ex. 4. Perpendiculars drawn from an arbitrary point in the


bisector of an angle to the sides of the angle are equal.

PLANE GEOMETRY

68

TESTS FOR ISOSCELES TRIANGLES

Theorem

83.

the triangle

The

analysis

We now

24.

two angles

If

of.

and the proof are

have two

left to

the pupil.

tests for isosceles triangles.

To prove a triangle isosceles, prove


L Two sides are equal, or

Two

II.

of

a triangle are equal,

is isosceles.

that

angles are equal.

Of these two tests the first is derived from the definition


an isosceles triangle and is therefore the fundamental one.

Ex.

The

form a second
Ex.

2.

bisectors of the base angles of

The

3.

isosceles triangle

bisectors of the exterior angles at the base of

form a second

isosceles triangle

Ex.

an

isosceles triangle.

an

isosceles triangle.

Construct an isosceles triangle whose base shall be

equal to a given segment and whose vertex angle shall


be equal to a given angle.

Ex.
with

4.

In Fig. 120,

CA = CB.

If

AAOB

at 0, prove that

Ex.

and
0.

5.

In Fig. 121,

Extend

Prove that

AXOY

6.

isosceles,

If,

in Fig.

XA = YB

an

is

and

isosceles triangle

AD and BE intersect

a^

is isosceles.

Fig. 120

AABC is isosceles. AX = BY

CZ = CW.

Ex.

ABC

CD CE

and

XZ

and

YW

to meet at

121,

AXOY

XZ=YW,

c^

zy^w

is isosceles.

AX
is

constructed

prove that

AABC

Fig. 121
is

isosceles.

PROPERTY OF ISOSCELES TRIANGLES


84.

Theorem

25.

segment from the vertex

of

an

isos-

celes triangle perpendicular to the base bisects the base


and the vertex angle.

The

analysis

and the proof are

For other properties

left to

the pupil.

of isosceles triangles, see

Th. 6 and Th.

7.

PARALLELS AND ANGLES

69

SUPPLEMENTARY EXERCISES
EXERCISES INVOLVING ANGLES OF POLYGONS
85.

of

In Fig. 122,

1.

ABCDE

whose angles are obtuse.

is

a convex polygon of
sides of the

five sides, all

The

polygon are extended until they intersect, formFind the sum of


ing the star polygon shown.
the angles in the points of the star. What
of the angles in the points
If it
of the star if the polygon had six sides?

would be the sum

had eight

Fig. 122

sides?

Suppose the convex polygons used in Ex. 1 were regular,


degrees would there be in the angle at any point of
the star polygons formed?
2.

how many

3. Fig.

123 shows a regular triangle with each


If the points

side divided into three equal parts.

are joined as indicated, prove that

DEFGHK

is

regular hexagon.

4. Fig.

124 shows a kite formed of two regular


same base AC. If the sides

triangles with the

are bisected

that

and the points joined as shown, prove

AEFCGH

is

a regular hexagon.

shows a regular hexagon ABCDEF,


are extended in both directions as
indicated, prove that a regular triangle XYZ is
5.

Fig. 125

If alternate sides

formed.

Note.
triangles

Tiled
so

and mosaic

colored

floors

are

often

made

of

that various patterns are formed.

equilateral
Fig.

126

XJLXJL

Fig. 126

represents three of these designs containing the figures used in the


preceding exercises. The use of equilateral triangles, squares, and
hexagons for tiles probably dates back to the ancient Egyptians.

PLANE GEOMETRY

70

MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES
86.

Be prepared

Note.

to prove the theorems

on which each of

the following exercises depends.

perpendicular from any vertex of a triangle to the


opposite side is called an altitude of the triangle.

Make

1,

review diagrams for Ths. 11, 15, 19, and 25.

ABC

2. If

an

is

sides

BC and ^C

^5

is

the perpendiculars
AB\.o the equal

if

extremities of the base

intersect at 0,

In Fig. 127,

3.

and

isosceles triangle

A Y and BX drawn from the

t\AOB

isosceles.

is

any segment,

Zl=

From D and C perpendiculars


AB. What segments and angles

Z2,

and AD = BC.

are

drawn to

are

equal?
4.

Fig. 127

Why?
Investigate

obtuse angles.

the case, Ex. 3, in which

Zl and Z2

are

Give proof.

the ray which is drawn through the vertex of a triangle


the base bisects the exterior angle at the vertex, the
to
parallel
5.

If

triangle is isosceles.
6. A segment drawn from an arbitrary point in the bisector
an angle to one side of the angle and parallel to the other side
forms with the bisector and the side to which it is drawn an

of

isosceles triangle.
7.

Z CA

In Fig. 128, BD\\ XY. AB bisects


F. Prove that BC = CD.

ZX^IC and

AD

bisects

x_

Construct an isosceles triangle with the


vertex angle Vs of a right angle and the alti- b
8.

129, ABC is an isosceles triangle


any point in ^C extended. From D a perProve
at E.
pendicular is drawn to AB cutting CB
that CDE is an isosceles triangle.
9.

with

In Fig.

10. Investigate the

point

is

on

c"

^^^- ^28

tude 4.7 cm.

J5

case, Ex.

extended.

9,

in

which the

PARALLELS AND ANGLES


U. In
with

ZC

Cto AB.

Fig. 130,

ABC is an
CD

a right angle.
Construct

71

isosceles right triangle


is

XY=YC

perpendicular from

and

YZ= YC.

Note. The patterns used in applied design are usually made by


repeating at regular intervals some very simple figure called the unit.
Show how Fig.
Figs. 131 and 132 show two parquet floor patterns.
130 in whole or in part is used in each of these designs. The possibilities of Fig. 130 as a design unit may be discovered by making four
or eight copies of the figure, coloring the spaces to suit one's fancy,
cutting the figures out, and fitting them together in various ways.

^^

PLANE GEOMETRY

72
16.

In surveying,

135), so that

(Fig.

it

is

will

it

often necessary to run a


be in the same

straight line with LA but on the othfer side


of some obstacle to vision, such as a house

line,

CD

as

^^^

Show

Fig. 135
that the following method
will give the desired result:
Lay off the Z a so as to clear the
Take AB, a. convenient distance. Lay off Zb = 2Za.
obstacle.

or wood.

Make BC=BA,
^

17.

Lay

off

Zc=

Za.

Perpendiculars from the ends

of the base of

an

isosceles

triangle to the opposite sides are equal.


18.

In any

AABC

the median to the side


the arbitrary

AABC

is

perpendiculars from points A and B to


AB are equal. For what special case of

the proof of this exercise meaningless?

19. If two parallel lines are cut by a third straight line, the
bisectors of the interior angles on the same side of the transversal

are perpendicular to each other.


20. If two parallel lines are cut by a third straight line, the
bisectors of the four interior angles form a quadrilateral with

four right angles.


21. If a perpendicular be drawn from the vertex of the right
angle of a right triangle to the hypotenuse, the two triangles formed
are mutually equiangular.
22. Construct

an

the base angles each


23.

with altitude 4.3 cm. and

isosceles triangle

H of a right angle.

Corresponding altitudes of congruent triangles are equal

(Fig. 136).

24.

sides

Two

triangles are congruent if two


altitude to the third side

g,

and the

one are equal respectively to two sides


and the altitude to the third side of the

of

Fig. 136

other (Fig. 136).


25.

Prove Ex. 24 when /.B and

AABC so
AB = 6 cm.

26. Construct

the altitude on

that

AC = 10

(Fig.

cm.,

136) are obtuse.

BC = 7

cm.,

and

PARALLELS AND ANGLES


27.

73

Two

triangles are congruent if two sides and the altitude


in one triangle are equal respectively to two
the corresponding altitude of the other.

on one of these sides

and

sides

28.

A ABC

Construct

29.

The

AB = 7

so that

cm.,

AC^b

cm., and

to ^45 = 3 cm.

the perpendicular from

line bisecting the exterior angle at the vertex of

an

isosceles triangle is parallel to the base.

30.

an

The

made by the

angle

bisectors of the base angles of

isosceles triangle is equal to the exterior angle at the base of

the triangle.

3L
sides,

ABD

If

and

if

prove that

i4D

BC

is

an

is

extended through

perpendicular to

is

an exterior angle

32. If

with

isosceles triangle

DA

to point

is

and
until

DB equal
DC = DA,

AB.

of a triangle

is

bisected

of the interior non-adjacent angles, the angle,

bisectors

and

made by

also

one

the two

the other interior non-adjacent angle.

through a given point a ray that shall make a


with
a
given line. Is there more than one solution
given angle
33. Construct

for this

problem?

34. If

two medians

of a triangle are

extended beyond their

bases and segments are taken on the extended lines equal to the
corresponding medians, the points thus found and the other vertex
of the triangle are

on a straight

line

that

parallel to the opposite

is

side of the triangle.


35. In Fig.

ZA
angle

137,

ABC

is

an

isosceles triangle

Note. Fig. 137 cannot be constructed at


without a protractor.
Fig. 138, ABC is an
ZB = 54. AXCB from A

36. In

with

with

ZC. Find the number of degrees in each


shown in the figure ii AX bisects ZA.

twice

of degrees in

37. Construct

isosceles

present

Fig. 137

triangle

Find the number

and Z 2.

AABC

with

ZA=30,

and the perpendicular from C to

AB

ZB = 45,

6.4 cm.

Pig. 138

PLANE GEOMETRY

74

t38. In each of the figures shown in Fig. 139, lines a and a'
are perpendicular to each other, also lines b and b'.
Prove that
Zab= Za'b'.

Apply Cor.

Suggestion.

Ill, 75.

Fig. 139

139. Investigate the truth of the statement that if two angles


have the sides of one perpendicular respectively to the sides of

the other the angles are equal.


40. In

140,

Fig.

A BCD

figure with its sides equal

and

is

its

four-sided

angles right

AE = BF = BG = CH = etc. EX and HY
^C; XF and MW are parallel to

angles.

are parallel to

DB.

NW, KZ, GY, and LZ are similarly drawn.


ANOE, EOF, and EXF are isosceles.

Prove that

How many

isosceles triangles

H and E

Find the relation between the base angles of two

isosceles

What

triangles in the figure are congruent?

are joined, prove


41.

does the figure


If

contain?

triangles

if

EH

||

AC.

the vertex angles are supplementary.

42. If a

segment meets the sides

equal distances from the vertex,

it

is

of

an

isosceles triangle at

parallel to the base.

two angles are parallel right side to right


to left side, the bisectors of the angles are

43. If the sides of

side

and

parallel.

left

side
/

44.

Find the number of degrees

45.

Prove that a convex polygon cannot have more than three

in the angles at the intersection of the bisectors of the acute angles of a right triangle.

obtuse exterior angles or more than three acute interior angles.

CHAPTER

IV

Quadrilaterals

SYMMETRY
87. We have seen in chapter ii that under certain circumstances two figures can be placed one upon the other so
as to coincide exactly.
Moreover, if we wish to prove two

segments or two angles equal, we often look for two triangles


that contain these segments or angles and try to prove these
In many cases we can make one of
triangles congruent.
these triangles coincide with the other by folding the figure
along some line in the figure, or by rotating part of the figure

about some one point.

No.

shows four figures of this kind which we have had.


and 2 are folded along the line AB, the two parts
coincide.
If Nos. 3 and 4 are rotated about point O

Fig. 141
If

Nos.

will

through 180, each figure

will coincide

with

its original

impression. Figures or parts of figures that can be made to


coincide in either of these ways are said to be symmetric.
Points, lines, segments, or angles that coincide under these
circumstances are said to be symmetric to each other.

Can you find any other figures in chapter ii or


which are symmetric? Can you find any figures in
these chapters which are not symmetric?
Exercise.

chapter

iii

75

PLANE GEOMETRY

76

DEFINITIONS OF AXIAL SYMMETRY

88.

symmetric with respect to a


one part coincides with the

figure is said to be

an axis

line as

if

remainder when

it is

folded on that line as an

axis (Fig. 142).

Two

figures are said to be symmetric with


respect to a line as an axis if one figure
coincides with the other when the plane in

which

it lies is

folded on that line as an axis

>

(Fig. 143).

Such a figure or such


have axial symmetry.

figures are said to


Fig. 143

THEOREMS AND EXERCISES INVOLVING AXIAL


SYMMETRY
89.

Theorem

The

26.

bisector of the vertex angle of


of symmetry of the triangle.

Analysis:

To prove

A ABC
an

CD

that

(Fig. 144),

cide with

an

an axis

isosceles triangle is

ABCD

is

an

axis of

prove that
if

AABC

is

symmetry

AACD

of

will coin-

folded on

CD

as

Fig. 144

axis.

Ex.

1.

The end

points of a segment are

respect to the perpendicular bisector of that

Ex.

2.

What

symmetric with
segment as an axis.

axes of symmetry have two parallel lines?

Show how

to place two congruent triangles so that


they are symmetric with respect to a side of one as an axis.

Ex.

90.-

3.

Theorem

27.

Two

polygons are symmetric with

respect to an axis if the vertices of one are symmetric to


the corresponding vertices of the other.
Ex.

1.

How

parts of the

Ex.

2.

would Th. 27 read


same polygon?

Show how

if

the two polygons were

to construct a pentagon symmetric to a

given pentagon with a given

line as axis,

QUADRILATERALS

77

SYMMETRY

DEFINITIONS OF CENTRAL

91. A figure is said to be symmetric with respect to a


point as a center if one part of the figure coincides with the remainder when it is rotated

through an angle of 180 about the point as a


Fig. 145

fcenter (Fig. 145).

Two

figures are said to be symmetric with


respect to a point as a center if one figure

coincides with the other

when

it

is

*?=^^^
^^^

rotated

/;\

through an angle of 180 about the point as


a center (Fig. 146).

^\|^::i^
Fig,

^q

figure or such figures are said to have central


symmetry. These definitions give us the following test for
central symmetry: A figure is symmetric with respect to

Such a

a point as a center

for every point in it there

if

so

situated

that

responding point
sjrmmetric with respect to the center.
similar test for axial

is

a cor-

the two points

Can you

are

state a

symmetry?

THEOREMS AND EXERCISES INVOLVING CENTRAL


SYMMETRY
92.

Ex.

The

1.

center of

symmetry

of

two points

is

the mid-

point of the segment joining the two points.

Ex.

2.

Two

vertical

angles are symmetric with

respect to

their vertex as a center.

Ex.

3.

many such

Find a center of symmetry of two

parallel lines.

How

centers are possible?

Two polygons are symmetric with respect


the vertices of one are symmetric to the corresponding vertices of the other.
Theorem

to a center

Ex.

4.

28.

if

How

would Th. 28 read

if

the two polygons were

halves of the same polygon?

Ex. 5. Which letters of the alphabet have central


symmetry?
Which ones are symmetric with respect to an axis?

PLANE GEOMETRY

78

RELATION BETWEEN AXIAL AND CENTRAL SYMMETRY


93.

metry

Theorem

29.
Any figure that has two axes of symat right angles to each other has the intersection of

the axes as a center of symmetry.

v>

Fig. 147

Hypothesis: P is a point on any figiire which is symmetric


with respect to xx' and yy' as axes. Axis xx' _L axis yy'
.

0, the intersection of xx' and yy'


center of symmetry of the figure.

Conclusion:

is

the

Analysis:
I.

To prove

the figure s)mimetric with respect to point


O, prove that for every point in the figure there

a point symmetric to
a center.

exists

II.

.*.

it

with respect to

as

be any point in the figure and P' be symP with respect to yy' and P" be
symmetric to P' with respect to xx' and prove O
let

metric to

the mid-point of PP".


III.

To prove O

the mid-point of PP", join PO, P'O, P"0,

PO = P'V and POP" a straight


To prove PO = P"0, prove them both equal to
To prove that POP" is a straight line, prove
and prove

IV.

V.

Zi-1-Z2+Z3+Z4 = 2rt.
VI.

To prove

that

Z 1+

Let the pupil give the proof in

and Z2-}-Z3 = l

full.

that

A.

Z2+ Z3+ Z4 = 2 rt.

Z1=Z2, Z3=Z4,

line.

P'O.

A, prove
Z.

rt.

QUADRILATERALS

Ex.

How many

Ex.

Has

angle?

it

axes of symmetry has an equilateral

tri-

a center of symmetry?

Prove that a quadrilateral with

2.

79

its

four sides equal

has a center of symmetry.

Note.

figures are

Symmetric

much used

in

make constant

use of the idea of symmetry.


found in ornamental windows, wall paper, etc.
in nature, as in

snow

metric encaustic

How

ornament.

Designers
may bo

Illustrations

Symmetry

also occurs

Fig. 148 shows three symLet the pupil find other illustrations.

crystals, flowers, etc.

tile

designs.

might kaleidoscopes and mirrors be used by designers?

K^SZrasa
^V/?f^1

Fig. 148

PARALLELOGRAMS
DEFINITIONS
94. Ex. 1.

Construct

BC = G.7

cm.

From A

construct

CD

parallel to

Ex.

Construct

2.

parallel.

Make one

ZABC = (jO. Make ^5 = 5.3 cm. and


AD parallel to ^C. From C

construct

AB.

a quadrilateral with its opposite sides


angle 45 and the sides that include the

angle 3.8 cm. and 5.9 cm. respectively.

quadrilateral with each side parallel to its opposite is


called a parallelogram.

In Fig. 149, X and

z,

also

and

y, are called opposite sides ; w and x


are called consecutive sides; A A

and

are called opposite angles;


are called consecutive

D
AC and BD

A A and

Fig. 149

are called diagonals. While any side


angles;
be
considered
as
the base, x and z are usually called
may

the bases.

PLANE GEOMETRY

80

PROPERTIES OF PARALLELOGRAMS
95. The fundamental characteristic of
parallelograms is
stated in the definition, namely: The opposite sides are
The next three theorems depend directly upon
parallel.

this fact.

Theorem
it

into

30.
Each diagonal
two congruent triangles.

Theorem

of a parallelogram divides

31.

The

opposite sides of a parallelogram are

32.

The

opposite angles of a parallelogram are

equal.

Theorem
equal.
Ex.

1.

Two

consecutive angles of a parallelogram are supple-

mentary.
Ex.

2.

The sum

of the angles of a parallelogram

is

four right

angles.
96. The diagonals of a parallelogram differ from the
diagonals of other four-sided figures in important respects.
Note the exercise on p. 81.

We

shall

assume that the diagonals of convex quadri-

laterals intersect.

Theorem

The

33.

diagonals of a parallelogram bisect

each other.

Analysts:
I.

that

To prove

that the diagonals bisect each other, prove


that BO = OD.

AO = OC and

IL To prove
I

^^^^^,

prove

ADOC ^ AAOB

QUADRILATERALS

81

Fig. 151 shows a parallelogram, a convex quadri1


and a concave quadrilateral. In V ~~7 /
which cases do the diagonals intersect? In \\
/
/
^^
^^~^
which case do they bisect each other?
v

Exercise.

lateral,

-i

Fig. 151

97.

Theorem

parallelogram

is

The intersection of the diagonals of a


34.
the center of symmetry of the parallelogram.

CONGRUENCE OF PARALLELOGRAMS

Two parallelograms are congruent if


98. The OR I'M 35.
two sides and the included angle of one are equal to two
sides and the included angle of the other.

Fig. 152

In [s] ABCD and

Hypothesis:

and

ZA=

A'B'CD\ w = w', x = x\

ZA'.

Conclusion:

ABCD U EJ A 'B'CD'.
To prove CJ ABCD ^ OJ A'B'CD\
/Z7

Analysis:
that they will

fit

when

prove

superposed.

Proof:

STATEMENTS
I.

'eJABCD upon EJ A'B'C'D'

Place
of

ZA

and

on the

will fall

along w'

sides of

Point

upon point

B'.

III.

Point

D will fall upon point

D'.

1.

ZD

will fall

and

respectively.
2. z will fall

/.D' are supplements of


.'.

ZD=

AD'.

along the line of z\

V
Let the pupil give

x'

II.

IV.

so that the sides

Z.A\ x lying along

all

reasons and complete the proof.

^4

and A\

PLANE GEOMETRY

82

TESTS FOR PARALLELOGRAMS


99.

The

definition of a parallelogram is the fundamental


Other tests are dependent primarily

test for parallelograms.

upon the fundamental

Theorem

A BCD

Construct a quadrilateral

100. Exercise.

AD

opposite sides

one.

and
If

36.

BC

are parallel

and

so that the

equal.

a quadrilateral has one side equal and


it is a parallelogram.

parallel to its opposite,

Fig. 153

Hypothesis:

In the quadrilateral

Conclusion:

ABCD

is

ABCD,

x = z and

x\\z.

ZZ7.

Analysis and construction:


I.

To prove

III.

ABCD

/Z7,

*'

"

w\\y, draw

"

"

Z1=Z2,

II.

prove

AC

\\

y.

and prove Z

= Z 2.

prove

Let the pupil complete the analysis and give the proof.

Construct a quadrilateral ABCD so that the


BC, also the sides AB and DC, are equal.

101. Exercise.

AD and

opposite sides,

Theorem
its

opposite,

37.

If

it is

a quadrilateral has each side equal to

a parallelogram.

Fig. 154

Hypothesis:
Conclusion:

The

analysis

In the quadrilateral
ABCD is a O.

and the proof are

left to

ABCD,

the pupil.

x = z and

w = y.

QUADRILATERALS

83

If the diagonals of a quadrilateral


102. Thp:orkm 3S.
bisect each other, the quadrilateral is a parallelogram.

EXERCISES INVOLVING TESTS FOR PARALLELOGRAMS


103. To prove that any given quadrilateral
gram, prove that it has
(1)

(2)
(3)
(4)
1.

angle.

is

a parallelo-

Each side parallel to its opposite, or


Each side equal to its opposite, or
One side equal and parallel to its opposite,
The diagonals bisecting each other.

or

Construct a parallelogram, given two sides and the included


In how many ways is this possible?

2. If two sides of a quadrilateral are parallel


angles are equal, the figure is a parallelogram.

3. If A BCD is a parallelogram and E and


and
the mid-points of the opposite sides
CD, prove that AECF is a parallelogram.

and two opposite

are respectively

AB

4. Given EJ ABCD, with points E and F


on the diagonal .4C so that AE = CF, prove
that BFDE is a parallelogram (Fig. 155).

Investigate Ex. 4 if points


are on the diagonal extended.
5.

6.

Given

7.

HJABCD, AE = CG,

EFGH

prove that

is

and

Fig. 155

AH = CF,

a parallelogram (Fig. 156).

Fig. 156

Construct a parallelogram, given the sides and one diagonal.

THEOREMS AND EXERCISES INVOLVING TESTS FOR


EQUAL AND PARALLEL SEGMENTS
Ths. 36 and 37, together with the definition of a parallelogram, give an additional test for equal and for parallel
104.

segments

To prove two segments

equal or parallel, find a quadri-

which these segments are opposite sides and prove


that the quadrilateral is a parallelogram.
lateral of

PLANE GEOMETRY

84

Theorem

39.

Segments

of parallels intercepted

between

parallel lines are equal.

Theorem
between
Ex.

40.

Segments

of

perpendiculars intercepted

parallel lines are equal.

Construct through a given point a line that shall be

1.

parallel to a given line.

Ex.

If

2.

A BCD

is

a parallelogram and

tively the mid-points of the opposite sides

and

are respecthat

A B and CD, prove

AF\\CE.

H the mid-points

CJABCD

Ex. 3. Given
with E, F, G, and
the sides, and the points joined as indicated in
the figure; prove that
is a parallelogram

of

AXCY

(Fig. 157).

Ex.

In what other

4.

in Fig. 157

way may

the points ^

f^

be joined so as to form a parallelo-

ftg.

157

gram?
Ex.

5.

Construct a

of a given triangle
shall

be intercepted by the sides


to
the
base of the triangle and
parallel

line that shall

and be

have a given length.

SPECIAL QUADRILATERALS
105.

four-sided figure

is

called a quadrilateral.

Unless

otherwise stated, a quadrilateral should be drawn with no


sides equal

and no

sides parallel.

The following special kinds of quadrilaterals

quadrilateral formed

site sides of

is

isosceles triangles on oppocalled a kite (Fig. 158, No. 1).

quadrilateral with but one pair of parallel sides

a trapezoid has

its

an isosceles trapezoid

by two

the same base

a trapezoid (Fig. 158, No.


If

are important

is

called

it is

called

2).

non-parallel sides equal,

(Fig. 158,

No.

3).

The non-parallel sides of a trapezoid are sometimes called


the legs of the trapezoid.
The

parallel sides of a trapezoid are called the bases.

QUADRILATERALS

85

The perpendicular
zoid

No.

distance between the bases of a trapecalled the altitude of the trapezoid.


In Fig. 158,
2, b and b' are the bases and a is the altitude.
is

A quadrilateral with two pairs of parallel sides has been


defined as a parallelogram.
The perpendicular

distance between the bases of a paralcalled the altitude of the parallelogram.


parallelogram has two altitudes, since each pair of parallel
In Fig. 158, No. 4, b
sides may be 'Considered as bases.

lelogram

is

'

be considered as a base with a as the corresponding


altitude, or b' may be considered as a base with a' as the cor-

may

responding altitude.

The following special kinds of parallelograms are of considerable importance and of widespread occurrence:

parallelogram with one right angle

(Fig.

158, No.

is

called a rectangle

5).

parallelogram with two consecutive sides equal

a rhombus

(Fig. 158,

No.

is

called

6).

rectangle with two consecutive sides equal


square (Fig. 158, No. 7).

is

called a

The segment joining the mid-points of two opposite sides


of a quadrilateral is called a median of the quadrilateral
(segment

The

XY,

definition of

test for the

Fig. 158,

any

No.

8).

particular figure

determination of that figure.

is

the fimdamental

PLANE GEOMETRY

86

KITES
One diagonal

106. Ex. 1.

Ex.

2.

The

axis of

through whose vertex

Theorem

it

of a kite is

symmetry

of

an

axis of

symmetry.

a kite bisects the angles

passes.

The

diagonals of a kite are perpendicular


the
to each other, and
one which is an axis of symmetry
bisects the other.

Ex.

107.

41.

ISOSCELES TRAPEZOIDS
The base angles of an isosceles trapezoid

1.

are

equal and the diagonals are equal.

Ex.

2.

Ex.
zoid

The segment

an

sides of

3.

joining the mid-points of the parallel


an axis of symmetry. -

isosceles trapezoid is

the base angles of a trapezoid are equal, the trape-

If

is isosceles.

Ex.

4.

and the

Construct an isosceles trapezoid, given the two bases

altitude.

Construct an isosceles trapezoid, given two consecutive


5.
and the included angle.

Ex.
sides

RECTANGLES
Ex.

108.

1.

Theorem

Construct a rectangle, given two adjacent

42.

sides.

All the angles of a rectangle are right

angles.
Ex. 2. What properties has a rectangle
virtue of the fact that it is a parallelogram?
Ex.

3.

The

by

diagonals of a rectangle are equal.

the diagonals of a parallelogram are


the
parallelogram is a rectangle (Fig. 159).
equal,

Ex.

4.

If

Analysis:
I.

III.

To ipToveOJABCD a
prove ZA=aTt.Z.
Z^=art. Z, prove Z.4 = Z5.
"
Z^ = ZB, prove
'

II.

^^- ^^^

*'

'

Let the pupil complete the analysis and give the proof.

Ex.

5.

Construct a rectangle, given one side and one diagonal.

QUADRILATERALS

87

6.
Construct a rectangle, given one diagonal and the
between
the diagonals.
angle
Ex. 7. The medians of a rectangle bisect each other at right

Ex.

angles.

Make a list of all of the properties of the rectangle.


8.
of these properties are special properties of the rectangle?

Ex.

Which

RHOMBUSES
Construct a rhombus, given one side and one

109. Ex. 1.

angle.

Theorem

43.

All the sides of a

Theorem

44.

The diagonals

dicular to each other

rhombus are

equal.

of a rhombus are perpenand bisect the angles through which

they pass.
Ex.

The diagonals

2.

of a

rhombus are axes

of

symmetry.

the diagonals of a quadrilateral bisect each other


at right angles, the figure is a rhombus.

Ex.

3.

If

Ex.

4.

The

Ex.

5.

Construct a rhombus, given one side and one diagonal.

Ex.

When
Ex.
that

7.

it is

rhombus.

rhombus are

equal.

Construct a rhombus, given one side and the altitude.

6.
is

altitudes of a

this

problem impossible?

What

properties has a

a parallelogram?

Which

Make

rhombus by virtue
a

list

of the fact

of all the properties of the

of these are special properties of the

rhombus?

SQUARES
110.

Ex.

1.

Construct a square, given one

Ex.

2.

Show

Ex.

3.

Each diagonal and each median

side.

that a square may be classified as a special kind


of a rectangle, or rhombus.
From these facts make a list of all
the properties of the square.

of

of a square

is

an

axis

symmetry.

Ex. 4. If the diagonals of a quadrilateral are equal and bisect


each other at right angles, the figure is a square.
Ex. 5. Construct a square, given one diagonal.

PLANE GEOMETRY

88

PARALLELS AND SEGMENTS ON TRANSVERSALS


TEST FOR EQUAL SEGMENTS

Theorem

111,

45.

If

a series of parallels cuts

segments on one transversal,


all

it

off

equal

cuts off equal segments on

transversals.

Fig. 160

Hypothesis:

segments
X, y,

and

A, b,

li,\\l2,\\h,\\U,

and

on transversal

Conclusion :

cut the transversal h so that

c are equal,

and cut

off

the segments

k.

x = y = z.

Analysis:
I.

II.

To prove x = y = z, draw MN, PQ, and RS


prove AMNP ^ APQR ^ ARST.
To prove

AMNP m APQR
mARST,

prove]

\\

h and

^^7= Z2= Z3

^^^^g^^g'.

Let the pupil complete the analysis and give the proof.

Ex.

1.

Prove Th. 45 by drawing the construction

the points of division on h instead of from those on

Problem

7.

To

divide a given

segment

into

lines

from

k.

any num-

ber of equal parts.

From point A draw a


Solution: Let AB he the given segment.
ray making any convenient angle with AB. From point A lay off
equal divisions on this ray. The number of divisions must be the
same as the number of parts into which ^5 is to be divided. Join
the last point of division with B. Draw parallels from the other
points of division.

Let the pupil draw the figure and give the proof.

QUADRILATERALS
Ex.

2.

line

may

be divided into any

of equal parts (for example, 5) by the


construction shown in Fig. 161. Give the

number

complete directions and the proof.

Note.
to divide

sheet of ruled paper

may

be used

a segment into a given number

of

equal parts. Number the lines ps in Fig. 162.


If the segment is to be divided into 7 equal
parts, put the ends of the segment on lines

and

Why?

7.

Ex.

3.

may be

Show how a carpenter's steel square


used to divide a board into strips

of equal width (Fig. 163).

Note.

By the width of the board is meant

perpendicular distance between the sides.

the

^
Fig.

163

RELATED THEOREMS CONCERNING TRIANGLES


112.

Theorem

triangle

segment parallel to the base of a


and bisecting one side is equal to half the base.
46.

PLANE GEOMETRY

90

A segment parallel to the base of a


47.
and bisecting one side bisects the other side also.
Suggestion. Draw a line through the vertex of the triangle parallel
Theorem

113.

triangle

to the base

and apply Th.

45.

114. Theorem 48.


segment bisecting
triangle is parallel to the third side.

two sides of a

Fig. 165

points oi

A ABC, XY

In

Hypothesis:

joins

and Y, the mid-

AC and BC respectively.
XY\\AB.

Conclusion:

Analysis and construction:

To prove XY\\AB, prove that


segment that is to AB.

I.

XY

coincides with a

||

11.

/.

draw XZ\\AB from


cides with

To prove

III.

and prove that

XZ

coin-

XY,

that

XZ

coincides with

XY, show that XZ

XY both pass through X and

and
Proof

Y.

STATEMENTS
a.

I.

b.
c.

11.

XY
XZ
XZ

XY

passes through

and Y.

passes through X.

passes through Y.

and

XZ coincide.

XYWAB,

III.

Let the pupil give reasons.

Apply Th. 47
Exercise.

in Ic.

to half the base.

For

II see As. 6.

segment bisecting two sides of a triangle

is

equal

QUADRILATERALS

91

115. If three or more lines pass through a


they are said to be concurrent.

Theorem

The medians

49.

common point,

of a triangle are concurrent


from each vertex to

in a point that is two-thirds the distance


the mid-point of the opposite side.

Hypothesis:

ABC is

Conclusion:

(1)

any

triangle.

The medians

are concurrent.

(2)

The

point of intersection is two-thirds the distance from


each vertex to the mid-point of the opposite side.

Analysis and construction for


I.

To prove

that

AF
E and prove that AE = EB.
AE = EB, prove that AB may be the

diagonal of a 17
III.

.-.

prove

H so that OH = CO, join HB


AHBO a O.
HB OF (part of AF) and AH OG (part

extend

.-.

CE

and HA.
IV.

that the medians are concurrent, let any


two medians, as
and BG, meet at O. Join CO

and extend to
II.

(1)

To prove

to

Prove

\\

\\

oiBG).
The

proof

is left

Analysis for
Exercise.

to the pupil.
(2)

Prove

Segments

CO = % CE.

drawn

from

one

vertex of a parallelogram to the mid-points


of the opposite sides trisect the diagonal

t/

which they intersect (Fig. 167).


Fig. 167

Suggestion.

Draw

diagonal

AC

and apply Th.

49.

PLANE GEOMETRY

92
116.

Theorem

The median from

50.

right angle of a right triangle to the

the vertex of the

hypotenuse

is

one-half

the h5rpotenuse.

ABC,
Hypothesis: In the rt.
the /.A to the hypotenuse CB.

AX =

Conclusion:

AX

is

the median from

CB.

}/2

Analysis:
I.

II.

AX = y2 CB, prove AX- X5 isosceles.


AX-XB isosceles, from X construct XO AC

To prove
"

"

that

\\

and prove

XO

bisector of

AB.

Let the pupil give the proof.


117.

Ex.

The
1.

following exercises are applications of Ths. 46-50.

The segments

a triangle divide

Ex.

2.

it

joining the mid-points of the sides of


into four congruent triangles.

Construct a triangle, given the mid-points of

its sides.

Perpendiculars from the 'mid-points of two sides of a


to
the
third side are equal. How might this exercise be
triangle
proved if the given triangle were isosceles?

Ex.

3.

Ex. 4. If D is any point in the side ^C of a AABC, the segments joining the mid-points oi AD, DC, CB, and AB form a
parallelogram.

Ex. 5. Through a given point within an angle draw a segment terminated by the sides of the angle and bisected by the
given point.

Ex.

6.

Divide a right triangle into two isosceles triangles.

Ex.

7.

Would Ths.

well as for triangles?

46, 47, and 48 be true


Give proofs.

for parallelograms as

QUADRILATERALS

93

TRAPEZOIDS

Theorem

118.

The segment

51.

joining the mid-points of


is parallel to the bases.

the non-parallel sides of a trapezoid

.L
Fig. 169

XY joins X and Y, the midAD and BC respectively.

Hypothesis: In C^ABCD,
points of the non-parallel sides

XY AB

Conclusion:

\\

and CD.

Analysis and construction:

To prove

I.

XY
II..

draw

.*.

XY AB
\\

XZ AB
\\

cides with

To

III.

and therefore

||

coincides with a segment that

from

DC, prove that


AB.

is

||

X and prove that XZ coin-

XY,

prove that

XZ coincides with XY, show.

Let the pupil complete the analysis and give the proof.

The segment joining the mid-points


sides
of a trapezoid is equal to one-half
of the non-parallel
bases.
the sum of the

Theorem

119.

52.

~vO

Fig. 170

Analysis:
secting

XY

To prove A'F = K> (AB+DC), draw


at

and prove

XO = y^ AB

Construct a trapezoid so that


=
cm., CD=4: cm., AD 2.S cm.

Ex.

1.

and

AB-Q

D^ interOY = }i DC.

cm.,

BC = 3.2

two trapezoids have the four sides of one equal


the four sides of the other, the angles of one are
to
respectively
of the other.
equal respectively to the corresponding angles
Ex.

2.

If

PLANE GEOMETRY

94

SUPPLEMENTARY EXERCISES
EXERCISES INVOLVING PARALLELOGRAMS
Be prepared

Note.

120.

to prove the theorems on which

any

of

the following exercises depend.


1.

Make a

review diagram for Th. 36.

2. Any segment drawn through the intersection of the diagonals of a parallelogram, and terminated by the sides of the parallelogram, is bisected by the point of intersection of the diagonals.

3. Perpendiculars drawn to a diagonal of a parallelogram


from the opposite vertices are equal.
4. The bisectors of two consecutive angles of a parallelogram are
perpendicular to each other.
5.

The

bisectors of

two opposite angles

of

a parallelogram

are parallel.
6.

The

bisectors

of

the angles of a parallelogram form a

rectangle.

is

7. The median to one pair of opposite sides of a parallelogram


equal and parallel to the other two sides.
8.

The medians

of a parallelogram bisect each other.

In Fig. 171, ABCD is a parallelogram.


The sides are extended through A and C so that
9.

CE = AG and CF = AH.

Prove that

EFGH

is

a parallelogram.

ABCD is a paralleloCD and AB are extended so that


DE = BF, DF cuts CB at Y and BE cuts
DA at X. Prove DX = BY.
10.

In Fig. 172,

gram.

Fig. 172
11.

DY

If,

are

drawn and

DX

made

equal to
extended to meet CD at

in Fig. 172,

is

DE = BF.
12. In Fig. 173, ABCD is a parallelogram.
DX and BY are perpendicular to ^C from
D and B respectively. DY and BX are
Prove DXBY a parallelogram.
joined.

BX and
AB at F

BY, and

and

respectively, prove

^"

Fig. 173

QUADRILATERALS
13.

AH =

In Fig. 174,

Prove

CF.

95

AE = CG

A BCD is a parallelogram.
^ AGOF.

A0^

14. Investigate the case,

Ex.

13, in

which

and

__^

E, Hj F, and G are on the side of the parallelogram extended.

pic. 174

From a Roman
floor design

OXZY is any parallelogram,


any line through O. YA XB, and ZC are
drawn from F, X, and Z respectively perpendicuProve OC = OA + OB.
lar to OC.
15. In Fig. 175,

OC

is

176 shows two forms of parallel rulers

16. Fig.

often used in mechanical drawing for constructShow how each is constructed


ing parallel lines.

and upoii what theorems in geometry the construction depends. Which one of these is sometimes used in folding gates?

ADEF are parallel respecAABC and pass through the

17. If the sides of

tively to the sides of


vertices of

BF

and

prove that FE = 2AB, and that


bisect each other (Fig. 177).

AABC,

AC

18. If the opposite

figure

is

Fig. 177

angles of a quadrilateral are equal, the

a parallelogram.

19. The sum of the perpendiculars drawn from an arbitrary


point in the base of an isosceles triangle to the equal sides is equal
to the perpendicular from one end of the base to the opposite side.

20. Investigate the case,


is

in the

Ex.

19, in

which the arbitrary point

base extended.

21. The sum of the perpendiculars drawn from an arbitrary


point within an equilateral triangle to the sides is equal to the
altitude of the triangle.

is

22. Investigate the case, Ex. 21, in which the arbitrary point
outside of the triangle.

PLANE GEOMETRY

96

EXERCISES INVOLVING SPECIAL QUADRILATERALS


121.

Are the diagonals


of a rhombus?

1.

each other?

of a rectangle?

kite?
2.

of a parallelogram perpendicular to
of a square?

Name

of a trapezoid?

of

the quadrilaterals in which the diagonals are equal

to each other.
3.

Name

by the

the quadrilaterals in which the angles are bisected

diagonals.

4. What quadrilaterals have one axis of


quadrilaterals have two axes of symmetry?

laterals

more than two axes

of

symmetry? What
Have any quadri-

Name

symmetry?

the axis or the

axes in each case.


5.

What

quadrilaterals have a center of

Name

symmetry?

the center of symmetry in each case.


6.

The

7.

The

formed by joining the mid-points of the sides

figure

of a rectangle

is

figure

a rhombus

is

a rhombus.

formed by joining the mid-points of the sides of

a rectangle.

8. The figure formed


of a square is a square.

9.

In Fig. 178,

distances

A BCD

is

is

joining the mid-points of the sides

a square with the equal


etc., measured on the

AE, BF, BG, CH,

sides in each direction

EHKN

by

and

from the

FGLM are

vertices;

rectangles

prove that

and that

XYZW

a square.

11.

In Fig. 179,

ABDC is

are divided into the

a rectangle,

same number

parts and the points joined as indicated.


that the figures formed are rhombuses.

A BCD

AB and

is

a rhombus

M y

E F G

of equal

Prove

Would

be possible to construct the figure so that


squares are formed instead of rhombuses?
it

JTB

Fig. 178

10. Investigate the case, Ex. 9, in which


or a rectangle instead of a square.

CD

^'

Fig. 179

QUADRILATERALS
12.

In

180,

Fig.

square with

its

A BCD is a
A C and BD.

diagonals

AE = BF=CG = DH. GW

and

are parallel to AC, and


are parallel to DB.

FZ

WXYZ

is

YE

and
Prove

HX

that

97

Fig. 180a

a square.

Parquet
floor

design

Given A BCD a square with


U AX = CY, prove
that 5FZ)X is a rhombus (Fig.
13.

i4

a diagonal.

181).

Is

A BCD

is

is

this

exercise

a rhombus?

true

if

A BCD

If

Investigate the case, Ex.


extended.

14.

AC

13,

hi

DABCD

In Fig. 182 given the


mid-points of the sides, and the
15.

points joined as indicated.


is a square.
that

Fig. 181a

Fig. 181

any parallelogram?

parquet

which

floor design

and

with , F, G, and

are on

the

p_

Prove

WXYZ

Analysis:

To

prove
it a

WXYZ

a
Zl=a

rt.

with

D,

prove

WX = XY and

Fig. 182 a

Fig. 182

Parquet

floor design

Z.

16.

A BCD is a square with AX = BY


^
Prove that PFXFZ is a square.

In Fig. 183,

CZ = DW.

z B
Fig. 183
From a Roman
floor design

In Fig. 184, ABC is an isosceles triangle


ZC = art.Z,C0^5 from C. AX=XY=YB.
XW and YZ are AB from X and Y. Prove that
17.

with

PFXFZ
18.

is

Construct a square that shall have


rhombus.

sides of a

Fig. 184

a square.
its

vertices

on the

PLANE GEOMETRY

98

EXERCISES INVOLVING PARALLELS AND TRANSVERSALS


Be prepared

Note.

to prove the theorems on which

any

of

2.

Make review diagrams for Ths. 45,


Name two important special cases

3.

Prove the converse to each of the theorems called for

in

122.

the following exercises depend.


1.

49,
of

and

50.

Th. 45.

Ex.2.
4. The segments which join the mid-points of
the sides of a quadrilateral taken in order form a

parallelogram

Prove Ex. 4 for a concave quadrilateral


a cross quadrilateral.

5.

and

The medians

J^

for

6.

^f

'[/-/

(Fig.. 185).

Fig.

185

of a quadrilateral bisect each other.

join the mid-points of two opposite


sides of a quadrilateral to the mid-points of the diagonals form a

The segments which

7.

parallelogram.
8. If from two opposite vertices of a parallelogram segments
are drawij to the mid-points of the opposite sides, these segments
trisect the diagonal joining the other two vertices.
9.

It is said

that an Arab, about 900 a.d., trisected a given


is the same

segment as in Fig. 186. Show that this


construction as that given in Ex. 8.
10.

segment joining the mid-points of the nona trapezoid bisects both diagonals.

parallel sides of
11.

p^,^

jgg^

The segment

trapezoid

is

joining the mid-points of the diagonals of a


to
the bases and equal to >^ their difference.
parallel

one leg

ot a trapezoid is perpendicular to the bases, the


the
mid-point of the other leg to the extremities
segments joining
of the first leg are equal.

12. If

the mid-points of the legs of an isosceles triangle are


the mid-point of the base, the figure formed is a
to
joined
13. If

rhombus.

Given A BCD a trapezoid with the base AB twice the base


diagonals AC and BD intersect at 0. Prove that ^O is
twice OC.
14.

CD.

The

Suggestion.

Join the mid-points of .40 and

OB

with

and

C.

CHAPTER V
Inequalities

ASSUMPTIONS FOR COMBINING INEQUALITIES


123. To As. 28 and As. 29 in chapter iii, which were
assumptions of inequality, we must now add the following:
If equal segments (or angles) are added to
segments
(or angles), the resulting segments (or
unequal
angles) are unequal in the same order.

As. 31.

As. 32. If equal segments (or angles) are subtracted


from unequal segments (or angles), the resulting segments
(or angles) are unequal in the same order.
If unequal segments (or angles) are added to
segments
(or angles) the greater to the greater and
unequal
the lesser to the lesser, the resulting segments (or angles)

As. 33.

are unequal in the

same

order.

As. 34. If unequal segments (or angles) are subtracted


from equal segments (or angles), the resulting segments (or
angles) are unequal in the opposite order.
If unequal segments (or angles) are mtdtiplied
the
same
number, the resulting segments (or angles) are
by
in
the
same order.
unequal

As. 35.

As. 36.

unequal segments (or angles) are divided by

If

the same number, the resulting segments (or angles) are


unequal in the same order.
Exercise.

Illustrate each of the foregoing assumptions, using

numbers to represent the lengths


of degrees in the angles.

99

of the

segments or the number

PLANE GEOMETRY

100

FUNDAMENTAL TESTS OF INEQUALITY


124.

The fundamental

in 57, the

125.

Th.

whole

test of inequality
greater than any of

is

is

As. 29, given

its parts.

TEST FOR UNEQUAL ANGLES


The fundamental theorem for unequal
an exterior angle

8,

of

a triangle

is

angles

is

greater than

either of the non-adjacent interior angles.

126.

TESTS FOR UNEQUAL SEGMENTS


The two following tests for unequal segments are

As. 37 may be called the fundamental test for


unequal segments. It is known to every one who goes
'cross lots rather than around the corner.

important.

As. 37.

The sum

of

two sides of a triangle

is

greater

than the third.


As. 38.
is less

Ex.
11, 19,

Ex.

The

between two sides

difference

How many

1.

If

2.

triangles can be

two sides
and lower

of

3.

If

Ex.

4.

The sum

point in the side

of the diagonals of

The perimeter

5.

of*

BC

AABC,

of

any quadrilateral

is

greater

sides.

a quadrilateral

is

greater than the

of its diagonals.

Ex.

of these

fiom a point within a triangle segments


to the vertices of the triangle, the sum

If

6.

drawn

segments

is

greater than >^ the perimeter of

the triangle.

Ex.

7,

a triangle are 8 cm. and 15 cm., what

than the sum of either pair of opposite

are

formed with the sides

limits of the third side?

D is an arbitrary
AB+BC+AC > 2AD.
Ex.

Ex.

a triangle

and 15 cm.?

are the upper

sum

of

than the third side.

7.

The median

than }4 the sum

to one side of a triangle is less


of the other two sides (Fig. 187).

J''

Fig. 187

INEQUALITVES."
127.

Theorem

53.

ments are drawn


is less

from a point within a triangle segone side, their sum


the other two sides of the triangle.

If

to the extremities of

sum

than the

101

of

Pig. 188

Ift

Hypothesis:

from point

AABC,

segments

DA

and

DB

are

drawn

AB.

to the extremities of

AD+DB < AC-\-CB.

Conclusion:

Analysis and construction: To prove AD-\-DB< AC-\-CB,


to meet BC at E and prove
extend
DE-\-EB and

DB<

AD

AD-\-DE<AC+CE.
Proof:

STATEMENTS
1.

DB<DE-\-EB.

2.

AD+DE<AC+CE.

3.

,\

DB-\-AD-{-DE<DE+EB+AC+CE.

4.

.\

DB+ADKEB+CE+AC.

5.

:.

DB-\-AD<BC+AC.

Let the pupil give the reasons.

For 4 use As.

For 3 use As. 33.


Ex.

1.

The sum

the vertices

is less

of the distances from any point in a triangle to


than the perimeter of the triangle.

Ex.

2.

In Fig. 188 prove that

Ex.

3.

If

<AB+AC,
8

32.

is

any point

ZADB>ZC.

in the side

AC

of

AABC, OC+OB

PLANE GEOMETRY

lOS

TESTS FOR UNEQUAL SIDES AND ANGLES IN ONE


TRIANGLE
If one angle of a
128. Theorem 54.
triangle
than a second, the side opposite the first angle
than the side opposite the second angle.

is

greater

is

greater

Fig. 189

Hypothesis:
Conclusion:

AB> /.A.

AABC,
AC > CB.
In

Analysis and construction:


I.

AC > CB, construct a triangle with BC for


one side such that the sum of the other two sides

To prove

shall equal
II.

/.

construct
is,

so that

and
The proof

AC.
from point B so that OB = OA, that
Z 2 = Z 1, and compare AC with OC-^OB

OB

OC+OB with CB.

is left

to the pupil.

129. Theorem 55.


If one side of a triangle is greater than
a second, the angle opposite the greater side is greater than

the angle opposite the lesser side.

Fig. 190

AABC,

Hypothesis:

In

Conclusion :

AB> /.A.

AOCB.

INEQUALITIES

103

Analysis and construction:

ZB>ZA,

To prove

I.

that
II.

.*.

on

is

compare

ZB

with an angle

greater than /.A.

AC take CD = CB,
ZB and ZA.

draw BD, and compare Z

with
Proof:

STATEMENTS

I.

11.

III.

a.

Zl=

b.

ZB >Z2.

c.

:.ZB>Z\.

Z2.

Zl>ZA.

ZB> ZA.

.-.

Let the pupil give the reasons.

Ex.

1.

Review Ths. 3 and 24 concerning the equal

sides

and

angles of a triangle.

Prove Th. 55 by an indirect proof.


Prove Th. 55 by the following construction:
Bisect
Z C, continue the bisector to meet ABaX E. On CA take CD = CB.
Join E and D.
Ex.

2.

Ex.

3.

Ex.

4.

'

In Fig. 191,

dicular bisector of

AB.

XO

ZW

is

the perpen-

AB.

If point
to the right and to the left along ZW,
will the relative lengths of CA and CB
\\

C moves
how

What

change?

How

will

will

be the limits of

the relative sizes ol

Z CAB

and

AA

Fig. 19i

change?
Ex.

5.

The

angles at the extremities of the greater side of a

triangle are acute.

Ex.

DB

Ex.
Ex.

6.

If,

in

a ^ BCD, BC < CD,

does not bisect

6.

Z Z), but Z 2 < Z

the diagonal
(Fig.

192).

State and investigate the converse of ^^


Prove your conclusion.

7.

Fig. 192

Ex. 8. An angle of a triangle is right, acute, or obtuse according as the median from its vertex is equal to, greater than, or less
than half the side that it bisects.

104

PLANE GEOMETRY

130.

DISTANCES AND OBLIQUE SEGMENTS


Theorem 56. The perpendicular is the

segment from a point


The proof
Ex.
the

1.

sum
Ex.

is left

The

a straight

shortest

line.

to the pupil.

altitude to one side of a triangle

of the other

2.

to

The sum

two

is less

than half

sides.

of the three altitudes of a triangle

is

less

than

the perimeter.

The distance between a point and a line is defined as the


length of the perpendicular from the point to the line.

Theorem

If from a point in a perpendicular to a


two oblique segments are drawn cutting the
straight line at unequal distances from the foot of the perpendicular, the more remote is the greater.

57.

straight line

0'

Fig.

Hypothesis: AO _L line
are so drawn that
and

AC

Conclusion:

o
193

and the oblique segments

AB

OB>OC.

AB>AC.

Analysis:
I.

To prove AB > AC, prove Z 2 > Z 1.


"
Z2>Z1, " Z 2 an obtuse angle.
"
"
Z2 an obtuse angle, prove Z2 > Z4.
*

II.

III.

If from a point in a perpendicular to a


two unequal oblique segments are drawn, the
line at the greater distance from
greater cuts the straight

Theorem

58.

straight line

the foot of the perpendicular.


Suggestion.

Use an

indirect proof.

INEQUALITIES

105

TESTS FOR UNEQUAL SIDES AND ANGLES IN


TRIANGLES

TWO

Theorem

If two triangles have two sides of one


59.
two sides of the other, but the included angle of one
greater than the included angle of the other, the third side
of the first is greater than the third side of the second.

131.

equal to

Fig. 194

In

Hypothesis:

and

^ABC sxid A' B'C\AB = A' B\BC = B'C\

ZB> ZB\
AC>A'C.

Conclusion:

Analysis and construction:


I.

To prove AC>A'C\ compare


that

II.

is

place

.-.

greater than

AC

with a segment

A'C

AA'B'C on \ABC

so that A'B' coin-

AB, A' on A, and B' on B. Bisect


LC'BC\ let the bisector meet AC at X\ join XC
Compare AXA-XC with AC and AC,
To compare AX-\-XC' with AC, prove XC = XC.
cides with

III.

Let the pupil complete the analysis and give the proof.

In constructing Fig. 194 according to state-

Discussion.

ment

will fall
may happen that point
on the Hne AC or within the triangle as well as in the position shown in the figure,
li
falls within the triangle, the
falls
proof is the same as for the case given above. If
on AC, the theorem is evident without proof.

II of the analysis it

Exercise.

Z i4

is less

If,

in

EJABCD, ZA<ZB,

than the diagonal opposite Z B.

the diagonal opposite

PLANE GEOMETRY

106

If two triangles have two sides of


132. Theorem 60.
one equal to two sides of the other, but the third side of
one greater than the third side of the other, the angle

the first is greater than the


the second.
the
third
side
of
angle opposite

the

opposite

third side of

Use an

Suggestion.

indirect proof.

Exercise.
Review any theorem or theorems concerning congruent triangles that are closely related to Ths. 59 and 60.

SUPPLEMENTARY EXERCISES
Be prepared to prove the theorems on which any of
133. Note.
the following exercises depend.

Name

1.

the theorems that are tests for unequal angles; for

unequal segments.
2.

If,

AABC,

in

In quadrilateral

3.

CD

4.

is

and B, prove

If

in

ZADB

is

AB in AABC, and
CD is joined to A

^X+^^<^I^+^I^.

bisected at right angles

is

drawn and

ZXBA > ZXAB.

straight line.

that

any point

In Fig. 195 prove that

5.

is

AD=BC and ZD>

A BCD,

the median to side

ZB > ZA.

^^'

AD

LB > ZA.

Prove

jLC,

the median

AC> AB.

acute, prove

is

any point

by ZY. J5^'
ZY. Prove

in

is

also

Pig. 196

Zr=Z2.
Ex. 5 illustrates some important facts from physics.

Note.

XY represents a plane mirror with a candle


E represents the eye. The reflection C of the
Fig. 196,

In

in front of

it.

candle seems to be as far behind the mirror as C is


The light from C strikes the mirror at
it.

in front of

M and

turned back to the eye at E so that the


The light
is the least possible.
Zl= Z2.
C.
Also
from
to
come
directly
appears
Similar relations hold when an elastic object strikes
a surface and rebounds freely.
is

distance

CME

c'

Fig.

1!

INEQUALITIES
6.
is

at

107

Show how to find the path of a billiard ball which


A (Fig. 197) and which is struck so as to rebound

from the

XY and strike

side of the table

ball B.
Fig. 197

Show

the path of a billiard ball which is struck so as to


rebound from each side of the table and return to its original
7.

(From O.

position.

Elementary

Henrici,

Geometry,

Congruent

Figures.)

Prove Th. 54 by the construction shown

8.

in

Fig. 198.

A nalysis:
I.

fB

prove i4C>CS, construct a triangle with AC


for one side such that the difference between
the other two sides will be BC.

To

II.

Z1=Z2

construct

.'.

and compare

Prove Th. 55 by the construction shown

9.

in

Fig. 199.

Analysis:
I.

To

II.

If

Zl, compare

Z4 with an

angle that

greater than Zl.

construct

.'.

10.

Z4 >

prove

is

^O

so that

two opposite

Z2= Z3

and compare

sides of a quadrilateral are equal

but the

diagonals are unequal, the angles which are opposite the longer
diagonal are respectively greater than the angles which are opposite
the shorter diagonal.

two

11. If

median drawn
drawn to the longer

sides of a triangle are unequal, the

to the shorter side

is

longer than the median

side (Fig. 200).

Analysis:
I.

To

prove

CX > AY,

prove

CO > AO.

(See Th. 49.)


II.

CO > AO, draw the median BZ and


ACZO and AAZO.
To compare ACZO and AAZO, prove Zl>'

To

prove

compare

III.

Z2.
IV.

To

prove

Zl >Z2, compare

ACZB

and

AAZB,

CHAPTER

VI

Circles and Related Lines

INTRODUCTORY
DEFINITIONS
134.

We

chord,

and

Two

have already defined


arc.

circle,

radius,

diameter,

(See 12.)

circles or

two

arcs that can be

made

to coincide are

called congruent circles or arcs.

we

two ways of
and by the
number of degrees that it contains. Each method gives a
numerical measure for the arc, but the measures and the
methods are different. Before two arcs can be made to
coincide they must have not only the same measure but the
same radius. Congruent arcs will have, the same measure
whichever method is used in measuring them and will be
In succeeding chapters

measuring an

arc,

shall

namely: by

its

consider

length

called equal arcs.

The chord

joining the ends of an arc is called the chord of


Every arc has one and only one chord. Every
chord, however, has two arcs. If the chord is a diameter,
If
its two arcs are congruent and are called semicircles.
the chord is not a diameter, its two arcs are unequal. The
larger arc of a chord is called the major arc and the smaller
arc is called the minor arc.

the arc.

An angle with its vertex at the center of a circle is called


a central angle. The sides of the angle cut off two arcs on
a circle. The minor arc cut off by the sides of a central
angle is said to be the arc intercepted by the angle,
108

CIRCLES

136.

As.

ASSUMPTIONS CONCERNING CIRCLES


we have:

Circles with equal radii are congruent.

9.

Congruent

As. 39.

The diameter

circle

have equal radii.


shall add the following:
a circle is twice its radius.

circles

these two assumptions

As. 40.
its

109

In 29

As. 10.

To

AND RELATED LINES

of

we

located definitely

is

if its

center and

radius are known.

As. 41. If a line passes through a point within a circle,


the Hne and the circle intersect in two and only two points.

Every diameter

As. 42.
As. 43.

an

axis

ter as

bisects the circle.

symmetric with respect to any diameand with respect to its center as a center.

circle is

Between the same two points on a circle there


one and only one minor arc of the circle, provided these
points are not the ends of a diameter.
As. 44.

is

As. 45.
the center

As. 46.

segment joining a point within a circle and


shorter than the radius.

is

If

a segment that has one end at the center of a


than the radius, it lies wholly within the

circle is shorter
circle.

As. 47.
the center

As. 48.

is

If

segment joining a point without a


longer than the radius.

circle

and

a segment that has one end at the center of


it extends without the

longer than the radius,


circle and cuts the circle but once.

circle

As. 49.

is

In the same

circle or in congiiient circles

central angles intercept equal

minor

equal

arcs.

As. 50. In the same circle or in congruent circles equal


minor arcs intercept equal central angles.
Note. Ass. 49 and 50 should be verified. Draw the figures on
fairfy

thin paper, place the centers together, and hold to the light.
may be drawn to illustrate Ass. 39-48.

Figures

The assumptions in

30 are true fpr ^rcs of the same circle.

PLANE GEOMETRY

110

RELATED ARCS, CHORDS, AND CENTRAL ANGLES


136. Ass. 49 and 50 are closely related to the two following theorems and should be learned with them.

Theorem

61.

In the same circle or in congruent circles

A. Equal chords intercept equal central angles.


B. Equal central angles intercept equal chords.

Fig. 201

Suggestion.

Prove by congruent

Theorem

62.

triangles.

In the same circle or in congruent circles

A. Equal chords have equal minor arcs.


B. Equal minor arcs have equal chords.

Analysts A:

To prove BC = ZT, prove /.A= ZX.


Use Th. 61A and As.

49.

Analysis B:

To prove BC = ZY, prove /.A= AX.


Use

As. 50

Ex.

1.

If

and Th. 61 B.

two

circles are

not congruent, can an arc of one be

congruent to an arc of the other?


Ex.

2.

For what

special cases

do the proofs

of Ths. 61

and

62 have no meaning?
Ex.

3.

Ex., 4.

Show how

to bisect a given arc.

A ray from the center of a circle through

of a chord is perpendicular to the chord

chord.

and

the mid-point

bisects the arc of the

CIRCLES

AND RELATED LINES

CHORDS

111

GENERAL

IN

FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM
Theorem

137.

63.

bisects the chord

and

radius perpendicular to a chord

its arc.

Hypothesis:

OO, and

Conclusion:

The

analysis

Ex.

The

the radius

CO

OO

Fig. 202
is

any

bisects the

and the proof are

AB

AB and the

left to

Investigate the case

1.

circle;

is

any chord

of

OC AB.

in

AB.

the pupil.

which

AB

(Fig.

202)

is

diameter.

Ex. 2. Construct through a given point within a circle a chord


that shall be bisected at the given point.
Ex.

If a diameter is perpendicular to a chord, the quadriformed by joining the extremities of the chord to the

3.

lateral

extremities of the diameter

Ex.

both of

is

kite.

have the same center and a line intersects


them, the segments intercepted between the circles are
If

4.

two

circles

equal.

Draw a radius perpendicular to the given


segments from equal segments.

Suggestion.
tract equal

Ex.
of

and sub-

5.

an arc

line

is

segment from the center of a circle to the mid-point


a perpendicular bisector of the chord of the arc.

Ex. 6. If, in a circle whose center is 0, B is the mid-point of


ACf perpendiculars from B to AO and CO are equal.
Ex. 7. If two circles intersect, the segment that joins the
centers bisects the

common

chord at right angles.


is formed by the radii drawn to the

Show that a kite


Suggestion^
points of intersection.

PLANE GEOMETRY

112

138.

TEST FOR DIAMETERS


Theorem 64. The perpendicular bisector

passes through the center of the

of

a chord

circle.

Fig. 203

OO

Hypothesis:

Xy is

the

any

is

bisector of

_L

Conclusion:

AB

circle;

is

any chord

of

OO;

AB.

XY passes through point O.

Analysis and construction:


I.

11.

that XY passes through point 0, prove that


XY coincides with a line that passes through O.
construct OZ from
J_ AB and prove that XY

To prove
.*.

OZ coincide.

and
IIL

To prove

that

are both

XY and OZ

bisectors of

show that they

coincide,

AB.

Proof:

STATEMENTS
I.

a.
6.
c.

II.

III.

REASONS

Xy is the _L bisector of A6.


OZ
OZ

_L

I.

AB.

bisects

AB.

a.

Given.

h.

Construction.

c.

XY coincides with OZ.


XY passes through point O.

II.

IIL

Why?

(See As. 7.)

Why?

CONSTRUCTION AND DEFINITE LOCATION OF CIRCLES


139. Ex.

To

1.

Ex.

2.

find the center for a given arc.

Find the intersection

Suggestion.

To

of

two diameters.

construct a circle that shall pass through the three

vertices of a triangle.
Suggestion.

The

sides of the triangle will be chords of the circle.

CIRCLES AND RELATED LINES

113

One and only one circle can be drawn


65.
non-collinear
three
points.
through

Theorem

The proof

We

two methods

have, therefore,

definitely
a.

to the pupil.

is left

If

of

locating

circles

the center and radius are known, the circle

is

located definitely (As. 40).


6.

If

points,

through three given non-collinear

circle passes

it is

located definitely (Th. 65).

TEST FOR EQUAL CHORDS


140.

Theorem

66.

If in

the

same

circle or in

from the center

circles perpendiculars

to

congruent
two chords are

equal, the chords are equal.

Fig. 204

OA = eX, AD BC

Hypothesis:

from A,

XZ YW

iromX, SindAD = XZ.


Conclusion :

BC=YW,

Analysis and

construction:

CD=wz, CD=y2

CB,

To prove

BCYW,

prove

wz=y2 yw.

Let the pupil complete the analysis and give the prooL
Exercise.

141.

State

all tests for

equal chords.

EQUAL DISTANCES
Theorem 67. In the same circle

circles perpendiculars

are equal.

from the center

to

(See Fig. 204.)

Let the pupil give the analysis and the proof.

or in congruent

two equal chords

PLANE GEOMETRY

114

TANGENTS
TESTS FOR TANGENTS
142.

line that

touches a circle at one point but does not


This definition is the

called a tangent to the circle.


fundamental test for tangents.

cut

it is

The point at which the tangent touches the circle is called


the point of contact or the point of tangency of the tangent.
143.

Theorem

radius at

its

68.

line

outer extremity

which is perpendicular
a tangent to the circle.

to a

is

Fig. 205

OO

Hypothesis:
line

AB OA

any

is

circle;

Conclusion:

AB

Analysis and

construction:

i.

To prove
all

II.
-

radius

OA

is

any radius;

at A.
is

tangent to

OO at A.

AB is tangent to OO at A, prove that


AB except A lie outside the circle.
that any point in AB other than A, such as
that

points in

To prove
M, lies

OM >

outside the

circle, join

O and

and prove

OA.

Proof:

REASONS

STATEMENTS
I.

II.

OM >
.'.

OA.

lies

outside

I.

OO.

III. All

points except
outside OO.

IV.

.-.

AB

is

tangent to

II.
lie

Th. 56 (quote in
As. 48.

III. Since

AB
OO.

IV.

full).

is any point in
other than A.

Whyi

CIRCLES AND RELATED LINES

115

To construct a tangent to a circle at


144. Problem 8.
a given point on the circle.
Ex. 1. Construct a circle of given radius tangent to a given
line at a given point.
Ex.

Show

2.

at a given point

that only one tangent can be


on the circle.

drawn to a

circle

TEST FOR PERPENDICULARS


145.

Theorem

69.

drawn

to the radius

tangent to a circle

is

perpendicular

to the point of contact.

Fig. 206

OO

Hypothesis:

OA

is

is

any

circle,

Conclusion:

AO

Analysis and

construction:

L'

II.

AB

is

tangent to

the radius drawn to the point of contact

OO
A

at

AB.

AO AB, show that the supposition that


AB is not J_ AO'^leads to an absurdity.
If AO is not J_ AB, suppose some other line, as DO^
is AB, and show that the supposition- that DO is
AB contradicts the hypothesis.

To prove

Ex.

1.

Two

Ex.

2.

tangents at

tangents at the ends of a diameter are parallel.

diameter bisects

all

chords that are parallel to the

its extremities.

LENGTHS OF TANGENTS; TEST FOR EQUAL SEGMENTS


IIG. Theorem 70.
If two tangents meet at a point without a circle, the distances from the intersection to the points
of tangency are equal.
The analysis and the proof are left to the pupil.

PLANE GEOMETRY

116

TEST FOR DIAMETERS

Theorem

147.

71.

perpendicular to a tangent at the

point of contact passes through the center of the circle.

Fig. 207

Hypothesis:

AC AB

Sit

Conclusion:

In QO,
A.

AB

is

tangent to

AC passes through

OO

at

and

0.

Analysis and construction:

AC

To prove

that
passes through 0, prove that
coincides with a Hne that does pass through 0.

I.

11.

and

connect

.*.

and prove that

AO

and

AC
AC

coincide.

To prove

III.

are both

The

proof

is left

AO and AC
AB at A.

that

to

coincide,

show that they

(See As. 7.)

to the pupil.

EXERCISES INVOLVING TANGENTS


Construct a line that shall be tangent to a given
and parallel to a given line.
148.

2.

1.

Construct a

line

that shall be tangent to a given circle

and perpendicular to a given


3.

Construct a

make a

circle

line.

that shall be tangent to a given circle and

line

given angle with a given

line.

4.

tangent to a

circle at

the mid-point of an arc

is

parallel

to the chord of the arc.


5.

which

If
is

two

circles

have the same center, a chord

a tangent of the inner

is

of the larger
of tangency.
at
the
point
b^isected

CIRCLES AND RELATED LINES

117

6. If two circles have the same center, chords of the larger which
are tangents of the inner are equal.

circle meet at a point


the bisector of the angle between
the tangents passes through the center of the circle.
7.

If

two tangents to a

without the

8.

circle,

Fig. 208

shows an instrument that

used to find the center of a metal disk.

made and how would

TWO

it

may

How

be

is it

be used?

CIRCLES AND RELATED LINES


DEFINITIONS

@6)999
No.

yo. 3

So. 2

No. 6

So. 5

So. 4

Fig. 209

shows the

209

149. Fig.

possible relations of

six

two

circles.

Two

circles are said to

same center

(Fig.

209, No.

Two

circles are said to

The

line passing

be concentric

if

they have the

1).

be tangent if they have but one


common point. They may be tangent internally as in
Fig. 209, No. 3, or tangent externally as in Fig. 209, No. 5.
This definition is the fundamental test for tangent circles.

through the centers of two

called the line of centers of the

The segment through


circles is called
150.

the

two

circles is

circles.

the points of intersection of two


chord of the two circles.

common

Since any diameter of a circle

we will assume
Th^ line of centers

is

an

axis of

symmetry

of that circle,

As. 51.
sjnnmetry of the two
Exercise.

of

two

circles is

an axis

circles.

When have two

circles

a center of symmetry?

of

lis

PLANE GE:OMETRY

INTERSECTING CIRCLES

Theorem

151.

72.

If

two

circles intersect in

one point

not on the line of centers, they intersect in two points.

Fig, 210

(DA and

Hypothesis:
line of centers

intersect at point

intersect in a second point.

not on the

AB.
(DA and

Conclusion:

To prove that (DA and B intersect at a


second point, prove that there is on each circle one
point P' which is symmetric to point P.

Analysis:

Cor.

two

If

circles intersect, the points of intersection

are symmetric points.

We

will

assume as evident that

Two

As. 52.

circles

cannot intersect at more than two

points.

Theorem
centers

is

Suggestion.

Ex.

1.

ment and

73.

If

any two

circles intersect, the line of

the perpendicular bisector of the


Prove by folding the

figure

Use Th. 73 to construct a

on the axis of symmetry.


bisector to a given seg-

If two equal circles intersect, the


Ex.
tends equal central angles in the two circles.
3.

In Fig. 211,

equal (D intersecting at
centers meets the

Prove

chord.

to construct a _L to a line from a point not in the line.

2.

Ex.

common

0
ZACB=ZADB,

common chord

and 0' are two

A and B. The line of


at C and QO' at D.

cf

sub-

CIRCLES AND RELATED LINES

Theorem 74. If two congruent circles


common chord is an axis of symmetry of the

119

152.

the

intersect,
figure.

Fig. 212

Suggestion.

on point B.

Cor.

If

Fold the figure on PP' as an

The

two congruent

joining the centers and the


bisectors of each other.
Exercise.

axis.

Point

will fall

circles will coincide.

Solve Ex.

1,

circles intersect,

common

151,

the segment

chord are perpendicular

by Th. 74 Cor.

TANGENT CIRCLES
153.

Theorem

75.

If

two

circles

meet

at a point

on

their

line of centers, the circles are tangent.

Fig. 213

Suggestion.

Use an indirect proof. Suppose that they have a


See Th. 72 and Th. 65, 139.

second point in common.

CoR.
is

I.

If

the segment joining the centers of two circles


sum of the radii, the circles are tangent

equal to the

externally.

CoR. IL
is

If

the segment joining the centers of two circles

equal to the difference between the radii* the circles are

tangent internally.

PLANE GEOMETRY

120

Theorem
contact

76.

and

Show that they have a common


OX, at point 0. Construct OX.
Ex.

In Fig. 214,

2.

are tangent, the point of

indirect proof.

In Fig. 214,

1.

circles

line of centers.

Use an

Suggestion.

Ex.

two

If

on the

is

XY

and

are

tangent at

XY = XZ

Ex.

if

Y and Z

XZ

are tan-

Fig. 214

are the points of contact.

^ and B are two equal circles


the common tangent at the
any point on XF may be the

In Fig. 215,

3.

tangent at C.

XY

is

point C. Prove that


center of a circle tangent to

Ex.

0.

r^

gent to d) A and B respectively from any


Prove
point in the common tangent OX.
that

point

tangent,

In Fig. 216,

4.

A and B

Y
Fig. 215

and B.
are

two equal

XF is a bisector of the
Prove that any point on XF

circles.

non-intersecting
line of centers AB.

may be the center of a circle tangent to A and B.


Ex.

5.

Investigate the case, Ex.

Ex.

6.

Show how

each of two
Ex.
circles

4,

if

Fig. 216

the circles intersect.

to construct circles that will be tangent to


concentric circles.

7.
With three given segments as radii construct three
each tangent to the other two.

SUPPLEMENTARY EXERCISES
EXERCISES INVOLVING INSCRIBED AND
CIRCUMSCRIBED POLYGONS
154.

polygon

vertices are

on the

is

said to be inscribed in a circle

circle

and

its

if its

sides are chords of the

In this case the circle is said to be circumscribed


about the polygon. A polygon is said to be circumscribed
about a circle if its sides are tangent to the circle. In this
case the circle is said to be inscribed in the polygon.

circle.

CIRCLES AND RELATED LINES


an

Inscribe

1.

121

equilateral octagon in a given circle.

Suggestion. It is necessary to divide the pcrigon at the center of


the circle into 8 equal parts.

Inscribe an equilateral hexagon in a given circle.

2.

Suggestion. One-sixth of the perigon


60 constructed?

Inscribe

3.

also

one of 16

an equilateral polygon

is

60.

are angles of

of 12 sides in a given circle;

sides.

Prove that the polygons constructed

4.

How

in Exs. 1, 2,

and 3 are

regular.

a regular pentagon

If

5.

is

inscribed in a circle,

its

diagonals are

equal.

The

Note.

pupil cannot construct a regular pentagon at present

without a protractor.
of the longer

Any

6.

diagonals

diameter of the circumscribed

How many

7.

AB

CD

The sum

is

circle?

two diameters

and
Prove that tangents at
are

each other.
9.

a regular hexagon

sets of equal diagonals has a regular octagon?

Are any of them diameters of the


8.

of

circle.

of

two opposite

lateral is equal to the

sum

of the

of a circle perpendicular to

their extremities

form a square.

sides of a circumscribed quadri-

two remaining

sides.

10. AX and BX are tangents to 0 And meet at point X


without OO. AO and BO are radii drawn to the points of
contact A and B. Prove that Z0-\- ZX = 2 rt. A that OX bisects
ZO and ZX and is a perpendicular bisector of the chord AB.
;

To

11.

circumscribe about a given circle a triangle


shall be equal to three given angles.

whose angles

Analysis and directions:


I.

To

circumscribe a triangle about a

the sides tangent to the


II.

To

construct

construct

ZA

circle,

construct

circle.

equal to one of the given angles,


to the supplement of Z^ (Fig. 217).

Z YOX equal

Let the pupil complete the directions, construct the


the proof.

figure,

and give

PLANE GEOMETRY

122

MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES
Note.

155.

Be prepared

to prove the theorems on which

any

of

the following exercises depend'.


1. If two lines intersect at a point within a circle and make
equal angles with the segment joining the point of intersection and
the center of the circle, the chords cut off are equal.

Investigate the case, Ex. 1, {a) when the point of intersection


circle; (b) when the point of intersection is without the

2.
is

on the

circle.
3. If two equal chords intersect within a circle, they make equal
angles with the segment joining the point of intersection and the
center of the circle.

Investigate the case, Ex. 3, (a) when the equal chords intercircle; (b) when the equal chords are segments of lines

4.

sect

on the

that intersect without the


5.

A perpendicular

circle.

bisector of a chord bisects all chords parallel

to the given chord.


6.

7.

If

8.

Two

line joining the mid-points of two parallel chords passes


the
center of the circle.
through

a tangent and^a chord are

parallel,

they cut

off

equal arcs.

parallel chords in a circle cut off equal arcs.

Suggestion. Draw a diameter perpendicular to one of the chords and


use the As.
Equal arcs subtracted from equal arcs give equal arcs.
:

9.

chord through the point of tangency of tangent

subtends equal central angles in the two


10.

by two

line

circles.

through the center of a circle is cut


Prove that the segments

parallel tangents.

cut from this line between the tangents and the


circle are equal.
11. In Fig. 218, AB is any chord and CD is a
diameter intersecting the chord. DE and CF are
AB from D and C respectively. Prove that

AE = BF.
is

CD
12. In Fig. 219, ^^ is any chord in O 0.
a diameter drawn to the mid-point of arc AB.

Prove

/1=Z2.

circles

CHAPTER

VII

Circles and Related Angles

RELATION BETWEEN CENTRAL ANGLES AND


THEIR ARCS
UNITS FOR MEASUREMENT *OF ARCS
156.

There are two ways by which an arc

is

measured:

In
length and by the number of degrees it contains.
this chapter we consider the measure of an arc in degrees.

by

its

The number of degrees in an arc is closely related to the


number of degrees in certain angles.
The degree of angle is Meo of a complete rotation. Since
in the same circle equal central angles intercept equal arcs,
Heo of a complete rotation about any point, as O, will intercept Keo of any circle drawn with O as center. The arc
of

circle is

circle.

of one degree at the center


taken as a unit for measuring the arcs of that

by the unit angle

intercepted

The

unit arc

a degree of

is

therefore

Meo

of the circle

and

is

Smaller units are obtained by


using smaller divisions of the dngle. An arc of one minute
An arc of
(') corresponds to a central angle of one minute.
called

one second
Ex.

1.

gruent?

2.

how many
Ex.

3.

corresponds to a central angle of one second.

Are two angles of the same number of degrees conAre two arcs of the same number of degrees always

congruent?
Ex.

(")

arc.

Illustrate

by a

figure.

a wheel makes 250 revolutions a minute, through


degrees does it revolve in one second?
If

If

a A BCD

degrees in the arc

is

inscribed

AB?
123

in

circle,

how many

PLANE GEOMETRY

124

FUNDAMENTAL RELATION
a central angle of 30 intercepts an
arc of 30; a central angle of 42 7' 15" intercepts an arc of
42 7' 15".
shall accordingly assume that if the measure
of a central angle is any number whatsoever, the measure
167. It follows that

We

of the intercepted arc is expressed

We

by the same number.

have, therefore,

The measure of a central angle and its intercepted arc are expressed by the same number, or a central
As. 53.

angle
158.

is

measured by
protractor

its

intercepted arc.

an instrument for measuring angles.


a semicircle or circle divided into unit
any other scale for measuring. Fig. 220
is

It usually consists of

and is used like


shows one form of protractor.
arcs

Ex.

1,

To measure an

angle with a protractor,

Place the protractor with the center C on the vertex of the


angle and the line of zeros CO along a side of the angle. Read off
the number of degrees on the scale as indicated by the other side
of the angle.

Ex.

2.

Show how

that shall have a given

Ex.

3.

40, 18.

Ex.

4.

to construct with the protractor an angle

number

of degrees.

Construct with the protractor angles of 54, 72, 125,


Draw a number of angles; measure each with protractor.

With a protractor

divide a given circle into 10 equal

By this means
parts; into 9 equal parts; into 15 equal parts.
inscribe in a given circle equilateral polygons of 10, 9, and 15
Prove that these polygons are regular.
sides.

CIRCLES AND RELATED ANGLES

125

INEQUALITIES IN CIRCLES

The

169.

following

the

are

concerning inequalities in

fundamental assumptions

circles:

As. 54. In the same circle or in congruent circles, if


two central angles are unequal, the minor arc subtended by
the greater angle is greater than the minor arc subtended

by the lesser angle.


In the same circle or in congruent

As. 55.

circles,

if

two minor arcs are unequal, the angle subtended by the


greater arc is greater than the angle subtended by the
lesser arc.
fEx.

In the same circle or in congruent

1.

are unequal, the central angle subtended


greater than the central angle subtended

Draw

Suggestion.

if

two chords
is

ends of the chords and apply Th. 60.

Investigate the converse of Ex.

2.

fEx.

radii to the

circles,

by the greater chord


by the lesser chord.

and prove your

conclusion.

In the same circle or in congruent circles, if two minor


by the greater arc is greater

3.

fEx.

arcs are unequal, the chord subtended

than the chord subtended by the lesser arc.


Suggestion.
Apply As. 55 and the preceding
Investigate the converse of Ex.

4.

fEx.

exercise.
3.

Prove your con-

clusions.

In the same or in congruent circles the greater of two


is at the less distance from the center (Fig. 221).

5.

fEx.

unequal chords

A nalysis:
I.

To prove

perpendicular

OX, prove
11.

.*.

OY <

a part

of

perpendicular

OX.

5 with point A on point C, and so that


between D and C, prove that OZ cuts
DC, and that OF < a part of OZ.
place

III.

OF <

To

/1

^~^

lies

place

AB

in position required in II,

prove

Fig. 221

AB <

DC.

Prove the converse of Ex. 5 by an indirect proof.


Ex. 7. Construct in a given circle the shortest chord that
shall pass through a given point.
fEx.

6.

PLANE GEOMETRY

126

RELATION BETWEEN INSCRIBED ANGLES


AND THEIR ARCS
THE MEASURE OF THE INSCRIBED ANGLES
160.

vertex

The
is

An

is

angle

on the

is

said to be inscribed in a circle

and

circle

its sides

if its

are chords of the circle.

arc cut off between the sides of an inscribed angle

called its intercepted arc.


Exercise.

etc.

Inscribe in a given circle angles of 44, 72, 105,


of the intercepted arcs.
Use a protractor.

Find the measure

161.

Theorem

one-half

its

77.

An

inscribed angle

is

measured by

intercepted arc.

Fig. 222

Hypothesis:

ZCAB

Conclusion:

Z CAB

Case A.

When

is

inscribed in

OO.

measured by }4 EC.
the center of the circle is on one
is

side of

the angle.

Analysis and construction:


I.

To prove

that Z.A is measured by ^i BC, compare


with an angle whose measure is known.
and compare ZA and Zx.
connect C and

ZA
II.

III.

.*.

Tocompare ZAa.nd

Z:^;,

compare Z A -\-

Proof:

STATEMENTS
I.

1.

ZA+ZC= Zx.

2.

ZA=ZC.

3.

:.2ZA=Zx.

ZA

Zx.

ZC with Zx^

CIRCLES AND RELATED ANGLES

Zx

II.

is

127

measured by BC.
is measured by J^ BC.

ZA

,'.

Let the pupil give

all

reasons.

When the center of the circle is within the angle.

Case B.
Analysis:

To prove

I.

that

ZA

is

measured by >2 BC, compare

Zi4 with angles whose measures are known.


II.

.%

draw the diameter through point


with Zx and Zy.

and compare

ZA
Proof:

REASONS

STATEMENTS
1.

2.

3.

Zx

L Why?
2. Why?

measured by 3^ 5X.
Z;v is measured by }4 CX.
ZA is measured by }4
BC.
is

3.

.*.

equal numbers are


added to equal numIf

bers, etc.

When

Case C.

the center of the circle

is

without the

angle.

The

analysis

left to

the pupil.

two angles of an inscribed triangle are 70 and 50*,


the number of degrees in the arcs subtended by each side.

Ex.
find

and the proof are

Ex.

1.

If

2.

The

arcs

subtended

by the

sides of

Find the
triangle are in the ratio of 1:2:3.
bar of degrees in each angle of the triangle.
Ex.

3.

In Fig. 223, the semicircle

is

divided into

and G. E is the
5 equal parts
by^the points C, D, F,
mid-point of FD. Find the nurfiber of degrees in
each angle of the figure.

_Ex.^.

AD = BC.

an inscribed

num-

f e ^

^^^r^fT^^^c

\
^^^' ^23

^dSign^

In Fig. 224, i^ = 120 and j5c=100.


Find the number of degrees in each angle

of the figure.
Fig. 224

PLANE GEOMETRY

128

TESTS FOR EQUAL ANGLES, RIGHT ANGLES


AND SUPPLEMENTARY ANGLES

COROLLARIES:
Cor.

162.

Inscribed angles measured by the

I.

same

or

by equal arcs are equal, and, conversely, arcs that measure


equal inscribed angles are equal.
Ex.

is

1,

the vertices of a square A BCD lie on a circle and


in the arc AB, pt-ove that CE and
trisect the

If

DE

any point

ZAEB.

An

angle

said to be inscribed in

is

on the arc

an arc

vertex

if its

sides pass through the extremities


of the chord of the arc.
In this case the arc is said to
lies

affti its

contain the angle.

Cor.

An

II.

angle inscribed in a semicircle

is

a right

angle.

For summary

of

tests

for

perpendiculars

and

right

angles, see p. 301.

Ex.

2.

The angle between the segments

in a circle to the

Ex.
out a

3.

is

the ends of a diameter

the radius of one circle

joining a point with-

an obtuse

The angle between the segments

circle to

Ex.

ends of a diameter

is

angle.

joining a point with-

an acute

angle.

the diameter of a second,


any chord of the larger drawn from the point of contact is bisected
^
by the smaller circle.
4.

If

is

Construct a right triangle, given


Ex.

5.

The hypotenuse and one

Ex.

6.

The hypotenuse and an acute

CoR.

sum

Inscribed

III.

angles

leg.

are

angle.

supplementary

if

the

of their intercepted arcs is 360.

Ex.

7.

The

opposite angles of an inscribed quadrilateral are

supplementary.
Ex.

8.

If

a triangle

is

inscribed in a circle, the sum of the


by the sides is 4 right angles.

angles inscribed in the arcs subtended

CIRCLES AxND RELATED ANGLES

129

EXERCISES INVOLVING CENTRAL AND INSCRIBED ANGLES

The

163.

foregoing theorem and

L A new method

its corollaries

give us

for proving angles equal.

A new method for proving arcs equal.


A new method for proving angles supplementary.
A new method for determining and constructing

XL
III.

IV.

right

angles.

ZACD

Find the arc which measures

1.

in

Fig. 225.
If

2.

diameter

PQ

from point P on a circle


PR are drawn, a radius

bisects

3.

and a

b\

Fig. 225

QR.

circle is

AB.

point of

PQ

parallel to

A ABC

circumscribed about

ZABP

Prove that

is

and

is

the mid-

/C.

Construct a number of angles inscribed in the same arc and


What theorem can be

4.

the bisector of each angle.


inferred from the drawing?

Prove

it.

that the center of a given circle may be


5.
found with a carpenter's steel square as shown in

Show

Give reasons (Th.

Fig. 226.

ABC

6.

that
7.

is

a triangle inscribed in a circle whose

OD
ZCOD=ZB.

center

is

50).

0.

perpendicular to AC.

is

Prove

center of a given arc may be


steel squares as shown

Show that the

found by using two carpenter's


in Fig. 227.
Give reasons.
8.

In

points on CD

and 0' are two equal


A and B. C and D are any
and 0' respectively. Prove Z BCA

228,
circles intersecting at
Fig.

= ZADB.
9.

the

Fig. 228

central angle

same

^"

is

twice an inscribed angle that intercepts

arc.

10. Inscribe in

a given

circle

to the angles of a given triangle.

a triangle whose angles are equal


Use Ex. 9.
Suggestion.

PLANE GEOMETRY

130

ANGLES FORiVLED BY INTERSECTING CHORDS

Theorem

164.

An

78.

formed by two chords


measured by one-half the

angle

intersecting within a circle is


sum of the intercepted arcs.

Fig. 229

Hypothesis:

AC

The chords

and

BD

intersect within

OO.
Conclusion:

Zl

is

measured by '^ {AD-{-BC).

Analysis and construction:


I.

il.

To prove that Z 1 is measured by }4 {AD -{-EC), compare Z 1 with angles whose measures are known.
connect

.*.

and

and prove

Zl=

Z.A-\-

ZB.

Let the pupil give the proof.

_Ex.

l._

If,

in Fig. 230,

^=

55,

^'S=140; and

BC=% AD, find the number of degrees in each angle


of the figurCo

Ex.

2.

Discuss the special case of Th. 78 in

which the given chords intersect at the center of


the circle.

Ex.

3.

In Fig. 231,

is

the mid-point of CD
from P. Prove that

PA and PB are any two chords


Zl=Zl'and Z2=Z2'.

p,^ 231

Ex. 4. Find the sum of each pair of opposite arcs into which
two perpendicular chords divide a circle.
Ex.
72,

5.

and

If,

AC had been a diameter, Z 1 had been


AB, what would have been the number of

in Fig. 230,

DC had

been

degrees in each of the other angles of the figure?

CIRCLES AND RELATED ANGLES

131

ANGLES FORMED BY SECANTS INTERSECTING


WITHOUT THE CIRCLE

165.

line of indefinite length. which cuts

circle in

two

called a secant.

places is

Theorem

79.

An

angle formed by two secants interby one-half the differ-

secting without a circle is measured


ence of the intercepted arcs.

Fig. 232

The

Hypothesis:

secants

BA

and

BC

intersect without

oo.
Z.B

Conclusion:

is

measured by ^4

{ACXY).

Analysis and construction:

To prove /LB measured by

I.

AB

'

>^ {AC-XY), compare


with angles whose measures are known.

II.

.*.

connect

III.

.-.

prove

C and

and prove

AB= Z.AXC AC.

AAXC = ZB + ZC.

Let the pupil give the proof.

Ex.

without

1.

In Fig. 233, secants a and b meet


If secant b moves until it

OO.

comes into the positions


41, 2, and 3 measured?

b'

and b'\ how are


Give the theorem
Fig. 233

that applies in each case.

Ex 2. If, in Fig. 234, Z C = 25 and XV =


A
H B, find the number of degrees in Z XA Y
and in ZBYA.
Ex. 3. If, in Fig. 234, ZC = 24, XY^VsAB,^
.

and
in

AV is

3.

diameter, find the

each angle of the figure.

number

of degrees

Fig. 234

PLANE GEOMETRY

132

ARCS FORMED BY PARALLEL CHORDS: TEST


FOR EQUAL ARCS

Theorem

166.

on a

Parallel chords intercept equal arc:

80.

circle.

Fig. 235

Hypothesis:
Conclusion:

OO is any
AD = BC.

circle

and

AB

||

DC.

Analysis and construction:

To prove AD = BC, prove

I.

that they are intercepted

by

equal inscribed angles.


II.

.*.

join

AC

Let the pupil complete the analysis and give the proof.

_Ex.
AB,

Ex.
allel

1.

If,

find the
2.

If

AD = 32

in Fig. 235,

number
on a

and minor

DC

is

H of minor

of degrees in each arc.

circle

AC = BD,

prove that

AD

is

either par-

with or equal to BC.

Ex.

3.

If

nals are equal

Ex.

4.

the vertices of a trapezoid lie on a


and its base angles are equal.

Prove Th. 79 by comparing

circle, its

diago-

ZB

with one inscribed angle.


Suggestion.

toAB and
Ex.

5.

From D

compare

construct a line parallel

ZB with ZFDC (Fig.

236).

Fig. 236

Prove Th. 78 by comparing Zl with one inscribed

angle.
Suggestion.

From A

construct a line

||

DB.

CIRCLES AXD RELATED ANGLES

133

CONSTRUCTION OF PERPENDICULARS
To construct
167. Probleim 9.
line from a point in the line.

/!->.

perpendicular

to

^-''

Fig. 237

Analysis and constniction:


I.

In order to construct a perpendicular to line


construct a right angle at A

at A,

II.

To

construct a right angle at A, inscribe in a semian angle with its vertex at A.

circle
III.

To construct a semicircle through A,


as center

and segment

OA

take any point

as radius

Let the pupil complete the directions and give the proof.
168.

line

Problem

10.

To

construct

from a point not in the


^^

line.

a perpendicular to a

PLANE GEOMETRY

134

CONSTRUCTION OF TANGENTS
Problem

169.

To

11.

construct a tangent to a circle

from a given point without the

circle.

Fig. 239

QO

Given

To

and point

construct

without the

tangent to

sl

Analysis and

OO

circle.

from point A.

construction:

In order to construct a tangent to OO from point Ay


construct a right angle whose vertex is on OO
and whose sides pass through points O and A.

I.

II.

/.

join

OA

cutting

and construct a
at X and Y.

circle

OO

Join

on

OA

AX

as diameter,

and AY.

Let the pupil give the proof.

Ex.

1.

Let

represent

any point within

OO (Fig. 240). Suppose to move away


from the center along the ray OX. How
many tangents can be drawn to OO through
point

P when P

on the

is

is

circle?

within the circle?

when P

is

when

outside the

pj^,^

240

How

are these tangents constructed


Locate various positions of P outside the circle
in each case?
and sketch in the tangents from P at each position of P. As P

circle?

moves away from the

How

circle

how

does the angle between the


What
of contact move?

do the points

tangents change?
are the limiting positions of these points? How does the length
What
of the segment between P and the point of contact change?
are the limiting lengths of this segment?

Ex.

2.

Circumscribe an isosceles triangle about a circle, given


Is the problem always possible?

the base of the triangle.

CIRCLES

AND RELATED ANGLES

135

RELATION BETWEEN ANGLES FORMED BY


TANGENTS AND CHORDS, AND THEIR ARCS
MEASUREMENT OF THE ANGLE
170.

An angle formed by a tangent and


measured by one-half its intercepted arc.

Theorem 8L

a chord

is

Fig. 241

AB

oX A and
is tangent to
Hypothesis:
A the point of contact of the tangent.

from

QO

^C is drawn

Z1

Conclusion:

is

measiired

by

AC.

Analysis and construction:


I.

II.

III.

To prove that Zl is measured by >^ AC, compare


Z 1 with angles whose measures are known.
.*.

draw diameter
and Z2.

To

find the

AD

and compare Zl wdth

measure of

Z3

Z3 = 90 and

Z3, prove

ACD = \m\
The proof
Ex.

1.

is left

In

to the pupil.

Fig.

241, prove

that

ABAC

Is

measured by

ADC.
Ex.2.

Prove Th. 81 by comparing

A CAB

with one inscribed angle.


Suggestion.

Draw CD.

Ex.3. Prove Th. 81 by comparing


with a central angle (Fig. 242).

A CAB
Fig. 242

PLANE GEOMETRY

136

ARCS FORMED BY PARALLEL CHORD AND TANGENT

Theorem

171.

they cut

allel,

The

analysis

82.

off

equal arcs.

and the proof are

The chord

Exercise.

a chord and a tangent are par-

If

of

the pupil.

left to

an arc

is

parallel to the tangent

drawn

to the mid-point of the arc.

ANGLES FORMED BY SECANTS AND TANGENTS

An angle formed by a secant and a


83.
measured by one-half the difference of the inter-

Theorem

172.

is

tangent

cepted arcs.

Theorem 84. An angle formed by two tangents is


measured by one-half the difference of the intercepted arcs.
Let the pupil review Ths. 78 and

Ex.
the

In Fig. 243,

1.

number
Ex.

2.

number
Ex.

In Fig. 243,

of degrees in

3.

Two

to each other.

AXC

if

of degrees in
if

79.

is

220, find

ZB.
Z5

AXC

is

68, find the

and A YC.

tangents are perpendicular

How many degrees in the arcs

formed by the points of tangency?


Ex.
to

4.

If line

BC

its original position,

through point
Ex.

5.

represent

within

(Fig. 243)

how

In Fig. 244
0.

moves

ZB

so that it remains parallel


he measured when BC passes

A?
let

any two chords

How will the


CD revolves

will

AB

and

CD

intersecting

How is Z 1 measured?
measure of Z 1 change if
about point C in either

lines.

vase in

Fig. 244

Various positions of CD are shown by the dotted


How would Zl be measured in each case? Discuss the

direction?

which

CD

becomes

parallel to

AB.

CIRCLES

AND RELATED ANGLES

137

SUMMARY AND SUPPLEMENTARY EXERCISES


SUMMARY OF IMPORTANT POINTS

173.

I.

IN

CHAPTER

VII

Tests for measurement of angles.

a.

central angle

is

m'easured by, etc. (157).

An inscribed angle is measured by,


An angle formed by a tangent and

b.
c.

etc. (161).

a chord,

etc.

(170).

An

d.

angle formed

by two chords

intersecting

within, etc. (164).

An

/.

angle formed by two secants intersecting


without, etc. (165).
An angle formed by a secant and a tangent

g.

An

e.

(172).

II.

General

by two

angle formed

tangents, etc. (172).

test.

Angles and arcs are both measured in degrees.

same

dent, therefore, that in the


circles

circle

It is evi-

or in congruent

they are measured by equal arcs.

Angles are equal

if

Arcs are equal

they measure equal angles.

if

For summary of

test of equal arcs, see p. 303.

EXERCISES CONCERNING TANGENTS TO CIRCLES


1. Prove that a tangent can be drawn to a circle from
174.
a given point without the circle by the following method (Fig.
^-*
24 r>) Let yl be the given point. Join 0/1. With
,--

/ ^ ^

as center

and

OA

as radius

draw

circle

ABC.

'>

cut the given circle at D. At D draw


o^^l.^P^^
BC tangent to the given circle and ciitting the \ V ^V>4/'
outer circle at B and C. Draw OB and OC cut- '\^
^^'l^'
and AF
ting the given circle at E and F.
"*""!'

Let

OA

;'

i.

XI.

AE

-1

Fig. 245

are tangent to the given circle.


Suggestion.

Prove

Z1=Z2 = 1

rt.

Z, by comparing

AOEA

AODB.
Note.

The

construction given in Ex. 1

is

similar to Euclid's.

with

PLANE GEOMETRY

138
t2.

From

the following figures (Fig. 246) give the analysis,


proof for constructing the common tangents

and

directions,

-V

Fig. 246

to

two given

circles.

Note the application

pulleys.
3.

A line

that

is

tangent to each of two equal

to the segment joining their centers or


4.

Two common

5. Is

of this to belts over

it

interior tangents to

circles is parallel
bisects this segment.

two

circles are equal.

the same true of the exterior tangents?

6. How many common tangents can be drawn to two circles


they are in each of the possible positions shown in Fig. 209?
Show how to construct the tangents in each case.
if

7. An angle between two tangents to a circle is double the


angle between the chord joining the point of contact and the
^
radius drawn to one point of contact.
8.

Circumscribe an isosceles triangle about a circle, given the


Is the problem always possible?

altitude of the triangle.


9.

one

Circumscribe about a given circle a right triangle, given


Is the problem always possible?

leg.

MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES
175. Note.
Be prepared to prove the theorems on which any of
the following exercises depend.
1.

Make

2.

In Fig. 247 the sides of

gent to the

review diagrams for Ths. 82 and 83.

circle at

AXFZ

are tan-

the vertices of the inscribed

If Zl=43 and Z3
62, find^
triangle ABC.
the number of degrees in each angle of the figure.

^
Fig. 247

AND RELATED ANGLES

CIRCLES
3.

4.

in

ZCAB = 5S, find the number of degrees


ZC^F BF is given tangent to the circle.

in Fig. 248,

If,

ZD, ZE, and


gents at

in

if

chord forms equal angles with the tanits

extremities.

which the chord

is

Discuss the special case

a diameter of the

circle.

Prove Ths. 83 and 84 bv a method similar

5.

139

to that suggested for Th. 79 in Ex. 4, 166.

In Fig. 249,

6.

Prove that Z

7.

8.

If

CAB

AC
is

is tangent to
^ 0.
equal to

OO

at ^.

tangent at the vertex of an inscribed angle forms equal


with
the sides of the given angle if these sides are equal.
angles

an

isosceles

triangle

is

inscribed in a circle,

the tan-

gent at the vertex makes equal angles with the legs and
parallel to the base.

AB

is

CD

9. In Fig. 250,
and the chords
equals
Prove that the
are produced to intersect at P.
segment PA equals the segment PD.

two chords intersect in a circle and a segone is equal to a segment of the other,
the chords are equal.
10.

ment

If

of

11. State

and investigate the converse

of Ex. 10.

Fig. 250

Prove your

conclusions.
12.
circles.

AB

P and Q are the points of intersection of two arbitrary


PA and PB are the diameters through P. Prove that

passes through Q.
13.

circle

constructed on side

^B

of

A ABC ^

as diameter passes through the feet of the perpendiculars from A and B to the sides BC and
re-

AC

spectively (Fig. 251).

See Th. 50.

Fig. 25;

PLANE GEOMETRY

140
14. Circles

will intersect

15.

constructed on two sides of a triangle as diameters

on the third

circle

side.

constructed on one leg of an isosceles triangle as a

diameter passes through the mid-point of the base.


constructed on the sides

If semicircles are

16.

an

equilateral triangle as diameters, they will


intersect at the mid-points of the opposite sides

of

(Fig. 252).

at-^^

FiG.'252

Church window
detail

The ray which

17.

bisects the angle

a chord bisects also the intercepted


18. If

a tangent

is

drawn to a

formed by a tangent and

arc.
circle at

chord, the mid-point of the intercepted arc


the chord and the tangent.
19.

If

is

the extremity of a
equally distant from

the extremities of any two diameters in a circle are


formed is a rectangle.

joined in order, the figure


20. If, in
Fig._^53,

and

AB

(S)_0

and

and O' are tan-

CD

pass through the


point of contact, prove that ^C is parallel
to BD.

gent at

Fig. 253

Prove Ex. 20

21.

if

22. If, in
Fig^ 254,

gent at

the circles are tangent internally.


(D

and 0' are tan-

X and A B passes through point

that tangents at

A and B

X, prove

are parallel.
Fig. 254

23.

Prove Ex. 22

24. In Fig- 255,

and

if

the circles are tangent internally.

and 0' are tangent

AB

passes through X. Prove that


diameters from A and B are parallel.

at

Fig. 255

25.

Prove Ex. 24

if

the circles are tangent internally.

CIRCLES AND RELATED ANGLES

the
is

common

are tangent at C.

exterior tangents with

Prove

contact.

of

points

and

26. In Fig. 256, CD

of the

that

141

AB

is

one

A and B

ZACB

a right angle.
27. If
is

segment

two equal circles intersect and a


drawn through either point of inter-

Fig. 256
section terminating in the circumferences, the
segments joining the extremities with the other point of intersection of the circles are equal.

is

at

BD

AC

and
are tangent to
257,
CD
at opposite ends of the diameter AB.

28. In Fig.

OO

an arbitrary tangent intersecting AC and


C and D respectively. Prove that /.COD

BD
is

right angle.
Suggestion.

If

is

the point of contact of tangent

CD, draw OX, OC, and


}/i

the straight angle.

.'.

OD
prove

and prove Z2-f Z3 =


Z 1 = Z 2 and Z 3 = Z 4.

29. Given a circle (Fig. 258) divided


and the points joined as indicated,

Fig. 257

into eight equal

parts

prove
a.
b.
c.

d.

AK = KB = BYr
/.A = ZB=ZC.
AK = KP.
OPQRSTU Visa regulsLT

octagon.
e.

WXYZ

30. In Fig.

is

a square.

258 find the num-

ber of degrees

in

ZA,

ZAKB,

ZHVB, ZBVC.
31. Construct

a figure similar to Fig. 258 by dividing the

equal parts and joining every seventh point of


or
division,
by dividing the circle into twelve equal parts and
joining every fifth point, and find the number of degrees in the
circle into sixteen

angles formed.

Note.
are

Stars similar to the above, though often

common

in cut-glass designs.

more complicated,

PLANE GEOMETRY

142
32.

Two

circles intersect at

a variable secant

is

CBD

that the angle

the points

drawn cutting the


constant for

is

all

A and B. Through A
C and D. Prove

circles in

positions of the secant.

College Entrance Examination Board, Plane Geometry Examination, 1908.

33.

In

divided

259 the

Fig.

into

Find the center of

circle

equal

eight

AOC

is

parts.

so that

it

through the three points


A, 0, and C. Prove that AOC is a

shall pass

semicircle.
34. In Fig.

259 prove that

the mid-point of OLA


Prove that OL and

is

and OLB.

OM

also

are equal;

AL, LB, and BM.

35.

'

^
Fig. ^,,,
259

'

Do you know any

practical uses of

rosettes similar to

the above?
36.

quadrilateral

A BCD

inscribed in a circle. At the


drawn forming a circumscribed
BC=UO, CS = 35. Find the number
is

points of division tangents are

A^ =

quadrilateral.
o5,
of degrees in each angle of the inscribed quadrilateral, in each
angle of the circumscribed quadrilateral, and in the angles formed

by the diagonals
37. Fig.

of each quadrilateral.

260 shows a simple turnout used on


The rails AE and CF are

street railroad tracks.

AB

arcs of circles tangent to rails


and
and C respectively. Rail
crosses rail

AE

rail

CD

equal to Z2.

Prove that Zl made by

^E at H is
AE and CF.

to

CD at A
CD at H.

and. the tangent


the center for

is

shows two opposite turnouts


a straight track. The curved
rails are tangent to the straight ones at C and D
Prove that the angle between the
respectively.
tangents at F is equal to ZX + ZY ii X and Y
38. Fig.

Fig. 260

261

from the end

of

are the centers for the arcs.

|'

Fig. 261

CHAPTER

VIII

Loci

GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
DEFINITIONS

The

176.

tions

exercises below illustrate the following defini-

point which

ment

moves

so as to

fulfill

some given

The path

of a point which moves so as to


given requirement is called a locus.

require-

called a variable point.

is

line or

group of lines

points which
no other points.
all

fulfill

is

called a locus

if

fulfill

some

they contain

some given requirement and contain

1.
Find a point which is 2 in. from a fixed point O. Is
more than one such point? If you consider such a point
as so moving that it shall always, remain 2 in. from 0, what will

Ex.

there

be

its

Is this

path?

Ex.

2.

as far from

What

is

path located definitely?

A and B

If

are

as from B.

two

How?

fixed points, find a point

How many

which

is

such points can you find?

the path of a point moving so that

distant from

two

fixed points?

Is this

it is always equally
a
fixed path?
path

TO FIND THE LOCUS


177.

In some cases the line or set of lines that

make up

the locus can be found directly from a knowledge of the


geometry involved. In other cases the locus may be found

by locating several positions of the moving point. If


positions enough are located, the locus may often be inferred
from them. This is a method of discovery that is common
to all scientific inquiry.

The
143

correctness of the inference

144

PLANE GEOMETRY

then determined by a careful demonstration, the nature


which will be discussed in the next section.

is

of

One

Note.
here

if

or

more

of the following exercises

In

the teacher desires.

many

may

be introduced

the locus cannot be

cases

found unless a very large number of points are located. Some of


these exercises lead to other kinds of lines than the straight line and
the circle, lines that are studied in more advanced courses in geometry.
In these latter exercises the locating of the points must be by experiment, as the pupil knows no construction by which he can find them.

Such exercises are valuable in that they force home to the pupil the
possibility and the occasional necessity of finding loci by experiment
and in that they set him to thinking on a subject entirely new to him.

No

proofs should be required.

EXERCISES IN FINDING LOCI

Find the following loci by experiment.


1. The ray a starts from point P on O X

as

Find the locus of the mid-points of the


chords cut from this ray by the circle as the ray
moves about point P (Fig. 262).

origin.

Find the locus called

2.

for in Ex. 1

if

Fig. 262

the origin of a

is

without

OX.
3. A ladder stands upright against a wall.
Find the locus of a
point on the middle round if the foot of the ladder is pulled out
until the ladder is flat on the ground.

4. OX and OY are two lines at right angles to each other.


Find the locus of a point which is twice as far from OX as from OY.
5.

and

In

any

Fig.

ABCD

263,

line.

Imagine

is

line

parallelogram
to

move

so as

always to remain parallel to its original position.


Find the locus of the mid-points of the segments
cut from / by the sides of the parallelogram.
6.

in

Ex.
7.

Find the locus

way up

Fig. 263

the ladder mentioned

3.

Find the locus

given circles
circles

of a point }4 the

when

intersect,

circles are

of centers of circles tangent to

(1)

(3)

the one circle

one

circle

is

tangent internally, (5) the

each of two

within the other, (2) the


without the other, (4) the
is

circles are

tangent externally.

LOCI

145

8. Find the locus of centers of circles which pass through a


given point and are tangent to a given line when (1) the point is
on the given line, (2) the point is not on the given Hne.
9. Find the locus of centers of circles which are tangent to
a given circle and to a given line when (1) the line intersects the

circle,

the line

(2)

without the

What

is

11.

12.

The hub

13.
14.

A
A

circle,

(3)

the line

is

wholly

point on the knob of a swinging door?

point on the side of a spinning top?


of a wheel of

a moving bicycle?

point on the tire of a moving wheel?point on the rim of a plate moving about another plate?

No

Note.

tangent to the

the locus of:

A
A

10.

is

circle.

drawings are required for Exs. 10-12.

COMPLETE PROOFS FOR LOCI


178.

After the locus has been found by some method,

it

necessary to give a complete formal proof that the line,


or set of lines, found really constitutes the locus.
It is
is

necessary to show, therefore, that every point on the line


or set of lines is a possible position of the variable point
and that every possible position of the variable point is

on

If these two facts can be proved,


evident that the line or set of lines constitutes the whole

this line or set of lines.

it is

locus

and nothing but the

To put

it

locus.

more formally:

In order to prove that a line or set of lines


of a point

which moves so as to

fulfill

is

the locus

certain requirements,

prove
I.

Every point

in the line or set of lines fulfills the

requirements, and
II.

Every point which

fulfills

the requirements

is

on the

line or set of lines.

Note.

It is

immaterial in which order

and

II are proved.

PLANE GEOMETRY

146

LOGI OF POINTS
THE BISECTOR OF AN ANGLE
Theorem 85. The bisector of an angle

179.

from the sides

of points equally distant

is

the locus

of the angle.

Fig. 264

Hypothesis:
Conclusion:

from

AB

AX bisects
^X is the

and AC; that

Every point

I.

in

lies

The

analysis

in

locus of points equally distant

is,

AX

IL Every point that

Z CAB.

is

is

equally distant from

equally distant from

AB and AC.
AB and AC

AX.

and the proof

for I are left to the pupil.

Analysis and constriction for II:

be a point equally distant from

1.

Let

2.

To prove

3.

To

that

lies

in

AX,

AX coincide.
QA
prove that QA and AX

that

join

AB

and AC.

Q and A and

prove

and

coincide,

show that both

bisect /.A.

Let the pupil complete the analysis and give the proof.
Ex.
sides of

Ex.

Can you determine a point equally distant from the


an angle without constructing the bisector of the angle?

1.

2.

What

intersecting lines?

is

the locus of a point equally distant from two

LOCI

147

THE PERPENDICULAR BISECTOR OF A SEGMENT


The perpendicular bisector of a seg8G.
the locus of a point equally distant from the ends

Theorem

180.

ment

is

of the segment.

OP

Hypothesis:

the perpendicular

is

of

bisector

the

segment AB.

OP

Conclusion:

from

and

Every point

I.

is,

in

OP

Every point that


OP.

II.

in

the locus of a point equally distant

is

that

The

analysis

is

and the proof

is

equally distant from

equally distant from

and B,

and

lies

for I are left to the pupil.

Analysis and construction Jor II:


1.

2.

3.

Let

be a point such that

QA=QB.

To prove that Q lies in OP, join Q and 0, the mid-point


of AB, and prove that QO and OP coincide.
To prove that QO and OP coincide, show that both
QO and OP are perpendicular bisectors oi AB.

Let the pupil complete the analysis and give the proof.

two points are each equally distant from the


extremities of a segment, the line passing through these
points is the perpendicular bisector of the segment.
181.

Cor.

Suggestion.

If

Show

that the two given points must both

perpendicular bisector.

lie

on the

PLANE GEOMETRY

148

Prove the following by Th. 86 and Cor.


Ex.

1.

The

diagonals of a rhombus or of a square bisect

each other at right angles.


Ex.

Ex.

2.

One diagonal

3.

If

two

common

dicular bisector of the

Ex.
centers

of a kite bisects the other at right angles.

circles intersect, the line of centers is

a perpen-

chord.

If two equal circles intersect, the segment joining the


and the common chord bisect each other at right angles.

4.

Ex. 5. The perpendicular bisector of a chord passes through


the center of the circle.

Ex.

6.

radius to the mid-point of an arc

the perpen-

is

dicular bisector of the chord of the arc.

Two

tangents to a circle where the center is O interProve that OX is the perpendicular bisector of
the chord joining the points of contact of the two tangents.

Ex.

7.

sect at point

X.

OTHER SIMPLE LOCI


183.

Find the

loci

called for in the following exercises;

and

give complete proof for each as for Ths. 85

Find the locus

of a point

which

86.

is

Ex.

1.

Ex.

2.

At a given distance from a given point.


At a given distance from a given straight

Ex.

3.

Equally distant from

two given

line.

parallels.

CONCURRENT LINES
183.

The two

following exercises are preliminary and

be quoted as theorems in proving Ths. 87 and


Ex.

1.

may

89.

Lines that are perpendicular to intersecting straight

lines will intersect.

Suggestion.

Use an

the given intersecting


ii

AC and BC

were

indirect proof.

lines.

parallel,

AD

and

DB

are

A and B. Show that.


Z1+ Z2 would equal two

Join

right angles (Fig. 266).

Ex.

2.

The

bisectors of

triangle will intersect.

any two angles

of

Fig. 266

LOCI

149

The perpendicular bisectors of the


184. Theorem 87.
sides of a triangle are concurrent at a point which is equally
distant from the vertices.

Fig. 267

AABC

is any triangle.
Lines
Hypothesis:
of
bisectors
are the perpendicular
AB, EC, and

and

x, y,

AC

respec-

tively.

Conclusion:

x, y,

and

z are

concurrent at a point equally

distant from the vertices.

Analysis:
I.

To prove
a.
b.

x, y, and z concurrent, prove


That x and y intersect at some point, as
That the intersection of x and y is on z.

0.

IL To prove that the intersection of x and y is on


is equally distant from A and C.
prove that
III.

equally distant from

prove

.'.

and

and B,

also

from

C.

Proof:

STATEMENTS
I.

IL

X and y intersect at some point, as at 0.


a. X is locus of points equally distant from
b.
O is equally distant from A and B.

and B.

.'.

III. a.
b.

IV.
'

V.

.'.

is

locus of points equally distant from


is equally distant from
and C.

O is

equally distant from

a. z is locus of points
b.

.'.

C.

C.

and C.

equally distant from

O is on z.

Let the pupil give the reasons.


11

B and

.:

and

z,

PLANE GEOMETRY

150

Theorem

The

88.

altitudes of a triangle are concurrent.

Fig. 268

Hypothesis:

AABC

altitudes to sides

Conclusion:

is

any

triangle,

AB, EC, and CA

x, y,

and

x, y,

and

are the

respectively.

z are concurrent.

Analysis: To prove x, y, and z conctirrent, construct


through A, B, and C lines parallel to the opposite sides of
and prove that x, y, and z are the perpendicular

AABC

bisectors of the sides of the triangle so formed.

Let the pupil put in the construction, complete the analysis, and
give the proof.
185. Theorem 89.
The bisectors of the angles of a triangle are concurrent at a point equally distant from the
sides of the triangle.

AABC

is any triangle,
Hypothesis:
AA, B, and C respectively.

Conclusion:

x, y,

and

distant from the sides.

x, y,

z are concurrent at

and

z bisect

a point equally

LOCI

161

Analysts:

To prove

I.

a.
b.

x, y, and z concurrent, prove


That x and y intersect at some point, as
That the intersection of x and y is on z.

To prove

11.

that the intersection of x and y is on z,


and BC.
O is equally distant from

prove that
III.

prove that O is equally distant from


from AB and

.*.

Problem

186.

The

This

12.

problem

To circumscribe a
has

been

discussion here should be based

Problem

AC
AC and

AB,

^C

also

angle.
Note.

at O.

13.

To

circle

elsewhere

discussed

upon Th.

about a

tri-

(139).

87.

inscribe a circle in a given triangle.

Fig. 270

Given

To

AABC.

inscribe a circle in

AABC.

Analysis and constmction:


I.

To

construct a circle inscribed in

a
II.

/.

III.

.'.

circle

AABC,
AABC.

construct

find a point, such as O, so situated that perpendiculars from O to the sides, such as OE, OF, and

OG, are

IV.

tangent to the sides of

radii.

construct

To prove

the perpendiculars radii, prove

them

equal.

Let the pupil give the directions and the proof.


Exercise.

and to two

circle

extended

Construct a

circle

tangent to one side of a triangle

sides extended.

tangent to one side of a triangle and to two sides


said to be escribed to the triangle.

is

PLANE GEOMETRY

152

DETERMINATION OF POINTS BY THE


INTERSECTION OF LOCI
187.

Give analysis, directions, proof, and discussion for

the following exercises.


Ex. L Find in a given
from two given points.

line

a point that

is

equally distant

A nalysis:
I.

II.

Let

represent the given line and

A and B

the given points.

find a point in Hne / equally distant from A and B, find the


intersection of line / with the locus of points equally distant

To

from

and B.

Let the pupil give the directions and the proof.


Discussion:

How many

points can be found as required?


special positions of the given line or the given points
that will alter the results? Give all reasons.

Are there any

Find

in a given line a point that

is

At a given distance from a given point.


Equally distant from two given parallel

Ex.

2.

Ex.

3.

Ex.

4.

Ex.

5.

lines.

At a given distance from a second given line.


Equally distant from two given intersecting lines.

In the preceding five problems the required point must


not only be in a given line, but must also fulfill a second
requirement which calls for the construction of a locus. In
the problems that follow, the construction of two loci are
necessary in order to determine the point. The analysis
should state clearly what loci are needed. We have seen
that the intersection of two straight lines locates a point
and that the intersection of a straight line and a circle
locates

two

lines, it is

points.

As some

two straight
more than one point that

loci consist of

often possible to find

fulfills the requirements.


The pupil should begin by drawing a figure to illustrate the maximum number of points
possible, and after giving the analysis with the directions

for the construction

draw

and the proof he should discuss and

figures for all special cases.

LOCI
Ex.

6.

153

Find a point which is at a given distance from a


C and at the same time equally distant from

given point

two given points A and B.

A nalysis:
I. To find

all points that are at a given distance from point C,


construct the locus of

To

II.

find all points equally distant

from

A and

B, construct the

locus of
III.

construct

.'.

Let the pupil give definite directions for the construction, also the
proof and the discussion.

Ex.

7.

Points

may

be found which

will fulfill

any two

of the

following requirements:
a. Be at a given distance (1>2 in.) frbm a given point.
h. Be at a given distance (1>^ in.) from a given line.
c.

d.
e.

Be equally
Be equally
Be equally

two given points.


two given parallel lines.
from two given intersecting lines.

distant from
distant from
distant

State and solve problems


requirements given above.

made by combining

into pairs the

LOCI OF CENTERS OF CIRCLES


DETERMINATION OF THE LOCI
188.

In the determination of the

loci of centers of circles,

we may think of a circle as changing.


number of circles of the same radius tangent to line
circles

I.

A great many more such


We might,

Fig. 271

shows a

(^^TT^T^^fHT^'T^

might be drawn.

however, consider these as various positions of one circle which rolls or slides
along the line. In the same way in Fig.

Fig. 27]

272 a number of
to

AB

circles are shown tangent


and AC\ but we might consider

them as various positions of one- circle


which expands and contracts as it rolls
or slides between AB and AC.

Fig. 272

154

'

PLANE GEOMETRY

Find the locus called for in each of the following


and give complete proof for each.
Ex. 1. ^Find the locus of the centers of
tangent to the sides of an angle.
I.

To

find the locus, sketch in a

sides of the given angle

To prove

II.

a.

ZA

number
.

Every

The

be the locus.

AX is the required locus, prove that


point in AX may be the center of a circle
AB

and A

C,

tangent

and

toAB and A C lies in AX.

AX may be considered as the path of a circle that

expands and contracts as

AB

of circles tangent to the

AX

center of every circle tangent

III. Discussion.

which are

that

to the sides of the angle,


b.

Let

circles

exercises

it rolls

or slides between the rays

and AC.

Find the locus of the center

of a circle

which

Ex.

2.

Ex.

3.

Ex.

4.

tangent to each of two intersecting lines.


Passes through two given points.
Is tangent to a given line at a given point.

Ex.

5.

Is

Ex.

6.

Is

Ex.

7.

tangent to a given line and has a given radius.


tangent to a given circle at a given point.
Is tangent to a given circle and has a given radius.

Ex.

8.

Passes through a given point and has a given radius.

Is

CONSTRUCTION OF CIRCLES
189.

Make

exercises.

section of

Ex.
line at

Ex.

the constructions called for in the

follov^^ing

The
two

center of the required circle is the interloci.


The discussion is often interesting.

Construct a circle that shall be tangent to a given


a given point and pass through a second given point.
1.

Construct a

2.

circle

tangent to the sides of an angle and

to one of these sides at a given point.

Ex.

3.

circle at

Construct a circle that shall be tangent to a given


a given point and pass through a second given point.

Construct a
Ex.

circle of

Be tangent

given radius that shall

to each of

two given

intersecting lines.

Pass through a given point and be tangent to a given


or to a siven circle.

Ex.
line

4.
5.

LOCI

155

SUPPLEMENTARY EXERCISES
EXERCISES INVOLVING CONCURRENT LINES

To

190.

the tests for concurrent lines given in this chapter

should be added Th. 49, given in chapter

iv.

Each triangle has four sets of concurrent lines. The


intersection of each set has a special name as shown below.

The medians

I.

centroid or center of gravity

II. Perpendicular bisectors of the sides

III.

The

circumcenter
orthocenter

altitudes

incenter

IV. Bisectors of the angles


to prove the theorems
Review Th. 49.

on which any of the

incenter, circumcenter,

and orthocenter of
do you know con-

Be prepared

Note.

following exercises depend.

The

1.

centroid,

an equilateral

triangle coincide.

What

facts

cerning this point?

the medians

that

ABC

In Fig. 273,

2.

AYf BZy and

XYZ

CX

is

an

equilateral triangle.

are equal distances laid off on

AF^ BG, and

CE

respectively.

Prove
"

'

is

an

equilateral triangle.

Fig'' 273

ZA

AC

AB

and
equal distances
laid off, perpendiculars erected to the sides of the angle at
C will intersect on the bisector of ZA.
on the

3. If

sides of

are

B and

4. The bisector of two exterior angles of a triangle and of the


opposite interior angle are concurrent.
5.

The medians and

6.

Construct

A = 7.S

cm.,

Suggestion.
7.

A ABC,

given

^5 = 5.8

and the median from

cm., the median from

= 6.4

J5

cm.

See Th. 49.

Construct

the median from


8.

diagonals of a square are concurrent.

Construct

A ABC,
A

given AC,

AB, and

(Fig. 274).

A ABC,

given

the

three

medians.
Suggestion.

by means

^.

fy"
of

Reduce
Th. 49.

this exercise to the preceding

^
Fig. 274

PLANE GEOMETRY

156

EXERCISES INVOLVING CONSTRUCTION OF CIRCLE3


Notice (1) that a circle can be circumscribed about
a polygon if there is a point equally distant from the vertices, that is, if the perpendicular bisectors of the sides are
191.

concurrent, and (2) that a circle can be inscribed in a polygon if there is a point equally distant from the sides, that
is, if the bisectors of the angles are concurrent.
Construct a

1.

circle of

two given points.


2. Given the base
the circumscribed
3.

Can a

given radius that shall pass through

an isosceles triangle and the radius of


to construct the triangle.
be passed through four arbitrary points?
of

circle,

circle

Why?
4.

When

triangle

will the

meet on one

perpendicular bisectors of the sides of a

meet within the triangle?


triangle?

When will they


they meet without the

of the sides of the triangle?

When,

will

Why?

Can a

circle be circumscribed about a parallelogram?


In case the circumscribed circle is possible, give
In case the circumscribed circle
analysis, directions, and proof.
is not possible, show why.
5.

a. rectangle?

Answer the questions

6.

and

for

7.

How many

circles

three intersecting lines?


8.

Can a

trary lines?
9.

in Ex.

5 for an

isosceles trapezoid

a trapezoid.

circle

can be constructed tangent to each of


Discuss

all

possible cases.

be constructed tangent to each of three arbi-

Discuss

all

possible cases.

Inscribe a circle in a given rhombus.

a circle in a given kite.


Circumscribe about a given circle an isosceles

10. Inscribe

11.

right triangle.
12.

Construct in

13.

Prove that the center of the

full Fig. 275.

Fig. 275

equilateral triangle

is

circle

circumscribed about an

also the center of the inscribed circle.

LOCI

157

Construct the inscribed, the circumscribed, and the three

14.

Prove that the radius


escribed circles of an equilateral triangle.
of the inscribed circle is ^4 the radius of the circumscribed circle

and

}4 the radius of the escribed circles.

15. Make the complete drawing for the


molding shown in Fig. 276. The arc ^40 is
tangent to line AX at A. The arc BO is

^t

tangent to line BY at B. Both arcs pass


through O, the mid-point of segment AB.
Are the arcs AO and BO tangent to each other?

Note.

Compound

curves

B
Fig. 276

may be made from

tangent circles as shown in Fig. 277. These may


be used for moldings as shown in Fig. 276, or for
other architectural details.

/^'
p

V.J

277

Show by a complete drawing how to construct


Two diagonal streets meet at A. The corner building

Fig. 278-

16.

has a front that

is an arc of a circle of a given radius


tangent to each of the streets. If Z /I is 60 and the
radius of the circle 50 ft., what will be the length of
AB and BC d B and C are the points of tangency?

sector of a circle

is

a figure bounded

Fig. 278

by two

radii

and

the subtended arc.


17.

Construct a

circle inscribed in

a sector of a given

circle.

c
18. Fig.

Z A CB
of

is

ZC.

sides of

a right angle.

A DB

Construct the small

ZC

279 shows a decorated rafter design.


is

tangent to the sides

circle

tangent to the

and to ADB.

Fig. 279

280 shows a decorated tile design. ABCD\


a square with its diagonals. Construct (D O and
19. Fig.

is

O' inscribed

in the

A A DC

and

Construct the quadrants with


and 0'.
tangent to (D

Note.

The

ABC

respectively.
as centers

A and C

p^^

possibilities of this figure as

by drawing several figures of the same


them together in various positions.

a design unit

size, like Fig.

may

280,

280

be seen

and placing

PLANE GEOMETRY

158

is

20. Fig. 281 shows a window and rafter


O
Construct
isosceles right triangle.

ABC

an

inscribed in

A ABC

and

(D

and

the sides of the triangle and to

Y tangent

to

0.
Fig. 281

21. Inscribe a trefoil in a given circle (Fig. 282).

The

Note.
large circle

three small circles are tangent to the

and to each

other.

Fig. 282

Show how

22.

to construct circles which

are tangent to each of

Any

23.

two concentric

circles.

point in the perpendicular bisec-

tor of the segment joining the centers of two


equal circles may be used as the center of a
.

tangent to each of the two given


Use various positions of the two given

circle

The perpendicular

Note.
in Ex.

23

bisector

circles.
circles.

mentioned

a part of the locus of the center of


a circle tangent to each of two equal circles. The
remainder of the locus is beyond the province
of elementary geometry, but may be readily
found by experiment.
24.

is

In Fig. 283,

DF

and

BC

are concen-

with point A as center. DE and A C are


concentric with point B as center. DF and
DE are tangent at D. AD = DB. AF and

tric

BE

are

drawn with

as radius.

Construct

as center

and

J/2

AB

tangent to AC,

BC, FD, and DE.

_25. In

Fig. 284,

A ABC

is

equilateral.

Fig. 283 a

AB,

BC, and AC are drawn with AB as radius and


C, A and B as centers respectively. Construct
O tangent to AB, BC, and AC.
,

Note.

Fig. 284

is

from a church window design.

Fig. 284

LOCI

159

MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES
What

192. 1.

is

the locus of the mid-points of

all

equal chords

of a circle?
2.

What

is

the locus of the mid-points of a series of parallel

chords?
3. What is the locus of the mid-points of segments drawn from
a given point to a given line?

t4.

Find

the

locus

of

the

vertices

given base and a given vertex angle.


given angle is a right angle?

of

What

triangles having a
is this locus if the

Construct a triangle, given


5. The base, the vertex angle,
tex to the base.
6.

The

base, the vertex angle,

and the

7.

The

base, the vertex angle,

and one base

8.

The

base, the vertex angle,

9.

Find the locus of the mid-points of segments drawn to the


from a fixed point (a) without the circle, (b) on the circle,

circle

within the

(c)

and the median from the ver-

altitude.

and one

angle.

side.

circle.

circle of radius 5 inches contains a moving chord AB,


8
inches, which is divided into four equal parts by the
length
Determine the loci of P, Q, and R. College Enpoints P, Q, R.
trance Examination Board, Plane Geometry Examination, 1913.
10.

11.

series

of parallelograms stand on the same base and


Find the locus of the intersection
parallels.

between the same


of the diagonals.
12.

are

From any

drawn

point in the base of a triangle straight lines


Find the locus of the intersection

parallel to the sides.

of the diagonals of all the parallelograms that

of

can be thus formed.

13. Find the locus of the points at which two equal segments
a straight line subtend equal angles.

PLANE GEOMETRY

160

Find the locus

14.

of the extremities of tangents to

circle

that have the same length.


15.

circle

Find the locus


meet at a given

of points

from which tangents to a given

angle.

Find the locus of points of contact of


tangents drawn from a fixed point to a system
16.

of concentric circles.

Construct a series of

17.

each

other

at

the

circles

same point

tangent to
(Fig.

285).

Find the locus of points of contact of tangents


drawn to these circles from any point in the

common
18.

tangent.

Two

Fig. 285

tangent to a given straight line at


are also tangent to each other.
Find
circles are

two given

points and
the locus of points of tangency of the two circles.

Let A and B he the two given


the point of tangency of the two circles.
Prove that CO is always equal to 14 A B (Fig. 286).
Suggestion.

points,

19.

In Fig. 287,

AACB

is

a right triangle with

the right angle at C. BCDE is the square constructed on side BC. Find the locus of the vertex

D asC moves about the semicircle BCA Use Ex


20. Upon a line segment AB an arc of a
.

Fig. 287

circle

containing
constructed and in the arc any chord CD having an arc
of 60 is drawn.
Find the locus (a) of the point of intersection oi AC and BD, (b) of the point of intersection oi
and BC.

240

is

College

AD

Entrance Examination Board, Plane Geometry Exami-

nation, 1906.
21. Let A and B be two fixed points on a given circle and P
and Q the extremities of a variable diameter of the same circle.
Find the locus of the point of intersection of the straight lines AP
and BQ. College Entrance Examination Board, Plane Geometry

Examination, 1908.
22.

From a

bisected

by

given point on a circle draw the chords that are


a given, chord. Is it always possible to draw such

Give reasons for your answer. College Entrance Examination Board, Plane Geometry Examination, 1907.

chords?

CHAPTER IX
Ratio and Proportion

MEASUREMENT OF SEGMENTS
193.

that

it

To measure a

segilient

is

number of times
taken as a unit.

to find the

contains another segment which

is

In measuring the segment two methods are possible. By the first


is actually laid down successively on the segment to

method the unit

be measured. This method might be used in finding the length


of a room if nothing but a yardstick were at hand.
By the second
method another segment, upon which the unit and its subdivisions
are already marked, is laid beside the segment to be measured.

The number found

is

measure number, the

called the

measure, or the length of the segment.


194.

segment

is

said to be

measured exactly

if it

will

contain the unit without remainder.

segment that

is

not measured exactly

may

be measured

approximately.

In considering the theoretical measurement of segments

we have

the following cases:

The unit chosen may be contained in the given


remainder. The length of the segment is
without
segment
The segment is measured exactly.
an
then
integer.
First:

If the unit chosen is a segment of one inch, it may


Illustration 1.
be contained in a given segment 5 times with no remainder. The
length of the given segment is 5.

Second: The unit chosen may not be contained in the


given segment without remainder. In such cases it may
happen that some fraction of the unit can be found that
will

measure the segment exactly.


161

If

one inch

is

the unit

PLANE GEOMETRY

162

chosen, 3^ in., J^ in., 34 in., or .1 in. may be used. If such


a unit can be found, the segment is said to be measured
tn such a case the length will be an integer when
exactly,

expressed in terms of the new unit, but a fraction when


expressed in terms of the old unit. In either case the seg-

ment has been measured

exactly.

chosen is one inch, it may be contained


in a given segment 7 times with a remainder less than one inch; but
when 3^ inch is chosen as a unit the measure may come out exactly 31.
The length is 31 quarter-inches, or 7% in.; or
Illustration 2.

If the unit

Illustration 3.
The unit chosen, one inch, may be contained in a
given segment 3 times with a remainder less than one inch; a smaller
unit, .1 in,, maybe contained in the segment 32 times with a remainder
less than .1 in.; a still smaller unit, .01 in., may be contained in the

segment 324 times with a remainder less than .01 in.; but the unit
.001 in. may be contained exactly 3247 times.
The length of the segment is 3247 thousandths of an inch, or, as it is usually written, 3.247 in.

Third: It may happen that no subdivision of the unit


can be found that will measure the segment exactly. In
such a case we may obtain an approximate measure. By
subdividing the unit used the approximation may be made
as close as desired.
Illustration 4.
The unit chosen, one inch, may be contained in the
given segment 5 times with a remainder less than one inch. In this
case 5 would be an approximate length of the segment.
If we choose .1
in. as a unit, it may be contained in the given segment 56 times with a

remainder

less

than

.1 in.

We now

have 5.6

in.

But if we should choose .01 in. as a unit,


length.
closer approximation.
It might happen that .01 in.

as an approximate

we could

get a

still

would be contained
in the segment 562 times with a remainder less than .01 in.
The
approximate length is now 5.62 in. This process might be continued
indefinitely.

195. In actual practice an exact measurement can never


be obtained. We cannot be sure that a segment is exactly
7 in. or 7J4 in. long. In trying to measure the segment, the
end will fall between two marks on the scale. Either of
these gives an approximation to the length of the segment,
one a little too small and one a little too large. It is the

RATIO AND PROPORTION

'

163

usual practice to use the nearest one as the approximate


length of the segment. Often extremely close approximations are necessary, but the degree of accuracy depends

upon the fineness of the scale used and the definiteness of


the end of the segment to be measured.
Draw a segment 3)4 in. long. Measure it in centimeters
Ex. 1
and millimeters. Make two approximate measures, one as close
.

as possible but a
a little too large.

little

too small, the other as close as possible but


result compute the number of centi-

From each

meters to an inch and the number of inches to a centimeter. Compare your result with the government standard equivalent (p 300)
Ex. 2. Draw a segment 5.6.cm. long. Make two approximate
.

measures of this segment

From your

make

results

and sixteenths

in inches

of

an

the computations called for in Ex.

inch.
.

RATIOS
DEFINITIONS

two numbers is the relation expressed


by dividing one number by the other. The ratio of a to 6
a :b or|-. It is read the ratio of
is written in two forms
are
numbers
a to b. Two
involved, the first term or divithe
antecedent, and the second term or
dend, also called*
196.

The

ratio of

divisor, also called the consequent.

say that the ratio of 12 to 4 is 3, or ^ = 3, we


that 12 is 3 times 4; when we say that the ratio of a
to b is r, or -J =r, we mean that a is r times 6, or a = br.

When we

mean

The quotient
It is

the

sometimes called the value of the ratio.


practice to use the term ratio to mean

r is

common

either the indicated relation

or 3.

or the quotient r; either ^


-f
In any case the two numbers or terms a and b are

always involved.

Two ratios

that have the same value are said to be equal.

Exercise. Express the following ratios in decimals of three places


5^

45

12

_3

9'

27'

59'

25'

19'

24'

44'

PLANE GEOMETRY

164

RATIO OF SEGMENTS

By the ratio of two segments is meant the ratio of


measures when expressed in the same unit.

197.

their

Exercise.
Draw two segments, one 2 cm. and one 3 cm. long.
Measure each in inches and sixteenths of an inch or in inches
and tenths of an inch. Find an approximate ratio.
198. Two segments are said to be commensurable if they
can be measured exactly by a common unit of measure.
Two segments are said to be incommensurable if there is
no common unit that will measure each exactly. We shall
later prove that the side and the diagonal of a square are
incommensurable. If the side of a square is one inch, the
diagonal is V2~ inches, an irrational number.

An irrational number is a number that cannot


as

be expressed

an integer or as the quotient of two integers.


The ratio of two commensurable segments is an integer

or a fraction.

The

ratio of

tional

number.

two incommensurable segments

Other illustrations of incommensurables


especially may be mentioned:

will

is

an

be met

irra-

later.

Two
1.

The

side of

an equilateral triangle and the altitude

of

the same triangle are incommensurable.


2.

The diameter

of a circle

circumference of the
Note.

is

incommensurable with the

circle.

The nature

to irrational

are rational

of the decimals that correspond to rational and


numbers is interesting and should be noted. Fractions
and when reduced to decimals give decimals that either

terminate or repeat, for example:

He = -0625

K = .1666+

>^
or .16

= .333+

or

.3

H = .142857142857

or .1-12857

on the other hand, give decimals which neither


terminate nor repeat. An inexact root like V2~or V 3" is an irrational
number, but not the only kind of an irrational number. Another
example is the number called T (pi) (see 298, 301, and 311).
Irrational numbers,

RATIO AND PROPORTION

165

ASSUMPTIONS INVOLVING RATIOS


The

following assumptions will be used; As. 56


fundamental characteristic of ratios:
the
expresses
As. 56. Multiplying or dividing both terms of a ratio by
199.

the

same number does not change the value of the ratio.


Ratios equal to the same ratio are equal.

As. 57.
As. 58.

Equal ratios

may be

substituted for equal ratios.

THEORY OF PROPORTION
^

DEFINITIONS
200.

proportion

an equality of ratios; that is, if two


numbers involved are in proportion.
be written in two forms, a:b = c:d or
is

ratios are equal, the four

may

proportion

r- = t' and

is

read, a

is

to 6 as

<;

is

to d, or the ratio a to 6

equals the ratio c to d. The extremes of the proportion are


a and d. The means are b and c.

Since in dealing with ratios we are dealing with numbers,


the laws of algebraic equations apply to proportions.

Find the value of x

Exercise.

^'

in each of the following:


""

55~64

FUNDAMENTAL THEOREMS OF PROPORTION


201.

Theorem

90.

the product of the


extremes.

The

proof

is left

If

four

means

is

numbers are

in proportion,
the
to
product of the
equal

to the pupil.

If the product of two numbers equals the


91.
two
other
numbers, either pair of factors may be
product of
and the other pair the means of a
extremes
made the

Theorem

proportion.

Hypothesis:
Suggestion.

12

ay = bx.

Conclusion:

Divide both sides of ay = bx by

-r =
by.

PLANE GEOMETRY

166

Given ay = bx,prove- = X

Ex.1.

= -and

-7

Ex.

= -.

Derive at least two proportions from each of the

2.

following equations:
a. ab = xy
b.

-^

aia+b)=:x(x+y)

Theorem

92.

(x^y) = ab
{a-1) {x+l) = {a-{-l) (x-l)

c.

{x-\-y)

d.

three terms of one proportion are equal

If

respectively to three corresponding terms- of another proportion, the fourth

Hypothesis:

The proof

-t

terms are equal.

= - and

-r

=-

>

x = y.

Conclusion:

to the pupil.

is left

TRANSFORMATIONS OF PROPORTIONS
202.

the
is,

Theorem

93.

four

If

they are in proportion by

Hypothesis:
Suggestion.

Theorem

numbers are

the third as the second

first is to

by
If

=
X

= bx;

then use Th. 91.

numbers are

four

in proportion,

the fourth; that

alternation.

Conclusion:

First prove that ay

94.

mean

is to

fourth is to the second as the third

in proportion, the

the

is to

first;

that

is,

they are in proportion by extreme alternation.


Hypothesis:

= -

Conclusion:

by

^b = a

'

Let the pupil give the proof.

Theorem
second

is to

95.

If

the

four

first

numbers are

as the fourth

in proportion, the

is to

the third; that

is,

they are in proportion by inversion.


Hypothesis:

by

Conclusion:

_-=-2_.

ax

Let the pupil give the proof.


Ex.

1.

Verify proportion
28 15
8

..
and mversion

^ri

j^

^^

by mean and extreme


9

^, and

a2

-^

= ac
y^^

alternation

RATIO AND PROPORTION


Theorem

96.

If

four

numbers are

167

in proportion, the

plus the second is to the second as the third plus the


fourth is to the fourth; that is, they are in proportion byfirst

addition.

This

is

sometimes called proportion by compo-

sition.

Hypothesis:

Conclusion:

PLANE GEOMETRY

168

Ex.

4.

a-\-b
a.

b.

li

-r =

prove each of the following:

RATIO AND PROPORTION

169

Verification:
I.

Let the

common

AB

BC be

c.

unit of measure of segments


segment p.
Let the measure of AB = m. (In the figure m = 3.)
Let the measure of BC = n. (In the figure w = 4.)

d.

The

a.

b.

II. a.

and

ratio of f77^=

BC

The Hnes

the figure
(In
^
*=*

= -t'^
w

CZ divide XY into m equal


YZ into n equal segments (Th. 45).
segments may be taken as the unit

parallel to

segments and
b.

One
of

c.

III.

.*.

^^
The

of these

ratio

1.

For

Note

2.

Since

YZ.

-rr^='
YZ n

the ratio of

Note

YZ

XY and
.XY m
of

measure oi

-^^

d and II

the ratio of

c see 197,

we assume

y-y

the ratio of two segments.

number of divisions on X F and


number of divisions on AB and BC,

that the

are respectively equal to the

the formal reasoning above has been called a verification rather than a
proof.

Case B: When AB and BC are incommensurable. Since


not possible in this case to express the lengths oi AB
and BC in integral or fractional terms of the same unit,
the argument given for Case A cannot be used. Case
B will be assumed without proof. The proof is possible,
but too difficult for this course.

it is

In the next six exercises the letters refer to Fig. 288.

Ex.5.

AB = 7,
BC=9, XF = 17K,
=
AB 12, XF=15, FZ= 18,
AB = S, BC=yl2,XY = 5,
AB = 3}^, BC=IK YZ = 7,
AB = 2^J^,XY = 5, FZ = 7,

Ex.

BC=2.3,

Ex.1.
Ex.2.
Ex.3.
Ex.4.

G.

XF = 5.7, FZ = 9,

find

FZ.

find

5C.

find

YZ.

find

XF.

find

5C.

find .45.

PLANE GEOMETRY

170

APPLICATION OF THEOREM

Theorem

204.

99.

If

a line

98

TO TRIANGLES

is parallel to

the base of a

triangle, the ratio of the segments on one side equals the


ratio of the corresponding segments on the other side.

Cor.

If

a line

the base of a triangle, one


segments as the other side is to its

is parallel to

side is to either of

its

corresponding segment.
Suggestion.

Ex.

1.

Use Th.

In Fig. 289 prove that

^=^
CE be'
Ex.

2.

96.

A-^

9A-9R

cb~eb' cb~ce'

Prove Th. 99

if

the parallel cuts the

Fig 289

sides of the triangle extended.

Ex. 3. Verify Th. 98 and Th. 99 and its cor-, by measuring


each of the segments in Figs. 288 and 289 in inches and sixteenths
(or tenths) of an inch, also in centimeters
finding the ratios from the measurements.

and

millimeters,

In the next eight exercises the letters refer to Fig. 289.

Ex.4.
Ex.5.

CD = S}^, DA = 3H,

CE = 2}4,

find

5.

and

RATIO AND PROPORTION

171

EQUAL RATIO TEST FOR PARALLELS


Theorem 100. If a line divides the sides

205.

of a trione segment as a second side


corresponding segment, the line is parallel to the

angle so that one side


is to its

is to

third side of the triangle.

Fig. 291

AABC

Hypothesis:

is

any

triangle with

DE

so

drawn

CB

CA

DE

Conclusion:

AB.

\\

Analysis and construction:

To prove DE AB, prove


line AB,

I.

that

\\

DE

coincides with a

II

II.

construct

.*.

DX

coincides with

To prove

III.

E falls

that

from

D AB
||

and prove that

DE

DX.

DE

coincides with

DX, prove

that

on X.

E falls on X, prove that CE = CX.


CA _CB
CA_CB
M
u
that.rT7
CE = r^
and
V. To prove ,u
CX, show
To prove

IV.

that

rr.

t^

The

proof

Cor.

If

ratio of the

is left

to the pupil.

For

Yy)

'rx'

use Th. 92.

a Hne divides the sides of a triangle so that the


segments on one side is equal to the ratio of the

segments on the other, the

line is parallel to the third side

of the triangle.
Exercise.

If

base?

Give proof,

a trapezoid
the line be parallel to the

line divides the non-parallel sides of

into segments having the

same

ratio, will

PLANE GEOMETRY

172

CONSTRUCTION OF PROPORTIONAL SEGMENTS


206. Ex. 1.
By algebra divide 120 into parts that shall be

in

the ratio of 7:8.

Ex.

2.

Using Prob.

Ex.

3.

By

in the ratio of 4, 5,

Problem

7, 111, find

^f of a given segment.

algebra divide 144 into three parts that shall be

and

To

14.

9.

divide a segment into two segments


ratio as two given segments.

same

that shall be in the

Fig. 292

XY

the given segment, show how to construct


Suggestion.
h k
the figure so that you can prove that = t"
Segments lettered alike
If

is

'

are equal.

Give proof.

Problem

To

15.

proportional to

divide a given segment into segments

any number

of given segments.

Y^

;i

Z'

Fig. 293

Suggestion.

It is

..

Ex.

4.

necessary to construct the figure so that you

.h = k = n

-7-

can prove that


a

Show

"

that Prob. 15

may

be solved as follows (Fig. 294)


From
A draw ray / and from B draw m\\l.
Lay off the given segments on / and 7n
:

as

shown

pomts

in the figure

of division.

and

a
c

J---

join the
Fig. 294

RATIO AND PROPORTION

173

CONSTRUCTION OF FOURTH PROPORTIONALS


207. Ex.

Given three segments

1.

a,

and

b,

fourth segment x so that -7 = - (Fig. 295).


^ *
Suggestion.

The

construction

Th. 99. How are the segments


off on the sides of Z 0?

Ex.

a, b,

and

Ex.

o^*:::

3.
a:?

Do any of
Why?

a = b
c

^i.

c laid

,
^

pj^

295

so

-be
= -, so that- = -, so that -b = aax
ex
ax

value for

Using the three segments given

2.

in Fig.
^ 295,' construct x so that

that

based on

is

construct a

c,

J.

so that-r =
*

ox~-

the figures called for in Ex. 2 give the

same

The fourth term of a proportion in which the other three


terms are the three given numbers taken in order is called
the fourth proportional to the three given numbers; for
if

example,
Ex.

b.

5a, 3a,

is

the fourth proportional to

a, b,

and

c.

Find the fourth proportional to

4.

a. 21, 5,

t=-,

and 4
and 2b

Problem

e.

To

16.

6H, 8Hj and 5


a+1, and Qa^

d. a,

e.

a+l,

f.

Qj^, 26,

a,

and a+4
and 35

construct a fourth proportional to three

given segments.
Analysts:

Let a, b, and c represent the given segments and x the


fourth proportional.

To

construct a foiuth proportional to

X so that

=-

a, 6,

and

c,

construct

(See Fig. 295.)

Using three given segments a, b, ,and c, find a fourth


Are the
a, c, and b; to b, c, and a; to c, a, and b.
words "in order" essential in the definition of the fourth proporEx.

5.

proportional to
tional?

Why?

PLANE GEOMETRY

174

Ex. 6. Find by geometry a fourth proportional to the segments


whose lengths are given below. In each case verify by measurement and computation.
a. 4.2 cm., 2.5 cm., 37 cm.

3.5 cm., 4.9 cm., 2.5 cm.


cm., 3.5 cm., 4.2 cm.

b.
c.

Ex.

If a, b,

7.

and

c represent three

fourth segment x so that {a) x=^-;

x=

(b)

given segments, find a

-;

(c)

x = %-b

MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES INVOLVING


RATIOS AND PARALLELS
208. 1. In

Fig. 296,

DF\\CB, prove that


ratio of

DF

CD = 1

^=

DE

If

3*

AB.

y^

DE\\AB and
What

the

is

to CJ5?

'f~^
Fig. 296

2.

shall

Construct between two sides of a triangle a segment that


be parallel to the third side and equal to
of the third side.

3.

If,

prove

in Fig. 297,

ED CB

and

\\

AD_AB AD_AB
^^-^^ AB-Jf'

^^^

CF EB,
\\

AB _AF
DB-Jp-

A nalysis:
To prove

the two ratios equal, prove

them each equal

to a third ratio.

4. A line is drawn through the intersection of the medians


a triangle cutting two of the sides of the triangle and parallel
to a third.
In what ratio are these sides divided? Why?

of

c
5.

In Fig. 298,

O is any

point within

A ABC,

A'B'\\AB from A', an arbitrary point in AO,


and intersects OB at B'
B'C BC from B' and
intersects OC at C. A' and
are joined. Prove
.

\\

that

^'C'MC.

6. Would Ex. 5 be true if point


the figure and give the proof.

^^^^^^
were outside

A^^C? Draw

RATIO AND PROPORTION


In Fig. 299,

7.

X is a point

on CO.

example,

(for

CA?

KH

Answer

\\

an arbitrary segment from


:r^

AB

to

equal to a given ratio

is

the locus of point

as

and
^

AB.

line

In Fig. 300,

8.

= liAB, and

If

^^), find

moves along the

to

CO is

175

is

OC.

the mid-point oi AB,


What is the ratio of

this question

\i

AK
CH

AK=% AB.

/^^ (f

Fig. 300

AD = CE,

AB = BC,
AC\\DE FG.

9. If, in Fig. 301,

BG, prove that


10.

and

FB^

\\

Prove by Th. 99 that

if

line is parallel to

the base of a triangle and bisects one side,


the other also.

it

bisects /^^V^f^
Fig. 301

11. Prove the converse of the theorem quoted in Ex. 10 by


Th. 100. Cor.
12.

Prove by Th. 98 that

trapezoid and bisects one side,


the converse of this be proved
13.

it

line is parallel to the bases of a


bisects the other side also.
Can

by proportion?

Given any angle and P, any point within it. Draw a line
P meeting the sides of the angle in two points M, N, such
= 2PN. College Entrance Examination Board, Plane

through
that

if

MP

Geometry Examination, 1912.


14. Show that a carpenter's steel square may be used to solve
problems in proportion. Fig. 302 shows a steel square graduated
to half-inches. ACD is a frame made of
two pieces of wood hinged at C. AC can
slide

on the long arm

a number x so that

=
9

16

that the outer edge of

arm

(12 half -inches)

of the square.

12

Place

Find

ACD

so

CD is on 6 on the long
and 4>^ on the short

Without changing the angle

p^^

3Q2

of adjustment of the frame,


to the left until the outer edge of CD passes
through 8 on the long arm. How is the value of x found? Why?

arm.

move the frame

PLANE GEOMETRY

176

SIMILAR TRIANGLES
I FOR SIMILAR TRIANGLES

TEST

209. Theorem 101.


If two triangles have the angles of
one respectively equal to the angles of the other, the corresponding sides have equal ratios.

AABC and ADEF are any


ZA=ZD, ZB=ZE, and ZC= ZF.
= = Conclusion
DE EF FD

Hypothesis:

two

triangles

with

Analysis and construction:


AT?

T^

To prove r-=,

I.

of
II.

.*.

use a line parallel to a third side

/\DEF.

/lABC upon ADEF with point B on point E,


DE, and BC along EF. Then prove

place

AB

along

A'a DF.
II

Let the pupil complete the analysis and give the proof.

T^
It IS

^
necessary also to prove
1

BC =
CA

FD
-

EF

If a and a', b and b', c and


mutually equiangular triangles, find

Exercise.
sides of
1.

^j'andc',

if

2.

yandc',
and c,

if

3. b

210.

it

o =12,
a =3M,
a

= lOH,

6=18,
6=4,
a'

= 16,

=24,

=5>i
= 20,

b'

Two polygons are said to be

c'

anda' = 20.
and a' = 25.
and c' = 27.

similar

a.

The

b.

Corresponding sides have equal

are corresponding

if

angles of one are equal to the corresponding


angles of the other and
ratios.

RATIO AND PROPORTION


Theorem 101

We

will state it

Theorem

177

gives us our first test for similar triangles.


formally as

102.

Two

mutually equiangular triangles are

Why?

similar.

popular language, similar figures have the same


shape. All enlargements and drawings to scale are practical

In

examples of similar
Ex.

1.

Prove that

Ex.

2.

Are

two

figures.
all

equilateral triangles are similar.

all isosceles

triangles similar?

Why?

When

are

isosceles triangles similar?


3.
If two isosceles triangles have equal vertex angles, the
have the same ratio as the bases.

Ex.
legs

4.

Are

Ex.

5.

Is

Ex.

6.

Construct two rectangles that are similar.

Ex.

two

all

right triangles
right triangles similar?

similar?

a square similar to a rectangle?

Why?

When

are

Why?

TESTS FOR EQUAL PRODUCTS AND EQUAL RATIOS

At the beginning of the course in geometry considwas spent on the use of congruent triangles in
proving segments and angles equal. So important is this
that when it is necessary to prove two segments equal we
211.

erable time

a pair of congruent triangles. In this


are studying especially equal ratios, which are
The tests for equal
just as important as equal segments.
ratios are as important as the tests for equal segments.
often look

chapter

When two
bilities

first for

we

ratios are to

be proved equal, the following possi-

must be considered:

A. Our fundamental methods for proving ratios equal are:


1.

2.

By
By

parallels and transversals.


similar triangles.

B. Before either of these mechods can be applied it is


often necessary to find a third ratio to which each of thei

given ratios can be proved equal.

PLANE GEOMETRY

178

The use

of similar triangles in proving ratios equal is of


The following considerations are

considerable importance.
often helpful
:

To

First:

select the

The

proper triangles:

definition of

have equal

similar figures says that corresponding sides


ratios.

then,

This gives

we

= 77
two

are to prove

and by alternation
c

ratios equal, say

-7-

ir

If.

77
e

we may

choose the triangles so that one of them shall have c and e


as sides and the other shall have d and / as sides, or so that
one of them shall have c and d as sides and the other shall

have e and / as sides that is so that the numerators shall


be sides of one triangle and the denominators sides of the
other, or so that the terms of one ratio shall be sides of one
triangle; and the terms of the other ratio sides of the other.
;

Second:

To

corresponding sides of a pair of


In Fig. 303 the triangles are so placed

select the

similar triangles:

that corresponding sides can be selected immediately by


When the triangles are not thus conveniently

inspection.

placed it is necessary to remember that corresponding sides


are always opposite equal angles. The corresponding sides
should be selected carefully from the equal angles as illustrated in the proof to Ex.

may be designated by
When it is required
of equal ratios may be

on p.

179.

Notice that equal angles


Z2 and Z2'.

the same numbers, as

two products equal, a pair


obtained from the equal products by
Th. 91 and the ratios proved equal as explained above.
Note.

If

to prove

we say that corresponding

a
equal ratios, the ratios should be read ~'

sides of similar triangles


b
'^

~y'

If>

however, we say that

corresponding sides of similar triangles are proportional,


either -^

= -77 or -?- = ^-

divided proportionally,

Similarly in Fig. 289

we may

or either of the forms in Ex.

if

have

we may

we say the

use

sides are

use the ratios given in Th. 99 and Cor.

1,

204.

RATIO AND PROPORTION

179

EXERCISES INVOLVING THE USE OF TEST


SIMILAR TRIANGLES

FOR

The diagonals of a trapezoid divide each other into


have the same ratio (see Fig. 304).
that
segments
212.

1.

Analysis:

To prove

X = y prove

ADOC equal y

the angles of

respectively to the angles of

^^^' ^O^

AOBA.

Proof:

STATEMENTS

Z1=Z1'.
Z2=Z2'.

1.

2.

ADOC=ZAOB.

3.

X (opposite Z2) _ y (opposite Zl)


z (opposite Z2')
zy (opposite Zl')

is any point in segment AB.


drawn through point O not perpenFrom A and B perpendiculars
dicular to AB.
are drawn meeting this line at points F and X.

In Fig. 305,

2.

Any

line is

A BCD

3.

line

a parallelogram with

is

drawn through

;,

'^"'^

intersecting

its

AC

diagonal

\^
j^

Fig, 305

BX

AC.

Y and ^D

at

at X.

is a
Prove

BY = BC
XY A-X
In Fig. 306, ABC is an isosceles triangle.
Prove that b^ = cm.

4.

Z 1 = Z 2.

y^^^^^
^^'.k..J^.B
F^c. 306

Analysis:
I.

y^

To prove

b^

= cm,

prove that -r=

tn

the product of two segments equals the square of a


third segment, the last segment is called a mean proporIf

tional

between the other two.

In Ex.

proportional between c and m.


or X = Va6,
5.

:!c

is

If

4,

h'^

= cm,

4, in

a mean

=-r' =iX^ = ab,


d
%
OC

a mean proportional between a and

Investigate the case, Fx.

is

which

AA

>

Z.C.

h.

Why

PLANE GEOMETRY

180

Z5

6. In Fig. 307, AABC is a right


DE is drawn AC from any point
AB 'AD = AE 'AC.

AB

on

Z.

rt.

Investigate the case, Ex. 6, in which point


extended.

7.
is

triangle with
in AB.
Prove

(.

Fig. 307

Investigate the case, Ex.


extended.
8.

6,

in

which point

is

on

BA

parallel sides of a trapezoid have the same


segments into which one diagonal is divided by the

Prove that the

9.

ratio as the

other.
c
10. In Fig. 308, AABC is isosceles and BX = BA.
Prove that c is a mean proportional between AC

^>

and AX,

11.

d09,CXAB

In Fig.

and

BYAC.

Prove

AC = CX

^,

^^^^AB
12,

BY'

In Fig. 309, prove that

BO BY=^BA

BX.

X B
Fig. 309

13. In Fig. 310, lines h and k are parallel and are


cut by the pencil of rays from point 0. Prove that
a _c

~b~l'
Suggestion.

Prove that each ratio

is

equal to a third
Fig. 310

ratio.

14.

What

ratios

on opposite sides
15.

with

would be equal

of point

In Fig. 311,

if

h and k (Fig. 310) were

O?

AABC is a right triangle


CDAB from C. Prove

Z C a right angle.

AACD^ACBD
spending

sides.

and read the

ratios of corre- ^.
Fig. 311

RATIO AND PROPORTION

181

a diameter of OO, BD tangent


from A cutting the circle
at E and the tangent at D.
Prove that AB \s2i mean
proportional between AE and AD.
a.t

AD

B.

any

is

is

line

In Fig. 312 draw BE.

17.

mean

^B

In Fig. 312,

16.

circle

proportional between

AE

Prove that

BE

is

and ED.

In Fig. 313, CZ) is a diameter perpendicular to


Prove that ^C is a mean proportional

18.

chord AB.

between

tional

CE

and CD.

In Fig. '313 prove that /IE

19.

between

20. In Fig.

is

a mean propor-

and ED.

313 prove that

Fig. 313

CE-ED = AE^EB.

The

cross-section of a street surface

circle;

the distance from curb to curb

21.

of

CE

is

the arc

is

30

ft.;

the rise of the center of the street above the gutter


7 inches. What is the radius of the circle?
22. In Fig. 314,

XF ^5 and FZ
II

II

is

BC. Prove that


Fig. 314

b~l'
23. Draw a square A BCD and the diagonals AC and BD.
Let E, F, G, and
be the mid-points of the sides AB, BC, CD,
and DA respectively. Join each vertex to the mid-points of the two
non-adjacent sides, that is, join A to points F and G, and so on.
Find pairs of similar triangles and read the ratios of corresponding

sides.

24. Fig.

315

shows

XY\\AB, and YZ\\BC.

three

concurrent

Prove that

j y

lines

25. In Fig. 316 the circles are tangent at X,


the point of tan-

AB and CD are drawn through

gency, meeting the circles as shown.


cb

= ad.

Prove that

(See 175, Ex.20.)

26. Investigate the case, Ex. 25, in


circles are

13

tangent internally.

which the
Fig. 316

PLANE GEOMETRY

182

IMPORTANT SPECIAL CASES


INTERSECTING CHORDS
213.

Theorem

103.

two chords intersect within a

If

circle, the product of the segments of one


product of the segments of the other.

is

equal to the

Fig. 317

Hypothesis:

and
of

Circle

AB

is

any

circle

with the chords

AB

so that a and h are the segments


intersecting at
and c and d the segments of CD.

Conclusion :

The

CD

ab

= cd.

analysis, construction,

and proof are

left to

the pupil.

In the next six exercises the letters refer to Fig. 317.


Ex.

1.

Ex.

2.

Ex.

3.

Ex.

4.

Ex.5.
Ex.

6.

Find b, if a = 12, ^ = 2%, and c=15.


Find a and b,iiAB = 22,d = 8, and c = 12.
Find a and d, if AB = 19, 6 = 10, and c = 6.
Find d, if a = 5>^, = 43^, and b = 5.
<;

I^mda,iid = 8li,c = 2%,sindb = 3y5,


Find c and d,iiAB = 2Q,b = 8, and c = d.

AC

and
214. If point C is between A and B on line AB,
is said to be divided
C-5 are said to be segments oiAB and

^B

internally at C.
internally at C.

AB

ylC+C5 = A5.
on

is

divided

^
i

-5"

c'

AB

but not between


said to be segments of AB.
In Fig. 318,
said to be divided externally at C.

If point

In Fig. 318,

and 5,

is

line

AC and -BC are

still

AB is
AB is divided externally at C. AC'-BC' = AB if C is
on AB extended. BC'-AC'=BA if C is on BA extended.

RATIO AND PROPORTION

183

INTERSECTING SECANTS

Theorem 104. If two secants intersect without a


the product of one secant and its external segment
is equal to the product of the other secant and its external segment.
215.

circle,

Fig. 319

Hypothesis: Circle O is any circle with the two secants


h and k intersecting without the circle at E so that a and b
are the external segments of h and k respectively.

ah = bk.

Conclusion:

The

analysis, construction,

and proof are

left to

the pupil.

The

following data refer to Fig. 319; c and d are the


Find the length of the
internal segments of h and k respectively.

Ex.

1.

segments required.

and

a.

Find

b.

Find

b, if

Find
Find

a, if

c.

d.

a, if

d, if

a = 9,

A=15, a = 7, and ^ = 35.

k= 12, and c = 4.

= 8, c= 13, and 6 = 4.
c=10, b = 4, and d = 20.

<f

2.
If in QO the chords AB and CD
kind of segments are AX, BX,
what
320),
CX, and DX? If point B moves along the
circle until AB' intersects CD without the
circle at X', what kind of segments are AX',
B'X', CX', and DX'? Show that the chords
are divided in one case internally and in the

Ex.

intersect at

(Fig.

Fig. 320

other case externally so that the product of the segments of one


chord is equal to the product of the segments of the other.

'

PLANE GEOMETRY

184

INTERSECTING TANGENT AND SECANT


If a secant and a tangent meet
216. Theorem 105.
without a circle, the tangent is a mean proportional between
the whole secant and its external segment.

Fig. 321
is any circle with secant k and
Hypothesis: Circle
tangent h meeting without the circle at C so that a is the

external segment oi k.
h'^=ak.

Conclusion:

The

analysis, construction,

In the next

and proof are

left to

the pupil.

five exercises the letters refer to Fig. 321.

a = 4: a.nd h = 6.

Ex.

1.

Find

Ex.

2.

Find kanda^ii

Ex.

3.

Find

k, ii

a, if

AB = 7

and h = 12.

h=10, the radius

of the circle is 7j^,

and the

secant passes through the center of the^circle.

Ex.
Ex.

Find k and

4.

Find

5.

a, if

.45 = 27 and h =

the radius of the circle

secant passes through the center of the

Ex.

In Fig. 320, what motion of

6.

if

18.

a = 4, h =

l2,

and the

circle.

AX'

will

show the

relation

between Ths. 104 and 105?

Draw a segment AC=S cm. On AC from C lay off


Draw any circle passing through points A and B.
Draw a tangent to this circle from point C. Draw several figures,
Ex.

CB = 2

7.

cm.

varying the radius of the

and

Can you
Ex.

8.

drawn, but using always ^C = S cm.


the lengths of the various tangents.

circle

C5 = 2 cm. Compare
explain the results?

Tangents drawn to two intersecting


common chord are equal.

point in their

circles

from any

RATIO AND PROPORTION

185

SEGMENTS MADE BY THE BISECTOR OF AN ANGLE


OF A TRIANGLE

The bisector of an angle of a tri217. Theorem 106.


angle divides the opposite side internally into segments
that have the same ratio as the other two sides of the
triangle.

Fig. 322

Hypothesis:

ZBCA

AABC is any triangle with CO


AB into segments r and

and dividing

Conclusion:

=t
5
b

bisecting

s.

Analysis and construction:


I.

Two

II.

III.
'Let

.*.

ratios may be proved equal by use of Th. 98,


Th. 99, or Th. 101. (Why?) We will use Th. 99.
a
T
construct AD from A OC and get = r,'
\\

Y
a
To prove = t, prove

= h' and

substitute in

the pupil complete the analysis and give the proof.

In the next
Ex.

1.

six exercises

the letters refor to Fig. 322.

-T = a
j-,-

PLANE GEOMETRY

186

SEGMENTS MADE BY THE BISECTOR OF AN


EXTERIOR ANGLE OF A TRIANGLE
Theorem

218.

The

107.

bisector of

an

exterior angle of

a triangle divides the opposite side externally into segments


that have the same ratio as the other two sides of the triangle.

Fig. 323

AABC is any triangle with CO bisecting the


ZACE and dividing BA externally into segments

Hypothesis:
exterior
r

and

5.

Let

Conclusion :

BC = a, CA = b,
L-^.
s

The

an

CD = b'.

analysis, construction,

and proof are

Theorem 107

Discussion.
of

and

is

left to

the pupil.

not true for the vertex angle

isosceles triangle.

In the next four exercises the letters refer to Fig. 323.

Ex.

2.

Find

= 24, 5 = 6, and 6 = 5.
r,iia= 18, 6 = 5, and ^ = 7.

Ex.

3.

Find

and

s, if

Ex.

4.

Find

and

s, if

Ex.

1.

Find

a, if r

AB=S, a=12, and & = 6.


AB = a = 9, and b = 6.
4:,

two points divide a segment internally and extersame ratio, the segment is said to be divided
harmonically by the two points.
^^^
219. If

nally in the

Ex.

1.

In Fig. 324,

ABC

is

any

triangle.

CX bisects ZACB

and CX' bisects the exterior


Prove that AB is divided harmoniat X and X'.

/.BCD.
cally

Ex.

2.

Show how

Suggestion.

^ ^
^'^- ^^4

to divide any given segment harmonically.

Construct any triangle on the segment

AB

as base.

RATIO AND PROPORTION

187

PROPORTIONAL SEGMENTS IN RIGHT TRIANGLES

Theorem 108. If a perpendicular is drawn from the


vertex of the right angle of a right triangle to the hypotenuse,
the perpendicular is a mean proportional between the segments of the hypotenuse.
220.

Fig. 325

A ABC is any triangle with ZC = rt. Z,


AB
AB = c\ m and n are the segments of c.
from
C.
p
Conclusion: ^ is a mean proportional between m and n.
Hypothesis:

The

analysis

and the proof are

left to

the pupil.

Theorem 109. If a perpendicular is drawn from the vertex of the right angle of right triangle to the h3rpotenuse,
either leg is a mean proportional between the whole hypotenuse and the segment adjacent to that leg.
The analysis and the proof are left to the pupil.
Exercise.
(6) 6

= Z cm. and = 7
(a) m
= 2.4 cm. and w = 1.2 cm. In

Construct Fig. 325 so that

= 6 cm. and c = 9 cm.;

(c) 6

cm.;
each case measure the remaining segments and compare them with
the results obtained by computation.

CONSTRUCTION OF MEAN PROPORTIONALS


221.

Problem

17.

To

construct

mean

proportional

between two given segments.


Solution I. The solution may be based on Fig. 326, by making the
hypotenuse of the right triangle equal to the sum of the two given
segments. Construct the right triangle by means of a semicircle.
II.
The
by making

Solution

solution

may

be based on

equal to the longer and


equal to the shorter of the given segments.
Fig. 326,

Can you invent a

solution based on Fig. 321?

m
Fig. 326

PLANE GEOMETRY

188

Ex.

1.

If

X so that (1)

a and_b are two given segments, cons truct a


segment
ylah; (2) x= ^2ab; {S)x= V^^a^; (4) x = }^ ^|ab,

x=

Ex. 2. JTaking any given length to represent 1, find


segments
equal to V2, V8, V12. Measure the results and compare them
with the approximate square roots of 2, 8, and 12.

Suggestion.

If

x=yl2,x'^

2
= 2. Then " = X
^*

RELATION BETWEEN THE SIDES OF A RIGHT TRIANGLE

Theorem 110. The sum of the squares of the legs


of a right triangle is equal to the square of the hypotenuse.
222.

Fig. 327

AABC

rt.

is any right triangle with


Hypothesis:
Z c the hypotenuse, and a and b the legs.

ZC

Conclusion:

a^-\-b^=c'^.

Analysis and construction:


I.

To prove
for b^

II.

a^-\- = c^, find a value for a^

The terms a^ and

III.

.*.

b^

above suggest the use of the mean

proportional theorem.
draw a perpendicular from

and

b^

and a value

and add.

in terms oi

C to AB and
AB and its segments.

find a^

Proof:

STATEMENTS
1.

2.

3.

= nc and b^ = mc.
a^-]-b^ = nc-]-mc={n-\-'m)c.
a2 +62 = ^2.
a^

Let the pupil give the reasons. For 2 use: the sum of numbers
having a common factor is the common factor multiplied by the sum
of the coefficients.

RATIO AND PROPORTION

189

Note. Th. 110 is one of the most important theorems of geometry


and one of tlie most frequently used. More than one hundred proofs
are known. It is called the Pythagorean theorem. Pythagoras, a
Greek, is supposed to have given a general proof, although the fact was
believed to be true much earlier. We do not know the nature of the
proof that Pythagoras gave, but it is probable that it was something
one given above. Pythagoras settled in Crotona, Southern
where he founded a brotherhood, the members of which were

like the

Italy,

pledged to secrecy.

They spent

their time in the study of philosophy,

and mathematics and discovered many important theorems

ethics,

Pythagoras died about 501

in geometry.

What

Exercise.

is

B.C.

the hypotenuse of a right triangle

if

the

perpendicular sides are 3 and 4?

The

sides are 3, 4, and 5 is a


were known to the Egyptians
more than three thousand years before the time of Pythagoras.
The Egyptians used ropes knotted at equal distances. These were
stretched about three poles so as to form a. right triangle. The

Note.

fact that a triangle


relation 3^+42

and the

right triangle

whose

= 52

Egyptians called the men who knew how to use these ropes ropestretchers.
Surveyors use similar methods to-day. How many knots
must there be in the rope and how is it used to construct a right
triangle?

The pyramids of Egypt have an angle nearly equal to an acute


angle of a triangle whose sides are 3, 4, and 5. The Chinese and
the Hindus probably knew about this right triangle at a very early
date.

APPLICATIONS OF PYTHAGOREAN THEOREM


223. Ex.

are 25

Ex.

ft.

2.

1.

What

and 60

3.

Find

b.

m=

8,

c.

p=

9,

Ex.

4.

all

of the

6=17.
w=12.

The

Find the length


center.

of a rectangle

is

50

ft.;

one side

is

14

ft.

side.

= 16, p=12.

a.

the diagonal of a rectangle whose sides

The diagonal

Find the other


Ex.

is

ft.?

segments in Fig. 328,


d.
e.

/.

if

6=10, a = 24.
c=50, 6 = 30.
w = 28, = 63.

of a circle is 11 in.
a tangent drawn from a point 61

radius
of

in.

from the

PLANE GEOMETRY

190

In a given circle let r represent the radius, c a chord,


Find the missing
of the chord from the center.
terms as indicated below:

Ex.

5.

and d the distance


d = 8,

a,

d=?,

b.

Ex.

= 32,

r=?

c=28,

d=12,

c.

r=18.

d = 5,

d.

c=?,
c=?,

= 36.

r=45.

Find the sides of an isosceles


side of a square is 12.
formed by joining the mid-point of one side to the opposite

One

6.

triangle
vertices.

One side of a square is 14. Find the sides of an isosceles


formed
by joining one vertex to the mid-points of the sides
triangle
not passing through that yertex.
Ex.

7.

Ex.

8.

diagonal

if

Ex.

9.

Ex.

10.

Find the

If one side of a square is 8, find the diagonal.


one side is 6; 10; 12; 20; 5.
If

a diagonal of a square

If

is

15, find the side.

the hypotenuse of an isosceles right triangle

is

12,

find the side.

Theorem HI.
is s

V2.

If

Ex. 11.
are 18.

Ex.

tude

is

Ex.

whose
Ex.
side.

The base

What
12.

If

of

13.

14.

an

Find one of the

is s, its diagonal
d, the side is ^/id yl2.

isosceles triangle is 12; the equal sides

legs of

an

isosceles triangle

if

the

alti-

is 12.

Find the altitude of an equilateral triangle one of


Find the altitude if the side is 5; 10; 12; 5.

is 4.

If

the altitude of an equilateral triangle


if the altitude is 6; 8; 7>^; a.

is

14, find the

Find the side

Theorem

112.

its altitude is

V2

If

one side of an equilateral triangle is s,


If the altitude is a, one side of the

s ^3.

equilateral triangle is ^/s

a VJ.

Ex. 15. One side of a rhombus


Find the diagonals.
Ex. 16.
is 12.

is

altitude?

is its

8 and the base

sides

one side of a square

the diagonal of a square

One

Find the

angle of a
side.

is

rhombus

24; one of its angles

is

60.

The

is

60.

longer diagonal

RATIO AND PROPORTION

191

APPLICATIONS OF EQUAL RATIOS


MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES
329 shows proportional compasses used
reduce drawings to scale. How must
the instrument be adjusted so that b is twice a ? so that
224.

to

1.

Fig.

or

enlarge

times a

b is three

The shadow

2.

of

a tree

that the shadow of an


is

the tree

8-ft.

is

36

ft.

pole

is

at the

same time

How

ft.

high

Fig. 329

How may

the height of a flagpole be found by noticing just


when the length of the shadow of a certain post is equal to the
height of the post? Why?
3.

Note. It is said that the Greek Thales astonished the Egyptians


by measuring the heights of the pyramids from their shadows. Whether
he used the method of Ex. 2 or the special case mentioned in Ex. 3
is not known.
Thales lived from about 640 to 548 B.C. and introduced
x
the study of geometry into Greece.

An

4.

may

point

8-ft.

'' '^

pole is placed at B (Fig. 330). How


located and what lines must be meas-

CX?

Xb

A be

ured in order to find the height of the tower

5.

Fig. 330

Why?
Can you use

the method of Ex. 4 in determining the length


on the comer of a building? Could the length
using the special method of Ex. 3?

of a flagpole placed

be determined by

Show that an inaccessible distance AB (Fig.


by the following method: Make
AC LAB. Take C, any point on .4 C from which
6.

be obtained

is visible.

CD

Make CD CB. Find

E, the point

331)

may

^'

and BA would intersect. What


lines must be measured?
7. Show how the measurement suggested in Ex. 6 may be
performed practically by the aid of a pole and a carpenter's steel
at which

square.

Note.

In Ex. 6 stakes are set up at the points indicated and the


on the ground. In Ex. 7 the figure is set up in a vertical

figure laid out

plane.

PLANE GEOMETRY

192
8.

Show that an

obtained as follows:

AC

CD

AB

inaccessible distance

Make CA AB and

(Fig. 332)

some convenient part oi AC i}4


DEAD. Find E, the point at
which BC and DE would intersect. What measurement must be taken? Is it necessary that AB and
DEheAD? Why?
until

be

is

Make

or H).

9.

may

extend

Fig. 332

Before the invention of the telescope an instrument called

the cross-staff was sometimes used to measure inaccessible heights


and distances. The cross-bar c was made to slide
Tp^--^
-^
''^
up and down the staff a (Fig. 333). Show how this
^
instrument could be used to find the width of the
Fig, 333

How

stream R.

could

it

be used to find the height of a steeple?

TRIGONOMETRIC RATIOS

From 210 we know

225.

AABCc^AA'B'C
or

T = T}' Why?
b
h'

(Fig. 334)

that

if

^=y

The second

pro-

may be translated thus: The ratio of two sides of


one of two similar triangles equals the ratio of the two corresponding sides of the other. In right triangles we have:
portion

two right triangles have an acute angle of one equal to


an acute angle of the other, the ratio of any two sides of
one is equal to the ratio of the two corresponding sides of
If

the other.
Ex.

In Fig. 335,

1.

similar

right

given above.

Note.

triangles.

AABC

and A'B'C are


Apply the proportion

Obtain three pairs of equal

ratios.

In Fig. 335 the triangles are lettered so


is opposite A A, side b is opposite Z.B,

that side a

Z C. Angle C is the right angle.


in the discussion that follows, the
right triangles will be lettered in this way.

side c is opposite

For convenience

RATIO AND PROPORTION


The

ratio

is

the same for

same acute angle A.

Why?

and -r We may say,

ratios

all right triangles

having the

The same may be

said of the

therefore, that

an acute angle of a right triangle

If

I.

193

is

known, we can

find the ratios of the sides.

XL

the ratio of any pair of sides of a right triangle


find the angle.

If

is

known, we can
These same

much importance

ratios are of so

in relation

to the /.A that they have been given special names.


names of the ratios are as follows:

a or

side opposite Z.A


:;

^-^-:

IS

called sine oi Z.A

and

is

The

written

hypotenuse
sin A.

h or

side adjacent to
T-^

ZA

,,

called cosine of

/.A and

is

r
. ^
4.
called tangent 01

Zy Aa andj

is

IS

hypotenuse

written cos

ZA
TH
ZA

side opposite
TT-^
-r or -T-;
7
side adjacent to

written tan
Ex.

but

2.

IS

Construct two right triangles with angle A = 50 in each


In each triangle measure a, ft,

with sides of different lengths.

and

-I

and compute the

Ex.

3.

ratios

a b
,

and -r-

Follow the directions given in Ex. 2 for triangles with

angles of 40, 35, 62.

Compare the

results obtained in Exs. 3

and 4 with the tables

given on page 299 showing the values of these ratios for angles
of all degrees from 1 to 90.
The ratios in the tables are given

approximately with three figures. With your crude methods of


measuring you cannot expect to be as accurate.
Q
Ex. 4. Construct a right triangle so that the ratio -r is %.

Measure ZA with a protractor and compare the result with the


Look for the tangent that is nearest
and note the angle.

table.

PLANE GEOMETRY

194

226. It is important to notice that every acute angle has


a particular value for each of the three ratios. If the angle
is given, the ratios, sine, cosine, and tangent can be read
from the table; for example,

sin 23 is .391.

Ex.

Find from the table

1.

sin 36; cos 42; tan 27.

sin 49; cos 15; tan 76.

So also

the ratio

if

is

given, the angle can be found

from

the table.

What is Z^ if
sin ^ = .515 sin ^ = .966 sin ^ = .777.
cos ^ = .961 cos yl = .839 ,cosA = .292.
tan A = .325; tan ^ = 1.00; tan ^ =3.73.

Ex.2.

If the given ratio is not found in the table, use the one
nearest to it; for example,

Ex.3.

sin yl

if

tan

Find
sin

227.

A = .472

cos

The trigonometric

and angles
Ex.

= 239, Z A is about 14,


A = 1 56, Z A is about 57.
Z^ when

if

(;

tan

^ = .726.

ratios are used to find the sides

of right triangles.

In

1.

a = 23 and

^ = .395

A ABC (Fig. 336)

= 30;

find

it

is

known

that

ZA.

Solution:
Select the ratio involving the opposite side

and the

hypotenuse.
Fig. 336
sin

A =
c

_23
"30

= .767
.-.

(by division).

Z.4 =50" about (from table).

RATIO AND PROPORTION


Ex.2. Find side b of the
/.A =35 and c=42 (Fig. 337).

AABC

195

when

Solution:
Select the ratio involving the adjacent side

and

y^

hypotenuse.

Fig. 337

cosA=c
cos

A =cos

35

= .819

(from table).

..A=.819.
Let the pupil complete the solution.

Ex.

3.

Find

side

a = 42

when

and

Z^=65.
Solution:

Select the ratio involving the opposite side and


the adjacent side (Fig. 338).

tan

A =-r

tan

A =tan

'

65

= 2.14

(from table).

Why?

..2.14=^Let the pupil complete the solution.

These exercises illustrate the general method which maybe stated in words: To find any particular part of a right
triangle, select the ratio formula involving that part and the
two known parts; form an equation and solve it for the

unknown

part.

= 31,
and a = 54,

Ex.

4.

If

Zyl=64 and

Ex.

ZA= 32

5.

li

Ex.6.

If

Ex.

If

7.

Ex.

8.

If

Ex.

9.

If

find

c.

find

b.

= 19andc=16, finda.
a = 35 and c = 47, find Z^l.
6 = 52 and c = 73, find ZA.
a = 62 and 6 = 26, find ZA.
Zyl

228. The methods illustrated above are especially used


in solving problems involving heights and distances.
tape for measuring distances and some instrument for

measuring angles are needed to get the necessary data

PLANE GEOMETRY

196

For measuring angles the surveyor uses a transit which is


two protractors, a leveling tube, and a telescope for
easy and accurate seeing. For accurate work he measures
angles to the nearest minute or even closer and uses more
extended ratio tables. Rough approximations may be
made with instruments that any ingenious pupil can make.
A good protractor, a plumb line, and a couple of pegs for
In
sights are all that is needed for a rough angle measurer.
Measuring Implements of Long Ago Mr. W. E. Stark
describes some ancient forms of such instruments.
really

In finding heights the angle of elevation is


If B is the top of a tower (Fig. 339), the
Z CAB is the angle of elevation. Notice that j^

used.

line

AC is horizontal.

^,

Fig. 339

It is suggested that after solving the following exercises


the pupil apply his knowledge to some practical problems

of his

Ex.

own
1.

devising.

A tower stands on level ground.

of its top at a point 160

ft.

from

its

base

The angle
is

of elevation

Find the height

43.

of the tower.
2.
What is the angle of elevation of the sun
high casts a shadow 18 ft. long?

Ex.
32

ft.

is

19

Ex.

below

3.

What

is

a tree

if

the height of a balloon if its angle of elevation


place 10 miles from a point directly

when seen from a


it?

4.
The length of a string attached to a kite is 300 ft.
Find the height of the kite if its angle of elevation is 56.
Note. Ex. 4, of course, assumes that the string is straight, which

Ex.

is

never really true.

Ex.

5.

perpendicular

of elevation of 48.

Ex.

6.

Will the height found be too

How

Show how

cliff

far is

it

650

ft.

i/rea,t

high subtends an angle

to the base of the

to measure

or too small?

cliff ?

an angle A

without the use of a protractor by


measuring the segments marked on Fig. 340.
If ZA is given, how is the remainder of the^.indirectly

figure constructed?

Fig. 340

RATIO AND PROPORTION

197

SUMMARY AND SUPPLEMENTARY EXERCISES


229.

SUMMARY OF IMPORTANT POINTS

IN

CHAPTER

IX

A. Tests.
I.

To prove two

products equal, use the factors of one


and the factors of the others as

as the extremes

the means of a proportion and prove the ratios


equal (Th. 91 and 211).
II.

To prove two
a.

Two

ratios equal, look for


similar triangles (211 and Ths. 101

and

102).
b.

Two

transversals cut

and Th.
c.

d.

Two

parallels (211

98).

line parallel to the

and Th.

by three

base of a triangle (211

99).

ratios equal to

a third ratio (211 and

As. 57).

B. Algebraic equations indicating constructions.


I.

PLANE GEOMETRY

198

A BCD

In Fig. 342,

3.

and

a parallelogram

is

an arbitrary point

is

in

DC

extended.

Prove that AO^ = 0X -OY.

Draw any

4.

triangle

pairs of similar triangles

342

p^^,

and its three altitudes. Find all possible


and read the ratios of corresponding sides.

5. In Fig. 343, P is the mid-point of the arc CD.


PA and PB are arbitrary chords intersecting chord
CD at X and Y respectively. Prove that PY PB= j
PA PX.
-

Fig. 344 is a square with its diagonals A C


bisects Z BAC. The other segments

6.

and BD.

AE

are similarly drawn.

and read the

angles

Find pairs of similar

tri-

ratios of corresponding sides.

DB

First prove that AE, CG, and


Suggestion.
and CF are parallel.
are concurrent and that

AE

What
What

other segments must be proved concurrent?


ones must be proved parallel?

1 7. If

two parallel lines are cut by a pencil of rays, correspondon the parallels have equal ratios. Investigate two

ing segments
cases.

t8. State

In Fig. 345,

9.

XW

II

ABC

BC and YZ AC.
\\

II

10. If,

WZ

and prove the converse

^B,

11.

in
is

Fig.

FZ

345,

ll^C?

is

of Ex. 7.

any triangle. AX = BY.


Prove that WZ AB.
\\

AX = BY,

XW\\CB, and

The common tangent

to

two

/^

Give proof.

Fig. 345

the segment

circles divides

joining the centers into segments that have the same ratio as the

Investigate different cases.

radii.

12.

a
that

-7-

In Fig. 346,

= by

CO

bisects

ABCA.

prolonging i5C so that

Prove
-P

CD = CA

and joining AD.


13. If,

bisects

in

Fig.

ZBCA.

346,

J-,

prove that

CO

>

Fig. 346

RATIO AND PROPORTION


CO

In Fig. 347,

14.

/.ACE.

bisects the exterior

= by making CD = CA

199

Prove that

and joining AD.

BO = r and AO = s.
15.

in Fig. 347,

If,

bisects

= ,

prove that

CO

Fig. 347

Z.ACE.

AB

In Fig. 348,
is a diameter of OO, CB and
If
are tangents at the ends of the diameter.
intersect on the circle at E, prove that
and

16.

AD

BD

AC
AB

BC AD.
'

17.

In Fig.

inscribed in

AB

ting

at

ABC

an isosceles triangle
drawn from C cutProve that
and the circle at D.
349,

OO.

Any

is

line is

AC^ =CD'CE.
18.

Investigate the
extended.

case, Ex.

17, in

which

CE

AB

cuts

19.

one of the parallel sides of a trapezoid

If

is

double the

other, the diagonals trisect each other.

A BC is any triangle inscribed in


CQ bisects ZC. Prove that CA CB =

20. In Fig. 350,

the

circle.

CP

A\

CQ.

21. If

two chords

intersect within a circle so that

one of them is bisected by the other, half of the first


chord is a mean proportional between the segments
of the second chord.
22.

Use Ex. 21 to construct a mean proportional to two given

segments.

EXERCISES INVOLVING THE PYTHAGOREAN


231.

1.

2.

The

Make a

review diagram for Th. 110.

radius of a circle

two chords which are 72


cases are possible?

THEOREM

ft.

is

48

ft.

and 36

Find the distance between


ft.

respectively.

What two

PLANE GEOMETRY

200

3. In Fig. 351, ED is a perpendicular bisector of the chord AB.


In each case given below construct the figure to scale from
the data given. Compute the lengths of the segments

required and verify your results

CE = i,
AB = S6,
AE = 26,
AE = Q1,

a.
b.
c.

d.

AB = 20.

by measurement.
AE,EO, and AD.
EC, ^, and ^Z>.
AB, EO, and A D.
CE, ED, and AD.

Find
Find
Find
Find

0 = 30.

CE= 10.
AB = 120.

Find the length


4. The radius of a circle is 12 in.
drawn from a point 13 inches from the center.

AX

BX

of a tangent

OO

from point X.
In Fig. 352,
and
are tangent to
the chord joining the points of contact. In each case given
below construct the figure to scale from the data
5.

AB

is

Compute the

given.

lengths of the segments re-

quired and verify your

results

by measurement.

d.

AX = 6, OX = 10. Find^Oand^^.
AX = 40, A0 = 9. Find OZ and ^5.
A0=15, 0X = S9. Find ^Z and ^5.
A0 = 5, AB = 8. Find ^X and OX.

6.

The

a.
b.
c.

radii of

Find the length

two concentric

of a

circles are 9

chord of the outer

circle

and 15
which

respectively.
is

a tangent

of the inner.

In the middle of a pond 10 ft. square grew a reed. The reed


projected one foot above the surface of the water. When blown
aside by the wind, its top reached to the mid-point of a side of
7.

How

the pond.

16

(An old Chinese problem.)

length of the common chord of two intersecting circles


Find the disthe radii are 10 and 17 in. respectively.

The

8.
is

deep was the pond?

in.,

tance between the centers.


9.

The span

circle of

which

of a circular arch

it is

a part

is

720

is

ft.,

120

ft.

If

the radius of the

find the height of the middle

of the arch.
10.

Find the altitude of an isosceles trapezoid if the parallel


40 in. and 58 in. respectively and the non-parallel sides

sides are

are 41

in.

RATIO AND PROPORTION


Two parallel

11.

radius of the circle


Is there

of this problem?

two expressions each equal to the square of the


and form an equation. Solve the equation.

parallel to

CY.

Show how

CY

to

^C and

isosceles right triangle.


so constructed as to equal

XY

to construct

YO

(see 86, Ex.

XO and hence the length of XO


In Fig. 355 the arcs

AB

a.s

radius and

The

tively.

circle

to the semicircle.

OO

and

find

"*

jf

the

12).

inscribed circle.

its

15.

to V2.

354 shows an isosceles right triangle


Find the ratio of CX to

14. Fig.

with

353 shows an

13. Fig.

XY is

ratio of

Find the

one inch apart.

Divide a given segment in the ratio of

2.

with

circle are

the chords are 8 and 6 inches long respectively.

more than one solution

Find
Suggestion.
radius of the circle
1

chords in a

if

201

find r in

is r,

O
If

AC

ii

AB = ^.

and

BC

are

drawn

B and A

is

as centers respectangent to AC, CB, and

AB = s

terms of

and the radius of i


and construct the

d
^^^- ^^^

A church window

figure.

design

0D =

DB = ^s,

OB=s-r,
}4s-\-r,
Suggestion.
the substitutions and solve the equation.

OB^ = 0^ -^-Dl^

Make

Find the shortest path that an insect can take (without


one corner of a room to the diagonally opposite corner
from
flying)
if the room is 15 ft. long, 12 ft. wide, and 10 ft. high.
16.

17. Choose two points, A and B, upon a given straight line, and
two other points, C and Z>, upon a straight line perpendicular to
AB. Prove that the hypotenuse of a right triangle whose legs
are equal to ^C and BD is equal to the hypotenuse of a right
triangle whose legs are equal to ^Z> and BC.
College Entrance

Examination Board, Plane Geometry Examination, 1910.

A BCD is a rhombus with A and C as opposite vertices.


a point within the rhombus such that OB = OD. Prove
that A O, and C are on the same straight line, and that OA OC =
18.

is

AB OB

2
.

College

Entrance Examination Board, Plane Geom-

etry Examination, 1916.

PLANE GEOMETRY

202

embankment

rises from a level field.


One end
on the ground 16 ft. from the foot of
the embankment, and the other end rests 9 ft. up the embankment,
measured along its sloping side. How high is the upper end of
the prop above the level field? Result in feet to one decimal.
College Entrance Examination Board, Plane Geometry Exami-

19.

of

sloping

a prop, 20

ft.

long, rests

nation, 1914.

AB = AC = \, show that
=
AD BC, what is the length of

20. If, in Fig. 356,

BC=

yJ2.

BD}

If

If

AE = BD,

Show how

what

the figure

may

is

the length of

BE?

be continued so as to

D E

Fig. 356

construct segments equal to V5, V6, V7, etc.


21. In Fig. 357,
is

A BCD

the radius for the arc

and

a square.

is

BE A
;

is

is

the center and

the center

j>

EF; D is the
and DF is the radius for the arc FG,
Find the length of DE, AF, DG, AH,

DB
g

the radius for the arc

is

center
etc.

etc., if

AB = 1.

Fig. 357

EXERCISES INVOLVING THE TRIGONOMETRIC TABLES


232. 1.
if

the base
2.

One

base angle
3.

The

Find the legs and the altitude of an


is 24 and each acute angle is 49.

an isosceles triangle
Find the base and the altitude.

of the equal sides of


is

68.

distance across a stream

follows

as

isosceles triangle

(Fig.

358):

Lay

may

off

is

45 and each

be found

AC

AB,

AC to some point from which B is visible.


Measure AC and angle C. Find ^15 if ^C = 300
ft. and ZC = 56.

extending

4.

Fig.

Find the distance


359.

CB

is

AC

across a

perpendicular

to

pond as shown in
AC, Z5 = 34,

C5 = 165ft.
Fig. 359

RATIO AND PROPORTION


5.

circle

chord of a

an angle of

203

8 in. It subtends at the center of a


Find the radius of the circle and the dis-

circle is

36.

tance of the chord from the center.

Find
6. An angle at the center of a circle of radius 6 ft. is 40.
the length of the subtended chord and the distance of the chord
from the center of the circle.
7.

Prove that in any triangle -7-=

From the figure find sin


Suggestion.
divide one equation by the other.
8.

65,

~.

sin

(see Fig. 360).

>

A and

sin

and
^

Find the sides of a triangle if Z^=42, ZB =


AB = 8. Use the formula obtained in Ex. 7.

and

9.

and

Find

the

sides of

triangle

ZC = 49,

Z^=68,

if

= 25.

10. Two observers IX miles apart observe at the same moment


the altitude of the base of a thundercloud that is between them.
If

the angles are 42 and 61,

how

high was the cloud?

Note. Ex. 10 illustrates a method actually used by weather bureau


men. The two observers are in telephonic communication, select some
singular part of the cloud that neither can fail to recognize, and take
the observation at a stated time

by the watch.

MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES
233.

Be prepared

Note.

to prove the theorems

on which any of

the following exercises depend.


1.

In drawing a certain

ratio

What

100 000

coimty which
2.

is

lengths

ABC

CE-=EB = CF = FA.

is

the value of

an

represent

the sides

respectively.

II?

iscsceles triangle.

FG, CO, and

'
is

segments are reduced in the

all

will

of

a rectangle 25 miles long and 18 miles wide?

In Fig. 301,

from F, C, and

map

If

EH are
CO =
^
BO

A.

AB

'^

-^,

8'

^-b

^-^f^^'^^k
g
o
h
'-

what

'^

Fig. 361
^'"""^

IS^'''^''

PLANE GEOMETRY

204

A BCD is a square. AK = BF==


and ZW are medians. GN is parfrom G. li DG=H DC, what is the
= % HK, what is the
?
If
to

to

AD

HM
DG

ratio of

XY

ratio of

allel

G Z

In Fig. 362,

3.

CG = DH,

HM

MK

DC?

to

Fig. 362

104 so that two From a


Pompeian
mosaic
ratios, rather than two products, are to be proved
In Th. 103 the segments of the chords, and in Th. 104 the
equal.

Restate

4.

Ths.

103 and

segments of the secants, are inversely or reciprocally proportional

Why?
In Fig. 363, 0)0 and

5.

A and

AD

B.

X intersect at points

AC are tangent

and

(DX and

to

Prove that
mean proportional between DB and BC.
respectively at point A.

Fig. 364

6.

ABC

is

an

shows the outline

isosceles

HK

is

of a roof truss.

The equal

triangle.

are each divided into 3 equal parts.


AB. If AC=35, and
are

and

AB

CD, EF,

CD=^ AB,

find the length of

AB, CD, EF, and ED.

In Fig. 365,

ABC

k^^tv.

sides

d k

Fig. 364

From

any inscribed

triangle.

and that

is

Z1=Z2. Frove that AC' RB = CR' AT


AC'TB = CT-AR,

7.

^S<1\ /fS^
a roof truss
design

a^

Fig. 365
8.

point

Two

tangents each 24

in.

circle of radius 7

in.

to.

long are drawn from the same


Find the length of the chord

joining the points of contact.


t9.

angle of

perpendicular is drawn from the vertex of the right


a right triangle to the hypotenuse. Prove that the ratio

of the squares of the legs equals the ratio of the adjacent


of the hypotenuse.
10.

CN

In Fig. 366,

ABC is any inscribed triangle.


AB and CD is a diameter.
AN = CN DB; (2) AC NB =

perpendicular to
Prove that (1) CB is

CN' AD;

(3)

segments

AC- CB = CD'CN.

RATIO AND PROPORTION

DE

367 shows a diagram of the roof of a barn.

11. Fig.

with DE.

AD and FD make equal angles


If ^ = 26 ft., AD = ZO ft., and

Z?C = 13

find

The

205

rafters

ft.,

CB

CB.

is

AF.

A_

^F.
Pig. 367

Find by geometry two segments whose sum is equal to


a segment 5 cm. long and whose ratio is 3:7. Find by algebra
a
3
the value of a and b if a-{-b = 5 and -r=='^'
12.

13.

Find by geometry two segments whose difference is 1.5


is 5 to 8.
Find by algebra the value of

cm., and whose ratio

a and 6
^

if

a^6

1.5

and -r= -38

ABC

an isosceles triangle.
FG, CO, and EH are
AB from F, C, and E respectively. Prove that if
G O H
B
EFGH is a square CO=OB. What must be the
Fig. 368
ratio of CO to OB if CE = )4 CB and EFGH is From a roof truss
design
a square? Construct the figure in each case.
14.

In Fig. 368,

is

CE=y3 CB, CF^VsCA.

a square in a given triangle.

15. Inscribe

Suggestion.
)9.

The

To prove

construction

that

16. Solve Ex. 15

HG = HE,

17.

18.

(2) as

prove

^ = ^.
HG HE

Fig. 371

Show how
;

suggested in Fig.

by the construction shown

Fig. 370

Fig. 371

is

Fig. 369
in Fig. 370.

Fig. 372

to inscribe a square in a sector (1) as


in Fig. 372.

shown

in

shown

Inscribe a square in a given semicircle.

Suggestion.

Solve

method employed
Fig. 373.

by

at least two methods; use the

for Fig. 372; also that suggested

by
A

Pig. 373

PLANE GEOMETRY

206
Let

19.

CD

ABC

be a triangle with a right angle at C. Draw


equally inclined to CB, and meeting AB (or AB proD and E respectively. Let be the mid-point of AB.

CE

and

longed) in
Prove that

MB

MD

and ME.
College Entrance Examination Board, Plane Geometry Examinais

mean

proportional between

tion, 1910.

The

20.

distance between

two

parallel chords

of the center of a given circle is 6

cm.

on the same

side

the chords are 36 cm.

If

and 48 cm. respectively, find the radius of the circle. What would
be the distance between the chords if they were on opposite sides
of the center?
21. If two circles are tangent externally and a segment is
drawn through the point of contact terminated by the circles,
the chords intercepted in the two circles have the same ratio as

the radii.
22. Fig.

The

arcs

374 represents a gable over an equilateral Gothic arch.


are drawn with B and A as

CA and CB

DE

and A B as

The sides of the gable


radius.
are tangent to the sides of the arch from a
point in the common chord GC extended.
centers

and

DF

DE = DF.

a.

Prove that

b.

Construct the figure so that

AB = 6

cm. and

AB = Q

cm. and

DC = 4cm.
c.

DE=

Construct the figure so that


10 cm.

d.

Construct the figure so that

AB = Q

Fig. 374

cm. and

Prove the Pythagorean theorem by means

23.

of Fig. 375.

Let a represent the distance OB, b repreSuggestion.


sent the radius of
O, and c represent the half chord
perpendicular to ^ C at B. Prove that {ba) {b+a)

or &2_a2

x=

= c2.

24. Construct a

segment x so that x = ^ ^ab;

and

2^2
,

where

a, b,

are given segments.

ZZ)F = 30'

RATIO AND PROPORTION

207

25. Show that the following construction will give graphically


the solution of the equation x^ 2x = 24:
circle whose diameter is 2.
_At any point on the
a tangent whose length is V24. From the end of
the tangent draw a secant which passes through the center of the
The entire secant will be one of the roots of the given
circle.

Construct a

circle construct

equation.
26. Ovals are of frequent use in landscape gardening and other
Agreeable ovals may be laid out as

branches of engineering.
follows (Fig. 376):
Let

AB

be the total
ofi on AB
two equal intersecting circles with any radius.
Draw the common chord CC and extend CC\
equal to a diameter of the circles.
making
length of the desired oval.

Lay

CD

Through

draw

lines

through the centers of

O and

O' intersecting the circles at


With
as radius draw XY: In a similar

the circles

DX
X and Y.
draw ZW Show that the
and AB==lo ft., find DD'

circles are

tangent at

If

manner
^0' = HAB

ABC is any triangle inscribed in


CX is the altitude to AB, A Y is the altitude
CB. OK is the perpendicular from the center of
27. In Fig. 377,

OO.
to

the circumscribed circle to

Prove

of the altitudes.

A B.

H is the intersection

OK = 14

CH.

Fig. 377

28. Find the locus of points from which the distances to two
given intersecting lines are in a given ratio.
29. Investigate the case, Ex. 28, in

which the two given

lines

are parallel.
30.

Two

equal circles intersect in such a manner that the


is equal to the segment joining the centers.
If the

common chord
common chord

is

of the oval formed.

and the width

in.,

If

find the radius of the circles

the radius

is

in.,

find the

and the width

common chord

of the oval formed.

31. Find the hypotenuse of a right triangle


and K(""~l); (2) and(>^)2 1. Verify
substituting numbers for n.

if

the legs are (1) n


each case by

in

CHAPTER X
Area and Equivalence

INTRODUCTORY
MEASURING SURFACES

To measure the surface inclosed by the sides of a


polygon is to find how many times it contains another sur234.

face chosen as a unit of measure.

The area

of a polygon is the

measure number of the

surface of the polygon.

common practice to use as a unit of surface a


Thus if the unit of
side is a unit of length.
whose
square
a
is
of
surface
unit
the
is
an
square whose side
inch,
length
is an inch and is called a square inch.
It is the

may be used as a unit of length with


corresponding unit of surface, it is most convenient pracof length,
tically to use one of the recognized standard units
such as the inch, foot, yard, mile, tenth of an inch, centiWhile any segment

its

with their corresponding units of surface


inch,
square mile, etc. The particular unit chosen
square
depends upon the surface to be measured.

meter,

etc.,

EQUIVALENT POLYGONS
235. Ex.

and

CD

Show
the

that

In Fig. 378,

1.

is

perpendicular from C to AB.


and h are congruent. Draw
cut out Aa and b and place

Aa

AABC;

them together
so as to

form

congruent?

AABC is isosceles

AD coincides with DB
AXYZ. Are AABC and XYZ
so that

Do

they cover the same extent

of surface?

208

AREA AND EQUIVALENCE

209

Two polyp^ons that cover the same extent of surface are


The symbol ( = ) is used for
called equivalent polygons.
Since
area
is
the
measure of surface,
equivalence.
1.

Equivalent polygons have equal areas.

2.

Polygons with equal areas are equivalent.

Since congruent polygons can be made to coincide, they


may be made to cover the same surface and are equivalent.

Congruent polygons are the simplest examples of equivalent


polygons.
It

does not follow that equivalent polygons are always

congruent. The following exercise gives illustrations of


polygons that may be made to cover the same surface but
are not necessarily congruent.
Construct two congruent right triangles that are not
Cut them out and place them together in different
positions so as to form two isosceles triangles, a rectangle, a kite,
two oblique parallelograms, and other polygons, all of which are
Make careful drawings of these figures. The use of
equivalent.
Ex.

2.

isosceles.

cross-section paper

is

suggested.

combinations of congruent polygons


are equivalent but not necessarily
that
polygons
The
following definitions are necessary:
congruent.
236. It is evident that

will give

If two polygons are so placed that a side of one falls upon


a side of the other, but neither polygon overlaps the other,
the polygon inclosed by the entire perimeter is the sum of
the two polygons.
If one polygon is placed entirely within another, the space
between the perimeters is the difference between the

polygons.

A
it

polygon

into

is

bisected by a segment

two equivalent

if

the segment divides


the diagonal

for example,

parts;
of a parallelogram bisects the parallelogram.
Similarly, a
be
or
be
trisected
divided
into any
polygon may
may

number

of equivalent parts.

PLANE GEOMETRY

210

One

figure is transformed into

equivalent to the

a second

the second

if

is

first.

237. The following assumptions will be used in the discussion of equivalent figures:

As. 59. If equivalent polygons are added to equivalent


polygons, the results are equivalent polygons.
As. 60.

If

equivalent polygons are subtracted from equiv-

alent polygons, the results are equivalent polygons.


If equivalent polygons are divided into the same
As. 61.
number of equivalent polygons, each part of one is equivalent
to any part of the other.
As. 62. Polygons equivalent to the same polygon or to

equivalent polygons are equivalent.


238.

We

have then the following preliminary

equivalent polygons

test for

I. To prove two polygons equivalent, prove that they are


made up of parts congruent in pairs.
II. To construct two polygons equivalent, construct them

of parts congruent in pairs.

Ex.

Given

1.

point of AC.

AABC

with

the mid-

DF\\AB and BF AC.


||

AABC=OJABFD

Prove

(Fig. 379).

^/..[\e._..^f

a^

"y'''

i/
Fig. 379

A nalysis:
I.

To prove
are the

II.

III.

Ex.

.-.prove
.*.

prove

2.

AABC=OJABFD,
sums

of

prove that they


congruent parts.

ABED + Al=ABED + All.


AI ^ AIL

Transform a trapezoid into

lelogram (Fig. 380).

a paral
A

Fig. 380

A nalysis:
To

transform A BCD into a parallelogram, construct the parts of


the parallelogram congruent to the parts of A BCD.

AREA AND EQUIVALENCE

211

Ex.

3.

Ex.

4.

Transform a triangle into a rectangle.


Transform a trapezoid into a rectangle.

Ex.

5.

Any segment through

the intersection of the diagoby the sides divides the

nals of a parallelogram and terminated


parallelogram into two equivalent parts.

Ex.

Show how to bisect a parallelogram by a

6.

dicular to the base

and

(2) parallel

line (1)

perpen-

to the base.

MEASUREMENT OF POLYGONS
FUNDAMENTAL ASSUMPTION
As. 63.

239.
is

The number

of units of area in a rectangle


number of units of length in

equal to the product of the

the base and altitude.


If

base,

represents the area of a rectangle, b the length of its


of its altitude, As. 63 may be stated

and a the length

as a formula,

S = ab.

The assumption

be discussed under two heads

will

A. When the sides of the rectangle are both commensurable


with a given unit of length.
In this case the unit of length can be applied an integral
of times to both the base and the altitude of the

number

The assumption is evident at once.


rectangle.
of length chosen may be contained in the base

The

unit

m times and

in the altitude

n times,

if

and n are whole numbers.

drawing the proper lines the rectangle


n rows with m unit squares in a row.
Illustration 1-

Suppose the unit chosen

is

may

a square centimeter and

the rectangle is 3 cm. long and 2 cm. wide (Fig. 381).


length is contained in the base 3 times and p,

The

in the altitude 2 times.

By drawing

seg-

ments through the points of division parto the sides, the rectangle is divided
into 2 rows with 3 sq. cm. in a row, or into
2X3 sq. cm., or 6 sq. cm. The measure

number

a"

allel

surface

of the surface
is

sq.

cm.

is

6; the area of the

By

be divided into

3 cm.

Fig. 381

unit of
,0

PLANE GEOMETRY

212

Sometimes one or both of the

sides of the given rectangle


unit
divisible
the
not
are
chosen, but are divisible
by
exactly
unit.
In this case this part
of
this
by some aliquot part
a new unit of length,
as
be
taken
unit
of the chosen
may
linear
is
this
new
unit may be conwhose
side
a
and square
of
area.
The
unit
sidered as the
assumption is then evident

as above.
Illustration

Suppose the unit chosen

2.

is

a square inch.

Fig. 382 one inch is not contained exactly in either

AB

or

AC.

In

One

is, however, exactly contained


both AB and A C. One quarter-inch may
be used as a convenient linear unit. The
measure number of ^5 is 5 and of A C is 3.
A square quarter-inch may be considered as

quarter-inch

in

By drawing the proper


that the rectangle con-^
sists of 3 rows with 5 units of surface in a
row. The measure number of the area is 15.
the unit of area.

lines

we can show

Fig. 382

In this case we may express the unit, the measure of the sides, and
the area in fractional terms of a larger unit.
in.
The unit one quarter-inch is
in.
The measure of AB, 5 quarter-inches, is

The measure of ^C, 3 quarter-inches, is ^ in.


The area, 15 square quarter-inches, is i^e sq. in.
B. When one or both sides of the rectangle are incommensurable with the chosen unit.

not possible to measure one side or perhaps


both sides of the rectangle in integral or fractional terms of
the chosen unit. Since the ratio of two incommensurable
segments is an irrational number ( 198), these sides may be

In this case

it is

expressed in irrational terms of the chosen unit, and are


measured approximately. From these approximate lengths

an approximate area

computed by the rule contained in


have seen (194) that by subdividing

is

the assumption. We
the unit of length we can obtain approximate measures for
the sides of the rectangle that are as close as we choose to
make them. It is evident that the approximation for the

area

may

also be m.ade as close as

we choose

to

make

it.

AREA AND EQUIVALENCE

213

Suppose the unit chosen is one square centimeter.


2 cm. and is commensurable with the unit; AC
is equal to the diagonal of a square whose side
is 2 cm. and is incommensurable with the unit.
The length oi AC cannot be expressed in integral
or fractional terms of the unit. We know, however, that we can express i4 C as 2 V2 cm. AccordIllustration 3.

In Fig.

3S3,AB

is

ing to our_ assumption,, therefore, the area of R


While the length of
is 2X2 V2"or 4 V2'sq. cm.

AC

cannot be expressed exactly, an approximate


length can be found for it. From this approximate
length an approximate area can be found for R.

Fig. 383

These approximate values can be made as close as_we choose.


Suppose that 1.4 is taken as the approximate V2, then 2X1 .4 cm.,
or 2.8 cm., is the approximate length of AC, and 2X2.8 sq. cm., or
5.6 sq. cm., is the approximate area of R. In Fig. 383, the area of the
rectangle ABGH represents this approximate area of R.
Suppose, again, that 1.41 is taken as the approximate V2, then
41 cm., or 2 .82 cm., is the approximate length of A C, and 2X2 82

2X 1

5.64 sq. cm., is the approximate area of R. Although this


approximation cannot be represented on the figure, we know that
it is closer than the other but a little less than the area of R.
sq. cm., or

In this case the following points should be noted


1.

The

side or sides that are

incommensurable with the

unit cannot be expressed in integral or fractional terms of


that unit.
2.

The

side or sides that are

incommensurable with the

unit can be expressed in irrational terms of that unit.


illustration 3,
is expressed as 2V2 cm.

In

AC

3.

It

can be proved that As. 63

is

true for those cases in

which the sides of the rectangle can be expressed only in


The proof is, however,
irrational tenns of the chosen unit.
too difficult for this course.
4. Sometimes when the sides of the rectangle can be
expressed only by irrational numbers, it is possible to express
the area of the rectangle by rational numbers.

Connect the mid-points of the sides of a square whose


Find one side of the square so formed and its area.

Illustration 4.
side is 4

15

cm.

PLANE GEOMETRY

214

240. Practical measurements.

When

it

is

desired to use

the rule contained in As. 63 to compute the area of a given


rectangle from measurements actually made, an approximate
area only is possible.

We

have seen, 195, that the exact length of a given


segment cannot be obtained in terms of a unit chosen in
advance. Since the measures of the sides must of necessity
be approximate, the area must of necessity be approximate
The approximate area may, however, be made as
also.
close as

we choose

if

made

only the divisions of the scale are

sufficiently small.

EXERCISES INVOLVING AREA OF RECTANGLES


241. 1. Draw a rectangle whose sides are 3.4 cm. and 2.6 cm.
Find the approximate area of this rectangle in inches, measuring
(1)

to the nearest inch, (2) to the nearest half inch, (3) to the

nearest quarter inch, (4) to the nearest sixteenth inch. Make an


accurate drawing for each approximation and compare it with

the given rectangle.


2.

4^2
3.

3M

Find the area of a rectangle whose sides are SHe

in.

and

in.

If

in.,

the area of a rectangle

is

321^6

sq. in.

and one

side

is

find the other side.

4. Find the area of a walk 3 ft. 6 in. wide which completely


surrounds a lot 300 ft. X 500 ft. The dimensions of the lot are
taken on the inside of the walk.

>'
7^^"

Fig. 384
5. Fig.

384 shows forms of columns in cross-section.

outside measures and the width are the same in each case.

The
Find

the area of each cross-section shown.

Note. The area of the cross-section


determining the strength of the column.

is

an important element in

AREA AND EQUIVALENCE


Using any three given segments

6.

and

rectangle whose sides are (a+b)

a,

b,

215

and

c,

construct a

Show how

c.

illustrates geometrically the algebraic identity

this figure

c(a-\-b)=ac+bc.

c(a-\-b)=ac-\-bc may be translated into geometry:


rectangle whose side3 are c and {a-\-b) may be divided into two
rectangles whose sides are a and c, and b and c, respectively.
Suggestion.

The

Illustrate geometrically the identity c{a

7.

Suggestion.

c{a

b)=ac bc may

be

b) = ac bc.

translated

into

geometry:

b) may be obtained by cutting


rectangle whose sides are c and {a
a rectangle whose sides are b and c from a rectangle whose sides are
The

a and

c.

Using any two given segments a and b, construct a square


on the segment {a-\-b) and illustrate geometrically the identity
8.

Translate {a-\-bY = a'^-\-b'^-\-2ab into geometry. Draw


Suggestion.
the segments necessary to divide the square on a-\-b into the required
parts.

Illustrate geometrically the identity {a

9.

bY = a^-\-b^ 2ab.

bY=a^-\-b'^ 2ab
{a

Translate
into geometry.
ConSuggestion.
struct a figure formed by adding a square whose side is a to a
square whose side is b. Show how two rectangles may be cut from
What will be the sides of these
this so as to leave the desired result.
rectangles?
10.

Translate into geometry and illustrate by a figure:


{a-\-b) {d

b.

{a^-l)^)

11. If the length of

the area

is

70

+ c) = ad^bd-\-ac-\-bc.
= {a-b) (a + 6).

a.

a rectangle

sq. ft., find

the length of a rectangle


360, find the dimensions.

12. If

area

is

13.
its

14.

and

its

15.
in.

The

diagonal

and

is

ft.

more than the width and

the dimensions.
is

2K

times the width and the

length of a rectangle is 14 ft. more than


is 26 ft., find the dimensions and area.

Find the dimensions


area 84 sq.

of a rectangle

if its

its

width.

If

is

38

in.

diagonal

is

13

perimeter

in.

Find the dimensions of a rectangle


its area 60 sq. in.

if

its

PLANE GEOMETRY

216

MEASUREMENT OF THE PARALLELOGRAM


242.

Theorem

113.

product of the base

The area

and

altitude.

of a parallelogram is the

AREA AND EQUIVALENCE

217

MEASUREMENT OF THE TRIANGLES


Theorem

243.

The area

114.

of a triangle is one-half

the product of the base and altitude.

Fig. 386

Hypothesis:

ABC

Conclusion:

Area

is

A with

ABC = \

base h and altitude

a.

ah.

Analysis and construction:


that area ABC = \ ah, compare
ABC
with a parallelogram whose sides are AB and BC.

To prove

I.

II.

.*.

construct

Let the pupil give the construction.

Proof:

STATEMENTS
1.

A ABC

2.

Area EJ=ah.

3.

.'.

area

is

equivalent to J the parallelogram.

A = i a6.

Let the pupil give the reasons.

Ex. 1. Find the area of a


whose altitude is 2 ft. 7 in.

Ex.

and

its

Ex.

2.

is

is

ft.

is

Find the area of an


leg is 34 ft.
8

area

is

isosceles triangle

if its

base

6.

and

sq. ft.

if

is

32

ft.

each side

in.

Ex. 5. The base of a triangle is 3 ft. more than its


Find the base and the altitude if the area is 90 sq. ft.
Ex.

in.

S%

if its

Find the area of an equilateral triangle


in.;

ft.

in.

3.

Ex. 4.
4 in.; 6

whose base

Find the altitude of a triangle

base

and one

triangle

The base

of a triangle

the base and the altitude

if

is

the area

3 times
is

336

altitude.

its altitude.

sq.

ft.

Find

PLANE GEOMETRY

218

244.

MEASUREMENT OF THE TRAPEZOID


Theorem 115. The area of a trapezoid is

one-half the product of the altitude and the

equal to

sum of the bases.

Fig. 387

ABCD

Hypothesis:
tude a.

Area

Conclusion:

is

ABCD = |

a{b-\-b')

II.

.'.

triangles

alti-

and add

ABCD

into

b'

Analysis and construction:


I. To prove area ABCD = l
a{b+b'), divide

two

and

a ZZ\ with bases b and

their areas.

construct

Let the pupil complete the analysis.

Proof:

STATEMENTS

ABC = i ab.
ADC = ia'b\
Area ABC+avea, ADC = i ab+i
Area
Area

1.

2.
3.

a'b'.

a = a'.

4.

Area

5.

ABCD = \

a{b+b').

Let the pupil give the reasons.

Ex.

1.

One base

If its altitude is

Ex.

2.

one base 9
Ex.

3.

The
ft.

ft.

of

a trapezoid

and

its

is

area 81 sq.

ft.

more than the

ft.,

find the bases.

area of a trapezoid is 96 sq.


Find the other base.

The area

of

a trapezoid

is

ft., its

sides.

means

of Fig.

Prove Th. 115 by

388 and suggest other possible

i)

ABCD

construction lines in the trapezoid


(Fig.
388) so as to divide it into parts whose areas

be found and added.

altitude 8

ft.,

the product of the altitude

and the median drawn between the non-parallel


"
Ex. 4. There are other methods of drawing

may

other.

"\

/j
j.

Fig. 38S

figures.

AREA AND EQUIVALENCE

219

MEASUREMENT OF IRREGULAR POLYGONS


The

finding of the area of a field shaped like an


irregular polygon is one of the important problems that a
surveyor must solve. One method frequently used is to
246.

divide the field into triangles and apply the


finding the areas of the triangles.
Ex.
in Fig.

Compute

1.

Ex.

shown

;/

= 104ft.

= 82it.

Compute the area

2.

of the field

shown

390 from the following data:

BD=U
13

for

389 from the following data:

AC = 270 It.

in Fig.

the area of the field

method

ft.

CI = 9

ft.

EK=\0

ft.

in.

ft.

^=16 ft. 3 in. PM =


BL= 11 ft. 2 in.
in.

in.

Sometimes the

field to be surveyed is bounded on one side


shore
of a lake, or a curved road.
the
a
In such
by stream,
cases a straight line is run near the curved boundary, and
the inclosed figure is cut into trapezoidal shaped figures by

run perpendicular to the line, as shown in Fig. 391.


In such cases care should be taken that the curved
boundaries of the figures are as nearly straight as possible.
offsets

Ex.

3.

and the

Find the area inclosed between the fence


from the following data:

AF

(Fig. 391)

river

5 = 150 ft. DE = 250 ft. CC = 180 ft.


5C=140ft. F=100ft. DD' = 95it.
CD=160ft. BB'=UO(t. ' = 120 ft.

yl

Pig. 391

The distances along the straight line (AF, Fig. 391) are
made
equal, as the computation is then much easier.
usually
Compute the area referred to in Ex. 3 if the offsets are run as
indicated below. Draw the figure to scale.
Ex.

4.

Distances on ylF

Length

of offsets

55

100

200

300

400

76

83

80

50

500
42

600
65

PLANE GEOMETRY

220
Ex.

Find the

5.

^5 = 300

area

BC = UO

of

ZB

the

ft.

field

shown

,^

yV \\
y^ j\c

The

ft.

at 50

ft.

at 100

Ex.

ft.

6.

^^-'^^^^^^'^^^^

at 150

ft.

22

at 200

ft.

26

at 250

ft.

...

the

area

Find

shown

393, using the dimensions given.

20

^^^=^^

in

Z^^!^"'"''"^
'^

Fig. 392

18

Fig.

A BCD

is

AE = BF.

a rectangle.

392.

Fig.

is

lengths of the offsets are

at

in

a right
Offsets are run every
ft.,

DE= 125 ft.


from D to A. ^D = 310

angle,

50

ft.,

-^

*^'

7
/-

Fig. 393

Ex.

7.

Two

streets intersect at right angles.

third street cuts the other

two at angles

of 30

and

f1||||pi||r"

60.

The

LiF

shortest side of the triangular park left is 200 feet.


If the streets are 60 feet wide each, find the area of

pavement at

their intersection.

^B'^

Fig. 394

The

area of an irregular polygon may be found approximately by weighing. Cut the figure and also a square unit

from the same sheet of paper or cardboard and weigh them


The areas have the same ratio as the weights. Archimedes used this method to find the areas of certain figures.
Surveyors sometimes use it to-day.
both.

EQUIVALENT POLYGONS
TESTS FOR EQUIVALENCE
246.

The

For

A ABC

following notations will be used:


or EJABCD, S for area, b for base,

and a

for

altitude.

For

AA'B'C

or

EJA'B'CD',

S' for area,

h'

for base,

and

a' for altitude.

preliminary test for equivalent polygons was given in


Others are given in the assumptions of 237. The

238.

following tests are


for convenience

now

evident and are here stated formally

AREA AND EQUIVALENCE

221

Test a: for equivalent triangles or parallelograms.


is really a corollary of Ths. 113 and 114.

Th.

116

Theorem
equivalent

Two

116.

parallelograms or two triangles are

if

They have equal bases and

1.

are between the

same

parallels.

a = a^ and b = b\
ab = a'h'.

2.
3.

Test b: for triangles and parallelograms.


corollary of Ths. 113 and 114.

Th. 117

is

Theorem 117. If a triangle and a parallelogram have


equal bases and equal altitudes, the triangle is equivalent
to half the parallelogram.
the

By

equivalent

assumptions of 237 any two polygons are


they are sums, dijBferences, or equal parts of

if

equivalent polygons.

EXERCISES IN TRANSFORMATION
247.
2.

1.

Find

in Fig.

395 four equivalent parallelograms.

How many

equivalent parallelograms can be constructed with their bases

on two given parallels?


3. Using any OJABCD, construct two
parallelograms equivalent to it, (1) using
as the common base, and (2) using

AD

AB

4.

What

be found

same
allel

in

,'

\ \^

\\/-^\',C^
Fir
a.s

the

'iQ'i

common

base.

equivalent parallelograms can


Segments with the
Fig. 396?

letters are equal.

Transform

lelogram having

The

lines are par-

m n, r
EJABCD into

as indicated: k\\h,

5.

ed

jkh g f

>/

its

\\

\\

s.

a paral-

base equal to

one side equal to a given segment.


problem always possible?

AB

and

Is the

Fig. 396

Transform OJABCD into a parallelogram having its base


AB and one angle equal to a given angle. Is this problem
always possible?
6.

equal to

PLANE GEOMETRY

222

How many

7.

The

equivalent triangles can you find in Fig. 397?


are
alike

lettered

segments

equal. The lines are parallel as in.


dicated: k h and

II

||

Transform a given

^ABC

8.

into

the

triangle having
and one angle
equal to
to a given angle.

AB

9.

base
equal

Fig. 397

triangle having the base equal to

BC

and one

side equal

to a given segment.
10.
(1)

An

AB,

11.

BC,

(3)

AC.

triangle having

Suggestion.

248.

a right triangle having the base equal to

isosceles or
(2)

Two

two

sides equal to given segments.

transformations are necessary.

The transformations

in the previous section

may

be

performed by means of an algebraic analysis.

Problem 18. To transform a given parallelogram into


a rectangle which shall have a given segment as its base.

Fig. 398

Given the
b'

EJ ABCD with

the given segment.

Let

h its

base and a

P represent

the

its altitude,

and

CO ABCD.

To transform CJ ABCD into a rectangle with

h'

as its base.

Analysis and construction:

Let
I.

R represent
To

IL

.*.

in.

.'.

the rectangle, a'

construct

R = P,

its altitude.

construct a' so that ah = a'h'.

construct a' so that -r ~/'


h

construct a fourth proportional to

Let the pupil make the construction in

full

6', 6,

and give

and

proof.

a.

AREA AND EQUIVALENCE


Problem

To transform a given

19.

223

parallelogram into

a square.
Analysis and construction:

To construct the square = P,

I.

unknown side
.'.construct x sl mean

where x
II.

Ex.

is

the

construct x so that ab

proportional between a and

Transform a given triangle into

1.

a given base,

(2)

= x^,

of the square.

(1)

b.

a rectangle having

a square.

Transform a given parallelogram into an isosceles


triangle having a given base.
Ex. 3. Construct a square which shall be equivalent to three
Ex.

2.

times a given square.

Construct on a given base an isosceles triangle which


4.
be equivalent to twice a given square.

Ex.
shall

Problem

249.

ABCD

20.

To transform a given

into a triangle with the

base in the line

quadrilateral

AB

and the

vertex at point D.

Fig. 399

Given the quadrilateral

To transform it into a
AB and its vertex at D.

ABCD.
triangle with its base in the line

Analysis and construction:


I.

Since the base

is

to be in the line

AB

and the vertex

AABD will be a part of the required triangle.


transform ADBC into a triangle with DB for one

at D,
.*.

side
II.

.'.

and another

side

on

construct a line from .C

\\

AB extended.
BD and join DE.

Let the pupil name the required triangle and give analysis for the
proof and then the proof.

PLANE GEOMETRY

224
Ex.

Transform a given quadrilateral

1.

A BCD

into a triangle

that shall have


a.

Its base in the line

AB

b.

Its base in the line

c.

Its base in the line

BC and vertex
BC and vertex

and vertex

at C.
at

d.

Its

base in the line

AD and vertex at

e.

Its

base in the line

DC and

Problem

21.

at D.
C.

vertex at B.

To transform a given polygon

into

triangle.

Fig. 400

The

analysis, directions,

and proof are

left to

the pupil.

The

figure

Let the pupil extend the method so as to


transform a given hexagon into a triangle.

suggests the construction.

Ex.

2.

Construct a square equivalent to a given 4-side.

Ex.

3.

Construct on a given base a rectangle equivalent to a

given 4-side.

Ex.

4.

Construct on a given base an isosceles triangle equiva-

lent to a given 4-side.

EXERCISES INVOLVING EQUIVALENT FIGURES


250.

1.

The median

of a triangle divides

it

into

two equiva-

lent parts.
2.

Divide a given triangle into three equivalent parts by seg-

ments drawn from the vertex to the base.


3.

The

diagonals of a parallelogram divide

it

into four equiva-

lent triangles.
4.

Given the

in the diagonal

AAXB

CJABCD with X any point


AC.

Prove that

AAXD =

(see Fig. 401).

Investigate the case, Ex. 4, in which ^'^


is on ^C extended.
point
5.

Fig. 401

AREA AND EQUIVALENCE


6.

points

225

Given A BCD, any quadrilateral, with E and


Prove
oi AB and CD respectively.

AECF=AAFD-^AEBC

the mid-

(Fig. 402).

Draw AC.

Suggestion.

7. Two triangles are equivalent if two sides


of one are equal respectively to two sides of the
other and the angles included by these sides are supplementary.

A BCD is a trapezoid with its


AC and DB. Prove AAOD = ABOC.
First compare AABD and A ABC or
Suggestion.
In Fig. 403,

8.

diagonals

AADCand. ABDC.
In

9.

Fig. 403

404,

Fig.

a.^

AE\\DB.

Prove

AABE =

AAED; ABDE = ABDA; AABO=AEDO\

AADC = BCDE.

Fig. 404
10.

Can

Show how

this

to divide a triangle into four equivalent parts.


be done in more than one way?

11. If one base of a trapezoid is twice the other, the diagonal


divides the trapezoid into two parts one of which is double the

other.

a parallelogram. E and F are the mid-points


Prove that CF, CA, and CE divide
the parallelogram into 4 equivalent parts.
12.

o(

AB

13.

parts

is

AD

respectively.

Show how

by

14.

parts

A BCD

and

lines

to divide a parallelogram into six equivalent


vertex.

drawn from the same

Show how to divide a parallelogram


lines drawn from the same vertex.

into three equivalent

by

15.

An

isosceles right triangle is equivalent to

constructed on
16.

The

a square

K of the square

hypotenuse.

figure formed by joining the mid-points of the sides of

is

Suggestion.
17. Is

its

equivalent to J4 of the square.


Construct the medians of the given square.

Ex. 16 true for any parallelogram?

PLANE GEOMETRY

226

THE SQUARE ON THE HYPOTENUSE OF A


261.

RIGHT TRIANGLE
Theorem 118. The square constructed on

hjrpotenuse of a right triangle is equivalent to the


the squares constructed on the other two sides.

of

the

sum

Fig. 405

Hypothesis:

I, II,

and

ABC

is

rt.

III constructed

with

on the

ZA = 1
sides

rt. Z and
AB, AC^ and

the

BC

respectively.

Conclusion:

nUl=\JI+ nil.

Analysis and construction:


I.

Dili can be proved equivalent to DI+DII by


dividing Dili into two parts equivalent to DI
and nil respectively.

III.

D III into the two parts required


from A BC and proving
=
BEML D I and CDML = D II.
To prove CDML = D II, compare them with con-

ly.

The

II.

One way of dividing


is by drawing a

line

gruent triangles.
triangles desired

may

be obtained by joining

AD and BK. Then prove


2. AACD = HCDML.
1.
AACDmBCK.
=
3.
ABCK }4 OIL

AREA AND EQUIVALENCE

227

AACD ^ ABCK, prove AC = CK, BC = CD,


ZACD=ZKCB,
To prove AACD = H CDML, show that CD is the
To prove

V.

Vr.

common

base and

CL

is

equal to the altitude of

each.

To prove ABCK = M II, show that CK is the common base and AC is equal to the altitude of each.
To prove AC equal to the altitude of ABCK, prove

VII.

VIII.

that

HAB

is

a straight Hne.

Let the pupil give the analysis to prove that


details of the proof,

BEAfL^DI,

full

and the conclusion.

For other methods of proof see 255; 254, Ex. 23; 233,
Ex. 23.

Problem

sum

22.

To

construct a square equivalent to the

two given squares.

of

Fig. 406

Given

DI

and

D II

constructed on the segments a and b

respectively.

To
The

construct
solution

a square equivalent to

is left

ni+ nil.

to the pupil.

To construct a square equivalent


23.
between two given squares.

Problem
difference

The

solution of this problem

is left

to the

to the pupil.

Construct a square equivalent to

;c=

Ex.

1.

Ex.

2.

Ex.

3.

The sum of three given squares.


The sum of two given parallelograms.

Ex. 4.

The diderence between two given triangles.


The sum of a given triangle and a given

Ex.

If

5.

Va'^-l-62;

rectangle.

a and b are two given segments, construct x so that

so that

x=

yla^-b'^.

PLANE GEOMETRY

228

SUMMARY AND SUPPLEMENTARY EXERCISES


252.

SUMMARY OF IMPORTANT POINTS

IN

CHAPTER X

A. Formulae obtained.

Area of rectangle = a6 (239).


Area of parallelogram = a& ( 242)
III. Area of triangle = 3^ a6 (243).
IV. Area of trapezoid = M a (b+b') ( 244).
V. If a and b are the legs and c the hypotenuse
I.

II.

of a right

(251).
For area of triangle see 253, Ex. 41 and Ex. 44.
Ex.41. S = }i be sin A.
triangle, a'^-^b^

^s{s a) (sb)

S=

Ex. 44.

sides of

c''

(s

c)

where

a, b,

and

are

A.

For areas of irregular polygons see 245.


263.

EXERCISES INVOLVING NUMERICAL COMPUTATIONS


Be prepared

Note.

to prove the theorems on which

any

of

the

following exercises depend.


1.

whose
2.

25

ft.

A rectangle whose base is 81


side

The

is

36

ft.

ft. has the same area as a square


Find the difference between the perimeters.

altitudes of

and 40

two

triangles are equal

ft.

respectively.
equivalent to their sum having
3.

What

and

their bases are

the base of a triangle


an altitude 2}^ times as great?
is

The base and altitude of a triangle are 18 ft. and 24 ft.


At a distance of 10 ft. from the base a line is drawn

respectively.

parallel to the base.

triangle
4.

is

Find the area of the two parts into which the

divided.

Find the altitude of a triangle with base 21

the same area as a parallelogram whose base


altitude is 15 in.

12
'

5.

The area

6.
ft.

Find the area of a rhombus if the sum


and their ratio is 3 5. Use Ex. 5.

7.

of

a rhombus

is

is

18

in.

which has

in.

and whose

the product of the diagonals.


of the diagonals

is

rectangular field

is

30X80

ft.

It is

surrounded by a road

of uniform width the entire area of which equals the area


field.
Find the width of the road.

of the

AREA AND EQUIVALENCE

229

The legs of a right triangle are 15 ft. and 20 ft. A perpenis drawn from the vertex of the right angle to the hypotenuse.

8.

dicular

Find the areas of the two triangles formed.


9. The area of a rectangle is 120 sq. ft.; one side

is

Find

ft.

the diagonal.

The perimeter

10.
is

14

ft.

of a rhombus
Find the area. Use Ex.

is

100

ft.;

the shorter diagonal

5.

The

area of a rhombus is 2184 sq. ft.; the shorter diagonal


Find the longer diagonal and one side. Use Ex. 5.
12. A house is 45 ft. long, 32 ft. wide, 24 ft. to the roof, and
30 ft. to the ridgepole. Find the number of sq. ft. in the entire
11.

is

26

ft.

exterior surface.

Find the area of a right triangle

13.

and

ft.;

ft.

its

perimeter

is

84

ft.

height of a lean-to roof


the span is 15 ft. Find

the area of the roof


21

if

3:4:5.

The

14.
is

are in the ratio

its sides

if

the length

is

(see Fig. 407).

Fig. 407
15.

40

The

parallel sides of

an

30

isosceles trapezoid are

respectively; the non-parallel sides are each 13


the altitude and the area.
ft.

16.

The area

of a kite is

ft.

and

ft.

Find
JO

the product of the

diagonals.
17. In Fig. 408, /LA = l rt. Z.
^5 = ^Z)and
^C is the perpendicular bisector of DB. If ^5 = 4
in. and AC = ^}i in., find the area of A BCD

and the length


18.

The

of

design

DC.

shown

in Fig.

409

is

symmet-

with regard to both diagonals of the square.


If AY = )4 AB and OX = }iOA, find the area of
the. kite AYXZ and hence of the Maltese cross
ric

shown,
19.
ft.

if

^5 = 6

Upon

in.

16

Fig. 409

the diagonal of a rectangle 11 ft. wide and 60


is constructed whose area equals the area of the

long a triangle

rectangle.

Find

its altitude.

230

PLANE GEOMETRY

IT

AREA AND EQUIVALENCE

231

31. Fig. 413 represents a square with each side divided into 4
equal parts and the points joined as indicated. If AB = 12 in.
find the area of' the star.
figure similar to Fig. 413, dividing
each side into 3 equal parts. Find the area of the

star

formed

if

each side of the square

is

lO

L-fe^<^-J

in.

p-^-^^^3^^.
^
"
^

A square and an equilateral triangle have each

33.

g-

i>(

Draw a

32.

-*^

^^^' ^^^

a perimeter of 60 ft. Find the ratio of their areas.


34. Fig. 414 shows a square with each side divided
into three equal parts and the points joined as indiIf each side of the original square is 12 in.,

cated.

find the area of the eight-pointed star


irregular octagon in the center.

The

Note.

in industrial

designs shown

ornament.

Fig.

and

of the
Fig. 414

413 and 414 are extensively used


from a parquet floor design. See

in Figs.

415

is

Fig. 181a.

-Dciw

^(?

AX

and CY
35. Fig. 415 shows a square with
each one-fourth the diagonal AC. If the points are
is a rhombus
joined as indicated, prove that

XBYD

and

AB = Q

find its area.

in.

36. If the parallel sides of


its

altitude

is

Fig. 415

find the area of

in.,

and 20 in. and


the two triangles formed by

a trapezoid are 8

in.

extending the non-parallel sides until they intersect.

XF = 50, ZF = 20, ZW = ob,


aF = 00. Find the
AX, DY, BZ, and CW are each

In Fig. 410,
YD =120,

37.

y4X = 63,

A BCD.

area of

perpendicular to

BZ = SO,

XW.

rz

ht

Fig. 416

38.

A BCD

ZA = }4

Tt.

a quadrilateral with

is

Z.

If

BC = 8

in.

AC

and ^Z>=15

and

in.,

rt.

A and

find the area of

the quadrilateral.
39.
If

The area

of

the base of the

relation

40.

one rectangle
first is

between their

The area

of

is

3 times the area of a second.

twice the base of the second, find the

altitudes.

a certain rectangle

is

3K

times the area of

the base of the triangle is twice the base o^ the


rectangle, find the relation between their altitudes.

triangle.

If

PLANE GEOMETRY

232

41. lie and b represent two sides of a triangle and A the included
angle, prove that the altitude upon side ft is c sin ^ that the altitude
upon side cis b sin A, and that the area is >2 be sin A.
,

AABC, using the trigonometric


=
.4j5
8.3cm., ^C = 3.9cm., ZA=37.
=
^5 9. 6cm., ^C = 5. 4cm., ZA=54,

Find the area of


42.
43.

t44. If a,

b,

and

if

are th e sides of a triangle,

the area of the triangle

is

-^sis

a)

{s

b)

(s

c),

s = }4{a+b-\-c).

where

tables,

^^

Fig. 417

A nalysis:
To

I.

find the area of a triangle in terms of the three sides, find

the area in terms of the base and altitude and express the
altitude in terms of the three sides by means of the Pythago-

rean theorem.

= y2ch (Fig.
= b^-x\
h^ = a^-{c-xy.

II. Ave3.

417).

III. h^

IV.

Solve the two equations for h and x and substitute the value of h in
the area formula.
Outline of algebraic proof:

i2-x2 = a2_(c-x)2
b^-x^ = a'^-c^+2cx-x'^

2c

(2bc-b^-c^+a^) (2bc+b^+c^-a^)
4c2
,,,

"

~ (a-b+c) (a+b-c) (b+c+a) (b+c-a)


4c^

may be put in a more concise form by noting that


a+bc = a-\-b+c2c

This

a-b+c = a+b+c-2b
b-\-ca

We may

let

= a-\-b-{-c2a
a-\-b-^c=2s for convenience.

Then a-\-b-c=2s-2c = 2{s-c)


a-b+c = 2s-2b = 2{s-b)
b-{-c-a = 2s-2a = 2{s-a)

AREA AND EQUIVALENCE


Substituting in the value for
^^,

2(s-b)

2{s-c)

233

/t',

25

2{s-a)

4c^

= 2 V5(5-a)

n
/.

area of

Note.

(s-b) (s-c)

A = 5 ch=

What

"^

s{sa)

changes must be

b)

{sc), where

made

in the details

(s

= ^{a-^b-{-c).

above

if

falls

outside the triangle?

Note.
surveyor,

This formula was given by a noted Greek engineer and


of Alexandria (about 100 B.C.).

Hero

Find the areas of triangles whose sides are

45.
a.

13, 14, 15

b.

8, 10,

46.

shown

15, 18,

21

d. 24, 33,

41

c.

12

Compute from the

following data the area of the field

in Fig. 418, using the formula given in Ex. 44.

A B = 210

ft.

BC = 210
CD = 210

it.

it.

DE = 305 it.
EA =225 it.
BD = SMit.

AD = ^25 it.
*

EXERCISES INVOLVING EQUIVALENT POLYGONS


254. Note.
Be prepared to prove the theorems on which any of
the following exercises depend.
1.

Make a

2.

The area

and the radius


3.

The

review diagram for Th. 117.


of a triangle

is

one-half the product of the perimeter

of the inscribed circle.

area of any polygon circumscribed about a circle


and the radius

is

one-

half the product of the perimeter


of the inscribed circle.

4. Given the isosceles right A ABC with OF and


GE drawn from the mid-point oi AC parallel to AB
and BC respectively, prove area EBFG=}/2 area

ABC
5.

(see Fig. 419).

The

line

"

F J. 419

joining the mid-points of the parallel sides of


it into two parts that have equal areas.

a trapezoid divides

PLANE GEOMETRY

234

6. Given A^ BC with A" an arbitrary point on the


median CO. Prove AACX equivalent to ABCX.

The

7.

three medians of a triangle divide

it

into 6

equivalent triangles.

EC,

Given AADC and DEE with AD = DB, DE =


ZADC+ZBDE = 2 rt.A, prove area DBE = y>

area

ADC

8.

from

(Fig. 420).

Given

9.

to

Fig.

A ABC

with CD, an arbitrary segment

AB, divided

into three equal parts at points

and Y, compare area AYB, area AXB, and area

ACB

(Fig. 421).

Construct a square whose area shall be


the area of a given square.
10.

421
of

ABC is an isosceles right triAE = EB; BF = FC; G and Ffi^ are per-

11. In. Fig. 422,

angle.

pendicular to

AC.

Compare

areas

AEG, EBF,

EFHG, and ABC.


*

In Fig. 423, ABC is an isosceles A. AC


are each divided into 3 equal parts.
CD,
and GN are A_ AB. Compare the areas of

12.

and

FM,

CB

Given the quadrilateral A BCD with the


diagonal BD bisected at X, prove that AX CD is
13.

equivalent to

AXCB

fJg.^423

King-rod and
Queen-rod truss

the various figures formed.

design
^

(see Fig. 424).

Transform quadrilateral A BCD into quadABCE so that (1) Z ECB shall be equal to
a given angle, (2) side AE shall be equal to a given
14.

rilateral

segment.
15.

nals

if

16.

Is the

quadrilateral

is

bisected

the second diagonal

Given

equivalent to

Fig. 424

problem always possible?

AABC
ABCE

is

by one

bisected

with EF\\AB.

of its diago-

by the

Prove

first.

AACF

(Fig. 425).
Fig. 425

AREA AND EQUIVALENCE

235

17. In Fig. 426, A BCD is a square with its


diagonals and medians. The semi-medians, OE,
OF, OG, and OH, are bisected at X, F, Z, and W,

Prove that the star formed

respectively,

is

the square.
18. Construct in a given square a star
that shall be ^i of the given square.

19. If

through any point on the diagonal

of a parallelogram segments are drawn parallel to the sides, the parallelograms on opposite sides of

the diagonal are equivalent (see Fig. 427).

[sj
428, ABC is any triangle,
and BFEC have the common side CE
and have AC and BC as bases. Prove that if d
20. In Fig.

AC ED

Z?F

is

ABFD is a parallelogram
ACED and BFEC.

joined,
sum of [sJ

to the

Suggestion.

Extend

EC

equivalent

and show that

can be broken up into parts equivalent to


21. In Fig. 429,

and

BCED

AC

and

ABC

is

any

MC.

Prove that

to

to

CJ ACFG-]- CJ BCED.

22.

of

23.

EJACED
ACFG

and

CO BFEC.
^

DE

lel

sum

^28

are any parallelograms on the sides


BC respectively. GF and
are

extended to meet at M. On
is constructed with one side

Note.

triangle.

p^^

CO ABFD

Ex. 21

Show

is

known

AB

a parallelogram

AH equal and paralCJABKH is equivalent


as Pappus' theorem (about 300 a.d.).

hoUr to construct a parallelogram equivalent to the

two given parallelograms.

Deduce the Pythagorean theorem from Pappus' theorem.

A BCD is a square with its diagoand medians. HE, EF, FG, and GH are each

D_

24. In Fig. 430,

nals

divided into 3 equal parts and the points are joined


as indicated. Compare the area of the shaded
portion with the area of the square

A BCD.

JSL.

e^

Fig. 430

PLANE GEOMETRY

236

ABCD

is a square with its


25. In Fig. 431,
diagonals and medians. OX, OY, OZ, and
of the corresponding semi-diagonal,
are each
of the star with the area of the
area
the
Compare

OW

square

^'f^^f^^
a

ABCD.

ji

Fig. 431

Note.

Figs. 426, 430,

and 431 are from parquet

floor designs.

26. If the mid-points of two adjacent sides of a parallelogram


are joined, the triangle formed is equivalent to
the parallelo-

gram.
27. If the mid-points of

any point

two

sides of a triangle are joined to

of the base, the quadrilateral

formed

is

equivalent to

3^ the triangle.
28. The triangle formed by joining the mid-point of one of
the non-parallel sides of a trapezoid with the extremities of the
opposite side is equivalent to >2 the trapezoid.
29.

Given the

gram, prove that

EJ ABCD and
/\AOB

-\-

0,

ADOC

any point within the


is

equivalent to

parallelo-

EJABCD.

were without the OJ ABCD, what


between AAOB and DOC and EJ ABCD}

30. If in Ex. 29 point

would be the

relation

CD is
is isosceles.
31. In Fig. 432,
perpendicular to AB. AB, AC, and CB are
each divided into 3 equal parts and the points
are joined as indicated.
Compare the areas of

AABC

Fig. 432

From

the triangles formed.


t32. Construct a rectangle so that its area
be equal to the area of a given square
sum of its base and altitude equal to
the
and

shall

a roof truss

design
^"
;

a given segment (see Fig. 433).

a^

'

Fig. 433

A nalysis:
Let X represent the base and y the altitude of the rectangle.
construct a rectangle so that its area is equal to the area of the
X=a
=
square, construct x and y so that xy a^, or so that

To

/,

x-\-y

must be divided into two segments


and y.

portional between x

Directions and proof are left to the pupil.

so that a

is

mean

pro-

AREA AND EQUIVALENCE

237

t33. Construct a rectangle so that its area shall be equal to


the area of a given square and the difference between

and

base

its

altitude

to

equal

segment

given

(see Fig. 434).

be one side of the square and x


of the rectangle. An analysis
similar to that for Ex. 32 will show that a will be the
mean proportional between two segments x and y whose
Let a

Suggestion.

and y the base and altitude

difference

Fig. 434

-45 (see Fig. 434).

is

two triangles have an angle of one equal


an angle of the other, the ratio of the areas

134. If
to

equals the ratio of the products of the sides that


include the equal angles (see Fig. 435).
Fig. 435

A nalysis:
I.

area

To prove

ABC = be
,^, Tj-y
.

area

A B'C

be

'

compare the area of each

triangle
^ wi th

the area of a third triangle having the same altitude.


TT

.
. .

II.

J
/-D/
LB andJ cfindJ 4.U
draw
the

^-

.area

ratio of

ABC

and

area

,>;
A B'C
.

area

of

AB'C
t-^ttt^,

area A B'C

and multiply.
Let the pupil give the proof.

and

35. If s

shown

s'

represent the areas of the

A ABC

and A B'C

in Fig. 435, find

= 15,c=lS, and s = s'.


= 35, c = 70, and s = 2s'.
c' = 28, c = 45, and s=r2s'.

1.

c',iib =24,

b'

2.

c', if

6'

3. b,

if

=56,

6'=

18,

field A BC, show how to divide


two equivalent parts by running a fence from
point X on one side (see Fig. 436).

36.

it

Given a triangular

^/jy

into

Fig. 436
Suggestion.

Represent
.'.

^ C by

a' are to

struction in

Let
b,

be the point at which the fence meets BC.


XC by b\ CF by a', and 5C by a. Point Y and

be found,
full.

Find

a' so

that

ab_
a'b'

Why?

Give con-

PLANE GEOMETRY

238

EXERCISES INVOLVING THE PYTHAGOREAN


256.

1.

Th. lis as

THEOREM

In the details of the proof of


given above, prove that

ACBF and ABE

have equal bases and

equal altitudes instead of proving

them

congruent (Fig. 437).

A nalysis:
To prove

I.

Fig. 437

that

and AABE have equal bases and equal


and AB as bases and prove the altitudes

ACBF

altitudes, use

BF

equal.

drop perpendiculars from E and C to ^B and


and prove ABEP^ ABRC.

II.

BF

extended

respectively

2. Give the details for the proof for Th. 118 (1) if square CE is
constructed on the opposite side of CB from that shown in Fig. 437;
(2) if square AF is constructed on the opposite side oi AB from

AF

are on opposite
(3) if both CE and
respectively from thovse shown in the figure.
Fig. 438 may be used to prove

that shown in the figure;


sides of
3.

CB and AB

Show how

Pythagorean theorem. A EH is the given


Extend AE and AH, making AB =
right triangle.
AD = a-\-b, Complete the square on a+b. Make
BF = CG = DH = a. Join E, F, G, and H. From E
and F draw lines parallel to AD and AB respecProve that EFGH is a square equivalent to
tively.
the

4.

Show how

Fig.

439

be used to prove

may

the Pythagorean theorem. ABE


Construct the square
triangle.

is

the given right

on AB.
AK = BE. JoinDK. Construct DCF and
congruent to AABE. Prove KHFD and
squares whose sum is equivalent to c^.

5.

Show how

squares
6.

'4a^

If
b'^

BGHE

Fig. 439

and

KHFD

438
a^-\-b^

may be

x*,^

Make

A C5G
BGHE

constructed

Fig. 439

by constructing

first.

a and b are two given segments, show by geometry that


is not a+b.

AREA AND EQUIVALENCE


7.

and

If a, b,

segment x so that
8.

239

are three given segments, construct a fourth

(I)

x= ^|a^^Tc^,

(2)

x=

Construct a square whose area shall be

+ f^-c^.

yja^

H of

the difference

between the areas of two given squares.


9. Construct on a given base a right triangle whose area
be equal to the sum of the areas of two given triangles.

AB

10.

is

located that
circle at

1 1

E.

D is a point on ^5 so
AB D and cuts the semiProve that the square on ^ is H the square on AB.
the diameter of a semicircle.

AD=/i AB. DE

^ BC

If

is

a.t

a,

and

6,

Z A an

S.

c are the'

\.y^

y^
^^^

B^ and C respectively,
2cp where p is the projection of
-\-c'^

sides opposite
6

is

triangle with

any

acute angle, and sides


a'^

upon

AA,

= h^-{-(c-p)^

The

Note.

'V
\

l''

^.L.

A^

Fig. 440

c (Fig. 440).

Outline of algebraic proof:


a^

shall

Let h be the altitude on

c.

distance between the feet of the perpendiculars

drawn

to a given line from the ends of a segment is called the projection of


the segment upon the line.
12. Give the proof for Ex. 11 for a figure
which h falls on AB extended.

ABC

tl3. If

is

any

obtuse angle, and sides

in

triangle with

Z A any

and

opposite

a, b,

c are

is

Outline of algebraic proof:

''^

/
^^ :/-pJ
I

= b'^-\-c^-{-2cp b
respectively, a^
the projection of b upon c (Fig. 441).

A A, B, and C
where p

^^,
>''^^/i^

^^^^-

Let h be the altitude upon

^^^

c.

= A2 + (c+p)2
h2 = b^-p2
a^ = i,i^p2^(^c-{-pr-

a2

...

and prove the converse of the proposition that the


on
the
hypotenuse of a right triangle equals the sum of
square
the squares of the other two sides.
14. State

15. If the sides of

a triangle are as given below,

angle right, acute, or obtuse:


15, 36,

39

(1)

20,39,36?

(2)

is

the largest

15,30,39?

(3)

CHAPTER XI
Similarity

INTRODUCTORY
DEFINITION
256. Similar

polygons have been defined as polygons that

have
1. The angles of one equal to the corresponding angles of
the other, and

2.

Corresponding sides proportional.

By the ratio of

similitude of

two

similar polygons

the ratio of any two corresponding sides.

corresponding sides will be lettered alike,

is

meant

For convenience
as AB and A'B\

BC and B'C.
TESTS FOR SIMILAR POLYGONS
TEST

FOR SIMILAR TRIANGLES

The first test for similar triangles is given in Th. 102.


mutually equiangular triangles are similar.

257.

Two

Let the pupil review the proof for Th. 102.

Ex. 1. Two triangles are similar if two angles of one are


equal respectively to two angles of the other.
Ex. 2. Two right triangles are similar if an acute angle of
one is equal to an acute angle of the other.
Ex.

3.

Two

isosceles triangles are similar

equal to a corresponding angle of the other.


Ex. 4. Construct two similar triangles
similitude

Ex.

5.

if

an angle

with

the

of

one

ratio

is

of

%.

Two

triangles similar to a third are similar to each

other.

240

SIMILARITY

241

n FOR SIMILAR TRIANGLES


Given ABC any triangle, and A'B' of AA'B'C,
258. Ex. 1.
AB AC
construct AA'B'C so that Z^ = Z^' and
TEST

A'C

A'B'

Theorem

Two

triangles are similar if an angle of


angle of the other and the ratios of the

119.

equal to an
including sides are equal.

one

is

Fig. 442

Hypothesis:

In

AABC

and AA'B'C,

ZA=

ZA' and

AB =

ZB' and

A'C'

A'B'

Conclusion:

AABCooAA'B'C.

Analysis and construction:

L To prove AABC co AA'B'C


/:c=zc'.
II.

To prove

ZB=

ZB', place

so that the sides of


of
III.

prove

AABC

is left

BC\\ B'C, prove

^, = ^,.

to the pupil.

2.
Construct AA'B'C similar to
A'B' and B'C is given.

Ex.
sides

Ex. 3. If a segment is drawn


and terminated by the sides, the
given triangle. Give two proofs.
Ex.

4.

upon AA'B'C

are collinear with the sides

ZA' and prove BC\\B'C'.

To prove

The proof

ZA

Solve Ex. 3

the triangle extended.

if

AABC

if

the

sum

of

parallel to the base of a triangle

triangle

formed

is

similar to the

the parallel to the base cuts the sides of

PLANE GEOMETRY

242

TEST
Ex.
A 7?

259.

SO that

1.

FOR SIMILAR TRIANGLES

III

Given
A

J^r*

A ABC any triangle.

jr^'^'^X'^AX^'

Theorem

Two

120.

Construct

AA'B'C

(^

^^^^^ '^'^' ^ A^'j5'C'.

triangles are similar

sponding sides have equal

if

the corre-

ratios.

Fig. 443

AABC and A A 'B'C\ - = -=-->

cab

Hypothesis:

In

Conclusion:

AABC ~ A A 'B'C

Analysis and construction:


I.

To prove AABC<^ AA'B'C compare


,

each with a

third triangle.
II.

III.

IV.

CX = b\

on CB construct CY = a\
and prove 7i ~ Tg and Tz ^ Tg where T^ = AABC,
T2 = AA'B'C\ and T^ ^AXYC.

On CA

construct

c' = z.
(Use Th. 4.)
=
c'
z, compare two proportions containing
z and c'\ t- = - from A Ti and 7,
and 7- = - given.
^

To prove
To prove

T2 ^Tg, prove

be

b'

V.

be

To prove =-> prove


^

Let the pupil give the proof.

Ex.
its

2.

T^

00

Tg.

(Use Th. 119.)

For IV use Th.

92.

Construct a triangle similar to a given triangle with

perimeter equal to a given segment.

Ex.

3.

Prove that two triangles are similar

the median to one of


parts of the other.

them

if

two

sides

and

are proportional to the corresponding

SIMILARITY

243

CONSTRUCTION OF SIMILAR TRIANGLES


260.

to

Problem

Upon a given segment corresponding

24.

a side of a given

triangle, to construct

a triangle similar

to the given triangle.

GENERAL TEST FOR SIMILAR POLYGONS


261.

Theorem

121.

Two

polygons are similar

if

diago-

nals drawn from two corresponding vertices divide the


polygons into the same number of triangles similar each
to each and similarly placed.

E^AP

Fig. 444

Hypothesis: Polygons P and P' are divided into triangles


by the diagonals drawn from the corresponding vertices

AI~ AI', AII~ AlF,


Polygon P co polygon P'.

and A' so that


Conclusion:

etc.

Analysis:
I.

To prove Pc^^P/, prove

<

^^

ZB= IB\
_^_^

/.C= AC\

etc.

<^

'a'~~h'~7'
(

To prove

=
be
r>

-/.

prove each ratio equal to

777^,C

yi

Let the pupil complete the analysis and give the proof.

CONSTRUCTION OF SIMILAR POLYGONS


Problem 25. Upon a given segment corresponding
a given side of a given polygon, to construct a polygon

262.

to

similar to the given polygon.

Can

this

problem be solved in more than one way.?

PLANE GEOMETRY

244

PROPERTIES OF SIMILAR POLYGONS


COMPOSITION OF SIMILAR POLYGONS

Theorem

263.

122.

If

two polygons are

similar, diago-

drawn from two corresponding vertices divide the


polygon into the same number of triangles similar each to
each and similarly placed.

nals

The

analysis

and the proof are

left to

the pupil.

RATIOS OF CORRESPONDING SEGMENTS


264.

of

Theorem

123.

The

ratio of corresponding altitudes

two similar triangles equals the

ratio of the bases.

Fig. 445

In

Hypothesis:

sponding altitudes
Conclusion :

and

c'

h and

h'

are corre-

are the bases.

ri^-r
h

To prove

Analysis:
third ratio

AABC^ AA'B'C,
and

ti =

compare

-t-,

and

with the

Let the pupil complete the analysis and give the proof.

Prove that in two similar triangles the ratio of the


following segments equals the ratio of similitude of the triangles:
Ex.

1.

a.

Bisectors of corresponding angles.

h.
c.

Corresponding medians.
The radii of the circumscribed

d.

The

circles.

radii of the inscribed circles.

Ex. 2. Are there any other segments in two similar triangles


whose ratio is equal to the ratio of similitude of the triangles?
Give proofs.

SIMILARITY
Ex.

In two similar polygons the ratio of corresponding


equal to the ratio of similitude of the polygons.

3.

is

diagonals

Ex.

245

4.

If b

and

b'

two

are the bases of

the corresponding altitudes, show that -,

= -

and

similar

if

Theorem

265.

triangles

rr

if

and a and

a'

the triangles are

they are equivalent.

In a series of equal ratios the sum


sum of the consequents as any

124.

of the antecedents is to the

antecedent
TT

is to its

consequent.

e
= "7 = "7
= etc.

Hypothesis: T"

Conclusion:

6-f-fi+/+ctc.

Proof:

STATEMENTS
a

2.

__ e

= ab
=ad
be = af

ab
be

3. ab+bc-{-be-\-etc.
4.

^'

=ab-{-ad-{-af -^etc.

b{a-{-c+e+etc.) =a{b+d-{-f +etc.).


a + c + e 4-etc. _ _a
^
'

+^H-/+etc.~

Let the pupil give

all

reasons.

Ex.

1.

AD

and
Prove Th. 123 by provmg that
Jji^'^r^t

Theorem

125.

The

ratio of the perimeters of

= DB

^/

^/^/'

two similar

triangles is equal to the ratio of similitude.


Let the pupil give the analysis and the proof. Use Th. 124.
equal ratios is obtained from the ratios of corresponding

series of

Ex.
the

2.

same

17

The
sides.

Corresponding diagonals of two similar polygons have


ratio as the perimeters.

PLANE GEOMETRY

240

RATIOS OF AREAS
266.

Theorem

The areas

126.

have the same ratio as the squares

of two similar triangles


of the bases or the squares

of the altitudes.

Fig. 446

AABC^

l\A'B'C h and
Hypothesis: In
a'
the
altitudes.
and
and
a
bases
sponding
Area
Conclusion.

ABC

STATEMENTS
1.

Kve2iABC=y2ah.

2.

AreaA'^'C' = 3^a'6'.
area

0.

52

^2

To" ^^"^"
prove each
prove area
_^^ A\'i'Dtnt
a''
'^'C ^TJ'i.^~''i"
h'^

Proof:

are corre-

ABC ^^_a^

ratio equal to a third ratio.

I.

h'

ArQ2i A' B'C

area

Analysis:

ABC

ah

SIMILARITY
Ex.
b

and

Ex.
sq.

ft.

b'

In two similar triangles let s and 5' represent the areas,


the bases, and a and a' the altitudes. Find

a.

s', if 5

b.

a\

c.

b', if

if

=45 and a=

a'.

= Hs''
and 5' = 35.

a =16 and s
^>= 10

The sum

2.

of the areas of

Two

areas and
267.

247

two similar triangles is 78


ft. and 15 ft.
Find the

corresponding sides are 10


the altitudes.

Theorem

have the same

127.

The areas

of

two similar polygons


two corresponding

ratio as the squares of

sides.

Fig. 447

Hypothesis:

sponding

In polygons

and

P', a

and

o' are corre-

sides.

Conclusion :

Area P _a^
Area P'

Analysis and construction:


I.

To ^prove

PP = a^
a

area
'

area

tt,

-?.>,

break the polygon up into

tri-

angles that are similar in pairs and find the ratio of


the sums of the areas of the triangles; that is, draw

diagonals from corresponding vertices and prove

A-fB+C+ete.

a2

A'+B'+C'+etc.

a'2

PLANE GEOMETRY

248
Ex.

If

1.

polygon, what

the area of one polygon is twice that of a similar


is the ratio of the bases?

Ex. 2. The area of one polygon is three times the area of


a similar polygon. If the base of one is 15, find the base of the
other.

Ex. 3. Two corresponding sides of two similar polygons are


5 and 9 respectively. If the area of the first is 30, find the area
of the second.

Ex.

The

4.

The sum

two similar polygons


Find the area.

of the areas of

ratio of similitude

is

%.

is

910.

SUMMARY AND SUPPLEMENTARY EXERCISES


268.

SUMMARY OF IMPORTANT POINTS

IN

CHAPTER

XI

A. Tests for similarity.


I.

To prove two triangles similar, prove that


a. They are mutually equiangular (257).
h.

Their corresponding sides have equal ratios

c.

An

(259).

angle of one equals an angle of the other,

and the
II.

ratios of, etc. (258).'

To prove two polygons

similar,

drawn from corresponding

prove that diagonals

vertices, etc. (261).

B. Properties of Similar polygons.


I.

Angles are equal and corresponding


equal ratios

sides

have

(256).

IL Two

similar polygons may be divided into triangles,


similar in pairs by, etc. (263).

III.

Ratios of corresponding segments in similar polygons equal the ratio of similitude of the polygons

(264,265).
IV. Ratio of the areas of similar polygons equals the
square of the ratio of similitude of the polygons
(266, 267).

SIMILARITY

249

EXERCISES INVOLVING SIMILAR POLYGONS


269. 1. Make review diagrams for Ths. 122 and 127.
If the segments which join the vertices of a polygon with a given
point are divided in the same ratio from the given point and the points
of division joined in the same order as the vertices of the polygon,

the polygon so formed and the given polygon are radially placed.
point may be without the polygon as in Fig. 448a, or within the

The

polygon as in Fig. 4486. In each case 7yTi = 7JW}^^^^- "^^^ radial point
is called

the center of similitude of the polygons.

o<-

FiG. 4486

Two

polygons that are radially placed are similar.


the proof for the two cases.
2.

Give

Show how a polygon may be constructed

similar to a given
with a given segment A'B' corresponding to side
and with any arbitrary point O as a center of similitude.

3.

polygon A BCD

AB

The

Note.

center of similitude of two similar figures

may be

of

give a proof for Ex. 3 with point

use in enlarging or reducing drawings.


4.

Make a drawing and

falling (1)
5.

If

sides of
6.

on point A;

(2)

on AD.

the perimeter of an equilateral triangle


a similar triangle with half the altitude.

On

On

8.

What

is

the ratio of their

one side and on the diagonal of a square construct

equilateral triangles.

shall

66, find the

one side and on the altitude of an equilateral triangle

as bases construct similar triangles.


areas?
7.

is

What

is

the ratio of their areas?

Construct a triangle similar to a given triangle whose area,


be ^4 the area of a given triangle; ^2 the area; 14 the area;

}i the area.

PLANE GEOMETRY

250

t9. If the hypotenuse of a right triangle is twice the shorter


one of the acute angles of the triangle is 60.

side,

The

10.

AC

A BC

triangle

AD = 2DC.

so that

the size of angle A.

has a right angle at C, and D trisects


then found that AD = BD. Find

It is

College Entrance Examination Board, Plane


1907.

Geometry Examination,

two

triangles have their corresponding sides parallel


each to each, the triangles are similar.

fll. If

tl2. If two triangles have their corresponding sides perpendicular each to each, the triangles are similar.
13. Fig.

449 shows two quadrilaterals with their


If AC
A'C, prove the

sides respectively parallel.

\\

quadrilaterals similar.

Construct a quadrilateral similar to a given


quadrilateral having one diagonal equal to a given
14.

^^

Fig. 449

segment.

The perimeters

15.

The

of

altitude of the first

two

is 8.

similar triangles are 21 and c


Find the altitude of the second.

In Fig. 450, ABC is an isosceles triangle.


C to the base AB. PQ is the perA DC
Prove that
bisector
of AC.
pendicular
is similar to AAPQ and find the length of ^Q
16.

CD

J_

from

in

"*

terms of ^Z> and CD.

In Fig. 451, ABCD is a square. AE = BF=


the points are joined as indicated.

17.

CG = DH and

pairs of congruent triangles and of similar


Read the ratios between corretriangles formed.
= S6
sponding sides of the similar triangles. If

Find

''^

all

AB

cm. and
18.

10.

AE=y3AB,

The equal

sides of

Find the sides


19.

What

4^2 sq.
20.

sides of

in.?

The

is

find

of

AX, XY, and YF.


an

isosceles triangle are 13, the

a similar triangle whose altitude

base

is

is 4.

the area in acres of a portion of a map that covers


scale of the map is 1 inch = l mile.

The

sides of a polygon are 10, 15, 9, and 22.


a similar polygon if its perimeter is 140.

Find the

SIMILARITY
If

t21.

similar

251

polygons are constructed on the sides of a

right triangle as corresponding sides, the area of the


polygon constructed on the hypotenuse is equal to

the

sum

two

sides (see Fig. 452).

of the areas of the polygons

on the other

Fig. 452

Analysis:

To

prove that C=i4-fB, find^ and -^ in terms of the sides of the

and add.

triangle,

To

t22.

construct a polygon equivalent to one of


similar to the other.

two given

polygons and

Fig. 453

Analysis:
I.

II.

Suppose it is required to construct a polygon


and similar to i4.
Since Cis to be ^^1

III. Since

IV.

C is

A
a*
=

C equivalent

to

A =A
^

to be equivalent to 5, 7;

B are not similar, we cannot compare their areas by


reduce A and B
comparing squares of corresponding sides.

As A and

.'.

to equivalent squares.

Let
Let
__

V.

A
B

be equivalent to a square whose side


be equivalent to a square whose side

_,,

is

m.

is n,

Then^=-.

VL ..^=^.
n
a
VII.

.*.

to find

a',

find

a fourth proportional to m,

Let the pupil give directions in


the proof.

full,

make

n,

and

the drawing,

a.

and give

CHAPTER

XII

Regular Polygons

DEFINITION

270.

with

all

regular polygon has been defined as a polygon


of its sides

Ex.

1.

Ex.

2.

An

and

of its angles equal.

all

regular quadrilateral
equilateral triangle

is

a square.

is

a regular polygon.

CONSTRUCTION OF REGULAR POLYGONS


GENERAL THEOREMS
271.

Theorem

128.

If

circle is divided into

arcs, the chords joining the points of division

equal

form a regular

polygon.

The

analysis

and proof are

left to

the pupil.

Theorem 129. If a circle is divided into n equal


the
arcs,
tangents drawn to the points of division form a
272.

regular polygon.

Fig. 434

Hypothesis:

YZ,

etc.,

points of

OO is divided into the equal arcs WX,

and tangents AB, BC, CD,


division, X, Y, Z, etc.

Conclusion:

A BCD

etc. is

etc.,

are

a regular polygon.

252

XY,

drawn to the

REGULAR POLYGONS

253

Analysis and construction:


I.

To prove

ABCD etc.

that

AA= Z.B=
II.

is a regular polygon, prove


ZC; = ctc., and >lB = 5C: = CD = etc.

To prove that Z A = ZB= ZC = etc., and that


AB = BC = CD = etc., join WX, XY, YZ, Z\\ etc..
and prove AWXA m AXYB ^ AYZC m, etc.
Notice that

Suggestion.

AX = BY= CZ = etc
BX = CY = ZD =etc

By
By

congruent triangles.
congruent triangles.
Equal segments added to equal segments.

AB = BC= CD = etc
The proof

is left

to the pupil.

CONSTRUCTION OF THE INSCRIBED SQUARE AND


RELATED POLYGONS
273..

Problem

No.

To

2G.

inscribe a square in a circle.

No. 3

No. 2

Fig. 455

Analysis and construction (Fig. 455, No.


I.

To

inscribe a square in

4
II.

circle,

1)

divide the circle into

eqiial arcs.

.'.divide the perigon

about the center of the

circle

into 4 equal angles.


III.

.'.construct

Let the pupil complete the directions and give the proof.
274.

Problem

circle (Fig. 455,

Ex.

1.

What

27.

No.

To

inscribe a regular octagon in a

2).

other regular inscribed polygons can be obtained

from the inscribed square?


Ex.
of 4, 8,

2.

Show how

and 16

to construct regular circumscribed polygons

sides (Fig. 455,

No.

3).

PLANE GEOMETRY

254

CONSTRUCTION OF THE REGULAR INSCRIBED


HEXAGON AND RELATED POLYGONS
276.

Problem

To

28.

inscribe a regular

hexagon in a

circle.

No.S
Fig. 456

Analysis and construction (Fig. 456, No.


I.

To

a regular hexagon in a

inscribe

circle into
II.

1)

circle,

divide the

6 equal arcs.

the perigon about the center of the circle

.'.divide

into 6 equal angles.


III. Since

of 360

the center of the


IV.

.*.

is

60, construct 6 angles of 60

each at

circle.

.....

construct

Let the pupil complete the directions and give the proof.

Ex.
is

1.

Prove that the side of the regular inscribed hexagon

equal to the radius of the

an

circle.

Ex.

2.

Inscribe

Ex.

3.

Inscribe a regular 12-side in a circle.

Ex.

4.

What other regular

equilateral triangle in

circle.

inscribed polygons

may be obtained

from the regular inscribed hexagon?


Ex.
of 3, 6,

5.

Show how

and 12

to construct regular circumscribed polygons

sides.

Note. Regular polygons are in very common use for towers, spires,
bay and dormer windows, hoppers, nuts, and the like. They are
extensively used in ornament. Even the less common forms, such as
polygons with

7, 9, 11,

or even 13 sides, occasionally occur.

REGULAR POLYGONS

255

CONSTRUCTION OF THE REGULAR INSCRIBED


DECAGON AND RELATED POLYGONS
The

construction of the regular inscribed decagon


depends directly upon the following problem.
276.

Problem

To divide a given segment so that the larger

29.

portion is a mean proportional between the whole


and the smaller portion.

segment

Fig. 457

Given the segment

a.

= X
Ci

To find a segment x
Analysis and
I.

To

so that

find X so that

=
a

1.

a'^ax = x'^

2. x'^-^ax

3.
4.

ax

construction:

solve for x.

a'^.

x^+ax+{\aY = a^-^(Aa)\
{x+\ay = a^+{\a)\

Equation 4 suggests the Pythagorean theorem.


construct a right triangle with a and \a
II.
.*.

dicular sides.
III.

.'.

The hypotenuse will be

and
1.

(^
x'^

x-\-\a.

X will be the difference between the hypotenuse


\a.

Outline of proof:
2.

for perpen-

+ ia)2 = a2 + Ga)^
+ ax + {\ay = -Vilay.
a''

3. x^-^-ax

i2_ ax = a{a x)

4.

x''

5.

^ = ^^x a X

Let the pupil give the reasons.

PLANE GEOMETRY

256

a segment is so divided that the larger portion is a mean


proportional between the whole segment and the smaller
portion, the segment is said to be divided into extreme
and mean ratio. Problem 30 may be stated To divide a
segment into extreme and mean ratio.
If

The

Note.

segment into extreme and mean


It was known to

division of a

ratio is often called the Golden Section.

the Pythagoreans. It is an interesting fact, often used in


the theory of design, that that division of a rectangle which

the most pleasing to the majority of people is the one


that most closely approximates the golden section. It might
^^- ^^^
be used in designs for doors or windows (Fig. 458)

is

Exercise.

Show

that

if

3-

the ratio

is

approximately

8:13.
277.

Problem

To

30.

inscribe a regular decagon in

circle.

Fig. 459

Given

circle 0.

To construct a regular inscribed decagon.


Analysis:
I.
yo construct

Z0=

:.

II.

Ho

construct

AB, a
of 4

rt.

A ABO

side of the decagon, construct


or Vs of 2 rt. A.

isosceles so that

ZA=2Z0.

The problem is reduced to the construction of AAOB,


The fact that ZA = 2Z0 suggests drawing the
bisector of Z A. A ABC and ABO would then be
similar

and

.*.

=
-r^

-^^

or

AB =0B

'

BC.

REGULAR POLYGONS

257

Construction:
1.

Divide the radius of the

mean
IL Use the
in.

.-.

circle,

OB, into extreme and

ratio at C.

larger segment,

make AB = OC.
makeAB

OC, as a side of the decagon.

Join

OA and

Proof:

STATEMENTS

prove

ZO = M

of a

PLANE GEOMETRY

258
278.

Problem

31.

To

inscribe a regular pentagon in a

circle.

The

analysis

and the proof are

Ex.

1.

What

Ex.

2.

Show how

left

to the pupil (Fig. 461, No.

1).

other regular inscribed polygons can be obtained*


from the regular inscribed decagon?

and 10

of 5

279.

in

Problem

32.

To

inscribe a regular pentadecagon

circle.

Suggestion.

No.

to construct regular circumscribed polygons

sides.

The

central angle

must be 24 60" -36 = 24


:

(Fig. 461,

2).

What inscribed and circumscribed regular polygons


be obtained from the regular inscribed pentadecagon? How?

Exercise.

may

CONSTRUCTION OF OTHER REGULAR POLYGONS


280. Note.

From

the time of Euclid until 1796

it

was supposed

that the regular polygons mentioned in 273-279 were the only ones
that could be constructed with ruler and compasses. This includes

polygons with 3 2", 4 2", 5 2", and 15 2'* sides. The smaller polyin
included
this
set
not
are
those
of
7, 9, 11, 13, 14, 17, 18, 19
gons
In 179G, however, Karl Friedrich Gauss, then a young man
sides.
of nineteen in one of the German universities, proved that regular
polygons with a prime number of sides could be inscribed in a circle
by means of a ruler and compasses if and only if the prime number was

form 2" + l. That no polygons of 7, 9, 11, 13, 19, etc., sides


can be constructed in the given manner follows from Gauss's proof.
A polygon of 7 sides can be constructed by the use of a parabola and
a circle; one of 9 sides by the use of a hyperbola and a circle.

of the

REGULAR POLYGONS

259

While regular polygons of 7, 9, 11, 13, etc., sides


cannot be constructed exactly with ruler and compasses,
methods for constructing them approximately are frequently
given in courses in mechanical drawing. The accuracy of
these methods can be tested by trigonometry.
281.

PROPERTIES OF REGULAR POLYGONS


THE CIRCUMSCRIBED CIRCLE
282.

Theorem

130.

circle

can be circumscribed about

any regular polygon.

Fig. 462

Hypothesis:
Conclusion:

A BCD

A BCD etc. is any regular polygon.


A circle can be circumscribed about polygon

etc.

Analysis:
I.

To prove

that a circle can be circumscribed about

ABCD etc.,
is

XL

prove that a point can be found which


from the vertices.
distant
equally

.'.construct perpendicular bisectors of

BC

secutive sides,
and
meet at O and prove that
III.

IV.

V.

To prove
To prove
To prove

that

OS = 0C,
OC = OZ),

that

OE = OB,

that

CD.

any two con-

Let the bisectors

OB = OC = OD = OE = etc.

prove
prove

.....

prove

ABOC mADOE.

Let the pupil complete the analysis and give the proof.

Cor.

The

radius of the circumscribed circle of a regular


whose vertex it passes.

polygon bisects the angle through

PLANE GEOMETRY

260

THE INSCRIBED CIRCLE


283.

Theorem

131.

can be inscribed in any

circle

regular polygon.

Fig. 463

Hypothesis:
Conclusion:

ABCDE

ABODE etc. is
A circle can

any regular polygon.


be

inscribed

in

polygon

etc.

Analysis and construction:

An

I.

inscribed circle will be tangent to the sides of the

polygon,
perpendiculars from the center to the sides of
the polygon must be radii and .*. equal,

.'.the

11.

.'.construct the circumscribed circle,

III.

pendiculars OX, OY, OZ,


to the sides, and prove

etc.,

draw the

per-

from the center

OX = OY = OZ etc.

The

proof

is left

Suggestion.

to the pupil.

Show

that Th. 131

may

be proved by Th. 67 or by

Th. 130 Cor. and Th. 85.

PROPERTIES DEPENDENT UPON THE CIRCUMSCRIBED AND


INSCRIBED CIRCLES

The

center of the circumscribed and of the inscribed


a regular polygon is called the center of the polygon.
The radius of the circumscribed circle of a regular polygon

284.

circle of

is

called the radius of the polygon.

The

radius of the inscribed circle of a regular polygon


apothem of the polygon.

is

called the

By the central angle of a regular polygon


angle between two consecutive radii.

is

ineant the

REGULAR POLYGONS
Cor.
is

Vn

I.

The

261

central angle of a regular polygon of

sides

of 360.

Cor. n. The radius of a regular polygon bisects the


angle between two consecutive apothems, and the apothem
bisects the angle between two consecutive radii.

Cor. Ill The radius of a regular polygon bisects the


arc between the points of contact of the inscribed circle.
Ex.

1.

Ex.

2.

pentagon
Ex.
gruent

Any two

Two

diagonals of a regular pentagon are equal.

diagonals from the

same vertex

of a

regular

trisect the angle at that vertex.

3.

Show how

to divide a regular hexagon into two conthree congruent rhombuses, or six

isosceles trapezoids,

congruent equilateral triangles.


Ex.

4.

On a

Ex.

5.

A principal diagonal of a regular hexagon

given base construct a regular hexagon without


circle.
the
circumscribed
constructing
passes through the center of the circumscribed circle
and is parallel to a pair of opposite sides (Fig. 464).

Ex. 6. If a regular polygon has an even number


of sides, the diameter of the circumscribed circle drawn

from any vertex passes through the opposite vertex.


Ex. 7. If a regular polygon has an even number of

sides,

the

opposite sides are parallel.

Ex. 8. If any regular polygon has an odd number of sides, the


diameter of the circumscribed circle drawn from any vertex is a
perpendicular bisector of the opposite side.

A side of an inscribed equilateral triangle bisects the


9.
drawn to the mid-point of the subtended arc.
Ex. 10. The central angle of a regular polygon is the supplement of the interior angle of the polygon.
Ex.

radius

Ex. 11. The area oC a square circumscribed about a circle


twice the area of the square inscribed in the same circle.

Ex.

12.

If

is

squares are described outwardly on the sides of a

regular hexagon, the outer vertices of the squares are the vertices
of a regular duodecagon.
18

PLANE GEOMETRY

262

THE ANGLE OF A REGULAR POLYGON


285.

Theorem

.,

271-4

sides is

The proof

rt.

Each angle

132.

of a regular polygon of

A.

to the pupil.

is left

THE AREA OF A REGULAR POLYGON


133.
The area of a regular polygon is
of
the perimeter and the apothem.
the
one-half
product
286.

Theorem

Analysis:

To

find the area of a regular polygon


of the triangles formed.

draw the

radii

and

add the areas

287.

SIMILAR REGULAR POLYGONS


TEST FOR SIMILAR REGULAR POLYGONS
Theorem 134. Two regular polygons of the same

number

of sides are similar.

Hypothesis:

same number
Conclusion:

The two

regular polygons

O and

G' h::vc the

of sides.

Polygon

0~ polygon

0\

Analysis:
I.

To prove polygon 0^^ polygon 0',


, I.
. r>/ = .
=
ZB'
ZB=
etc., and

prove
.ABBCCD
=

J7^f

To prove
IL ^
^^

The

proof

is left

AB = BC
-^7^,

^T^f

AB

ZA=

to the pupil.

= ^^^-

-^^f

A'B'

=
= 1^
ve
^,^' pro -^^ -^^

LA',

REGULAR POLYGONS

263

RATIO OF CORRESPONDING SEGMENTS


288.

Theorem

135.

If

two regular polygons have the

same number

of sides, the ratio of the perimeters is equal


to the ratio of the radii or of the apothems.

Fig. 466

Hypothesis: In the two regular polygons O and O' with


the same number of sides, r and r' are the radii, a and a' the

apothems, p and p' the perimeters, and


Conclusion:
Outline

,
p'

and

s'

are sides.

= -,'=,
r'

of proof:

a'

s _r
J'~?

r__a

?~a'
Let the pupil make an analysis and give

Cor. The

all

the reasons in the proof.

ratio of the perimeter to the

diameter of the

inscribed or of the circumscribed circle is the

regular polygons of the

same number

same

for all

of sides.

RATIOS OF AREAS
289.

Theorem

136.

If

two regular polygons have the

same number

of sides, the ratio of the areas is equal to the


ratio of the squares of the radii or of the apothems.

The

analysis

and the proof are

left to

the pupil.

PLANE GEOMETRY

264

SUMMARY AND SUPPLEMENTARY EXERCISES


290.

SUMMARY OF IMPORTANT POINTS

CHAPTER XH

IN

A. Construction of regular polygons.


I.

To

construct a regular inscribed or circumscribed


polygon of n sides, divide the circle into n equal

by constructing an angle ^/n of 360 at the


center of the circle (271 and 272).
II. To construct regular 4-, 8-, or 18-sided polygons,
arcs

construct two perpendicular diameters (273,


274).
III.

To

IV.

To

construct regular 3-, 6-, or 12-sided polygons,


construct a central angle of 60 by means of an
equilateral triangle ( 275).

construct regular -, 10-, or 15-sided polygons,


divide the radius of the circle into extreme and

mean

ratio (277, 278, 279).

B. Properties of regular polygons.


I.

II.

III.

A
A

circle

can be circumscribed about,

circle

can be inscribed

The

in, etc. ( 283).

radius of the circumscribed circle of a regular

polygon
IV.

etc. (282).

bisects, etc. (282).

Each angle

of a regular polygon

2w
is

4
rt.

ft

(285).

V.

The

central angle of a regular polygon

is

V of

360

(284).

C.

is

Regular polygons are similar

if

The area

of

a regular polygon

per.

apothem

(286).

D. Similar regular polygons.


I.

they have,

etc.

(287).
II.

III.

For

The
The

ratio of the perimeters equals, etc. (288).

ratio of the areas equals, etc. (289).

similar polygons in general see 268.

REGULAR POLYGONS

265

EXERCISES INVOLVING PROPERTIES OF AND SPECIAL

CONSTRUCTIONS FOR REGULAR POLYGONS


1. In a regular hexagon the secondary diagonals
are parallel to each other (Fig. 467).

291.

AC

In Fig. 467, prove that

2.

UVWXYZ

is

FD

and

a regu-

lar

hexagon.
Note. The star shown in Fig. 467 is extremely common. It seems to be an ancient symbol of Deity. It
is used in such modern instances as the policeman's
star and many trademarks.

The

3.

area of the inscribed equilateral triangle


hexagon inscribed in the same circle.

Fig. 467
is

half the area

of the regular

is

4. Show that the area of a regular hexagon inscribed in a circle


a mean proportional between the areas of the inscribed and

circumscribed equilateral triangles.


5.

The

6.

Given a

central angle of a regular octagon


side of

the circumscribed
See

Suggestion.

Zl=22>^^
7.

is

45.

a regular octagon, to construct

circle.

Fig.

construct

468.

order

In

to

construct

Z2=45.

Fig. 468

AB

Given the secondary diagonal

oi

a regular octagon

(Fig. 469), to construct the octagon.

Suggestion.

Since the

AAEB may

known,

then to construct

Note.

Ex. 7

number

DCllAB
is

Zl
The problem

of degrees in

be constructed.
so that

is
is

DC=AD.

a problem which might occur

in

ADCB

would be the
building octagonal bay windows.
outline of the window and
the line on the house.

AB

8. Show that a regular octagon may be inscribed


a square by the following method (Fig. 470):
With O as center and OF, the half median, as
radius cut the diagonals at F, Z, W, and X. At

Fig. 469

in

F, Z,

W, and

diagonals.

J/

-*j>--

construct perpendiculars to the


Fig. 470

PLANE GEOMETRY

266

9. Show that a regular octagon 'may be inscribed in a square


by the following method (Fig. 471): With the j^ ^
s_o
'^'^^^
vertices of the square as centers and the semi-

diagonal as radius cut the sides of the square at


Xy Y, Z, etc., and join the points as indicated.

Pig. 473

Note. Exs. 8 and 9 are extremely useful. They can be used


as shown in Fig. 472 to construct a tiled-floor pattern composed of
regular octagons and squares, or as in Fig. 473 to cut a square timber
down into an octagonal one. The cuttings at the sawmill would be
along the lines AB and BX, DC and CY, and so around the timber.
Ex. 9 gives the common method for cutting out an octagonal table top.
10. Fig.

diagonals.

474 shows an inscribed regular pentagon with


Prove

{\)AX = XB = BY^Qtc. {2)AB = AY. {Z) AC


is divided into extreme
and mean ratio at F.
(4) ^ F is divided into extreme and mean ratio at X.
CB
Suggestion

for

(3).

Prove

that

CB=AY.

CY

its

and

11. From the foregoing exercises show how to construct the


diagonal of a regular pentagon, given one side, and therefore how to
construct the regular pentagon, given one side.

12. Show that if AD \^ taken as the radius of a circle, AB


be a side of the regular inscribed decagon (Fig. 474).
13. Prove that VWXYZ is a regular pentagon (Fig. 474).
14.

The segments joining the mid-points

will

of the sides of a regular

form a regular pentagon.


pentagon
Note. The star shown in Fig. 474 is called the pentagram star
and was used as a symbol of recognition among the Pythagoreans,
an ancient Greek brotherhood that studied geometry. They called it
in order

Health.

It is also the star

used in the

flag of

the United States.

REGULAR POLYGONS

267

EXERCISES INVOLVING THE MEASUREMENT OF

292.

REGULAR POLYGONS
1. Show that if a square is inscribed in a circle of radius 1
the side of the square is V2, and that if the radius is R the side of
the square is i? V2. What is the area of the inscribed square?

2.

Find one side of a regular octagon inscribed in


without the tables.

circle of radius 1,

In Fig. 475, ^45

Suggestion.

square and

^4

A0 = l,AD = D0 = yzyl2.
3.

Find

regular octagon.

CD and

If

^ C.

.'.

Fig. 475

Find one side of the regular inscribed octagon

of the circle
4.

a side of the inscribed

is

of the_inscribed

if

the radius

R.

is

Find one side and the apothem of an inscribed equilateral

triangle

if

(1)

the radius of the circle

is

(2)

the radius

R.

is

Find one side of a regular duodecagon in1, without the tables.

5.

scribed in a circle of radius

and

If

0D = }4^^'

Find

and

BD = }4,

then

BC.

Fig. 476

is

is 1

is

if it is

the

if

the radius

R.
if

the radius of

1.

Let

represent one side of the decagon.

be obtained from the equation

is

Show

that

Find one side of the regular inscribed decagon

of the circle

if

R.

Find one side of the regular inscribed decagon

Suggestion.

9.

.:

Find a side of the regular circumscribed hexagon

the circle

may

side of the inscribed regular

Find one side of the regular inscribed duodecagon

of the circle
8.

a.

DC and

radius of the circle


7.

BC

BO = l, AB = 1,

duodecagon.

6.

^5 is a side of the inscribed

In Fig. 476,

Suggestion.

regular hexagon

if

the radius

R.

10. Using the side of the regular inscribed decagon


found in Ex. 9 and the radius of the circle as 1, find

a side of the regular inscribed pentagon.


In Fig. 477, BC is a mean proportional
Suggestion.
between DC and CE. BE can be found from BC and CE.

Fig. 477

PLANE GEOMETRY

268

11. Find the ratio of the side of a square inscribed in a circle


to the side of an equilateral triangle inscribed in the same circle.

ABCDEF is a regular hexagon. X, Y, and Z are the midAF, BC, and DE respectively. Prove that XYZ is an
AB = 20 in.
equilateral triangle and find its area
12.

points of

if

STAR POLYGONS
293. Fig. 474 shows a star polygon of five points and
There are one or more regular
Fig. 467 one of six points.
star polygons related to each of the

regular convex polygons.

They can

be constructed by dividing the

circle

n equal

parts and joining each


of
division
to the ^th one from
point
it, where k is an integer greater than
into

one and

less

than -

another illustration.

Fig. 478

shows

(See also Fig.

These figures have been studied


258.)
wherever geometry has been studied. They abound in cutThe five-pointed star mentioned in the note,
glass designs.
Ex.
14, and the six-pointed star mentioned in the
291,
aote, 291, Ex. 2, are of special importance.
Exercise.

In Fig. 478 the

circle is

and each point joined to the 7th from

divided into 16 equal parts


it.

The

following questions

apply to Fig. 478.


1.

How many

2.

Find the number of degrees in one angle of each

3.

Prove that

AH = HB = BK = etc.

How many
How many

other sets of equal segments are there?

4.

sets of equal angles are there?


set.

5.
regular polygons of 16 sides can be formed
joining corresponding intersections? Give proof for each.
6.

Can

intersections?
7.

regular octagons be formed

by

joining corresponding

How?

How many

by

squares are in the figure?

CHAPTER

XIII

Measurement of the Circle

THE CIRCUMFERENCE OF THE CIRCLE


DEFINITION
294.

as the

The length of a straight-line segment was defined


number of times a certain straight-line segment

taken as a unit can be applied to the segment to be measIt is at once evident that we cannot measure a circle
in this way.
We shall, however, assume that the circle can
be measured in terms of a straight-Hne unit. The measure
of the circle is called its length or its circumference.

ured.

GENERAL METHOD
295.

The perimeter

polygon of

many

the length of the

sides

an inscribed or of a circumscribed
may be used as an approximation to

of

circle.

If a regular hexagon is inscribed in a circle and the arcs


between its vertices are bisected, the chords joining the
points of division form a regular inscribed polygon of 12 sides.

the same process regular polygons of 24, 48, 96, 192


may be obtained, and so on indefinitely. If such a
succession of polygons is constructed, one is soon found

By

sides

difficulty be distinguished from the circle.


Instead of the regular inscribed hexagon, the inscribed
square might have been used as the starting point.

which can with

Ex.

gon

1.

is less

The perimeter of a regular inscribed polythan the perimeter of the regular polygon

of double the

number

of sides inscribed in the

same

circle (Fig. 479).

Fig. 479

269

PLANE GEOMETRY

270

If a regular hexagon is circumscribed about a circle and


the arcs between the points of tangency are bisected, the

tangents drawn at the points of division form a regular


circumscribed polygon of 12 sides. By the same process,
regular circumscribed polygons of 24, 48, 96, 192 sides may
be obtained, and so on indefinitely. Just as in the series of
regular inscribed polygons, so in this series of regular cir-

cumscribed polygons, a polygon is soon found which can


with difficulty be distinguished from the circle. The starting point of this series might have been the circumscribed
square instead of the regular circumscribed hexagon.

The perimeters of the polygons in these series have been


computed. The computations can be made as indicated in
the next two problems.
Ex. 2. The perimeter of a regular circumscribed
polygon is greater than the perimeter of the regular
polygon of double the number of sides circumscribed about the same circle (Fig. 480).
Fig. 480

296. Problem 33.


To find a side of a regular inscribed
polygon of 2n sides, given a side of a regular inscribed

polygon of n sides and the radius of the

circle.

Fig. 481

Given a side

AC

(or a) of

inscribed in a circle of radius

Required to find a side


of

2w

sides.

a regular polygon of n sides


r.

(x) of

a regular inscribed polygon

MEASUREMENT OF THE CIRCLE

271

Analysis (segments are lettered as shown in Fig. 481)


I.

To
x^

= d^-\-{i

a)-,

^
J ^ use a
J=r
find
a,

TT a>
II.

To

known;

is

I
i
[

III.

To

known

find X in terms of the

lengths use

must be found.

fi

ri^ known.
r
y must be found.
.

find y, use
J"

Let the pupil

= r^ {\

make

a and

ay.

r are

known.

the ntlmerical computation

when ^ C

a side

is

the inscribed sciuare, (2) of the regular inscribed hexagon.


Use
for the radius of the circle (1) \, (2) r.
The following f ormula gives
(1) of

the value of x in terms of

and a jc= V
:

2r'^

r \'4r'- a^.

297. Problkm 34.


To find a side of a regular circumscribed polygon of 2n sides, given a side of a regular circumscribed polygon of n sides and the radius of the circle.

Fig. 482

Given a side

AB

(or a) of a regular polygon of


circiunscribed about a circle of radius r.

Required to find a side


polygon of 2w sides.

of

{%)

sides

a regular circumscribed

Analysis (the segments are lettered as shown in Fig. 482) ;


I.

To

find X, use Th. 106.


''

y
II.

To

a and

2^'~2^

r are

known.

[>'tobe found.

find y, use y'^=-{\ ay-\-r-.

Let the pupil make the numerical computation when


of the circumscribed square.

The

general formula

is

x=

Use

2r+

AB

for the radius of the circle (I)


-7 o

..

V4r2-f a-^

\s,

o.

side

(2) r.

PLANE GEOMETRY

272

PERIMETERS OF REGULAR POLYGONS INSCRIBED IN OR


CIRCUMSCRIBED ABOUT A CIRCLE WITH DIAMETER ONE
298. The methods indicated in Probs. 33 and 34 have been
used in obtaining the results given in the tables below.

TABLE
Number
OF
Sides

MEASUREMENT OF THE CIRCLE

273

Table I shows the perimeters of a series of inscribed polygons and of a series of circumscribed polygons that start
with the regular inscribed and circumscribed hexagon
Table II shows the perimeters of two series
respectively.
that

start

respectively.

with the inscribed and circumscribed square


The diameter of the circle is 1 in each case.

Can you come

to

any conclusion by comparing

results

In higher mathematics it is proved that the perimeters


of the polygons in Tables I and II approach a definite number.
This number cannot be found exactly. It has been

named w

(pi).

COMPUTATION OF PERIMETERS OF REGULAR POLYGONS


INSCRIBED IN OR CIRCUMSCRIBED ABOUT ANY CIRCLE
35.
To find the perimeters of regular
in
inscribed
or
circumscribed about any circle.
polygons
299.

Problem

Solution:
I.

Let d and

d' represent

the diameters of two

circles.

p and

p' represent the perimeters of two regular


polygons of the same number of sides inscribed in

or circumscribed about the two circles.


II.

Then

=^
^
p a

(see

Th. 135 Cor.).

= d,whend' = l.
P
p = dp' if the diameter

^,
.'.

The perimeter

of circle

of a regular polygon of

about

p' is 1.
of sides

any number

inscribed in or circumscribed about a circle can be found

from the equation p = dp\ if the perimeter of a similar


polygon inscribed in or circumscribed about a circle of
diameter 1 is known.

The perimeters of polygons inscribed in or circumscribed


about any circle and similar to those in Tables I and II
may be found by multiplying the diameter of the given
circle

by the proper number

in the tables.

PLANE GEOMETRY

274

LIMITING VALUES OF PERIMETER OF INSCRIBED AND

CIRCUMSCRIBED POLYGONS
300. As. 64. The limit of the perimeters of a series of
regular polygons inscribed in or circumscribed about the
same circle as the number of sides is increased indefinitely

the same.

is

This limit doe? not depend upon the number of sides of


the initial polygon nor upon the method of increasing the
number of sides. This limit is ird.
This assumption

is

proved in higher mathematics.

LENGTH OF THE CIRCLE


The assumptions

301.

definition

in

300 lead us to the following

The length or the circumference of a circle is defined as


the limit of the perimeters of a series of regular polygons
inscribed in or circumscribed about a circle as the number
of sides

is

increased indefinitely.

The perimeter
as

of any one of the polygons may be regarded


an approximation to the length of the circle.

From As. 64 and the definition above, we have


Theorem 137. The circumference of a circle of diameter

is Tvd,

If c is

We

the circumference, d the diameter, r the radius,

have

.*.

c=

ird

The number

or c =

2Trr.

a very important number in mathematics.


but very unHke such irrational
numbers as V2 or V3. We found it possible by means of a straightedge and compasses to construct a straight-line segment to represent
V2 (Ex. 2, 221). The ancient Greeks could do this. They failed,
however, in the attempt to construct a straight-line segment to represent TT. In modern times it has been proved that it is impossible to
construct such a segment for tt by the use of straightedge and com-

Note.

It is

tt is

an irrational number

(see 198),

passes. It can, however, be done by means of an instrument called an


integraph, invented by a Pole about 1878.

MEASUREMENT OF THE CIRCLE

275

AREAS OF CIRCLES, SECTORS, AND SEGMENTS


THE AREA OF THE CIRCLE
The

limit of the areas of a series of regular


in
or circumscribed about the same circle
inscribed
polygons
as the number of sides is increased indefinitely is the sam:'.
302. As. 65.

This limit
circle

and

one-half the product of the radius of

is

the

circumference.

its

This assumption

proved in higher mathematics.


303. We shall define the area of a circle as the limit of
the areas of a scries of inscribed or circumscribed regular
is

polygons as the number of sides is increased indefinitely.


304. From 302 and 303 we have

Theorem
product of

Using

The area

138.

of

circle

one-half the

is

radius and circumference.

its

for the area of the circle, r for the radius, c for

the circumference,
A = y2cr

=H
Note.

we cannot

'

We know
find that

2Trr=Trr^
that

tt

number

since c

= 27rr.

represents a definite number, although


have learned that a straight-

exactly.

We

segment can be constructed which is equal to the circumference


of a given circle, although it cannot be constructed with compasses and
We will, therefore, assume that there is a triangle,
straightedge.
line

square, or rectangle equivalent to


figures

any given circle, although these


cannot be constructed with straightedge and compasses.

AREAS OF SECTORS
The area of a sector has

305. As. 66.

the area of a circle of which

it is

the

same

ratio to

a part as the angle of the

sector has to four right angles.

Using

5 for

sector,

Solvingfor

the area of the sector, a for the angle of the


for the area of the circle,

7rr-

5,

-^-

PLANE GEOMETRY

270

AREAS OF SEGMENTS

306.

and

The

circular

segment

a figure boimded by an arc

is

chord.

its

between circular segments and


be
shown
may
by constructing the sector
arc
as
a given circular segment.
the
same
having
It is at once evident (Fig. 483) that the area
of a circular segment can be obtained if the
Fig. 483
areas of the associated sector and triangle can be obtained.
relation

sectors

RATIOS AND CIRCLES


307.

The

formulae

following theorems follow at once from the

:.

Theorem
diameter

139.

the

is

The ratio
same for all
If c

Theorem

The

140.

= wd,

of the circumference to the


circles.

then -r
a

ratio of the circumferences of

circles equals the ratio of their

Using

and

ci

_Ci

and
c

^
"

^.

Smce

d
d

di

= ?r~=~">
2ri
n

Theorem

141.

The

'~r
c^

ratio

ri

two

circles,

for their radii,

two

radii.

d and

we have:

_d
di

Ci

2r

-r
di

diameters or of their

for the circumferences of

di for their diameters, r

= tt.

ri

of the areas

of

two

circles

equals the ratio of the squares of their radii or of their


diameters.

Using

and Ai for the areas of two circles, r and n for


d and di for their diameters, we have:

their radii,

7rr2

Ai

Trn^

B.

PLANE GEOMETRY

278

10. Fig. 48-4 shows the construction of certain types of


Find the entire area if one side of the equilateral

triangle
11.

is

ft.

Find the

ratio of the area of

circle to

the

area of the inscribed square and to the area of the


circumscribed square.
12.

One

Show how

is

and

find its area.

13.

Fig.

14.

Fig.
if

ft.

the shaded portion

formed

formed and

is

is

figure in the square in


find its area if one side of the

Fig. 485

in.

Show how

the four leaf-shaped

figures

in

487 are formed and find the sum of their areas

one side of the square


15. If the equatorial

mi.,

is

Show how the shaded

486

square

Fig. 484

side of the equilateral triangle in Fig.

485

trefoils.

what

is

is

in.

diameter of the earth

is

7926

the length of a degree of longitude at

the equator?

Fig. 487

(a)
circle, radius onehalf inch, which rolls around an equilateral triangle, altitude two
inches,
(b) Compute to two decimals the area inclosed by the

Construct the locus of the center of a

16.

locus

and the perimeter of the locus. College Entrance ExaminaGeometry Examination, 1914.

tion Board, Plane

around a square whose side is


circle, and find to two
decimal places both the length of the locus and the area inclosed
by it. College Entrance Examination Board, Plane Geometry
17.

in.

circle of radius

in. rolls

Construct the locus of the center of the

Examination, 1915.
18. If

circle is

constructed on each of the sides of a right

triangle as diameter, the area of the circle on the hypotenuse


is equal to the sum of the areas of the other two circles.
19. Find by geometrical construction the diameter of a pipe
the area of whose cross-section is equal to the sum of the areas of
the cross-sections of two given pipes.

MEASUREMENT OF THE CIRCLE

279

20. A 12-in. water pipe branches into three equal pipes whose
combined capacity is the same as that of the 12-in. pipe. If the
quantity of water carried depends upon the area of the cross-section
of the pipes, what must be the diameter of each of the three pipes?

21. Semicircles are constructed on the sides


a right triangle as shown in Fig. 488. Show

of

sum

that the

of the areas of the

two crescents

is

to the area of the triangle.


equal
^
^

Note.
solution

This problem
the

is

first

is

case of

Fig. 488

due to Hippocrates (about 470 B.C.). His


the area of a curvilinear figure proved equal

to the area of a rectilinear figure.


22.

ft. in diameter is cut by a straight


wide, one edge of which passes through the center
What is the area of the remaining grass plot?

circular grass plot 12

gravel path 3
of the plot.

ft.

College Entrance Examination Board, Plane Geometry Examination, 1911.

The diameters

of two circular pulleys are respectively 12 ft.


and
the
distance
between their centers is 10 ft. Find
ft.,
the length of the shortest string which will go around the pulleys,
correct to three significant figures.
College Entrance Examina23.

and 2

tion Board, Plane

Geometry Examination, 1910.


24. There are many reasons why an eggshaped sewer is more satisfactory than a circu-

The cross-section of the sewer in


made up of four circular arcs A By
BC, CD, and DA. The center of arc AB is
F; of arc yl D is P; of arc DC is X. The figFig. 489
ure i^ symmetric with respect to line XY.
If ;?= 1 .2 ft., r= .7 ft., ^ = 2.0 ft., Z P = 30, find the entire
lar sewer.

Fig. 480

is

ference of the sewer.

AB is

a,

circum-

semicircle.

25. Find the length of a circular railway curve of radius


mile and central angle 30.
26,

The

rail of

a street-car track

is

12

ft.

from

In rounding a square corner it cannot


be closer than 3 ft. from the curb. What is the

the curb.

radius of curvature of the required curve?


far

back must the curve begin?

(Fig.

490.)

How

6
Fig. 490

PLANE GEOMETRY

280
27.

To

relieve the

a tangent to a

made up

curves are

jolt

that always comes in passing from

curve, many railway


of arcs of different curva-

sharp

Find the length of the compound curve

ture.

in Fig. 491.

^O(5^)=300 ft. C is center of AM.


CO = C'O = OD=150 ft. C is center of NB.
ZP = 60. Z) is center of ikfiV. The figure
is

symmetric with respect to OP.


28.

Find the area of a circular segment

if

its

arc

is

60;

45^

492, the arcs AC and BC are


constructed with B and A as centers respecas radius.
Show that the entire
tively and
29. In Fig.

AB

area of the circular figure may be found by


subtracting the area of the triangle from twice
the area of the sector. What is the number
of degrees in the angle of the sector?
30.

The

figure

shown

in Fig.

^
Fig. 492

Find the area

493

is

if

AB = 8

ft.

a form

frequently used in church window designs. Show


how it is constructed and find its area if ^J5 = 6 ft.
31.

Find the area

centric circles

in.

if

of the ring

between two conin. and

the radii of the circles are 5

Fig. 493

respectively.

32.

^'

Find a formula for the area of the ring between con-

centric circles

if

the radii are

and

r respec-

tively.

33. Fig.

494

shows two concentric

circles.

AB

Show how

so that the
to find the segment
as diameter shall have
circle constructed on

AB

the same area as the ring.


34. The circumferences
Compute the width of the

three

significant figures.

Fig. 494

two concentric

circles differ by 6 in.


two circles correct to
College Entrance Examination Board,

of

ring between the

Plane Geometry Examination, 1909.


35. Compare the area of a circle with the area of a square if
the perimeter of the square equals the circumference of the circle.

MEASUREMENT OF THE CIRCLE


Show how

36.

area of

Fig. 405

HKLMFEH

of the square

and

A BCD

is

formed and find the


if one side

is

HKLMFGH

of

281

in.

37. If the sum of the radii of two given circles


equal to the radius of a third circle, prove that
the circumference of the third circle is equal to the

Fig. 495

is

sum

two given

of the circumferences of the

circles.

whose circumference

38. Construct a circle

From an

old

Roman
pavement

is

equal to the difTerence between the circumferences


of

two given
39.

area

if

circles.

Show how

Fig.

490

is

a side of the hexagon

is

are

its

Fig. 496

ft.

497 the diameter of the

40. In Fig.

divided into three equal parts.

shown

formed and find

circle

Show how

was

the arcs a

drawn and prove that they divide the

circle into three

equal parts.
Fig. 497

41.

area of

Show how

OABCD

if

Show how
by the arcs

42.

parts

lem be solved

Fig. 498

in

05 = 5

is

formed,

Find the

ft.

to divide a circle into four equal


of circles only.

Can

this prob-

more than one way?

Note. Ex. 42 is said to be a problem which Napoleon once proposed to his staff. The figure formed by dividing the circle into two
equal parts (Fig. 498) is the trademark of one of the western railroads.
43. In Fig. 499, C is the mid-point of radius ^0 of
perpendicular to AO at C. Prove that the circle
with O as center and OX as radius has half the

OO.

is

area of the circle with radius AO.


44.

parts

Show how to divide a


by concentric circles.

circle into three

equal
Fig. 439

CX

PLANE GEOMETRY

282
45. It

and

desired to construct a half-mile track.

is

The

start

be straightways intersecting at right angles at


the goal. The rest of the track is to be an arc of a circle tangent
to the two straightways. Find the radius of the arc and the length
finish are to

of the arc in feet;

also the area inclosed

(Results to be correct to

two

decimals.)

the track in acres.

by
College
Entrance Exami-

nation Board, Plane Geometry Examination, 1914.

APPROXIMATION CONSTRUCTIONS
310.
We have seen that numbers can be found which
more or less closely approximate the value of tt, although
a number cannot be found which is exactly equal to ir.
Similarly, segments can be constructed whose lengths more
or less closely approximate the value of tf, although no
segment can be constructed with ruler and compasses whose
length exactly represents the value of tf. The following
exercises give some of these constructions.
They are used

by draftsmen
by carpenters

in obtaining the development of cylinders,


in obtaining the dimensions of veneers for

and windows, and by mechanitradesmen generally. The computations for the true
lengths of the segments often involve considerable geomesemicircular heads of doors
cal

try,

and are necessary

in order to ascertain the degree of

approximation obtained.
Ex.

AB

its

1.

In Fig. 500,

diameter.

as one side.
parallel to

ACB

AABD

is

a semicircle with

is

AB

EF is a tangent to the semicircle


DA and DB are extended to meet
EF at F and E respectively. Using

AB = Q, find the difference between the length


EF and of the semicircle ACB. Find the ratio
this difference to the length of

Ex.

2.

AB.

the tangent

its

/.

equilateral, with

In Fig. 501,

diameter.

CO

ACB

of
of

A CB.

is

a semicircle with

bisector of

AB.

AB

ZOCZ) = 30.

Find the difference between the length oi AD and of


^
the arc AC, using AB = 5. Find the ratio of this
difference to the length of the arc AC.

n b

^^^- ^^^

MEASUREMENT OF THE CIRCLE


Ex.

3.

OELAB.
and the

Z ^0 is a central angle of 45
0 = 8, find the length of DE

In Fig. 502,

Using

WE -{-DE

between
Find the ratio

difference

circumference.

283
in circle O.

and the

of this difference

to the circumference.

Ex. 4. Inscribe a square in a given circle.


Find the value of three times the diameter of the
circle plus one-fifth of

'

the side of the square, using the diameter

Find the difference between this sum and


the circumference of the circle. Find the ratio of this difference
of the circle as d.

to the circumference of the circle.

(From

Ball's

Mathematical

Recreations and Essays.)


5.
Determine the value of w by the following experiment:
a
Wrap
paper about a cylinder. Stick a pin through the overlapped paper. Measure the distance between the two pinholes
and the diameter of the cylinder and compute w.

Ex.

We do not know who made the first attempt to compare the area
a circle with the area of a square. But the first record that has so
far been found is on an Egyptian papyrus by Ahmes (about 1700 B.C.).
He says, "Cut off }i of a diameter and construct a square on the
256
remainder." This implies that the area of the circle is {% d)^ or-^r';
81
311.

of

that

is,

the approximation to

256
is -^^j-

ox

=3. 16049 -|-.

This

is

a much

better approximation than was used by some other ancient peoples.


In the countries of Asia 3 was commonly used. Both 3 and 33^^ are found

Archimedes (287-212 B.C.)


Kings 7: 23; Daniel 7: 25).
used inscribed and circumscribed polygons of 96 sides and showed that
TT was less than Sl'j and greater than 3 ^^f i
His method was practically
the only method used for the next 2,000 years until the invention of the

in the Bible (I

modern times. S}<i is an approximation close enough for


most practical work. In India a value appear^ before the Christian
Era.
In later times the Hindus used 3M, Vl0 = 3.162,_and 3.1416.
This last value was given in 476 a.d. The Chinese used V 10 as early as
In 1610 a European published a result correct
the second century a.d.
to 35 decimal places. Since the invention of the calculus new methods
In 1874 there was a value found
of computation have been devised.

calculus in

showing 707 decimal places. The first 97 digits are as follows: 7r


3.141.592653r)89793238462643383279502884197169399375105820974944
5923078164062862089986280348253421 17 +
.

CHAPTER XIV
Maxima and Minima

INTRODUCTORY
312. Of all geometrical magnitudes that fulfill a given
requirement, that which is the greatest is called the maximum; that which is the least is called the minimum.

TRIANGLES
AREAS OF TRIANGLES WITH TWO SIDES GIVEN
313.

Theorem

sides, that in

Of all triangles having two given


142.
which these sides are perpendicular to each

other has the greatest area.

A ABC
ZCAB = 1

In

Hypothesis:

and

AC = AD.

Area,

Analysis and

construction:

II.

III.

ABD

side

area,

area,

and prove

To prove DE<AC, prove

DE<AD.

The proof

is left

common

prove altitude of

DE from DAB

.-.draw

is

ABD.

area ABO
ABD,
AASO altitude of AABD.

To prove

AB

rt.Z.

ABO

Conclusion:

I.

and

to the pupil.

284

DE<AC.

MAXIMA AND MINIMA


Ex.

Of

1.

all

285

parallelograms having given sides, the rectangle

has the greatest area.


Ex. 2. Of all parallelograms having given diagonals, which
has the greatest area?

Ex. 3. Of all triangles having a given base and a given


median to the base, which has the greatest area?

MINIMUM PERIMETERS
Of all triangles having the same
314. Theorem 143.
base and the same area, the isosceles triangle has the least
perimeter.

Hypothesis:
area

mon and

Conclusion:

In AABC and AABD the base AB is


ABC = a,resL ABD. AABC is isosceles.
Perimeter ABC < perimeter ABD.

com-

Analysis and construction:


I.

II.

ABC <^er. ABD,


AC+CB<AD^-DB.
extend AC, making CE CB.

To prove
.'.

per.

and prove
III.

IV.

V.
VI.

AB

prove
Join

DE

and

AE<AD-^DE.
,

^^^^^

To prove DE = DB, prove ACDE ^ACDB.


To prove ACDE ^ACDB, prove Z 1 = Z 2.
To prove Z 1 = Z 2, prove CD AB.
To prove CD\\AB, draw a perpendicular from
\\

and prove the

The proof

DC

is left

figure

formed a parallelogram.

to the pupil.

to

286

PLANE GEOMETRY

MAXIMUM AREAS
Of all triangles having the same
Theorem
base and equal perimeters, the isosceles triangle has the
315.

greatest area.

144.

MAXIMA AND MINIMA

POLYGONS

IN

287

GENERAL

PRELIMINARY THEOREM
145.
Of all polygons having

Theorem

all sides but


in
that
with the
taken
order,
segments
semicircle
with
can
in
a
the
area
be
inscribed
greatest
undetermined side as diameter.

316.

one equal

to given

Fig. 508

Hypothesis: The polygon ABCDEF is the maximum


polygon that can be formed with all sides but one equal to
the segments AB, EC, CD, DE, and EF taken in the order
given.

ABCDEF

Conclusion:

^F

with

can be inscribed in a semicircle

as diameter.

Analysis and construction:

To prove

I.

circle

that

with

as D, lies

To prove

11.

To prove
mum.

III.

The

proof

is left

on the

that

DF and

ABCDEF can

A Fas

be inscribed in a semi-

diameter, prove that any vertex,

semicircle.

Hcs on the semicircle, join

prove /LADF=^l

AADF^l

rt.

Z, prove area

Suggestion for step III. Use indirect proof.


may increase or decrease A
/^

along the line

hypothesis.

ADF a maxi-

ABCDE

If

area

ADF

is

not

ADF

by sliding points
XFuntilarca/lD/''is a maximum. If, as points
figures A BCD and DEFrviwixxn unchanged,
would be increased, which is contrary to tlie

A and Fmove along line .Y F,


the area of

and

to the pupil.

a maximum, we

A and

DA

rt.*Z.

PLANE GEOMETRY

288

TEST FOR MAXIMUM AREAS


317.

Theorem

Of

146.

all

polygons

that

have

their

sides equal respectively to given segments taken in order,


that which can be inscribed in a circle has the greatest area.

The polygon ABODE is inscribed in a circle


cannot be inscribed in a circle.
A'B'C'D'E'
and polygon
Hypothesis:

AB = A'B\ BC = B'C\ CD = CD\ etc.


Conclusion: Area ABODE > area A'B'C'D'E'.
Analysis and construction:

To prove area ABODE > area A'B'O'D'E',


Draw diameter AX.
Join OX and DX.
Construct AD'X'O' ^ADXO.

ABOX

Compare area
area

Subtract area
area

The proof

is left

with area A'B'O'X' and

AEDX with area A'E'D'X'.


DXO from area ABOXDE and
D'X'C from

area A'B'0'X'D'E\

to the pupil.

ABODE

have the same


Discussion.
Might one part of
area as the corresponding part of A'B'O'D'E'l Could both
have the same area as the corresponding
parts of

ABODE

parts of

A'B'O'D'E'l

Why?

MAXIMA AND MINIMA

289

THE MAXIMUM AREA WITH GIVEN PERIMETER


318. Theorem 147.
Of all polygons with a given perimeter and a given number of sides, that with the maximum
area

is

regular.

Fig. 508

Suggestion.
circle

and

mum

by

is

To prove P

regular, prove that

To prove AC=CB,

equilateral.

it

can be inscribed in a
a, maxi-

prove

AABC

indirect proof.

THE MINIMUM PERIMETER WITH GIVEN AREA


319. Theorem 148.
Of all polygons with the same
and the same number

of sides, the regular polygon

area

has the

least perimeter.

Fig. 509

Analysis and construction:


I.

To prove

P<per. P\ compare

per.

and P' with a

third polygon.
II.

.*.

of sides

prove per.
III.

IV.

Q with the same


and same perimeter as P' and
P<per. Q.

construct the regular polygon

number

To prove
To prove

The proof

is left

per.

P<per.

area

Q, prove area

P<area

to the pupil.

P<area

Q, prove area

Q.

P'<area Q.

PLANE GEOMETRY

290

REGULAR POLYGONS
THE MAXIMUM AREA WITH GIVEN PERIMETER
320.

Theorem

Of

149.

all

perimeter, the one with the

number

regular polygons with a given


area has the greatest

maximum

of sides.

Analysis and construction:


I.

To prove

P>area P\ compare

area

and P' with a

third polygon.
II.

any point in AB, with C and construct


and prove (1) area P'=area

join E,

.*.

ACDE^AACE
BCDE;
III.

To prove

P>area BCDE.
P>area BCDE, prove

area

(2)

area

per.

P = per.

BCDE.
In the same manner it can
be proved that a regular polygon of five sides has a greater
area than a square of same perimeter and that a regular
hexagon has a greater area than a regular pentagon of same
Discussion and conclusion:

perimeter,

and so

on.

321. Since the area of

circle

has been defined as the

limit of the areas of a series of regular inscribed

as the

number

As. 67.

of sides

The area

any polygon

As. 68.

increased indefinitely,

of a circle is greater

polygons

we have:

than the area of

of equal perimeter.

In higher mathematics

circle

is

Of

has the

all

figures

maximum

we prove

having the same perimeter, the


area.

MAXIMA AND MINIMA

291

THE MINIMUM PERIMETER WITH GIVEN AREA


322.

same

Theorem

150.
Of all regular polygons with the
that
the
area,
having
greatest number of sides has the

least perimeter.

Fig. 511

Analysis and construction:

To prove

I.

per.

P<per.

P',

compare

and P' with a

third polygon.
II.

construct the regular polygon Q with the


sides as P' and same perimeter as

.*.

number of

same

P and

prove per. P' > per. Q.

To prove

III.

The

proof

is left

per.

P'>per. Q, prove area P'>area Q.

to the pupil.

323. Since the circumference of

circle

has been defined

as the limit of the perimeters of a series of regular inscribed


polygons as the number of sides is increased indefinitely,

we have:
As. 69.

The perimeter

polygon of the

same

of

circle is less

than that of any

area.

In higher mathematics we prove


As. 70. Of all figures having the same area, the
has the minimum perimeter.
:

circle

Note. As. 70 has an important application in engineering. The


flow of water in an aqueduct or sewer is checked by the friction of the
water on the walls. The friction is proportional to the perimeter of
the cross-section.
possible.

In case

The

it is

keep this perimeter as small as


the best form to meet this condition.

It is desirable to

circle,

then,

is

not desirable because of expense and other considerations

to use a circle, regular polygons are often used.

NOTES ON ARITHMETIC AND ALGEBRA


FRACTIONS

The

324.
lies all

following fundamental law of fractions underoperations that involve fractions.

Multiplying or dividing numerator and denominator of


a fraction by the same number does not alter the value of
the fraction.

A. The sum or difference of two or more fractions that


have a common denominator is the sum or difference of the
numerators divided by the common denominator.

Two

or

more

have not a common denomicommon denominator before


To reduce fractions to a common

fractions that

nator must be reduced to a

adding or subtracting.
denominator, apply the fundamental law given above.

Add and
1
^'

^'

subtract the following:

^+^

12^18

24^36

B. The product of two fractions is the product of the


numerators divided by the product of the denominators.
Where possible, divide numerator and denominator by com-

mon

factors.

Multiply the following:


16

15

be
292

NOTES ON ARITHMETIC AND ALGEBRA

293

C. The quotient of one fraction divided by a second is


the product of the first multiplied by the reciprocal of the
second.
Divide the following:
,.

?^^6a6
8*3

14,33
25

2.

The

rule for square root

20

3.
"

"'-"*
Uab^

"-*
2a

ROOTS
is based on the algebraic
formula {a-^by = a^-\-2ab-}-b\ Notice that a^-{-2ab-\-b^ may
be written a^-\-b{2a-{-b). The method is illustrated below:

325.

Illustration 1.

Find

V 694. 563

694.56,3

26.3

4_

= 40
40+6 = 46
2(260) = 520
520+3 = 523

294

2(20)

276
1856
1569

287

In the illustration above, notice:


(1) The number was divided into periods of two figures
each, counting to the left and to the right from the decimal
point.
(2)

The

under 6 is 4. The 4 was suband the next period annexed. This gave a
294.
The square root of 4, or 2, was written

largest square

tracted from 6

remainder of
as the

first figure in

the root.

making 20. The 20


The 40 is used as a trial divisor
for the remainder 294.
The next figure of the root is either
6 or 7. The 6 is added to the 40, making 46. The 46 is
multiplied by 6, giving 276. The 276 is subtracted from
The next period is annexed, giving 1856.
294, leaving 18.
The
(4)
process above is repeated at each step of the
was placed
(3)
was doubled, making 40.
zero

work; thus, a zero


giving the 520.
20

is

after the 2,

placed after 26 and the result doubled,


is then continued as above.

The work

PLANE GEOMETRY

294

In general we may say: Annex a zero to the part of the


To this result
root already found and double the result.
add the next figure of the root. Multiply the result by the
last figure of the root found.

Show

that this statement

lation of

may

b{2a+b) in the formula

be regarded as a trans= a^+b{2a-hh).


{a-\'b)^

Find the square root of the following:


4. 106276
1. 1369
2.
3.

3744
2304

7.

5.

8.

15

6.

9.

Because of the frequent occurrence of the square roots


and 3 in geometry work, the application of the following
law should be noted
of 2

The square

326.

root of a product is the product of the

square roots of the factors.


36

Illustration 2.

This law
roots

is

when one

=4X9

/.

V36 = Vi X V9

used most conveniently for inexact -square


factor is a perfect square.

V 18
V9 X V2 3 V2
Illustration 3^ 18
9X2
Notice that V2 occurs when the side of a square and n
diagonal of the square are used in the same exercise.
.*.

12 = 4X3

Illustration 4.

.-.

Vr2 = Vi

V3 = 2 V3

Notice that V3 occurs when the side of an equilateral


angle and its altitude occur in the same exercise.
20

Illustration 5.

The V5 occurs

=4X5

/.

V20 = Vi

tri-

V5 = 2 VS

in connection with the regular

decagon and

pentagon.
Find the value

of

the following

correct

to three

decimal

1.

Apply the law given above.


Vl28
10. Vl50
4. Vl08
V8
7.

13.

V54

2.

Vl8

5.

V32

8.

V75

11.

Vl25

14.

V45

3.

V27

6.

V80

9.

V320

12.

V98

15.

Vl80

places.

NOTES ON ARITHMETIC AND ALGEBRA


16.

V20

295

PLANE'

29G

GEOMETRY

EQUATIONS
The method

328.

below

Illustration

of solving linear equations is illustrated

Solve for

I.

:;:

2=4

-.

Multiply both sides by the L. C.


denominators

M.

of the

-24 = 48 -4(::-hl)
Ox+S 24 = 48 4x 4

3(3a:-fl)

Performing multiplications
Combining terms

Add +21 and +4^

9jc-21=44 4;c

= 65
x=b

to each side

13a;

Divide both sides by 13


Solve the following equations:
1

= ^-

c-7_ 3+2a;
7

"^

x-b

2.r+7

3.

_^

'83

5-2x ^

3-4:y

an equation contains both the first and the second


powers of the unknown, two methods of solution are
329. If

suggested.

The equation may be

A.

Illustration 2.

Solve for

solved by factoring.

x = 20
a;2-x-20 =

a;:

x'^

(:r-5)

(jc+4)=0

x-b =
=5

:r+4 =
x=^

a;

Notice that to solve an equation by factoring, one


of the equation must be zero.

The equation may be solved by completing the


Solve for ac:
Zx^-bx =

B.

Illustration Z.

'7

Divide both sides by 3

Add

member

the square of {}i

side

%)

bx 7
^''--3=3"

square.

(1)

(2)

=
x^-^^-Oi %)^ |+|

(3)

to each
'

NOTES ON ARITHMETIC AND ALGEBRA


Take the square root of each

side

....

of the equation

.t-^

^=

= Vl09

3-^

10.44

(4)

(5)

5.44

^ 15.44
6

= 2.57+

=-.90+

H)^ is added to the left side to make the


(3), (>i
a perfect square. It is added to the right side to

Notice in
left side

10.44

*~6

Vl09

....

^10.44

x-^=-j*"6"^

297

preserve the balance of the equation.


(H H^y or ^He, is
obtained by squaring half the coefficient of x. Notice that
in step (2) the equation is divided by 3 to make the first

term

ic^,

which

is

a perfect square.

Solve the following equations:


1.

2.

a;2+3:c=18
2x''-x = \b

3. 3:^2-ll:x:

=2

4. 2x''-\-bx

=17

330.
To solve a system of equations consisting of two
equations containing two unknowns, eliminate one of the
unknowns and solve the resulting equation for the other.
A. When both equations are of the first degree, eliminate

by addition or
Illustration

subtraction.

Ai.

Solve for

aj

5:c-4y = 6.5
7jc+53; = 38.25
35;c-28y = 45.5
35:c+25>'= 191.25

-53y= -145.75
^ = 2.75
Notice that x

and

5:r-4y = 6.5
y:

,-

oo or
(1)
(2)
(1)
(2)

X7
X5

Subtract the third

equation from the second

be found by multiplying equation (1)


and
5
(2)
by 4 and adding the results or by
by
equation
substituting 2.75 for y in either equation (1) or (2) and

may

solving the result for x.

PLANE GEOMETRY

298

B. When one of the equations is of the first degree and


one of the second, solve the first-degree equation for one of
the unknowns in terms of the other unknown and substitute
in the other equation.
Illustration 5.

Solve for x and

y:

\x -hy
|x2+3;2

Solve (1) for x,


Substitute 8 3; for

=8
= 34

(1)

(2)

x=8y
:v

in (2)

64-163;+2/ = 34
2^2-16^+30 =
y^-8y+15 =
(y-5) (3'-3)=0
y = D and y = 3

To

find X, substitute the values of y in (3)

(3)

NOTES ON ARITHMETIC AND ALGEBRA


332.

Deg.

TABLE OF SINES, COSINES, AND TANGENTS

299

PLANE GEOMETRY

300

333.

Units of Length

English

= 1 foot (ft.)
=
1 yard (yd.)
3 feet
5J yards = 1 rod (rd.)
or 5280 ft. = 1 mile (mi.)

12 inches

320 rods

(in.)

Metric
10 centimeters (cm.) = 1 decimeter (dm.)
10 decimeters = 1 meter (m.)
1000 meters = 1 kilometer (km.)
1
1

meter = 39. 37
.

1 foot
1

334.

in.

kilometer = 62 of a mile

= 30.48

centimeters

mile =1.6093 kilometers

Units of Surface

English
144 square inches (sq. in.) =
9 square feet =

=
square yards
160 square rods =

30M

4840 square yards =


640 acres =

square foot

square yard (sq. yd.)


square rod (sq. rd.)

(sq. ft.)

l acre (A.)
1 acre (A.)
1

square mile

(sq. mi.)

Metric
100 square centimeters = 1 square decimeter
100 square decimeters = 1 square meter

OUTLINE SUMMARY
PARALLELS AND PERPENDICULARS
Tests for parallels

Two
1.

2.

3.

same plane are parallel if;


The alt. int. angles are equal
61, Th.
The corresponding angles are equal
63, Th. 10
The int. angles on the same side of the transversal

straight lines in the

Th. 11
Th. 12
66, Th. 13

are sup
They are perpendicular to the same line
5. They are parallel to the same line

63,

4.

63,

one side of a triangle if:


through the mid-points of the other two

line is parallel to
6.

It passes

sides
7.

114, Th. 48

two

It divides the other

sides proportionally

20o, Th. 100

a trapezoid if:
It passes through the mid-points of the legs

and Cor.

line is parallel to the bases of


8.

118, Th. 51

Construction of parallels
Tests for perpendiculars:

64, Prob. 6

3.

A
A

4.

If

a ray starts from a point in a straight hne


one of two parallels
line tangent to a circle is perpendicular to
any two circles intersect the line of centers.

5.

If

two equal

the

common

6.

An

angle inscribed in a semicircle

1.

2.

If

line perpendicular to

circles intersect the line

chord

Construction of a perpendicular:
1. To a line from a point in the
2.

To a

3.

To a segment

line

from a point not

18

Th. 17
145, Th. 69
151, Th. 73
of centers and
152, Th. 74 Cor.
70,

162, Cor. II

line. 43,

Prob. 3; 167, Prob. 9

in the line

44, Prob. 4; 167. Prob. 10

bisecting the segment

45, Prob. 5

CONGRUENCE
Tests for congruent triangles

Any two triangles are congruent if:


1. Two sides and the included anglj
2. Two angles and the included side
3.

Three sides

3o,
36,
39,

301

Th. 1
Th. 2
Th. 4

PLANE GEOMETRY

302

Two

right triangles are congruent

if:

The hypotenuse and an acute


The hypotenuse and a side

4.
5.

angle

82,

Th. 22
Th. 23

98,

Th. 35

81,

Test for congruent parallelograms:

Two

parallelograms are congruent


included angle

General test for congruent figures

Any two figures are

congruent

Tests for equal angles

Two

Sums,

two sides and the

they can be

made to coincide

if

they are:

differences, equal multiples, or equal parts of


30,

22, 29

3.
4.

Vertical angles

5.

Corresponding angles of congruent triangles


Base angles of an isosceles triangle
Alt. int. angles of parallel Hnes

6.
7.

8.

47

equal angles

Right angles or straight angles


Supplements or complements of equal angles

2.

.... 33

angles are equal

1.

if

if

Corresponding angles of parallel

24, 25, 29
28, 29

38

Th. 3
68, Th. 14
69, Th. 15
37,

lines.

third angles of two triangles that have two


75, Cor. II
angles of one equal respectively
10. Angles with their sides parallel right side to right side 73, Ex. 3
9.

The

11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.

Angles with their sides perpendicular


Opposite angles of a parallelogram
Ceatral angles subtended by equal arcs
Central angles subtended by equal chords

39
Th. 32
135, As. 50
136, Th. 61

86, Exs. 38,


95,

Angles measured by equal arcs


Corresponding angles of similar figures
Angles of a regular polygon

Construction of equal angles

40, Prob.

173, II
210, 256
78, 270
1

41, Prob. 2

Tests for equal segments:

Two

segments are equal if they are:


Sums, differences, equal multiples, or equal parts of
equal segments
2. Radii of the same or equal circles
3. Sides of an isosceles triangle
1.

4.
5.
6.

30, 47
12, 29

34

38
Corresponding sides of congruent triangles
95, Th. 31
Opposite sides of a parallelogram
Parallel or perpendicular segments between parallels
104, Ths. 39, 40

OUTLINE SUMMARY
Equal segments are formed when:
7. The diagonals of a parallelogram
8.

9.

303

intersect

95,

bisector of an angle to the sides of the angle.


179, Th. 85
point in the perpendicular bisector of a segment
.

10.

180, Th. 86

joined to the extremities of the segment


radius is perpendicular to a chord
12. Perpendiculars are drawn from the center of
is

11.

Th. 33

equal segments on one


transversal intersect a second transversal
111, Th. 45
Perpendiculars are drawn from a point in the
series of parallels cutting

137, Th. 63
a.

two equal chords


141, Th. 67
tangents are drawn to a circle from a point
without
146, Th. 70
14. Three terms of one proportion are equal respeccircle to

13.

Two

tively to three terms of another proportion.

..

Division of a segment into equal parts

201, Th. 92

111, Prob. 7

Tests for equal arcs:

Two

arcs are equal

if:

2.

They have equal central


They have equal chords

3.

1.

is perpendicular to' the chord of an arc


137, Th. 63
are intercepted by parallel chords
166, Th. 80
are intercepted by a chord and a tangent
171, Th. 82
parallel to it

radius

5.

They
They

6.

They measure equal

4.

Tests for equal chords

Two
1.

2.

3.

135, As. 49
136, Th. 62

angles

173, II

angles

chords are equal

if:

They have equal central angles


They have equal arcs
They are equally distant from the

136, Th. 61

center

136, Th. 62
140, Th. 66

SIMILARITY
Tests for similar triangles

Two

triangles are similar

if:

210, Th. 102; 257


angle of one equals an angle of the other and
the sides including the angle are proportional .... 258, Th. 119
3. Corresponding sides are proportional
259, Th. 120
1.

They

2.

An

are mutually equiangular

PLANE GEOMETRY

304

Tests for similar polygons

Two

polygons are similar if:


1. The angles of one are equal respectively to the
angles of the other and the corresponding sides are

2.

3.

proportional
256
Diagonals from corresponding vertices divide the
polygons into triangles that are similar and similarly placed
261, Th. 121
They are regular polygons of the same number of
sides

287, Th. 134

Properties of similar figures:


1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

The corresponding

angles are equal.


210, 256
Corresponding sides have equal ratios
210, 256
Diagonals from corresponding vertices divide the
polygons into triangles that are similar and similarly placed
263, Th. 122
The ratio of corresponding segments equals the
ratio of simiHtude
264, Ths. 123, 125

The

ratio of the areas equals the square of the

ratio of similitude

Equal

ratios

and

266, Th. 126; 267, Th. 127

circles:

1.

The

2.

307, Th. 140


equals the ratio of the diameters or of the radii
The ratio of the areas of any two circles equals the

ratio of the circumferences of

any two

circles
.

ratio of the squares of the diameters or of the radii

307, Th. 141

Tests for equal ratios or equal products

Two
1.

2.
3.

two products are equal when


Parallels cut two transversals

ratios or

211
:

203, Th. 98; 204, Th. 99 and Cor.


210
Polygons are similar
Two ratios are equal to a third ratio
199, As. 57

Construction of proportional segments:


1.

The
to

2.

3.

division of a segment into parts proportional


of given segments
206, Prob. 15
fourth proportional to three given segments 207, Prob. 16

any number

The
The mean

proportional to two given segments .221, Prob. 17

Important cases of equal ratios occur when:


1. Two chords intersect within a circle
2. Two secants intersect without a circle.

213, Th. 103

215, Th. 104

OUTLINE SUMMARY
3.

4.
5.

6.

305

A secant and a tangent intersect without a circle. 216,


A line bisects an angle of a triangle
217,
A line bisects an exterior angle of a triangle
218,
A perpendicular is drawn from the vertex of the

Th. 105
Th. 106
Th. 107

right angle of a right triangle to the hypotenuse

220, Ths. 108, 109

EQUIVALENCE
246, Ths. IIG, 117

Tests for equivalence

Two

parallelograms or two triangles are equivalent or a


triangle is half of

1.

2.

a parallelogram

if:

They have the same base and the same


The product of the base and altitude of

altitude.

one, etc.

Any two

polygons are equivalent if they are:


Sums, differences, or equal parts of equivalent

figures.

Construction of equivalent figures:


1. To transform a parallelogram into a rectangle on a
248, Prob. 18
given base
2. To transform a parallelogram into a square
248, Prob. 19
3. To transform a polygon into a triangle.
249, Probs. 20, 21
.

4.

To

construct a square equal to the

sum

of

two

251, Prob. 22
squares
5. To construct a square equal to the difference
between two squares
251, Prob. 23

MEASUREMENT
Meastirement of angles:
1. Of central angles
157, As.
2. Of inscribed angles
161, Th.
3. Of an angle formed by a chord and a tangent. 170, Th.
4. Of an angle formed by two chords that intersect. 164, Th.
5. Of an angle formed by two secants, two tangents,
or a secant and a tangent ..165, Th. 79; 172, Ths. 83,
.

6.

By

trigonometric ratios

53
77
81
78

84

225

Angle-sums:

The sum

of

1.

Adj. angles on one side of a


common vertex is 2 rt. -4

2.

Adj. angles about a point

3. Int. angles

on one

parallels are cut b}'


4.

The

side of

is

st.

rt.

line

26, 29

26, 29

a transversal when two

a third st. line is 2 rt.


a triangle is 2 rt. ^

interior angles of

having a

zi

69,
74,

Th. 16
Th. 18

PLANE GEOMETRY

306

The sum
5.

of

Two

angles of a triangle

equal to the opposite

is

exterior angle
6.
7.

8.

76,

The acute angles of a right triangle is 1 rt. Z


The interior angles of a polygon of n sides
2{n2) rt. A
The exterior angles of any polygon is 4 rt. A
.

is

79,

80,

Measurement of polygons:
1. The area of a rectangle is ab
2. The area of a parallelogram is ah
3. The area of a triangle is ^ a&
"
"

y2 he sin

Th. 20
Th. 21

239, As. 63
242, Th. 113
243, Th. 114

.^.

^|s{s-a){s-

5.

The area of a trapezoid is 3^o(6+6')


The area of a regular polygon is %

6.

apothem
For the area

4.

Th. 19

75, Cor. Ill

h) {s'-c)

per.

^.
.

253, Ex. 41

253, Ex. 44
244, Th. 115
.

X
286, Th. 133

of irregular polygons see

Measurement of circles and sectors


1. The circumference of a circle
2. The area of a circle is tt^-^

245

3.

The area

of a sector

is

301, Th. 137

2itr

304, Th. 138


305, As. 66

is -rr-TTr

3b0

ELEMENTARY FIGURES
Properties of triangles:
1. The sum of the angles of a triangle is 2 rt. A
74, Th. 18
2. Thd angle opposite the greater side of a triangle. 129, Th. 55
3.
4.

5.

0.
7.

The side opposite the greater angle of a triangle. 128, Th. 54


The medians are concurrent
115, Th. 49
The perpendicular bisectors of the sides are con184, Th.87
current
184, Th. 88
The altitudes are concurrent
185, Th. 89
The bisectors of the angles are concurrent
.

Construction of triangles:
55, Ex. 4

Two sides and an angle opposite one


Properties of isosceles triangles:
1.

Two

2.

The base

3.

34

sides are equal

angles are equal


Bisector of vertex angle,

37,

the altitude, and the

median to the base coincide


50, Th. 6; 51, Th.

7; 84,

Th. 25

Th. 3

OUTLINE SUMMARY
Tests for isosceles triangles

triangle
1.

2.

is isosceles if

307

Two sides are equal


Two angles are equal

34, 83
83,

Th. 24

Properties of right triangles:

2.

The acute angles are cornplcnienLary


The median from the vertex of the right angle

3.

one-half the hypotenuse


If a and b are the legs and c

1.

75, Cor. Ill


is

116, Th. 50
is

a2+62=c2

the hypotenuse,
222, Th. 110; 251, Th. 118

Properties of parallelograms:
1.

2.
3.
4.
5.

The opposite sides are parallel


The opposite sides are equal
The opposite angles are equal
The diagonal bisects the parallelogram
The diagonals bisect each other

Th.
95, Th.
95, Th.
96, Th.
95,

Properties of special parallelograms

95
31

32
30
33

105-110

Tests for parallelograms:

quadrilateral is a parallelogram if:


1. Each side is parallel to its opposite
2.
3.
4.

99

One side is equal and parallel to its opposite


Each side is equal to its opposite
The diagonals bisect each other

100, Th. 36
'.

101, Th. 37
102, Th. 38

Properties of regular polygons:


1.

The

sides

and angles are equal

3.

A circle can be circumscribed about the polygon


A circle can be inscribed in the polygon

4.

The

5.

Each angle is

2.

4
rt.

Tests for regular polygons

polygon
1.

2.

is

b.

78, 270
282, Th. 130

285, Th. 132

regular if
The sides and angles are equal
A circle is divided into equal arcs
a.

283, Th. 131


282, Th. 130 Cor.

radius bisects the angle


27

78,

270

and

The points of division are joined


271, Th. 128
Tangents are drawn to the points of division 271, Th. 129

Construction of regular polygons

273-280, 290

PLANE GEOMETRY

308

INEQUALITIES
Tests for unequal segments

1.

The sum

2.

If

3.

The perpendicular is the

of

two

sides of a triangle, etc

one angle of a triangle

etc

is

128, Th. 54
shortest distance, etc.
130, Th. 56
perpendicular to a line oblique

from a point in a
segments are drawn cutting

4. If

126, Ass. 37, 38

greater than another,

off

unequal distances,

130, Th. 57
from a point in a perpendicular to a line two
130, Th. 58
unequal oblique segments are drawn, etc
If two triangles have two sides of one equal to two
sides of the other but the included angles, etc.
131, Th. 59
If from a point within a triangle segments are
drawn to the extremities of one side
127, Th. .53

etc

5. If

6.

7.

Tests for unequal angles:


1.

The

exterior angle of a triangle, etc


125; 58, Th. 8
one side of a triangle is greater than another,
etc
129, Th. 55
If two triangles have two sides of one equal to two
sides of the other but the third side of one, etc.
132, Th. 60

2. If

3.

INDEX
[References are to page numbers)

Abbreviations

19

Acute angle

Addition or composition.
Addition: of angles

167

209

of polygons
Adjacent angles

formed by rotation..

included
inscribed in

22
128
126

an arc

inscribed in a circle

measurement of

11,

137

obtuse

222
Algebraic analysis
Algebraic equations indicating
constructions 197; 227, Ex. 5

of elevation

196

of sixty degrees
of regular polygon

60
262

Algebraic notation in proof s

re-entrant

51

Ahmcs

63
9
58
6
6

283
Alternate exterior angles ....
49
Alternate interior angles. ...
49
166
Alternation: extreme
166
mean

right

Altitude: length of, in equi-

supplement of

12

trisection of

vertex of

32
6

vertex, of isosceles triangle.

20

lateral triangle

190
85

of parallelogram
of trapezoid

84
70

of triangle
Altitudes of triangle, concur-

rent

make an

Analysis, to

Angle
acute

arms

9
6

of

bisector of

8,

central, in circle

central,

of

regular

gon

complement

of

degree of
designation of
division of
exterior, of triangle

21

and

left sides of

sides of
size of

straight

9,

Angles: addition of

31

108, 124

poly260, 261
12
11

6
31
48, 61

309

16

adjacent

150
244
25
6

ratio of

right

alternate exterior
alternate interior

49
49

complementary

12

congruent
consecutive

7
of

parallelo-

gram

79

construction of equal

7,

30

corresponding, of congruent figures

20

corresponding, of lines cut


by a transversal

49

definition

of

(See

exterior, of lines cut

by a

equal,

11

Equal angles)
transversal

49

INDEX

310

Arcs: congruent

Angles {continued)
interior non-adjacent
:

48

Area

by a

interior, of lines cut

transversal

made

by

54

maximum

15

parallelo79 80

gram

subtraction of

sum
sum

assumptions

of, in

polygon .......

64

in triangle

of,

concerning
211, 275, 290

opposite

of

Area: of

284, 290

circle

275, 277
of irregular polygons
219
of kite
229, Ex.16
of parallelogram
216

59

of rectangle
of regular polygon

supplementary
symmetric

12

of

75

of sector of circle

vertical

15

of

Angles and parallels


Angle-sums
Antecedent

54, 57
16,

305
163

Apothem
Apothems, ratio of
Approximate constructions.
Approximate measure of

16, 17

i6
211, 275, 290

circles

16, 109, 118,

124, 125, 274,

275, 290, 291

congruence
equal angles

108

equivalence

126

48, 99, 100


inequality
location of lines, rays, and

inscribed

108
of. ..108, 123,

from

Carpentry
gable
Church windows; Gothic
{See

arch Mouldings Rafters


;

Roof
trusses;
beams)

137
108

220, 283

exercises

20

123
central

Architecture,

angles

angle-sums
area

98

angle

major
measurement
minor
Archimedes

35

angle
of

of trapezoid
of triangle

275
276
218
217, 228

Assumption

of 7r..272, 283

of

intercepted,

circle

Assumptions concerning;

degree of
intercepted,

segment of

228, Ex. 5

263
282

161, 162

Approximate value
Arab
Arc

262

rhombus

Areas, ratio of
237, Ex. 34; 246, 247, 263, 276

of surface of rectangle .212, 214


of heights and distances.
196
.

211

260

length

108

208

49

and

parallels

transversals

opposite,

108

equal {See Equal arcs) ....

segments
location of points

maximum
minimum

16

210

15
15

area

290

perimeter

291

parallels

perimeters
ratios

sectors

53
274, 291

165
275

Steel

segments
straight angles

16, 17

16

INDEX
Axial

symmetry

relation

to

76

central

metry

78

Axis of symmetry

18,

chord)

117

19

20

Chords: equal, tests for {See

of angle

Base of an isosceles triangle


Bases of parallelogram

79

of trapezoid
Bisection: of an angle
of a polygon

84
8,

31

209
of a segment
4, 35
Bisector of an angle: as locus 146
construction of

8,

segments made by
of

Bisectors:

angles

31

185, 186

of

triangle, concurrent ...

Common

{See

fundamental theorem of
Chord and tangent, measure

76
1

Chord

common

sym-

of circles

311

made by

perpendicular (See Perpen-

Equal chords)

303

intersecting {See Intersect-

ing chords)
132

parallel

Church windows
140, 158, 201,

Circle

275, 277
108

central angle of
chord of

5
269, 274

circumscribed
exercises

Carpentry,

from

31, 129, 157, I75 265,

Center: of a circle
of gravity
of regular

polygon

of similitude
of
of

symmetry
symmetry
gram

249

escribed

117
.

equal

angles;

test for

5
151

inscribed.

120, 151

126

inscribed, of regular poly-

gon
measurement

260
of

277, 306

radius of

sector of

275
276
114, 134
157,

segment of

Unequal
108

124
Central angle of a regular
260
polygon
measure of
261
Central symmetry
77
relation to axial symmetry 78

Chinese

113

of.

inscribed angle of

Centers of circles, loci of


158
Central angle of a circle {See
angles)
measure of

151, 154, 156

definite location of

Centers, line of {See Line of

259

polygon
construction of.

diameter

81

regular

155

parallelo-

centers)

of

260
77

of

120, 151

circumscribed,

266

77
189, 283

280
5

arc of

circumference of

dicular bisector)

1 1 1

135

area of

150

tangent to
Circles: assumptions concerning

16,

109, 118,

124, 125, 274

275, 290, 291

concentric

117
108

congruent
construction of.
inequalities in

.J

51, 154,

156

125

inde:

312
Circles {continued)

Coiicurrcnt lines

Ii8

intersecting
loci of centers of

153

tangent
tangents to
Circles and equal ratios
Circles

117, 119

137

276

and symmetry

Circumference
formula for
ratio of, to diameter

Congruence
Congruent angles

20, 301

7
108

arcs
circles

109, 118, 119

Circular segments

91

exercises involving
155
special cases of
115, 148, 150

276
269, 274
274
276

Circumferences, ratio of
Circumscribed circle

20

parallelograms

81

segments

triangles

301

276

Consecutive angles
Consecutive sides

120

Consequent

151

Construction lines

of regular polygons

259

Construction: of

Circumscribed polygon
Coincident rays

120

79
79
163
57

construction of

Collinear rays

Commensurable segments.

Common

chord

as bisector

'.

Compasses: proportional

angles

Composition or addition.

Compound

of circles

...

curves

of circumscribed circle ...

of decagon, regular
of equal segments

151

256
88

210, 222-224, 227

12

of extreme

12

167

of fourth proportional
of hexagon, regular

254

157

of inscribed circle

151

of

regular

267
polygons
perimeters of regular
inscribed polygons. .270, 272
Concave polygon
63
Concentric circles
117
Conclusion
36
Concrete representation: of
of straight lines

31

of equivalent figures

mean

I
I

151

and mean

ratio.

256
1

73

187

proportional

of octagon, regular
of parallels

of pentadecagon, regular.
of pentagon, regular

253
53
258
258

of perpendiculars

of

points

30

of escribed circle

194, 196, 202

of

7,
.8,

151, 154, 156

164

214, 228, 277


trigonometric ratios

measurement

117

Computations: of areas

by

32

6,

Complement
Complementary

191

use of

equal

angles
of bisector of an angle.

119
118

bisected

108

6,

figures

9-10, 33-35, 133


1 72
of proportional segments
of regular polygons.
.252-258
.

of similar

115, 134, 137

of triangles
2 1 Ex. 4 24, Ex.
,

243
253

polygons

of square
of tangents

47, Ex.

INDEX
Constructions:

by

algebraic

222

analysis
indicated by equations

197; 227, Ex. 5

Contact, point of
Converse theorems

114
56

313

Direct proof
51
Distance between two points
4
from a point to a line
104
Division or subtraction
167
Division of angles
31
:

Convex polygon

63

Division of segments: external and internal


182

Corresponding angles: of congruent figures


of lines cut by a transversal

20

harmonic
186
in extreme and mean ratio

of similar figures
of similar triangles

176,

20
240
178

36
Corollary
Cosine of an acute angle. ... 193
Cross-sections of columns.
214
.

Decagon

141, 268

Cut-glass designs

{See Regular deca-

gon)
Definite location of circles
:

255, 256

49

Corresponding sides: of congruent figures

given segments
Draftsman's methods,
chanical drawing

to

172

me-

9, 10, 32, 53, 259,

Duodecagon

{See

63

Egypt, Egyptians
112

I,

69, 189, 191, 283

Elements, Euclid's

45
196

of lines

2,

15

Elevation, angle of

of points
of rays

2,

15

5,

15

Engineering, problems from


Sur{See Architecture

of segments
Degree of angle

4, 15

123

Design, theory and practice


of

71, 79, 157, 231,

Determination of points

256
152

of polygons
of quadrilaterals

63
80, 81

of square, formula for

190

Diagrams for review


Diameter of circle

angles

43
5
1

Railroading)
279, 291

Equal angles

1 1

tests for

16, 37,

16

302
108

Equal arcs
have equal central angles. 109
have equal chords
no
measure equal angles
137
measured by equal angles.. 137
.

79, 80

Diameters, ratio of
Difference : between

assumptions concerning.

Diagonals: of parallelograms

tests for

veying

11

of arc

282

Regular

duodecagon)

63
.

88

in equal parts
in parts proportional

12, 1 16

276

two
8

between two polygons .... 209

tests for

303

Equal central angles of a


circle: have equal arcs.
109
have equal chords
no
.

Equal chords: equally distant


from center
113
have equal arcs
no
have equal central angles. no
.

INDEX

314

179, 197

involving
important cases of

182

tests for

Equal

177

ratios: applications of.

191

exercises involving

important

245
177, 304
4
302
296
20

tests for

Equal segments

tests for

Equations

Equilateral triangle
altitude of, formula for...

angles equal

190

25

side of, formula for


value of each angle

190

60

Equivalent polygons
assumptions concerning.

209
210

construction of
210, 220, 236, Ex. 32; 237,

Ex. 33; 251, Ex. 22; 305


exercises involving .... 224, 233
tests for
210, 220, 305

Escribed circle
Euclid

151
45,

137,258

Exact measure

306
190

for side of square

190

Fourth proportional

173
173

construction of

Fractions

292

Fundamental assumption: of
measurement of poly211

gons

53

regarding parallels

Fundamental

characteristic:

80

of parallelograms

of ratios

165

Fundamental relation between arcs and angles.


124
Fundamental test: for in.

equality
for parallelograms. ...'.,.
for parallels
f ov

special quadrilaterals

Fundamental

theorems

100
82

50
84

of

165

proportion

161

Exterior angle of triangle


Exterior angles of lines cut

by

gons
228,
for side of equilateral triangle

174, 179, 197


special cases of 182

series of

measurement of circles
and sectors
277, 306
for measurement of polyfor

exercises

Equal products:

transversal

48
49

External division

182

Extreme alternation
Extreme and mean ratio.
Extremes

166
.

256
165

Fixed line, ray, or segment.


58
Floor designs
69, 79, 97,
157, 204, 230, 235, 266, 281

Gable

206

Gauss

258

General assumptions
Generation or formation of

16

angles

Geometric forms, occurrence


of
69,71,79, 106,
158, 231, 236, 254,

Formula:

for

altitude

equilateral triangle
for angle-sums
for diagonal of square

265, 266, 281, 291

Geometrical

problem

Construction)

of

190
305
190

Golden section
Gothic arch
Gravitv, center of

{See

36
256
206, 280
I55

INDEX
Greek geometry
21,

2>2,

45, 59, 189, 191, 233,

235. 256, 258, 266, 274, 283

186

Harmonic division
Heptagon
Hero of Alexandria

Hexagon

63
233

{See Regular hexa-

189,283

279
Hippocrates
Moderndiscoveries258,274,283
235
Pappus
164, 274 275. 283
Pi(7r)
59, 189

Pythagoras
Pythagoreans
Thales

189, 256,

266

27, 191

Trisection of angles

32
279
66

Hippocrates

Hypotenuse

36

Hypothesis

Inscribed angle in an arc. ..


Inscribed angle in a circle.

measure

128
26

126

of

Inscribed angle in a semicircle 128


1 20
Inscribed circle

construction of

in regular polygons

260
120

Inscribed polygon

63
Hindus
189,283
283
Historical notes: Ahmes
98
Arab
220, 283
Archimedes
Chinese
189, 283
Egyptians. i, 69, 189, 191, 283
Euclid
45. 137,258
Gauss
258
Greeks
32, 59 274
Hero of Alexandria
233
gon)

Hindus

315

Inscribed

regular

Integraph
Intercepted arc

polygons
253-258
274
108, 126

Interior angles: of a polygon


64
262
of a regular polygon
of lines cut

by a transversal

118, 119
Intersecting circles
Intersecting chords: measure
of angle
130
1 82
of product of segments of.
.

Intersecting loci, use of: in

determination of points
in construction of circles.

Intersecting secant

152

Incommensurable segments.

of angle of
product of segments of

Intersecting

tangents:

131

Indirect proof
Inequalities

angles;

23

Irrational

51

1 1

5
13^
204
166

assumptions

48,99
in circles

for

properties of

concerning

fundamental test

numbers
164, 274
219
Irregular polygons, area of..
Isosceles trapezoid
84
legs of

{See
Unequal
Unequal sides);

183

are

equal
Inverse proportion
Inversion

164

54

and tan-

gent measure of angles of 136


184
product of segments of
Intersecting secants: measure

22

155

Included angle
Included side

49
182

Internal division

measure of angle of
Incenter

51

Isosceles triangle
base angles of

100

properties of

125

tests for

84
86
20
24
3^6
..68,307

INDEX

31G
Kites.

84
229, Ex. 16

area of

86

properties of

Major and minor arc

108

Maximum and minimum.


Mean alternation
Mean proportional

..

179

construction of

Legs of an isosceles trapezoid


of a right triangle

84
66

Length of circle
of segment

269

4, 161

units of

300

Leveling device
Limiting values of perimeter
of inscribed and circum-

41

Mean

ratio,

187

extreme and.

exercises

involving

165

Measure (measurement): ap161

proximate
exact

161

of angles
of arcs

...11, 137, 305

9, 90,

170

straight {See Straight line)

Line of centers
as axis of

118

as bisector

Lines

concrete

211-220, 306

208

Measure number
of a

segment

162, 214
11
of angles
161
.

208

of a surface

{See

161

of segments
of surfaces

Mechanical drawing

representa-

tion of

concurrent

269, 277, 306

practical

117
118

symmetry

123, 137

of polygons {See Polygons)

parallel

triangle

256

of circles {See Circles)

40, 57, 67, 103, 134, 136


to base of

Line:

...

Means

scribed regular polygons 274

Limits,

284
166

Concur-

9, 10, 32, 53,

Median: of right

259, 282

triangle. ...

92
42
85

rent lines)
construction

91

definite location of

15

Medians

50

current
91
Mid-point of .segment, determination of
4, 35
Minimum
284

57

parallel {See parallel lines)

perpendicular {See perpendicular lines)

9
75

symmetric
Location, definite {See Defi-

of a quadrilateral
of a triangle con-

108

Minor arc
Minutes

nite location)

Loci

of a triangle

143

complete proofs for

145

finding of

143

Modern

discoveries in

n, 123
geom-

258, 274,283

etry

I57

Moldings

152, 154

intersecting

miscellaneous exercises on

59

of centers of circles

53

of points
of vertices of triangles

146

159, Ex. 4

Nature

of

theorems

and
35

proofs

Navigation, exercise from...

Numbers:
ratio of

irrational

164,

71

274
163

INDEX

317

Obtuse angle
Octagon {See Regular octa-

gon)
Opposite angles
Opposite angles of a parallelo-

63

Pentagram

15

Perigon
Perimeter

80

minimum
285, 289, 291
ratio of, to diameter
263
Perimeters: computation for

gram

gon)

79.

Opposite sides of a parallelo-

gram

Pentagon (See Regular penta-

79.

Origin of ray

80

63

266

star

9
63

270, 271

Orthocenter

i55

lengths of

272

ratio of

235

Pappus
Parallel chord

Parallel chords

132

Parallel lines

fundamental
tests for

9
Perpendicular lines
construction of .9, 10,33-35, ^33

95

Parallel to base of a triangle


89, 90, 170

and

transversals

angles formed by

98
168

bases of

consecutive

angles

79. 85

of

and

63, 79, 80, 81


diagonals of
opposite angles and sides of 79
:

congruence
81

properties of
test for

82, 83,

Pencil of rays

Pentadecagon (See Regular


pentadecagon)

point
contact

4,

of

line

circle

contact

307
307
5

63

35

and
114

of

tangent

circles

79

of

of. .273,

283
274
283
history of
is irrational
164, 274
Point: determination of midof

sides of

273
282

approximate value

85
216

area of

ig6, 138

approximate constructions

79. 85

altitude of

301
.

construction of

88,

Parallelograms

tests for

for

proportional segments

formed by

10.

Physics, exercises from.


Pi (tt)

54. 55

equal segments formed by

Parallelogram

147

construction of

53
53. 301

.*

Parallel rulers

53

assumption

regarding

bisector

locus

35
Perpendicular bisectors concurrent
149

50

construction of

Parallels

Perpendicular

and tangent ... 136

245, 263
as

20

of tangency

114

variable

143

Points: concrete representation of


definite location of

determination of
locus of

symmetric
Polygon
area of

15

2,
1

52

146
75, 118

63
208

INDEX

318
Polygon (continued)

direct synthetic

bisection of

209
1 20

circumscribed

concave
convex

63
63
63
1 20

diagonal of
inscribed

perimeter of

sides of

63

of parallelograms
of rectangles

307
86

64

of regular polygons
of rhombuses

307
87
307
87

63

209
63
209

vertices of

Polygons: addition of

congruence of (See ConCongruent


figures;
gruent
parallelograms;

Congruent triangles) .... 20


between
209
equivalence of {See Equivadifference

220, 305

lence)

measurement

names

of

regular (See Regular poly-

252
similar (See Similar figures) 240
star (See Star polygons)
141, 268
gon)

of right triangles
of squares
of similar polygons
of trapezoids

304
93
306

of triangles

Proportion
by addition

165

167
166

by alternation
by composition
by division
by inversion
by subtraction

167
167
166

167

fundamental theorems of

inverse

211-219, 228, 306


63

of

86

306
86

star (See Star polyrons) 141, 268


surn of angles of
64
trisection of

51

Properties: of isosceles trapezoids


of isosceles triangles
of kites

regular (See Regular poly-

gon)

36, 51

indirect

165

204
204

reciprocal

Proportional compasses (See

Compasses)

subtraction of

209

sum

209

of

transformation of

210, 221

Pons asinorum

46
Practical measurements. .162, 214
Problem, geometrical (See
36
Construction)

Proportional: fourth

173

mean

179, 187

Proportional

Equal

segments

178

Construction of

304
182, 304
172,

special cases of

Proportionally, divided.'. ...

Equal products)
Proof

by superposition

178
239
36

36

178

Proportions, transformations

166

of

Protractor

124

Products, test for equal (See


Projection

(See

ratios)

59, 189

Pythagoras

Pythagorean theorem

89

exercises involving
189, 199, 238

INDEX
Pythagorean theorem
proofs for

(cont'd)

fixed

i88; 206, Ex. 22;

226; 235, Ex. 22; 238


related theorems

58

origin of

Rays: coincident

collinear

239, Exs. II, 12; 251, Ex. 21


189, 256,

Pythagoreans

3m

266

definite location of

15

pencil of

204

Reciprocally proportional
Quadrilateral

63

Quadrilaterals, special

84
249
263, 276

Radially placed
Radii, ratio of

Radius: of a circle
5
of a regular polygon.
260, 261
Rafter designs, decorated
.

(See Truss).:
Railroading, exercises

157. 158

from

142, 270,

Ratio: extreme and

mean

244
263

apothems

of areas

of

237, Ex. 34; 246, 247, 263, 276


circumference to dia-

meter
of
of

of
of
of

of

276
circumferences
276
corresponding sides. 176, 240
diameters
276
263
perimeter to diameter
245, 263
perimeters
radii
263
.

of

segments

parallels
of similitude

of

made

by
168, 170

240

two numbers

163

Ratios: assumptions concern-

trigonometric
Ratios and circles

Ray

exercises involving area of 214


86
properties of
Rediictio

ad ahsurdum

Re-entrant angle
Regular decagon

165
192
276, 304
5

51
63.

construc-

tion of

256
267

exercises involving

duodecagon

con-

struction of

254
267

exercise involving

Regular hexagon,

construc-

tion of

254

exercises involving. 69, 265, 267


occurrence of
69, 265,

Regular

octagon

construc-

tion of

253

exercises involving 265, 266, 267


occurrence of
265, 266

Regular pentadecagon, construction of

258

Regular pentagon: construction of

258'

exercises concerning
occurrence of

Regular polygon
angle of
of

area of
center of

(See Equal ratios)


fundamental characteristic

equal
of

211

apothem
165

ing

85

area of

Regular

280
256

of altitudes

of

Rectangle

central angle of
radius of

266, 267

266
64
262

260
262
260
260
260

Regular polygons: construction of


253-258, 265
occurrence of

254

INDEX

320

Regular polygons {continued)


270-272
perimeters of
properties of. 259, 260, 265, 307
measurement of
262, 267
262
similar
:

tests for

307

Representation of points and


straight lines

43
85
228, Ex. 5

Rhombus
area of
properties of

Rigid figures
Right angles

87
41
{See

Perpen9

diculars)

66
66
66

Right triangle
hypotenuse of
legs of

properties of

307
250, Ex. 9
sixty-degree
Roof trusses, exercises based on

236
42, Ex. 15

42, 127, 203, 204, 205, 234,

parts of
rigidity of
Roots, rules for

41

293-295
298

table of square

Rosettes

142

95

Rulers, parallel

136, 184

{See

intersecting

Division

58
4, 161

161

mid-point of
Segments: commensurable.

157
275, 306
center of

Line

area of

Segment, straight-line

4
.

35

164

congruent
4
equal {See Equal segments)
4
incommensurable
164
proportional
178, 304
ratio of

164

Semicircle

108

measure of angle in

128

Series of equal ratios

245

Sewers

279, 291

Side included

23

Side: of equilateral triangle.


of square

190
190

Sides: consecutive

79

corresponding {See Corresponding sides)


of

an angle

of a parallelogram
of a polygon

79
;

and

left,

of

Similar figures,

an angle

63
79
58

or polygons

240
243
corresponding angles of 176,240
corresponding sides of 176, 140
properties of 244-247, 248, 304
tests for 240-243, 248, 303, 304
Similar regular polygons 262, 264
Similar triangles
176
176,

256

118

circles as bisector

{See

35

4, 15

construction of

Section, Golden
Sector of circles.

centers)
Segment of circles

length of

131

Intersecting secants)

bisected

of {See
of segments)
fixed

right

Secants,

Segment joining

division

opposite

Secant
Secant and tangent

area of

4.

definite location of

measure of
I

Review diagrams

bisection of

of

119

276
276
3

corresponding sides of
tests for

Similitude, center of
ratio of

178

240-244, 248, 303

249
240

INDEX
Sine of an angle
Sixty-degree

193

right

triangle

250, Ex. 9

60

Sixty-degrees
Size of an angle

Special quadrilaterals
exercises concerning

Square
construction of inscribed.

diagonal

of,

formula

for.

side of, formula for


properties of

84
96
85
253
190
190
87

Square roots {See Roots)


266
Star pentagram
Star polygons: formation of.. 268
occurrence of
141, 265, 266
Steel square, carpenter's
31, 129, 175

Straight angle

32
1,2

Straightedge
Straight line

of polygons

Subtraction or division

Sum

of angles

55

Supplement
Supplementary

209
305
36
12

Supplementary angles
Surface: measure of
units of

between axial and


and central
Symmetry and circles
relation

13
12

208

300

Surveying, exercises from

27,46,72, 157, 170, 189,191,


196, 202

78

109, 118, 119


81

Symmetry and parallelograms


Synthetic form

36

Tables: of square roots

298
299
114
Tangency, point of
Tangent and chord parallel 136
measure of angle of.
135
Tangent and secant {See
trigonometric

Intersecting

secant and

tangent)
circles

117

119
193
114
1

15, 134, 137

tests for

114

Tangents to two circles


Tests: for congruence

138
301, 302
112, 116

for diameters
for equal angles
for equal arcs
for equal chords

for equal products.


for equal ratios

for equivalence

adjacetit

angles

76
77

central

construction of ...

interior of parallel lines


Sum of polygons
16,

79

axial

167
7

Superposition

209

64
59
65

Sums, angle

occurrence of

Symmetry

Tangent of an angle
Tangent to a circle

a polygon
of a triangle
exterior, of a polygon
of

tests for

Symbols and abbreviations.


19
Symmetric figures
75
Symmetric points
75, 118

Tangent

segment {See
Segment, straight line)

Straight-line

Subtraction of angles

321

for inequality
for isosceles triangles

302
303
303
.178, 304
177, 304
305
100

307

for parallels
for parallelograms

301

for pehpendiculars
for regular polygons ......

301

for similar polygons

307
307
304

INDEX

322
Tests (continued)

for similar triangles


for special quadrilaterals

for tangent circles


for tangents

for unequal angles


for unequal segments

Thales

303
85

exterior angle of
incenter of

median

155

114
308
308

properties of

306
59

35

converse of

sum

36
235

of angles of

Triangle:

(See

equilateral

Equilateral triangle)
isosceles (See Isosceles tri-

56

Tiles (See Floor designs)

42

orthocenter of

Theorems

Pappus'
Pythagorean (See Pythagorean theorem)

of

119

27, 191

proof of

48
155

angle)
right (See Right triangle)

Triangles: congruent, tests for 301

equivalent, tests for


1

89

230

Transformation of polygons

305
303
192, 202
32

similar, tests for

Trigonometric ratios
Trisection of angles

210, 221

Transformation

of

propor-

and

Transversals

parallels

altitude of

85
218

area of
bases of

84
93

properties of

area of
center of gravity of
centroid of

measure of angles
of measure of arcs
of surface.

1 1

300

Variable point

143

angle

20

Vertex of an angle

70

of isosceles triangle
Vertical angles

217, 228

155

155
circumcenter of
1 55
construction of
21, Ex. 4; 24; 47, Ex. 4

Width

of

board

tri-

20
6
20
15

63
159, Ex. 4

of polygons
Vertices, loci of

Windo#

308
308
300

108, 123

Vertex angle of isosceles

(See

Isosceles trapezoid)

altitude of

84

Triangle

of

Trapezoid

isosceles

Units of length

(See Parallels)

Trapezoid,

Unequal angles, tests for.


Unequal segments, tests for.
.

166

tions

89

designs 140, 158, 201, 280

YB 35952