iiir'^
SYKES
CMStOCK
I
GIFT OF
Publisher
EDUCATION DEPT.
PLANE GEOMETRY
PLANE GEOMETRY
By
MABEL SYKES
Bowen High School. Chicago
Source Book of Problems for Geometry"
Instructor in Mathematics,
Author of
"A
and
CLARENCE
Professor
E.
of
COMSTOCK
Mathematics,
Bradley Polytechnic Institute
RAND M9NALLY & COMPANY
CHICAGO
NEW YORK
c^
3^
Copyright, 1918, by
Rand M?Nally
St
Company
Edition of 1922
Kf
{
c22
THE CONTENTS
The Preface
ix
Chapter
I.
Introductory
p^^g
Points and Straight Lines
Circles
5
6
Angles
Summary and Supplementary Exercises
Chapter II. Congruent
15
Triangles
Introductory Definitions
Tests for Equal Angles and Equal Segments
Application of Congruent Triangles to Constructions
20
....
Nature of Theorems and Proofs
Miscellaneous Theorems and Exercises
Chapter
III.
21
30
35
37
Parallels, Perpendiculars,
Angles, AngleSums
48
50
54
59
63
66
69
Introductory
Parallels
Angles Made by Parallels and Transversals
Angles in Triangles
Angles in Polygons
Miscellaneous Theorems
Supplementary Exercises
Chapter
IV.
Quadrilaterals
75
79
84
88
94
Symmetry
Parallelograms
Special Quadrilaterals
and Segments on Transversals
Supplementary Exercises
Parallels
Chapter
V.
Inequalities
Assumptions for Combining Inequalities
Fundamental Tests of Inequality
Tests for Unequal Sides and Angles in One Triangle
Tests for Unequal Sides and Angles in Two Triangles
Supplementary Exercises
99
....
.
100
102
105
106
571779
THE CONTENTS
vi
Chapter
VI.
Circles
and Related Lines
Introductory
Related Arcs, Chords, and Central Angles
Chords in General
108
Tangents
114
Two
Circles
110
Ill
and Related Lines
117
120
Supplementary Exercises
Chapter
VII.
Circles
and Related Angles
Relation between Central Angles and Their Arcs
Relation between Inscribed Angles and Their Arcs
Relation between Angles
Their Arcs
Summary and
Formed by Tangents and Chords and
135
137
vSupplementary Exercises
Chapter
VIII.
Loci
General Considerations
Loci of Points
Determination of Points by the Intersection of Loci
Loci of Centers of Circles
143
....
Chapter IX.
of
146
152
153
155
Supplementary Exercises
Measurement
123
126
Ratio and Proportion
161
Segments
Ratios
163
of Proportion
Ratios of Segments Made
165
Theory
by
........
Parallels
Similar Triangles
182
Important Special Cases
Applications of Equal Ratios
Summary and Supplementary
191
Exercises
197
Area and Equivalence
Chapter X.
208
Introductory
Measurement
168
176
of
Polygons
Equivalent Polygons
Summary and Supplementary Exercises
Chapter
XL
Similarity
Introductory
Tests for Similar Polygons
Properties of Similar Polygons
Summary and Supplementary
211
220
228
Exercises
240
240
244
248
THE CONTENTS
Chapter XII.
Regular Polygons
252
252
259
262
264
Definition
Construction of Regular Polygons
Properties of Regular Polygons
Similar Regular Polygons
Summary and Supplementary
Chapter XIII.
Exercises
Measurement
of the Circle
The Circumference of the Circle
Areas of Circles, Sectors, and Segments
Ratios and Circles
Summary and Supplementary
Exercises
Chapter XIV.
Introductory
Triangles
Polygons in General
Regular Polygons
Notes on Arithmetic and Algebra
Tables
Outline
Index
Summary
vii
269
275
276
277
Maxima and Minima
284
284
287
290
292
298
301
309
THE PREFACE
This book
is
written with the firm conviction that
possible to give to highschool
tematic training in the science of
it is
young people a more sysgeometry than is furnished
by any textbook on the market today. In this connection
the two main features of the book should be noted
:
The analytical method of attack is employed throughout.
Analyses of proofs serve several purposes. When it has
been found by actual classroom experience that any particular proof is so difficult that the pupil cannot reasonably
be expected to think it out for himself, the analysis gives
1.
him
at the outset the gist of the argument, calls his attention
method of proof employed, and gives him some idea
to the
how the proof may have been originally invented. In
such cases not only is the analysis given, but as much of
In this conthe proof as experience has found necessary.
of
nection the treatment of the proofs of Theorems 3, 4, 9, 14,
64, 77, 113, and 120 may be noted and compared with the
usual treatment of these same proofs.
More important, however, is the fact that the pupil can,
with proper training, invent many of his own proofs. While
nothing can do away entirely with the element of inspiration
method of
method by which every trained mind attacks
The teacher should see to it that the pupil is
in getting originals, the fact remains that the
analysis
is
difficulties.
the
continually asking himself the necessary questions, that he
sees clearly how each step follows from the preceding, and
down in the orderly form here emThe statements given in the analyses may seem
that the results are set
ployed.
formal, but clearness
and
definiteness are essential.
No
statement should be permitted which does not clearly indicate that the pupil sees
ment.
all
The proof should
the essential steps of the arguin every case be obtained by
working backward from the analysis.
THE PREFACE
2.
he work is so arranged as
important theorems and methods.
'J
to
throw emphasis on the
Without emphasis effective analysis is impossible. It is
said to be a fundamental characteristic of the mind that
lasting impression of a vast field requires distinctions in
Moreover, it is just here that much of our
any
emphasis.
geometry teaching has failed. Attention is called to the
following points in arrangement and presentation:
a) The division into chapters is based on the important
general ideas in geometry, such as congruence, loci, ratio,
If the work is so prearea, equivalence, and similarity.
sented that each chapter is made to serve the special, definite
purpose intended, many of the details in both analysis and
proof for later theorems may be left to the pupil. Otherwise such details should be given. The purpose of chapter ii,
for example, is to train pupils in the use of congruent triIf this purpose has been accomplished, the pupil
angles.
can work out for himself the details for such congruent
triangle work as that used in the proofs of Theorems 33, 36,
and 37. Similarly, it is only on the assumption that chapter
vii and
209212 have served their purpose that the
and
proof for Theorems 103, 104, and 105 may
analysis
be safely
left
to the pupil.
worked out
theorems and exercises.
In the minds of the pupils the importance of a theorem
depends solely upon the frequency with which it is used.
To this end the dependence of the minor theorems upon
b)
The purpose
in the order
the
of each chapter is carefully
and grouping
more fundamental ones
of the
is
made
evident,
and
all
exercises
given in connection with the various theorems are intended
On pages
to illustrate the use of those special theorems.
5054, for example, Theorems 10, 11, and 12 depend directly
on Theorem 9, while 67 consists entirely of exercises in
which it is required to prove two lines parallel. The purpose of chapter
ix is to train pupils in
the use of equal ratios.
THE PREFACE
The
outline of this chapter
xi
>
and the arrangement and group
ing of the exercises in it should be noted.
c) Theorems and problems whose interest
is
largely theo
which have no important place in
the plan of the work are inserted in the supplementary exerThese are marked with a
cises at the end of the chapters.
it
is desired to extend the
when
can
be
and
(f)
given
dagger
and
retical
historical or
course or to prepare for the examinations of the College
Entrance Examination Board.
traditional order is the most convenient,
has been preserved except where emphasis required a
This accounts for the separation of the work on
change*.
This subject involves
ratio, proportion, and similarity.
Inasmuch as the
it
two
points.
Pupils should not only be familiar with the
and the properties of similar figures,
tests for similar figures
The work is
two chapters. The chapter on
the chapter on area and equivalence
but should be able to prove ratios equal.
therefore
divided
into
similarity is given after
to permit of grouping
together all theorems involving
properties of similar figures.
Attention is also called to certain minor features:
The
introduction
to the point.
is
natural and interesting, concise
of the exercises in this
The nature
and
first
chapter should be noted, as well as the preliminary use of
paper folding in construction work.
The
cises
and
algebraic form of statement for theorems and exerSee especially chapters ix, x,
extensively used.
is
xi.
The formal theory
of limits
is
omitted.
The
idea of a
limit is presented informally by exercises, but proofs that
are either lacking in rigor or are too difficult for the pupil
are omitted entirely.
The treatment of the measurement
of the circle will be found satisfactory and comprehensive.
There is a great variety of exercises with concrete setting.
These include exercises taken from surveying, physics,
For illustrations of
architecture, and industrial design.
THE PREFACE
xii
exercises in surveying, see pages 27, 46, 72, 191, and 219;
for exercises from physics, see page 106; for exercises from
architecture, see pages 157, 158, 204, 206, 265, and 280;
for exercises from industrial design, see pages 69, 71, 97, 230,
and 235. Illustrations of similar problems will be
found on pages 141, 142, 214, 266, and 279.
The Notes on Arithmetic and Algebra and the Outline
Summary preceding the Index will be found convenient
Attention is also called to the unusually
for reference.
231,
complete character of the index.
Thanks are due Professor G. A. Miller of the University
of Illinois for his criticisms of the historical notes.
C.
Chicago, Illinois
May, iQi8
M.
S.
E.
C.
PLANE GEOMETRY
CHAPTER
Introductory
1.
Geometry
treats of points, lines, surfaces,
and
solids.
Plane geometry deals with lines and points on a plane
surface.
A plane surface is a flat surface, like a plain. In
years ago the name was "plain geometry," that is, the
geometry of the plain. In the early part of the seventeenth
century the spelling was changed from "plain geometry" to
fact,
The word geometry comes from two
"plane geometry."
From
Greek words meaning the earth and to measure.
earliest times the results of geometry have been used for
The
practical purposes, such as building and surveying.
work of the early Egyptians furnishes an illustration.
* '
' '
' '
' '
POINTS AND STRAIGHT LINES
CONCRETE REPRESENTATION
We
by a dot made with a
and
it
sharppointed pencil
designate
by a capital letter
near
the
dot
A,
placed
(see point
Fig. 1).
^^
We represent a straight line on paper by a
^^^ ^
mark made with a sharppointed pencil and a
straight ruler and designate it by a small letter placed on
2.
represent a point on paper
**
the
mark
(see line n, Fig. 1).
straight line resembles a tightly stretched string, such
as a thread
by which a weight is suspended. The word
comes from the Latin word linea meaning "a linen
thread." The word straight comes from the AngloSaxon
verb meaning "to stretch."
line
'jE
:_
p.L^m GEOMETRY
".
LOCATION OF STRAIGHT LINES
Ex.
3.
How many
1.
one given point?
points?
(2)
any four given points?
(4)
drawn through
straight lines can be
any two given points?
(3)
Illustrate
(1)
any three given
answers by
figures.
If two points are given, the sljraight line passing through
these points is said to be located definitely.
^
When two points are given, as points and ^
Fig. 2
often best to designate the
line passing through them as the line AB, rather than by a
small letter. This method of designating the line locates it
(Fig. 2), it is
definitely with respect to the
We
two given points
and B.
assume as apparent that
Only one straight line can pass through two given
shall
Ex.
drew
points.
Designate each of the points in the figures that you
by a capital letter. Read each of the lines by
2.
for Ex. 1
naming two
of its points.
LOCATION OF POINTS
4,
Ex.
Ex.
2.
How many
1.
What
straight lines
Ex.
3.
Ex.
4.
is
points are there in a straight line?
the greatest
number
of points in
which two
can intersect?
Draw two straight lines with no
What is the greatest number of
possible intersections.
points in which three
straight lines can intersect?
Ex.
5.
Draw
sections; (2) only
intersections;
Ex.
6.
one possible intersection;
(3)
only two possible
(4) three intersections.
Name
straight lines
three straight lines with (1) no possible inter
the greatest number of points in which four
Draw a figiire to illustrate your answer.
can intersect.
If two given straight lines intersect, the point of intersection is said to be located definitely. When two inter
secting straight lines are given, such as lines a and 6, it is
often best to design 2'*:e the point of intersection as the point
INTRODUCTORY
In Fig. 3 the two
letter.
a and b were first given; their intersection
then locates point 0, which may be
^^ o
This method of
called the point ab.
ab rather than by one capital
straight lines
designating the point locates
it
We
Two
shall
^""^
^^^^
definitely
with respect to the two given Hnes.
Fig. 3
assume as apparent that
different straight lines can intersect in only
one
point.
Ex.
Designate each of the lines in the figures you drew for
7.
Exs. 5 and 6 by a small letter. Read each of the points whose location is determined by these lines; show how each point is located.
STRAIGHTLINE SEGMENTS
The
i)ortion of a straight line terminated by two given
of
the line is called a straightline segment. Herepoints
after the single word segment will be used to indicate a
6.
straightline segment.
If two segments are parts of the
are said to be collinear.
6.
We
transfer segments
same
straight line, they
from one Hne to another by
the use of the compasses,
the dividers, or a strip of
paper.
To
transfer
given
segment.
Open the
viders
the
to
di
segment
required by laying them
on the given segment.
Without changing the adjustment place one leg on point
A and mark off the segment
on the line c (Fig. 4).
AB
Ex.
ments.
1.
Find a segment which
is
the
sum
of
two given
seg
PLANE GEOMETRY
4
Ex.
2.
Find a segment which is the difference between two
Can any segment be subtracted from any other
given segments.
segment?
Ex.
3.
Show how
to multiply a given segment
by 3 by 5 by
;
w.
The problem of dividing a segment by any given number
not as simple as the three foregoing problems. It will be studied
In 9 we learn how to divide a given segment by 2.
later.
Note.
is
7. Two segments are said to be congruent if they can
be placed upon each other so as to fit exactly. To make
two segments coincide, their extremities must be made to
coincide.
We
assume as apparent that
one
segment can be drawn joining two given points.
Only
is
shall
If the end points of a segment are known, the segment
located definitely.
segment has a definite length. The length of a
segment may be obtained by the successive application
of some standard unit.
8.
The
length of a segment joining'two given points
between the two given points.
is
often
called the distance
Segments that have the same length are called equal
segments. Equal segments are congruent and congruent
segments are equal.
9.
To
folding.
falls
sharply.
find the midpoint of a given
segment by paper
Fold the
paper so that point
on point B. Crease the paper ^
Hold
it
to
the
light
and see
^
Fig. 5
that one part of the segment falls exactly
upon the other part. The crease marks the midpoint
of the segment.
We shall assume as apparent that
A given segment has only one midpoint.
Exercise.
Divide a given segment into four eqval parts.
1
INTRODUCTORY
RAYS
portion of a line which starts at a given point
extends indefinitely in a given direction is
10.
The point is called the origin
called a ray.
of the ray (see ray a, origin O, Fig. 6).
Two
same
same
rays that have a common origin
direction are said to be coincident.
origin
and extend in opposite
and
^^^ ^
and extend in the
If they have the
directions, they are
collinear.
A number
rays.
of rays
from the same origin form a pencil of
Make a drawing showing a
11. If
the ray
pencil of rays.
the origin and any other point of a ray are known,
is located definitely.
We
shall assume as apparent that
Only one ray can be drawn having a given
origin
and
passing through a second given point.
CIRCLES
12.
closed curved Une every point of which is equally
distant from a given point in the same plane is called a circle.
The given point is called the center of the circle. In Fig. 7,
is
the center of the
circle.
A segment drawn from the center to the
circle is called a radius.
A segment
drawn through the center and terminating
in the circle
7,
is
called a diameter.
OC, OEy and
a diameter of
are radii and
In Fig.
DE
is
^^^
circle 0,
'^
segment joining two points on a circle is called a chord
In Fig. 7,
and DE are chords of circle 0.
of the circle.
OD
XY
a circle is called an arc. In Fig. 7 the part of
between points A and B is an arc of circle 0.
part of
the circle
Note. Arc comes from the Latin, and means "a bow"; chord,
from the Greek, and means "the string of a musical instrument."
PLANE GEOMETRY
6
If
two
circles
can be made to coincide, they are said to be
congruent.
Circles with equal radii are congruent.
The
truth of this fact
may
be shown thus:
different circles with equal radii.
Cut them
same pin through the center of each
We shall assume
Congruent
Note.
Draw two
out.
Put the
circle.
as apparent also that
circles
have equal
circle is usually
radii.
drawn with the compasses. In place
and a string
of compasses a pencil and a thread or a piece of chalk
can be made to answer the purpose.
ANGLES
DEFINITIONS
13.
figure formed by two rays which have the same
The rays are called the sides or
origin is called an angle.
arms of the angle. The origin of the rays is the vertex of
the angle.
An
angle
may
be designated in various ways.
Fig. 8
In Fig. 8 we have the following angles, reading from left
to right:
LA, Zab, /.a, Z2, ABAC. Notice that in the
last case the letter at the vertex of the angle is read between
the other two letters.
An angle may be considered as
formed by the rotation of a ray about
its origin.
The
size of the angle de
pends upon the amount of rotation.
In Fig. 9 which is the larger angle?
Why?
INTRODUCTORY
ADJACENT ANGLES
Angles that have a common vertex and a common
which separates the angles are called adjacent angles.
Make a drawing to illustrate this definition.
14.
side
Ex. 1. How many angles are formed when a ray starts from
a point in a given straight line? Illustrate your answer by a
drawing and designate the angles in as many ways as possible.
Ex.
How many
2.
the angles in as
Ex.
angles are formed when two straight lines
your answer by a drawing and designate
Illustrate
intersect?
many ways
as possible.
In the drawings that you
3.
pairs of adjacent angles can
that are not adjacent?
many
made
you
for Exs.
find?
Can you
and
2,
how
find angles
CONGRUENT ANGLES
16.
Two
To
construct an angle that shall be congruent to a given
angles are said to be congruent
that
their sides are coincident.
placed
if
they can be so
angle.
Method
this
I.
method
Method
By means of tracing paper.
are left to the pupil.
By means
II.
of
an
The
anglecarrier.
details of
Fasten two
pieces of cardboard or very stiff paper together
as shown in Fig. 10.
Open the instrument
until
the edges
a and b coincide with the
sides of the given angle.
Without changing
the adjustment of the anglecarrier transfer
the
instrument to
the
desired
position
angle formed.
16. Two angles may be added by placing
them adjacent to each other. The angle
formed by the two exterior arms is the sum of
the two adjacent angles.
In Fig. 11, Z3 is
the sum of Z and Z 2.
Z 3  Z 1 + Z ?..
1
i^^io.
lu
and draw the
PLANE GEOMETRY
smaller angle may be subtracted from a larger angle
by placing the smaller inside the larger so that they have
a common vertex and a common side. The
remaining part of the larger angle is the
In Fig.
difference between the two angles.
and
between
Zl
Z2.
Z3
is
the
difference
12,
Z3=Z1Z2.
Ex.
1.
Fig. 12
Draw two angles
an angle equal to
their
that are not congruent and construct
sum.
Ex. 2. Draw two angles that are not congruent and construct
the angle equal to the difference between the larger and the smaller
angle.
Ex.
3.
Construct an angle that
is
twice as large as a given
angle.
At point on line AB draw a ray
make with the line AB an angle
Can this line have more
congruent to Z 1
Ex.
4.
that shall
than one position?
To
17.
(Fig. 13.)
construct
the
bisector
of
o
Fig.
given angle.
To
construct the bisector of
i;
ZBAC.
paper folding. Fold the paper on
extending through the vertex A
(Fig. 14) so that the ray AB will be
coincident with the ray AC.
Crease
By
line
the paper sharply.
ZA.
We
Why?
The
crease bisects
Fig.
14
assume as apparent that
one
Only
ray can be drawn bisecting a given angle.
shall
Divide a given angle into four congruent parts.
angles that are not congruent. Construct
an angle that is onehalf the sum of the two angles just drawn.
Ex.
1.
Ex.
2.
Ex.
3.
Draw two
Draw two
Construct
angles that are not congruent.
onehalf the difference obtained by subtracting
the smaller angle from the larger.
an angle that
is
INTRODUCTORY
RIGHT ANGLES AND PERPENDICULARS
When
a ray starts from a point in a straight line and
forms two congruent angles, the angles are called right
angles, and the ray is said to be perpenIn Fig. 15, Z 1 is
dicular to the line.
Z
Z
1
and Z 2 are called
2,
congruent to
is said to be perBC
and
right angles,
18.
pendicular to Z) A
^''''
^^
In Fig. 15 the ray
BA may
be supposed to rotate about
One complete rotation would carry it
BA. A right angle is obtained by one
as origin.
point
the
to
back
position
quarter of a complete rotation.
The ray OA
(Fig. 16)
may
start
from
the position OA and rotate until it extends in a direction exactly opposite to
It has made oneits original position.
The figure
half of a complete rotation.
AOAf, is called a straight angle. The angle formed
complete rotation is called a perigon.
by one
An angle less than a right angle is called an acute angle.
An angle greater than a right angle and less than a straight
angle
is
called
19.
To
To
construct
an obtuse angle.
construct a perpendicular to a line from a given
line.
in
the
point
By
a perpendicular to
paper folding.
that the ray OA
the paper sharply.
is
AB
from point O.
Fold the paper through point
so
with
the
OB.
Crease
coincident
ray
The
crease
Fig.
is
_L
AB. Why?
(Fig. 17.)
17
Note.
In ordinary practice a perpendicular to a line from a point
in the line is usually drawn by means of a rectangular card or a drafts
man's
triangle.
Place one edge of the card on line ^45 with the corner
O and draw a line along the other edge of the card.
of the card at point
PLANE GEOMETRY
10
We shall
assume as apparent that
one
Only
perpendicular can be drawn
to a line
from a
point in the line.
To
20.
construct a perpendicular to a line from a point
not in the line.
To
construct a perpendicular to line
By
from point O.
Fold the paper through point
paper folding.
18) so that line / will fall upon itself.
Crease the paper sharply. The crease is
the perpendicular to line / from point
Ex.
Fig.
Show how
1.
from a point not
to
in the line
18
perpendicular to a line
means of a rectangular card or a
construct
by
(Fig.
.^
Why?
O.
draftsman's triangle.
We
assume as apparent that
one
Only
perpendicular can be drawn to a
shall
point not in the
Ex.
may
2,
line
from a
line.
How many s
can be drawn to a given
How
line?
one of these be located definitely?
21.
To
construct the perpendicular bisector of a given
segment.
To
construct the perpendicular bisector of
AB,
By paper folding. Fold the paper so that point
on point B. Crease the paper
sharply.
The
crease
pendicular bisector of
is
the
AB.
per
falls
Why?
fig.
19
(Fig. 19.)
We
22.
I.
II.
of
shall
assume as evident that
All straight angles are congruent.
All right angles are congruent.
Ex.
1.
Show how
Ex.
2.
Construct by paper folding an angle that
a straight angle.
to bisect a straight angle.
is
onefourth
INTRODUCTORY
11
MEASUREMENT OF ANGLES
23.
it
of
An angle is measured by the successive application
some other angle considered as a unit.
to
Sometimes angles are measured by comparing them with
Thus an angle may be H of a right angle;
Si
For most purposes,
oi
H
right angle; ^ of a right angle.
a right angle:
however, the right angle
too large a unit.
is
good practical unit for measuring angles
is called a degree ().
is gJ^
of a
perigon and
1.
How many
Ex.
2.
How many degrees in
Ex.
3.
How many
Ex.
degrees in a straight angle?
in a right
angle?
/^,
degrees in
H, Ks,
^3'^4, ^^
%, H, H,
}^i,
of a perigon?
oi
a.
right
angle
Each degree may be divided into 60 congruent parts
Each minute may be divided into
minutes (')
called
60 congruent parts called seconds
The number
that
tells
(").
how many
contained in a given angle
number of the given angle.
is
times the unit angle
the measure or the
is
measure
Angles that have the same measure number are said to
be equal. Since congruent angles can be so placed that
their sides take the same direction, congruent angles represent the
same amount
of rotation
and have the same measure
Also angles that have the same measure number
same amount of rotation and can be made to
the
represent
coincide.
In other words, equal angles are congruent and
number.
congruent angles are equal.
Ex.
4.
times the
number
The sum
first,
of three angles
and the
third
of degrees in each.
is
is
Can you
folding to illustrate your answer?
360.
The second
four times the
first.
is
three
Find the
construct a figure by paper
PLANE GEOMETRY
12
IMPORTANT SPECIALLY RELATED ANGLES
24.
Two
an angle
of
is
is
their
if
other.
Find the complements
1.
Note:
Each
complement of the
called the
Ex.
sum
two complementary angles
angles are called complementary
of 90.
of the following angles:
a.
60
d.
62 27'
g,
33
b.
44
e.
59 18'
h.
42 2'
c.
39 10'
/.
25 20'
i.
Many
of the exercises that follow
ic
can and should be solved
by an algebraic equation.
Ex.
the
If
2.
number
Ex.
the complement of an angle
and
of degrees in the angle
If
3.
an angle
is
of degrees in the angle
and
of its
its
is
K of the angle, find
complement.
complement, find the number
its
complement.
Ex. 4. Draw any acute angle. Construct the angle which
the complement of the first angle.
Ex.
Draw two
5.
is
equal acute angles. Draw the complement
Cut out these complements and place
of each of these angles.
Are they congruent?
one upon the other.
Ex.
How
6.
are the complements in Ex. 5 obtained
tracting equal angles
The
fact illustrated in Exs. 5
evident.
It
may
Complements
26.
is
Two
and 6
will
be assumed as
be stated as follows:
of equal angles are equal.
angles are said to be supplementary
an angle
by sub
from equal angles?
of 180.
Each
of
if
their
sum
two supplementary angles
is
called the supplement of the other.
Ex.
1.
Find the supplement of each of the following angles:
a.
75
d.
59 22'
g.
90 21'
b.
18 25'
e.
63 18'
h.
16 18'
INTRODUCTORY
Ex.
ment
Draw any
4.
angle.
Draw
13
the angle which
is
the supple
of the first angle.
Ex. 5. Draw two equal angles. Draw the supplements of
each of these angles. Cut out these supplements and place one
upon the other. Are they congruent?
Ex.
How
6.
are the supplements in Ex. 5 obtained
by sub
tracting equal angles from equal angles?
The
and 6 will be assumed as
be stated as follows:
fact illustrated in Exs. 5
evident.
It
may
Supplements of equal angles are equal.
Certain important facts concerning sums of angles
It is evident
26.
are illustrated in the next three exercises.
sum of all the parts of an angle is equal to the
whole angle. Show which is the whole angle and what are
its parts in each of these three exercises.
that the
Ex.
1.
If in Fig.
20 the ray
OB
from
starts
in the line CA, how many degrees are
point
there in the sum oi A\ and 2?
Ex.
what
is
Ex.
2.
the
3.
In Fig. 21,
sum
of
if
AOB
is
a straight
line,
Z1+Z2+Z3+Z4?
In Fig. 22 what
is
the
sum
of
Z1+Z2+Z3+Z4+Z5?
Fig. 22
The
dent.
I.
of the
facts illustrated in Exs. 13 will
They may be
be assumed as evi
stated as follows:
a ray starts from a point in a straight line, the sum
two adjacent angles formed on one side of the
If
line is 180, or
a straight angle.
Such angles are
called supplementary adjacent angles.
PLANE GEOMETRY
14
The sum
11.
of the adjacent angles on one side of a
formed by any number of rays having a comon the line is 180, or a straight angle.
straight line
mon
origin
The sum
III.
Ex.4.
is
of the adjacent angles
from the same
of rays
Zl+/2+Z3 = 180,
If
three times Z2, find the
Ex.
each?
in
each?
Ex.
If
7.
number
and Z2
is
equal angles form a perigon,
Zl+Z2+Z3+Z4 = 360,
twice Z2, and
Z2
twice Zl,
twice
Zl,and Z3
of degrees in each angle.
four equal angles form a perigon,
If six
6.
Ex.
Z3
If
5.
in
formed by a number
origin is 360, or a perigon.
how many
degrees
how many
degrees
and Z4
how many
is
twice
Z3,
degrees in each?
Statement I in the preceding section indicates a very
between supplementary adjacent angles and a
The next two exercises illustrate another
straight angle.
27.
close relation
phase of this relation.
Ex. 1. Copy two right angles from cards or
draftsman's triangles (Fig. 23). Place them so
falls on point 0', side OA along side
that point
What kind of an
O'A', and OB opposite O'B'.
A BOB'}
is
angle
Ex.
and 2
ment
Draw any two
2.
(Fig. 24).
of
Why?
How
Z2.
an angle
The
is
Zl and
angles.
occupied by
Z2.
related?
Place
What
It
kind
Fig
/.B'OC}
and 2
be stated as follows:
fact illustrated in Exs. 1
evident.
If
are
Cut out the three
in the position
of
equal angles, A 1
Construct Z3, the supple
may
will
be assumed as
two supplementary angles are adjacent,
sides are collinear.
24
their exterior
INTRODUCTORY
Two
28.
15
an^'lcs arc called vertical or opposite if the sides
one are prolongations of the sides of the other. If two
Thus
lines intersect, two pairs of vertical angles are formed
in Fig. 25 lines h and k intersect, forming vertical angles,
Z 1 and Z 3, also Z 2 and Z 4.
of
Ex.
Show
Draw two
1.
A2 and
that
intersecting
same angle. Show that A
ments of the same angle.
Ex.
and 3 are the supple
Zl=Z3and Z2=
fact illustrated in Exs.
evident.
It
may
and 2
Z4?
Fig. 25
will
be assurned as
be stated as follows:
two straight lines
If
25).
(Fig.
In Fv^. 25 why is
why are vertical angles equal?
2.
In general,
The
lines
4 are the supplements of the
intersect, the opposite or vertical
angles are equal.
SUMMARY AND SUPPLEMENTARY EXERCISES
SUMMARY OF GEOMETRICAL ASSUMPTIONS
29.
The
foregoing definitions and exercises justify the
following assumptions:
A. Concerning the definite location of points:
As.
1.
Two
different straight lines
can intersect in
only one point, or two intersecting straight lines locate a
point (4).
As. 2.
segment can have only one midpoint (9\
B. Concerning the definite location of segments, rays,
and
straight lines:
As.
3.
Only one segment can be drawn between two
points, or a segment
are given (7).
is
located definitely
if its
extremities
4.
Only one ray can be drawn having a given
and
origin
passing through a second given point ( 11).
As. 5. Only one ray can be drawn bisecting a given
As.
angle (17).
PLANE GEOMETRY
16
As.
6.
Only one straight
line
can pass through two
given points (3).
As. 7. Only one perpendicular can be drawn to a
line fjcom a given point in the line (19).
line
As. 8. Only one perpendicular can be drawTi to a
from a given point not in the line (20).
C. Concerning circles:
As.
9.
As. 10.
Circles with equal radii are congruent (12).
Congruent circles have equal radii (12).
D. Concerning equal angles:
As. 11.
All straight angles are equal (22).
All right angles are equal (22).
As. 12.
As. 13.
Complements
As. 14.
Supplements of equal angles are equal (25).
As. 15.
Vertical angles are equal (28).
of equal angles are equal (24).
E. Concerning anglesums:
a ray starts from a point in a straight
two adjacent angles formed on one side
of the line is 180, or a straight angle (26).
As. 17. The sum of the adjacent angles on one side
of a straight line formed by any number of rays having a
common origin on the line is 180, or a straight angle (26).
As. 18. The sum of the adjacent angles formed by
a number of rays from the same origin is 360, or a
As. 16.
line,
the
sum
If
of the
perigon (26).
F. Concerning straight angles:
As. 19.
If
two supplementary angles are adjacent,
their exterior sides are coUinear (27).
GENERAL ASSUMPTIONS
30.
The
following assumptions are also true:
If equal segments (or angles) are added to
As. 20.
equal segments (or angles), the results are equal segments
(or angles).
INTRODUCTORY
As. 21.
If
17
equal segments (or angles) are subtracted
(or angles), the results are equal seg
from equal segments
ments (or angles).
As. 22.
If
equal segments (or angles) are multiplied
by the same number, the
angles)
As. 23.
the
results are equal
segments (or
If
equal segments (or angles) are divided by
same number, the
As. 24.
same segment
results are equal
Segments
(or angles)
segments (or angles)
that are equal to the
(or angle) are equal.
As. 25.
Equal segments
(or angles)
may
be substi
tuted for equal segments (or angles).
Note.
Hereafter when these assumptions are used they should be
quoted in the form in which they apply; for example: Equal segments
may be substituted for equal segments, or equal angles may be substituted for equal angles, as the case
may
require.
MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES
31. After solving each of the following exercises state
clearly and in full the definitions or assumptions which it
is
intended to
1.
illustrate.
two supplementary angles
Find the angles.
Find an angle whose complement
One
of
is
40 15' larger than
the other.
2.
angle
3.
angle
4.
Show
all
}4
as large as the
that
if
two
lines intersect so that
one angle
is
a right
the angles are right angles.
Find an angle whose complement is }4 of its supplement.
angle by paper folding?
the hands of a clock make at 5 o'clock?
Can you construct this
5. What angles do
at 10 o'clock?
6.
is
itself.
If,
fl.
^>.
c.
in Fig.
Z
Z
Z
26,Z2= Z6, show that
6
(/.
Z 1=Z 8
7
d.
Z 4=Z 5
Z 4=Z 8
5
/.
3=Z
2=Z
1=Z
PLANE GEOMETRY
18
7.
Which
of the following
a.
b.
Construct a perpendicular to line AB.
Construct a perpendicular to line AB from point
of
c.
d.
e.
J.
g.
directions locate the required line
Why?
or rays definitely?
outside
AB.
Connect points C and D.
Bisect A A.
Draw a line through point A.
From point O outside of line A B draw a ray cutting line
AB.
Draw a ray which shall make a given angle with a given
line.
h.
i.
Draw a perpendicular bisector to a given segment.
Draw a segment bisecting a given segment.
on the same side of line AB.
8. Two rays start from point
Of the three angles formed the second is 3 times the first and the
Find the angles.
third is 5 times the first.
9.
angle
10.
Find an angle whose complement
is
25 smaller than the
itself.
Can you
find
an angle whose complement
is
of its sup
plement?
11.
Draw
four straight lines so that there will be:
possible
tion;
c.
intersections;
h.
Only one possible
Only three possible
12.
Can you draw
four
straight
lines
d.
intersections;
e. Five possible
possible intersections;
/. Six possible intersections.
so
a.
No
intersec
Four
intersections;
that there can be
only two possible intersections?
13.
ment
How many
is
degrees in the supplement of
/.x
\i
its
comple
23?
In Fig. 27 show that Z H Z44Z5+ZGWhat other combinations of angles in
Fig. 27 will be equal to two right angles?
14.
2rt. ^.
Fig. 37
INTRODUCTORY
19
Draw two complementary adjacent angles and the bisecHow many degrees in the angle made by the
15.
tor of each.
bisectors?
Why?
Draw two supplementary adjacent angles and the bisecHow many degrees in the angle made by the
tor of each.
bisectors?
Why?
16.
17.
Show
Draw AABC (Fig.
Z 3 = Z 4.
18.
How many
the supplement of
32.
>
Exs
Def
exercises
<^
As
assumption
assumptions
theorem
theorems
Th
Ths
Cor
comp
sup
complementary
supplementary
adj
Adjacent
section
degree
'
c^
rt.
rt.
A
Z
A
angle, angles
right angle
right angles
to
(perpendicular
^us perpendicular
to
^
'
(parallel to
II
A,
rt.
n
D
(is parallel
A
CS
[s]
(is equal to
(congruent to
(is congruent to
(similar to
I
is
similar to
EJ,
'
CsJ.
/g\
right triangle
/rectangle, rec(
tangles
square, squares
(parallelogram
(parallelograms
(trapezoid, trap(
O,
(D
to
triangle, triangles
minute
second
centimeter
millimeter
(equal to
than
than
(is less
therefore
.*
(less
corollary
alternate interior
alt. int
(greater than
(is greater than
definition
Ass
mm
if
Fig. 28
figure
exercise
Fig.
cm
Z6
degrees in the complement of
Z ft is 110?
ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS USED
Ex
"
Z1=Z2.
28) so that
that
ezoids
circle, circles
.15
arc^B
AB
chord
area
per
perimrjter
^5
'
CHAPTER
II
Congruent Triangles
INTRODUCTORY DEFINITIONS
33.
Any two
figures that
can be made to coincide are
called congruent figures.
In congruent figures corresponding sides or angles are
or angles that coincide or that can be made to
sides
coincide.
We
shall
As. 26.
add the following to the
Any
list
of assumptions:
figure can be moved about in space withits size or its shape.
out changing either
As. 27. Figures congruent to the same figure are congruent to each other.
34.
figure formed of three segments joined end to end
consecutively is called a triangle. Such a figure has three
Unless it is othersides, three angles, and three vertices.
wise stated, a triangle should be drawn with
its sides of
different lengths (Fig. 29).
triangle that has at least two sides equal is called an
isosceles triangle. The angle included by the equal sides
is called the vertex angle, and its vertex, the vertex of the
triangle.
The
third side is called the base of the triangle.
triangle with all its sides equal
triangle.
20
is
called
an equilateral
CONGRUENT TRIANGLES
21
TESTS FOR EQUAL ANGLES AND
EQUAL SEGMENTS
TESTS
35. Ex.
AND
Draw a
1.
ments a and
FOR CONGRUENT TRIANGLES
II
triangle with
two
sides equal to the seg
30).
(Fig.
Draw this triangle with a soft
pencil
too
on paper that
is
not
hesLvy.
Compare your
figure with
your neighbor's
j,
Fig, 30
by placing one paper upon the other and holding them to the
Ex.
Draw a
2.
light.
tri
angle with two sides equal
to the segments a and b
and the included angle
ZC
equal to
Compare your
31).
(Fig.
figure with
your neighbor's as
plained in Ex. 1.
Ex.
Draw a
3.
exFig. 3]
triangle
with two angles equal to A A
and B and the included side
equal to segment
Compare your
c (Fig. 32).
triangle with ^^
your neighbor's by placing
one paper upon the other and
them
holding
Ex.
4.
triangle
angle of
to the light.
Draw any
and
letter it
AXYZ
Fig~~32
triangle
and
ABC.
letter it
XYZ, but make two
sides
Draw
another
and the included
equal to two sides and the included angle of
the two triangles.
AABC. Compare
Note.
In Ex. 4 and in all exercises requiring
the construction of figures the pupil should not
only make the drawing but should tell how he did ait.
Sentences should
example
(1)
be
short and exact.
For
(Fig. 33):
Make ZX=/.A.
(2)
Make
XY = AB.
^
Etc.
Fig. 33
PLANE GEOMETRY
22
Theorkm
1.*
If two sides and the included angle of one
are
equal to two sides and the included angle of
triangle
another triangle, the triangles are congruent in all corre
sponding parts and are called congruent triangles.
Fig. 34
AABC
Given
and
ADEF, ZA=ZD, AB = DE,
and
AC = DF.
To
prove
AABC and ADEF
congruent in
all
correspond
ing parts.
Proof:
STATEMENTS
1.
Place
REASONS
AABC on ADEF so
1.
Swill iallonDE,A
on D, B on E, and C and
F on the same side of DE,
that
2.
yl
Segment
AC
the line of
3.
Point
4.
BC
will fall
along
ZA=
ZD.
DF.
C will fall on point
will
2.
This can be done
because AB = DE.
coincide
F.
3.
exactly
4.
with EF.
AC = DF.
If
the extremities of
two segments
cide, the
coin
segments will
coincide exactly.
5.
AABC ^ ADEF.
5.
Two
triangles
coincide
that
exactly
are
congiTient.
Note: An angle
two adjacent sides.
The
of a triangle is said to be included
formal proof of Th.
teacher desires.
may
between
its
be jjostponed imtil such time as the
CONGRUENT TRIANGLES
23
Theorem 2.* If two angles and the included side
one triangle are equal to two angles and the included
side of another triangle, the triangles are congruent in all
corresponding parts and are called congruent triangles.
36.
of
Fig. 35
AABC
Given
and
ADEF, /.A=
An=
Z.D,
Z.E,
and
AB = DE.
A ABC and ADEF
To prove
congruent in
all
correspond
ing parts.
Proof:
STATEMENTS
1.
A.4^Con
Place
REASONS
ADEF so
1.
on DE, A
on D, B on E, and C and F
on the same side of DE.
AB
that
2.
AC
can
This
along the line
2.
Why?
along the line
3.
Why?
C \^all fall on the line of DF
4.
Why?
will fall
be
because
falls
done
?
oiDF.
3.
BC
will fall
ofF.
4.
and
5.
.*.
also
on the
will
fall
line of
EF,
on point F.
5.
Two
lines
sect at only
6.
.*.
AABC ^ ADEF.
Note.
f).
Why?
side of a triangle is said to be included
angles adjacent to
can interone point,
between the two
i1.
The formal proof of Th. 2
teacher desires.
may
be postponed until such time
the
PLANE GEOMETRY
24
*
Draw any
Exercise.
triangle
and
letter
ABC.
it
Draw
another triangle and letter it XYZ, but make two angles and the
included side of
equal to two angles and the included
side oi AABC.
In how many ways can you construct a triangle
AXYZ
congruent to a given triangle?
Construct an isosceles triangle with
37. Ex. 1.
base 3 cm. and each of the equal sides 5 cm. (Fig. 36)
.
Notice the wording for the directions for this
Note.
I.
II,
*^
^s
Fig. 36
drawing.
Draw segment
With A
as
a,
AB=S
cm.
and 5 cm. as a radius make an arc above AB,
center
Etc.
Ex.
Construct an equilateral triangle with each side 4 cm.
2.
angles opposite the equal sides of an
are
isosceles triangle
equal.
Theorem
3.
The
Fig. 37
Given the isosceles
To prove
A ABC, AC = BC,
AA^ LB.
Analysts and construction:
I.
To prove
ZA= ZB,
prove A A and
correspond
ing angles of congruent triangles.
II.
To
obtain the
bisector
III.
IV.
..
CO
to
ZC, continue the
meet the base at
0.
ZA=ZB, prove AAOCmABOC.
AAOC ^ ABOC, prove two sides and the
to prove
To prove
triangles, bisect
included angle
CONGRUENT TRIANGLES
Proof:
STATEMENTS
25
PLANE GEOMETRY
26
Construct Fig. 38. Make AD and BC perpendicular
Find 0, the midpoint of AB. Make
AD = BC. Join DO and CO. Prove DO = CO.
How might AAOD be made to coincide with
Ex.
to
1.
AB.
ABOC?
Ex.
2.
Construct Fig. 39.
Make BC
perpen
AO. Make Z 1 = Z2. Prove AB = AC
and BX = XC. How might AAXB be made to
dicular to
coincide with
Ex.
3.
AAXC?
Construct Fig. 40.
Draw XY,
the per
pendicular bisector of segment AB. Join F, any
point in XY, to A and to 5. Prove PA=PB.
Fig. 40
Ex.
4.
Make
ment.
sides
How
Construct Fig. 41.
Z1=Z2
and
^i5
Z3=
is
any seg
Which
Z4.
can be proved equal? Prove them equal.
might A^^A' be made to coincide with
AABY?
Ex.
5.
Construct Fig. 42.
bisecting Z B.
Draw BO
angle.
Connect A, any point
Prove ^A = CA.
Ex.
6.
triangle.
in
Draw ABC, any
Make AB = BC.
OB, with
A and
C.
Fig. 42
Construct Fig. 43. ABC is an isosceles
= BY.
is the midpoint of AB.
AX
OX = OY.
Prove
Ex.
7.
Draw any
midpoint. Draw
Construct Fig. 44.
ment AB. Find O, its
and k so that Z 1 = Z 2.
43
seg
rays
Through O draw
any line that will intersect h and k. Call the
])oints of intersection D and C respectively.
Prove that AD = BC and that DO = CO. How
h
might
ABOC be made to
coincide with
AAOD ?
Fig. 44
CONGRUENT TRIANGLES
Ex.
8.
Show
that congruent triangles
27
may be
the distance across a pond as follows (Fig. 45)
used to find
First set up a stake at any convenient point, as
Set
0, from which points A and B are both visible.
up a stake at Z) in a straight line with O and A so
= 0A. In the same way place stake C so qz
that
OD
that
CO = OB.
Fig. 46
Measure CD.
Ex. 9. Explain from Fig. 46 how to find
the distance across a stream. Notice that the
AB
3^^^5^^
^Sa^g^rrSv
\J
is perpendicular to a line
required distance
along the bank of the stream.
^
Fig. 46
Ex.
10.
Show
that the distance across a stream
measured as follows
up at A with a
Z DC A may be
(Fig.
47):
pole
is
set
stick fastened at the top so that
altered by moving the stick CD.
may
be
c
^'''''^Pv
A person stands with the eye at C and ^7
T^^^^^^^^"^
Fig. 47
moves the stick CD until he just sees point B.
The pole is then turned around. Standing with eye at C and
looking along CD' he locates point B'. He then measures AB'
Could you do this using the visor of your cap rather than a
Is it necessary to turn through 180?
This
pole and a stick?
device is said to be an old one.*
Note. Theorems 1 and 2 were probably known to Thales. Thales
regarded as the founder of one of the earliest Greek schools of matheIt is said that Th. 2 was used in those days to
matics, about 600 B.C.
is
determine the distance of a ship at sea. It is not known how this
was done; but a tower or a cliff might have been used as the base of
a triangle of which the ship formed the vertex. The base angles of
this triangle could be found by observation.
Show from Ex. 10 how
the solution to the problem could be completed.
Ex.
11.
intersecting
Prove that
prove
AB and CD are
AO = OB and CO =
In Fig. 48,
two
lines.
OD.
AC = BD.
Join
CB and AD and
CB = AD.
See W. E. Stark, "Measuring
Science and Mathematics, 1910,
^\''y;^:^C\
^^^
^^ ^^
Instruments of Long Ago,"
School
PLANE GEOMETRY
28
Construct Fig. 49. Draw AB any segment,
and k perpendicular to ^j5 at A and B
respectively. Find 0, the midpoint oiAB. Make
Z 1 = Z 2 and extend the sides imtil they interCall the points of intersection D
sect h and k.
and C respectively. Prove that AD = BC and
DO = OC.
Ex. 12.
Con
struct h
Construct Fig. 50. ABC is an isosceles
Prove
is the midpoint oi AB. Zl= Z2.
Ex. 13.
triangle.
AX = BY
and OX=OY.
TEST
39. Ex. 1 .
III
FOR CONGRUENT TRIANGLES
Construct two triangles ABC and
XF, BC=YZj and CA=ZX.
Draw
X YZ so that AB =
these triangles with a soft
Compare them by
pencil on two pieces of fairly thin paper.
placing one paper on the other and holding the papers to the
Before these triangles can be proved congruent what must
light.
you know?
Ex.
Construct a triangle having
2.
its sides
equal to three
given segments.
Theorem 4. If three sides of one triangle are equal to
three sides of another triangle, the triangles are congruent.
Fig. 51
Given
AABC
and
ADEF, AB = DE, AC = DF,
CB=^FE.
To prove
AABC m ADEF.
and
CONGRUENT TRIANGLES
29
Analysis and construction:
I.
II.
To prove
"
"
AABC ^ADEF, prove AC = /.F.
ZC=ZF, place AABC so that AB,
longest side of
longest side of
AABC,
ADEF,
CF and
coincides with
the
DE, the
and point C is opposite
prove that ZC^and
point F. Join
are made by adding the base angles of two isos
celes triangles.
Proof:
ZF
PLANE GEOMETRY
30
APPLICATION OF CONGRUENT TRIANGLES
TO CONSTRUCTIONS
CONSTRUCTION OF ANGLES
Problem
1.
At a given point in a given line to conan angle equal to a given angle.
40.
struct
B
Fig. 53
Given line
To
/,
point
construct at point
in line
and Z BAG.
/,
X in line
an angle equal to Z BAG,
Analysis and directions:
WXO
In order to construct an angle
equal to /.A,
construct two congruent triangles that shall contain
I.
AA
With
II.
at
andX
A
as a center and any radius cut the sides of
ZA
D and E.
With
and the same radius draw an arc
Hne
/
at
W.
cutting
IV. With 1^ as a center and DE as a radius cut the last
III.
as a center
arc at O.
V. Join
and O.
Proof:
REASONS
STATEMENTS
I.
a.
b.
c.
d.
AE = XO.
AD = XW.
DE = WO.
reasons in
all
full.
.'.ADAE^AWXO.
,CA==ZX.
Exercise.
How is
II.
Let the pupil give
..
it
than one position on the
ments?
possible to construct the
line
and
still
have
ZX
it fulfill
in
more
the require
CONGRUENT TRIANGLES
31
DIVISION OF ANGLES
41.
Problem
2.
To
construct the bisector of a given
angle.
Given
To
ZBAC.
construct the bisector of
ZBAC.
Analysis and directions:
I.
II.
In order to construct the bisector of Z.A, construct
a line through point A so that Z 1 equals Z 2.
In order to construct
Zl = Z2,
triangles that contain
III.
With
V.
With
construct congruent
and
2.
i4 as a center and any convenient radius draw
an arc cutting the sides of /.A Sit E and D.
IV. With as a center and any convenient radius draw
an arc.
Z) as
a center and the same radius cut this
last
arc at O.
VI. Join
and 0.
Let the pupil give the proof.
Ex.
may be
Show that a carpenter's steel square
used to bisect an angle as follows: Mark o
1.
equal distances OA and OB on the sides of
the angle. Place the square as shown in Fig. 55.
Mark point D. Join
and O.
off
Fig. 55
Ex. 2. Construct
Exs. 4 and 5, 38.
with ruler and compasses the figures for
PLANE GEOMETRY
32
Show by
Ex. 3. Draw two vertical angles and bisect each.
As. 19 that the two bisectors are collinear.
Ex.
4.
Construct onehalf the supplement of any given angle.
Ex.
5.
Construct a triangle congruent to a given triangle.
how many ways can this be done?
Ex. 6. Draw any triangle and
angle of
an equilateral
Bisect each
triangle.
Note.
Trisection of Angles.
can bisect any angle that we choose.
42.
bisect each angle.
In
By
the
The
method given in 41 we
an angle is a
trisection of
problem. We shall find a little later how to
In elementary geometry we confine ourselves
to the circle and straight line and use no instruments except the compasses and the straightedge. A straightedge is a ruler that is not
graduated to any scale. It has been shown that angles generally
cannot be trisected by the use of these instruments only. The Greeks
learned How to trisect any angle, and since their time many ways of
These methods, however, have
trisecting angles have been found.
always required other curves than the circle and other instruments
much more
trisect
difficult
a right angle.
than the compasses and straightedge.
Draftsmen's methods for trisecting angles are approximations.
number
have been
56 shows one such instrument. What segments are
made equal? Show that Fig. 54 is used twice in Fig. 56. Why is the
angle trisected? How could an instrument for bisecting angles be
made? Such an instrument is sometimes used by carpenters for
made.
Fig.
cutting
and
of different instruments for trisecting angles
fitting
moldings.
CONGRUENT TRIANGLES
33
CONSTRUCTION OF PERPENDICULARS
Problem
43.
3.
To
construct a perpendicular to a line
from a given point in the
line.
V
/
\\
/
\.
t
Fig. 57
Given line
To
and point
construct
in line
/.
a perpendicular to
line
from point 0.
Analysis and directions:
I.
In order to construct
OX
at
0,
construct
Z1=Z2.
II.
In order to construct
Zl=
Z2, construct two con
gruent triangles.
III.
With
as center
an arc cutting
and any convenient radius draw
/ at Y and Z.
line
With
as center and a longer radius
V. With
as center
IV.
draw an
arc.
and the same radius cut the
last
arc at X.
VI. Join
X and 0.
Let the pupil give the proof (see 18 for the proof to
Ex.
1.
Construct at point
of 135; of 22>^; of
in a given line
I).
an angle
of 45;
157K.
Ex.
2.
Divide a given angle into four equal parts.
Ex.
3.
Construct Fig. 39 with ruler and compasses.
Ex.
4.
Construct the complement of any acute angle.
Can
the complement have more than one position?
Ex.
5.
Construct two complementary adjacent angles.
struct the bisector of each.
by the
bisectors?
How many degrees
in the angle
Con
made
PLANE GEOMETRY
34
44.
Problem
To
4.
from a point not
construct a perpendicular to a line
in the line.
q
\
4\
r\^
Fig. 58
Given line
To
and point
not in
line
construct a perpendicular to
/.
from 0.
Directions:
I.
With O
ting
11.
III.
as center and
at
any radius draw an arc
cut
and Z.
With Y as center and a radius greater than half
YZ draw an arc opposite O.
With Z as center and the same radius cut this arc
at X.
and X.
IV. Join
Analysis:
I.
II.
To prove
"
"
OX
/,
prove Z
Z1=Z2,
join
= Z 2.
OY
and
OZ
and prove
AYOAUAZOA.
III.
IV.
To prove /\YOA ^ AZOA, prove Z3= Z4.
'*
"
Z3=Z4,
.....
Let the pupil complete the analysis and give the proof.
The proof
Note.
circles are studied.
Ex.
1.
be much simpler after intersecting
reasons for the directions are then apparent.
for Prob. 4 will
The
Draw any
triangle
from each vertex to the opposite
^
Make
and construct the perpendicular
side.
the drawing called for in Ex. 1 for an equilateral
triangle and also for a triangle containing an obtuse angle.
Ex.
2.
CONGRUENT TRIANGLES
Pkoblkm
46.
of
To
T).
35
construct the perpendicular bisector
a given segment.
01
i
I
I
Fig. 59
Given the segment
To
AB.
construct the perpendicular l:)isector of
Directions:
I.
With
i4
III.
and any radius greater than
above and below AB.
as a center
construct arcs
II.
AB.
H AB
B as a center and the same radius intersect these
arcs at C and D.
Join C and D.
With
Let the pupil give the analysis and the proof.
Note.
Like the proof for Prob.
4,
the proof for Prob. 5
is
simpler
after one studies intersecting circles.
Ex.
equal?
1.
and give the
radii
directions,
varying the radii as
Ex.
2.
5, which radii must be made
need not be made equal? Draw the figure
In the solution for Prob.
Which
analysis,
much
and proof
for this problem,
as possible.
Divide a given segment into four equal parts.
NATURE OF THEOREMS AND PROOFS
The statements
46.
of geometrical facts in this
different
preceding chapter have received three
assumptions, theorems, and corollaries.
theorem
is
a statement of a fact that
is
and the
narnes:
to be proved
true.
An
assumption
is
a statement of a fact that is taken
Its ^mth is taken for granted.
as true without proof.
PLANE GEOMETRY
36
Many
the assumptions in chapter i were obtained by
Many were shown to be true informally.
of
observation.
The
known
proof of a theorem shows that if certain facts are
to be true a certain other fact must be true. The
known
facts that are
The
fact to be
proved
or given constitute the hypothesis.
is called the conclusion.
In Theorem 3 the hypothesis
sides.
equal
The
conclusion
is:
The
The
is:
triangle has
two
angles opposite these
sides are equal.
In Theorem 4 the hypothesis is Three sides of one triangle
are equal to three sides of another triangle. The conclusion
is: The triangles are congruent.
:
The hypothesis and conclusion of a theorem may be
found by studying the grammatical construction of the
statement of the theorem. If the sentence contains a clause
beginning with "if," this clause is the hypothesis. If there
is no such clause, the complete subject is the hypothesis and
the complete predicate the conclusion.
In each case the proof consists in showing that the confrom the hypothesis. The analysis
shows how the proof has been or may be thought out.
The proof is the analysis worked backward and is set
clusion must follow
down
in
method
The synthetic
is called the synthetic form.
the opposite of the analytical method.
what
is
The
is
special method used for the proofs of Ths. 1 and 2
This word is derived
called proof by superposition.
from two Latin words.
What
is its literal
translation?
theorem that follows easily from another theorem
is
called a corollary of that theorem.
theorems and exercises that
statement is made to the conIn all proofs a warrant must be given for each step.
trary.
Some of the exercises have been called problems. Any
Proofs are required for
follow unless
some
all
specific
geometrical problem calls
for the construction of
some
CONGRUENT TRIANGLES
37
geometrical figure to fulfill certain stated requirements.
Unless it is otherwise stated, these constructions must be
performed with compasses and straightedge only. In all
problems it is necessary to prove that the completed figure
fulfills
the stated requirements.
MISCELLANEOUS THEOREMS AND EXERCISES
47.
A.
OUTLINE REVIEW
We have the following methods for proving two segments
or two angles equal
I.
In the case of segments look for
differences, equal multiples, or equal
a.
Sums,
b.
parts of equal segments.
Sides of isosceles or of equilateral triangles.
Corresponding sides of congruent triangles.
c.
11.
In the case of angles look for
differences, equal multiples, or equal
a.
Sums,
b.
Right angles.
Supplements of equal angles.
parts of equal angles.
c.
Complements
e.
Vertical angles.
Corresponding angles of congruent triangles.
Base angles of an isosceles triangle.
/.
g.
of equal angles.
d.
Either segments or angles
ing
may
be proved equal by provof congruent tri
them corresponding parts
angles.
To prove
I.
the triangles congruent compare
Two
II.
III.
Two
and the included angle of one with two
and the included angle of the other.
sides
sides
angles and the included side of one with
angles and the included side of the other.
two
Three sides of one with three sides of the other.
PLANE GEOMETRY
38
48.
Theorem
5.
If
a perpendicular be erected to a
straight line, oblique segments drawn from the same point
in the perpendicular cutting the straight line at equal distances from the foot of the perpendicular are equal.
XY
l.iQ line I and the oblique segments
Hypothesis: Line
are drawn from Cso that AO = OB.
CA and CB
CA=CB.
Conclusion:
Analysis:
To prove CA=CB, prove AAOC ^ ABOC.
IL "
AAOC ^ ABOC, compare
I.
**
The proof
is left
to the pupil.
How
Exercise.
could you
make
the congruent triangles in
Fig. 60 coincide?
In the following exercises segments and angles are
to be proved equal.
The analysis given for Th. 3 may now
be shortened as shown under Th. 5.
49.
The
Note.
figures for all exercises
and theorems should be conand compasses.
structed according to the hypothesis with ruler
Construct an isosceles triangle ABC. Let CO, the
Prove that the segZ C, meet the base A B at 0.
with the midpoints of ylC and BC are equal.
ments joining
Ex.
1.
bisector of
Ex.
same
2.
base.
Two
isosceles triangles stand on opposite sides of the
Prove that the segment joining the vertices bisects
both vertex angles.
Ex.
3.
Investigate the case, Ex. 2, in which the
on the same side of the same base.
triangles stand
two
isosceles
CONGRUENT TRIANGLES
50.
Theorem
The
6.
39
bisector of the vertex angle of
an
isosceles triangle is the perpendicular bisector of the base.
AADC
Hypothesis:
is
AC = BC,
isosceles,
CO
Conclusion:
is
bisector of
AB.
Analysis:
I.
CO
and
Z C.
bisects
To prove CO
_L bisector oi
Z2=
AB, prove
Z3.
^AO==BO.
Z2= Z3
AO = BO
II.
prove
Let the pupil complete the analysis and give the proof.
Theorem
The segment which joins the vertex
7.
triangle with the midpoint of the base
bisects the vertex angle and is perpendicular to the base
61.
of
an isosceles
(Fig. 61).
= BC, and
is isosceles,
Hypothesis:
the vertex C with 0, the midpoint of base AB.
A ABC
COtic lus ion
AC
1.
CO
2.
COAB.
bisects
CO
ZC.
Analysis:
I.
11.
To prove
'
"
that
'
CO
bisects
COAB,
ZC, prove
prove
Z2=
Z5=
Z3.
"^
lz2=Z3
I'P^^^^
Let the pupil complete the analysis and give the proof.
Z6.
joins
PLANE GEOMETRY
40
EXERCISES INVOLVING CONGRUENT TRIANGLES
In the exercises that follow, special care is needed
making the analysis. Study carefully the analyses given
As compared with
for Ths. 6 and 7 and for Ex. 1 below.
62.
in
the analyses for Ths. 3 and 5, one or more extra steps are
The pupil should carefully ask himself the
required.
proper questions at each step and should be perfectly sure
that he understands how each step follows from the preceding one.
1.
The segments
isosceles triangle
joining the midpoints of the sides of
form an
an
isosceles triangle.
Analysis:
I.
To
prove
IL "
"
AXYZ
isosceles,
ZZ=Z7,
prove
XZ=XY.
prove
Let the pupil complete the analysis and give the proof.
A ABC
How
would Ex. 1 have read if
had been an equilateral triangle? Give
2.
(Fig. 62)
Fig. 62
proof.
the segment which joins the vertex of a triangle with
the midpoint of the base is perpendicular to the base, the triangle
3. If
is isosceles.
CX
a perpendicular bisector of AB.
along the ray CX, how will the
sides of
ACS change? What are the upper and
lower limits to these sides? No proof is needed.
4.
In Fig. 63,
is
C moves upward
the segment which bisects the vertex angle
of a triangle is perpendicular to the base, the tri5.
angle
6.
If
is isosceles.
In
Fig.
64,
CX
bisects
ZACB.
the segment AB moves to the right
and to the left along the ray CX but is
always perpendicular to CX, how will the
If
sides
of
ACBA
change?
What
is
C*
the
lower limit to the length of these sides?
What is the upper limit? No proof is
needed.
.^j^
Fig. 64
CONGRUENT TRIANGLES
41
Given the equilateral AABC with equal segments AX,
off on the sides as shown in
7.
BY, and CZ measured
Fig. 65, prove that
Given the
8.
AXYZ is equilateral.
AABC with the midpoint
isosceles
of the base AB.
The equal sides
extended beyond the base so that
that
CA and CB
AE = BF.
are
Fig. 65
Prove
OE = OF.
Frames
9.
pieces of
of various shapes can be made by fastening together
or iron as shown in Fig. 66. Could you change
wood
the shape of any of these figures by pressing upon opposite sides
Which ones could be so changed?
or vertices?
Fig. 66
10.
How
and the
11.
like
are roof trusses, elevated train structures, bridges,
made
rigid?
segment drawn from the center of a
point of a chord
circle to
the mid
perpendicular to the chord. Is there any
special position of the chord for which the exercise and its proof
is
have no meaning?
Show how the instrument shown in Fig. 67
be used as a leveling device. The pieces are
so fastened together that AB = AC. AD is a
plumb line. How must the framework be placed if
BC is level? This instrtmient is said to be very
12.
may
Fig. 67
ancient.*
Notice that a level line
Suggestion.
to a plumb line.
13.
Join
Draw any
CX
triangle
ABC.
and extend so that
is
one that
is
perpendicular
Find X, the midpoint of AB.
Prove AC = BY.
XY = CX.
See D. E. Smith. The Teaching of Geometry,
p. 178.
PLANE GEOMETRY
42
14. Fig.
CO
joins
AABC. The
isosceles
with
common form of truss.
with the midpoint of AB in the
68 shows a
and
OF
^C
of
OE = OF
Prove that
respectively.
is
OE
braces
and F, the midpoints
The kingrod
O
CB
CO
join
and
and that
AB.
perpendicular to
^^
Fig. 68
The segment joining any vertex of a triangle with the
midpoint of the opposite side is called a median of
the triangle.
In Ex. 14 the kingrod is the median of
the isosceles triangle that forms the truss.
AD
In Fig. 09,
15.
and
and
If
respectively.
BC
are
AD = BC,
^^
at
yl
prove that
AC = BD.
16.
Given ABC, an
isosceles
triangle
with the
equal sides extended through the vertex to
and BY are AB at points A and B.
Y.
AX
that AX = BY
and
Prove
(Fig. 70).
Fig. 70
17.
Given the
extended beyond
18.
with
and
AABC with the equal sides CA and CB
the base so that AX = BY, prove that AY = BX.
isosceles
ABC
In Fig. 71,
AC = CB.
AC and BC
prove that
19. If
is
an
isosceles triangle
the midpoint of AB,
are extended so that CE = CD,
If
is
OE^OD.
in the bisector of the vertex angle of an
any point
be joined to the extremities of the base AB,
isosceles triangle
AAOB
20.
an
is isosceles.
The segments drawn from the
extremities of the base of
isosceles triangle to the midpoints of the opposite
sides are equal.
21. In Fig. 72,
and
CY
AXCY
are
ABC
drawn
is isosceles.
is
an
so that
isosceles triangle.
Z1=Z2.
CX
Prove that
CONGRUENT TRIANGLES
22. In Fig. 73,
and
CY
ACXY
23.
are
ABC
if
is
drawn so that
43
given an isosceles triangle and
Z 1 = Z 2, prove that
is isosceles.
The
three medians of an equilateral triangle
'^
are equal.
^
24.
'*
Fig. 73
The segments that
bisect the base angles of
and are terminated by the equal
triangle
25.
CX
Draw
an
isosceles
sides are equal.
several figures for Ex. 24.
Let the diff'erent triangles
Are there
legs of different lengths.
have the same base but
any
limits to the angle that the bisector of
makes with the base?
26.
triangle
No
proof
one of the base angles
needed.
is
The segments that bisect the angles of an equilateral
and are terminated by the opposite sides are equal.
27. If from the ends of the base of an isosceles triangle segments are drawn making equal angles with the base and terminated by the opposite sides, these segments are equal.
REVIEW DIAGRAMS
53.
Review the proofs of Ths. 3 and 4 by means
and diagram:
of the
following scheme
Theorem 4
three sides of one triangle arc equal to three sides of another,
the triangles are congruent.
If
Hyp.
Th.3
Def. iaoBcelea
triangle
Aa.go
Th.l
Fig. 74
The theorem
to be proved
horizontal line below
tical lines
shown
it
is
written
(Fig. 74).
down
in full
with a
Below the various
ver
are written the references to the authorities
on which the proof depends. Some of these references
will be theorems.
These theorems (2 and 3 above) should
then be proved and the references to the authorities used
4.
This process should be continued until only definitions and assumptions remain.
written in as for Th.
PLANE GEOMETRY
44
MAY INVOLVE MORE THAN ONE PAIR
OF CONGRUENT TRIANGLES
EXERCISES THAT
Note.
54.
When
the next section
from
exercises are selected for review
often well to require the proofs for
used in proving the exercises assigned.
is
it is
from
theorems
this or
all
L Any point in the median to the base of an isosceles triangle
equally distant from the extremities of the base.
2. Are there any
special positions of the arbitrary point
mentioned in Ex. 1 for which the proof given does not hold?
BE
intersect at O, prove that
5.
X ^
which
^^^ ^^
Investigate the case, Ex. 6, in
are on
and
extended.
which
CO
are
B.
extended.
AD
AC
In Fig. 78,
so that Z 1 =
9.
CO
AC=AD, BC = BD, AX=^AY.
8.
CO
AB
prove that
BX = BY.
C
A and
CX = CYy
AC
Prove that
7.
If
Investigate the case, Ex. 4, in
are on BC and
extended.
In Fig. 77,
6.
the median to the base
ZXOY.
bisects
and
CO is
AABC.
In Fig. 76,
4.
of the isosceles
and
CA = CB and CD = CE. If AD
CO bisects ZC.
In Fig. 75,
3.
and
Z 2,
line h,
Fig 77
Rays
drawn from point
h at points
are joined with any point in OC
Prove that
is isosceles.
intersecting
line
A and B
AABD
Investigate the case, Ex.
8, in
which
is
in
extended.
10.
In Fig. 79,
point in
DC
CA = CB and AD = BD.
extended, prove that
is
any
is
between C and D.
11. Investigate
the
case,
Ex. 10,
in
If X
AX = BX.
which
X
Fig. 79
CONGRUENT TRIANGLES
In Fig. 80,
12.
CD
Prove that
is
45
CD is any segment. Zl= Z2 and
a perpendicular bisector of AB.
13. If, in Fig. 80,
A ABC
Z3=
Z4.
constructed isosceles
is
and Z>, any point in the bisector of Z.C, is joined to
A and B, DA and DB make equal angles with AB.
14.
C and
15.
^ABC
In Fig. 81,
In Fig.
AC = BD
82,
AAOB
Prove that
CO
isosceles.
is
median to the base AB. If Z
CX = CV and that OX = OY.
16.
Fig. 80
Construct the figures for Exs. 12 and 13 with
the same side oi AB.
D on
= Z 2,
and
is
the
prove that
AD = BC.
isosceles.
is
Fig. 82
17.
ABC
In Fig. 83,
Prove that
BD = AF.
18.
is
equilateral,
CE =
AXZY is equilateral.
In Fig. 83,
Z1=Z2=Z3,
if
A ABC
prove
that
is
equilateral
AXYZ
is
and
equi
lateral.
19.
Fig. 83
Prove that the base angles
triangle are equal
shown in
CX = CY.
Fig.
by means
of
A ABC
is
84.
of
an
isosceles
the construction
the isosceles
A.
Analysis:
To prove Z1=Z2,
/.YAB^ AABX.
prove that
/.YAC= /.CBX and
that^
This method of proving the theorem is given in Euclid's
In the thirteenth century the students of Oxford, England,
that is, "the flight of the
nicknamed this theorem "elefuga"
because most of them found it so difficult that few cared
wretched"
Note.
Elements.
to study the subject further.
Two
or three hundred years later
PLANE GEOMETRY
46
the students called
Very
little is
"pons asinorum," or "the bridge of asses."
He was a Greek who
himself.
Alexandria about 300 B.C. Some of the earlier
it
known concerning Euclid
and taught in
students of geometry kept the results of their studies secret. Euclid's
Elements was a great advance lipon the work of his predecessors, both
lived
arrangement and in rigor. It is said that Ptolemy once asked him
was in geometry any shorter way than that of the Elements,''
and he answered that "there was no royal road to geometry." Another
story told of him is that some one who had begun to read geometry
with EucHd asked, when he had learned the first theorem, "But what
Euclid called his slave and said,
shall I get by learning these things?"
"Give him threepence since he must make gain out of what he
in
"if there
learns."
20.
as
Show
that the distance between two inaccessible points,
opposite sides of a stream, may be found as follows
A and B on
(see Fig. 85):
Set a stake at C, sighting it in line with AB.
be any convenient distance. Take
any
point from which A, B, and C are visible. Sight
BC may
E
in line
in line
D and C, making ED = DC. Sight F
D and B, making FD = DB. Sight
^^^ 85
will be in line with F and E and also
D and A. What line should be measured to find
with
with
so that
it
in line with
the distance .45?
Suppose (Fig. 86) that P represents a fence post on one
stream and line / a fence on the other side of the stream.
fence is to be built in line with P and
21.
side of a
perpendicular to fence
following
/.
Show
that the
method may be used:
Let P be the point and / the line.
At any point A in the line / construct a
perpendicular to line / and set stakes
Fig. 86
making AB = AC. On line / sight D
Then sight
in line with P and B, and E in line with C and P.
F in line with D and C and at the same time in line with E
and B. PF is 1. I and S is the point where the cuts the
line
/.
CONGRUENT TRIANGLES
47
EXERCISES INVOLVING PROPERTIES OF AND TESTS FOR
CONGRUENT TRIANGLES AND CONSTRUCTION
OF TRIANGLES
66.
1.
Corresponding medians of congruent triangles are equah
Note. Two proofs may be given: one by means
angles and one by superposition.
of congruent
2. Two triangles are congruent if two sides and the
to one of these sides are ecjual respectively to two sides
corresponding median of the other.
3.
A ABC so
AC = cm.
Construct
the median to
Suggestion.
that
AB = 7
cm.,
AC =10
tri
median
and the
cm.,
and
4:
Draw any
Write the numbers
7, 10,
triangle
ABC and
and 4 on the
the median to the side
proi)er segments.
figure until it is evident to you wliich segments must
in order that each may have the required lenjiith.
A C.
Look at the
be constructed
first
t4. Construct a triangle, given two sides and an angle opposite
one of these sides.
ZA
Let a and h be the given sides and
he opposite
Suggestion.
side a.
Show how Fig. 87 is constructed. DescTil)e changes in the
data given that will alter the results, using
the following outline:
I.
Let
II.
Let
III.
Let
ZA
ZA
ZA
be an acute angle.
be
a.
right angle.
be an obtuse angle.
^^'"
In each case start with side a longer than
side b, then suppose side a to decrease gradually and note results.
Note.
This problem
is
used in trigonometry and surveying.
Construct an isosceles triangle so that one leg shall be
9.4 cm. and the median to that leg shall make with that leg an
5.
angle of 22K.
6.
Construct A.li5C so that
the median to
7.
The
AB
makes with
AB = H.6 cm., 5C = 6.5
AB an angle of 45.
cm.,
and
bisectors of corresponding angles of congruent triangles
are equal.
be
8.
Constmct an
of a right angle
isosceles triangle so that
and one
leg 5
cm.
one base angle
shall
CHAPTER
III
Parallels, Perpendiculars, Angles, AngleSums
INTRODUCTORY
PRELIMINARY THEOREM: TEST FOR UNEQUAL ANGLES
one side of a triangle is extended, an angle
56. If
which
is
called
Thus
angle.
an exterior angle
in Fig. 88,
is
formed
of the tri
AB is extended.
an exterior angle of AABC, The interior
angle numbered 2 is adjacent to Z 1 Z 3 and
is
Z4
are the nonadjacent interior angles.
How many exterior angles has a
We may add the following to the
Exercise.
57.
assumptions
triangle?
list
of general
As. 28. If one angle or segment is greater than a second
and the second is equal to or greater than a third, then the
first is
greater than the third.
As. 29.
The whole
is
greater than any of
its parts.
58. Theorem 8. An exterior angle of a triangle
than either of the nonadjacent interior angles.
Hypothesis: In
the exterior Z.
Conclusion:
AABC the
side
AB
Zl > ZCor /.BAC.
48
is
is
greater
extended, forming
PARALLELS AND ANGLES
49
Analysis and construction:
A.
Zl= ZC
part of Z1=ZC, bisect CB at D, join
AD, and extend, making DE = AD. Join EB
To prove Zl > ZC, prove
I.
"
II.
part of
"
and prove Z 2 = ZC.
III.
B.
I.
To prove Z2= ZC, prove ADBE ^ AADC.
"
"
Zl > ZBAC, extend CB and prove
c
Z5 = Zl and Z5 > ZBAC.
Let the pupil give the proof.
1. How many illustrations can you find in
90 of an exterior angle of a triangle? Show
how Th. 8 applies in each case.
Ex.
Fig.
Ex.
2.
In Fig. 90,
any point
is
inside
Fig. 90
AABC.
Prove that
ZAOB>ZC.
TRANSVERSALS AND ANGLES
59.
line,
When two
straight Hnes are crossed
by a third
straight
various angles are formed which have special names.
Thus, in Fig. 91:
Zc, Zd, Zw, and
Zx
are interior
angles.
Za, Zb, Zjy and Zz are exterior
angles.
Zc and Zx,
Zd and Zw,
also
Fig. 91
are alternate interior angles.
Za and
Zz, also
Zh and Zy,
are alternate exterior
angles.
Zaand Zw, Z6and Zx, Zc and
Z;y, also
Zd and
are corresponding angles.
Exercise.
alternate
In
interior
Fig.
sponding angles, and
terior
angles.
92,
How
name 8
pairs
of
16
pairs of corre8 pairs of alternate exmany pairs of supple
angles,
mentary adjacent angles are there?
Fig. 92
Zz,
PLANE GEOMETRY
50
PARALLELS
60.
far
Lines in the same plane that do not intersect however
follow them are called parallel lines.
Two
we may
arbitrary straight lines in the
same plane
will ordinarily
Two parallel lines do
point.
This definition is the fundamental
and determine a
intersect
not determine a point.
test for parallels.
Five other tests for parallels are contained in the group that follows.
Th. 9 is the fundamental
theorem
of the group.
Exercise.
Find
in the
tions of parallel lines
and
room
in
of lines
which you are sitting illustrawhich do not intersect and yet
are not parallel.
FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM: TEST FOR PARALLELS
61. Exercise.
Construct two straight Hnes cut by a third
straight line so that the alternate interior angles are equal.
Theorem
cut
by a
9.
If two straight lines in the same plane are
third straight line so that the alternate interior
angles are equal, the two straight lines are parallel.
Fig. 93
Hypothesis:
Lines a and b are cut by Hne
Conclusion:
Line a
\\
line
and Z
= Z 2.
6.
Analysis:
I.
To prove
line b, show that Hne a and Hne
line a
cannot meet either on the right or on the left.
\\
IL To prove that
met
line
a cannot meet line
b,
an exterior angle
would be equal to an opposite interior
line
line b,
show that
if
of a triangle
angle.
PARALLELS AND ANGLES
51
Proof:
I.
a.
STATEMENTS
Line a might meet
REASONS
on the right.
would be greater
than Z2.
Zl = Z2.
a.
Supposition,
6.
Why
c.
Given.
line h
6.
c.
d.
:.
line
meet
line
does
b
not
d.
on the
diction.
Line a might meet
line b on the left.
a.
Supposition
leads to a contra
right,
IL
II.
a.
Supposition,
Let the pupil complete the proof.
62.
The ordinary
direct synthetic proof is explained in
for theorems and exercises in
46 and has been used
chapter ii. The proof used for Th. 9 is an indirect proof.
In technical terms it is called proof by reductio ad absurdum.
This is a Latin phrase. What is its hteral translation?
For such proofs we must
1.
Determine
all
the possible cases obtained by contra
dicting the given conclusion.
Then, since either the conclusion or one of the contradictory statements must be true, we must eliminate all
but one of these by proving them absurd.
2.
Proofs of this character are very
mathematics, but in
among
all
argument.
common, not only in
Their validity depends
other things upon the presentation of
all possibilities.
The proofs for many of the theorems and exercises that
In
follow are clearer if expressed in algebraic notation.
some cases the solution of an equation is necessary. In
other cases the use of algebraic manipulations and identities are required without the solution of an equation.
Be definite and accurate.
PLANE GEOMETRY
52
DEPENDENT TESTS FOR PARALLELS
If two straight lines in the same plane
63. Theorem 10.
are cut by a third straight line so that one pair of corresponding angles are equal, the two straight lines are parallel.
Fig. 94
Lines a and b are cut by line n so that
Hypothesis:
Z1 =
Z2.
Line a
Conclusion:
\\
line b.
Analysis:
To prove a
IL
Z
I.
b,
\\
''
'*
prove Z 2
=Z
3,
=Z
3.
compare Z 2 and Z 3 with Z
1.
Let the pupil give the proof.
Ex.
1.
Prove Th. 10 by proving that
Z4=Z5.
Use sup
plements of equal angles.
Theorem
11.
If
two straight
lines in the
same plane are
cut by a third straight line so that the interior angles on the
same side of the transversal are supplements, the two
straight lines are parallel.
Lines a and b are cut by line n so that
Hypothesis:
Z24Z4 =
2rt. Z.
Conclusion:
Line a
\\
Analysis (see Fig. 94)
L To
II.
"
prove a
"
supplements of
Z
Z
\\
b,
line b.
:
prove
=Z
3,
4.
Let the pupil give the proof.
=Z
3.
show that Z 2 and Z 3
are each
PARALLELS AND ANGLES
Theorem
Two
12.
pendicular to the
Would Ths.
2.
straight lines in the same plane perstraight line are paralleL
Prove the alternate interior angles equal.
Suggestion.
Ex.
same
53
9,
10,
11,
and 12 be true
if
the phrase
in the same plane were omitted?
CONSTRUCTION OF PARALLELS
64. Problem 6.
To draw a straight line through a given
point parallel to a given straight line.
Show
Th.
may be solved by using Th. 9,
Make the construction by each method
How many lines may be drawn fulfilling the
that the problem
10, or Th. 12.
and prove
it.
requirements ?
Exercise.
Show how to solve Prob. 6 by paper folding, or with
a ruler and a card, or two draftsman's triangles.
FUNDAMENTAL ASSUMPTION REGARDING PARALLELS
65.
As. 30.
Only one
line
can be drawn through a given
point parallel to a given line.
DEPENDENT TEST FOR PARALLELS
66.
Theorem
13.
Two
lines parallel to a third line are
parallel to each other.
Suggestion.
Prove by the indirect method.
EXERCISES INVOLVING TESTS FOR PARALLELS
67. To prove two lines parallel,
the following:
1.
2.
3.
we must prove one
The alternate interior angles are equal;
The corresponding angles aYe equal;
The. interior angles on the same side
of the trans
versal are supplements;
4.
5.
They
are perpendicular to the
They
are parallel to the
same
same
line.
of
line;
PLANE GEOMETRY
54
Ex. 1. If two straight lines in the same plane are cut by a
third straight line so that the alternate exterior angles are equal,
the two straight lines are parallel.
2.
If, in Fig. 95, lines h and k are cut
n so that Za4Zft = 2 vt.A, prove line k
Ex.
line
by
\\
line h.
Ex.
3.
If
any two segments
bisect each other,
the segments joining the extremities are parallel.
Ex.
4.
In Fig. 96,
=y
figure with x
II
z.
and
ABCD
= 'w.
is
a foursided
Prove x
\\
y and
Fig. 96
ANGLES MADE BY PARALLELS AND TRANSVERSALS
FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM: TEST FOR EQUAL ANGLES
Theorem
14.
If two parallel lines are cut by a third
alternate
interior angles are equaL
the
straight line,
68.
PARALLELS AND ANGLES
ProoJ:
55
PLANE GEOMETRY
56
APPLICATION OF PARALLELS TO TEST FOR PERPENDICULARS
70.
of
Theorem
two
17.
parallels is
line
which
is
perpendicular to one
perpendicular to the other.
k
PARALLELS AND ANGLES
EXERCISES INVOLVING ANGLES
J2.
If,
in Fig. 100, h
\\
57
MADE BY PARALLELS
and Z 6 = 27
30', find
the
number
of
degrees in each angle formed.
2. If two parallel lines are cut by a third
straight line, the alternate exterior angles are
a/i
equal.
3. If,
in Fig.
100, line
line
k, prove
^^^ ^^^
other angles
in the figure can be proved supplementary in the same way?
/.a\ /.x
that
4.
If,
=2
rt.A.
in Fig. 101,
\\
What
Z6 = 44,
find the
number
of degrees in each
angle of the figure.
5.
the
If,
in Fig.
number
101,
Ax Zy = 33,
find
of degrees in each angle of the
figure.
6.
the
If,
in
number
7.
Fig.
Fig. 101, ZA is ^^ of Z.y, find
of degrees in each angle of the figure.
In Fig. 102, /.BAC is any angle.
starts at point
If the point
ray AB.
is
101
any point on the
and moves along the ray AC indefinitely,
what are the limiting values of the Z XOA and
of the Z BOX ?
Investigate the case in which
the point X moves from A along AD.
Fig. 102
MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES
In several theorems which we have proved, certain
were constructed and used which were not given in the
hypothesis. Such lines are called construction lines. Their
use is not only permissible but often necessary. Occasionally
they may be more or less arbitrary. When such lines are
located defiftitely care should be taken that no facts are
assumed which require proof. In general, two points or one
point and a direction locate a line. For methods of locating
73.
lines
points, lines, rays, or
1.
segments see Ass. 18.
What theorems have we had
Tell how the
of construction lines?
that were proved by the aid
line was located in each case.
PLANE GEOMETRY
58
line, ray,
a fixed
called
'
The use
or segment that is located definitely
or segment.
is
often
line, ray,
of construction lines in the following exercises
should be carefully noted
2. Lines which are perpendicular to
:
parallel lines are parallel
(Fig. 103).
t3.
two angles have their sides
and left side to
If
parallel right
side to right side
left
side,
the
angles are equal (Fig. 104).
Fig. 103
Note. The right side of an angle
stands in the angle and faces out.
two angles have
t4. If
their
is
the side on the right as one
sides
right side to left side and left
side to right side, the angles are supple
parallel
//
^
/
^'
F'
Fig. 104
mentary.
5.
/
/
'
The
bisectors
of
pair
of
alternate
interior
angles
of
parallel lines are parallel.
6.
through the vertices of an
If
drawn parallel to the opposite
has two angles equal.
sides,
triangle lines are
isosceles
a triangle
is
formed which
How
would Ex. 6 read if the given triangle had
If it had none of its angles equal?
angles equal?
Give proof.
7.
all
of
its
If,
in Fig. 105, line h
\\
line k
and
trary point between the parallels, prove
9.
a foursided
If
figure
is
an
Zb= Za
arbi
\
Zc.
.
Fig. 105
has both pairs of opposite sides
parallel, the opposite angles are equal.
10. If
parallel
a foursided figure has both pairs of opposite sides
and one angle a
right angle, all of its angles are right
angles.
11. A ray parallel to the base of an isosceles triangle through
the vertex bisects the exterior angle at the vertex.
12. What would be true in Ex. 11 if the ray parallel to the
base of the isosceles triangle cuts the sides of the triangle or the
Give proof.
sides extended?
PARALLELS AND ANGLES
13. If
a segment between two parallel lines
59
is
any
bisected,
other segment between the parallels and through the point of
bisection is also bisected by this point.
In
14.
Prove
In Fig.
15.
BX = AY,
106,
Fig.
BZ = AW.
that
106,
if
prove that
AW\\BZ, BX = AY, and
XZllYW.
AW
\\
BZ, XZ\\
YW, and
BZ = AW.
Fig. 100
ANGLES IN TRIANGLES
74.
FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM
Theorem 18. The sum of the interior
triangle is
angles of
two right angles.
Fig. 107
Hypothesis:
Conclusion:
A ABC any triangle.
Zl+Z2+Z3 = 2rt.^.
is
Analysis and construction:
I.
To prove Zl + Z2 + Z3 = 2 rt.Z, compare Z 1
h Z 2 + Z 3 with angles whose sum is 2 rt. Z
.
II.
Construct
pare Z
XY
1, 2,
through
parallel to
and 3 with A
4, 5,
AB
and 3
and com
respectively.
Let the pupil give the proof.
Note.
Th. 18 is one of the most famous theorems of geometry.
supposed that the ancient Greeks knew that it was true for equilateral and for isosceles triangles before they l<:ncw that it was true
for all triangles.
The proof given above is supposed to be that of
Pythagoras (about 500 B.C.) and may be one of the earliest proofs for
this theorem.
It is
Ex.
by Al,
1.
2,
Can you
and 3 in
by tearing off the corners made
and rearranging them?
verify Th. 18
Fig. 107
PLANE GEOMETRY
60
Are there any other ways of putting in construction
Z2 Z3
Th. 18 so that Z1
may be compared with angles whose sum
Give proof. (See
is two right angles?
Ex.
2.
lines for
Fig. 108
Fig. 108.)
Ex.
Find the number of degrees in the third angle of a
the other two angles are:
3.
triangle
if
d,
59 25', 58 42'
b.
29, 58 10'
e.
72 16', 68 42'
c.
38 40', 72 18'
/.
58
56
a. 40,
18',
79 53'
COROLLARIES: VALUES AND COMPARISONS OF INTERIOR
ANGLES OF TRIANGLES
Cor.
75.
Ex.
I.
Each angle
Construct angles
1.
an equilateral
of
of
30,
15,
75,
triangle is 60.
7 30',
67 30',
165, 150.
Cor.
If two angles of one triangle are equal respectwo angles of a second triangle, the third angles
II.
tively to
are equal.
Fig. 109
Hypothesis:
A ABC
and
AXYZ
have
ZA= ZX
and
ZB=ZY.
Conclusion:
Analysis:
ZC=
To prove
Prove
Ex.
of
an
2.
ZZ.
ZC=
ZZ,
ZA\ZB}ZC=ZX\ZY}ZZ,
ZA+ZB==ZX{ZY.
Segments drawn from an arbitrary point in the base
isosceles triangle perpendicular to the opposite sides
equal angles with the base.
make
PARALLELS AND ANGLES
Cor. IIL
The acute angles
of
61
a right triangle are com
plements of each other.
Ex. 3. The vertex angle of an isosceles triangle is 42. The
perpendiculars are drawn from the ends of the base to the opposite
Find the number of degrees in the angles that these persides.
pendiculars make with the base.
THE EXTERIOR ANGLE OF A TRIANGLE
76.
Theorem 19. The exterior angle of a triangle is
sum of the two nonadjacent interior angles.
equal to the
Fig. 110
AABC the side AB is
Hypothesis: In
the exterior Z XBC.
Z XBC= Z
Conclusion:
extended, forming
+ Z 2.
Analysis and constrtcction:
L To
prove
ZXBC=
Z1
+ Z2,
divide
ZXBC
parts and compare these parts with Z
two
and Z 2
into
respectively.
II.
.*.
draw BY through B\\AC and compare Z 4 with Z 2
and Z5 with Zl.
Let the pupil give the proof.
Ex.
1.
An
exterior angle of a triangle
opposite interior angles is 62. Find the
each of the angles of the triangle.
Ex.
triangle
2.
is
If
is
145,
number
one of the
of degrees in
the exterior angle at the vertex of an isosceles
number of degrees in each of the angles
128, find the
of the triangle.
Ex. 3. Find the sum of the exterior angles formed when the
hypotenuse of a right triangle is extended in each direction,
PLANE GEOMETRY
62
EXERCISES INVOLVING THE ANGLES OF A TRIANGLE
77.
third
one angle of a triangle is double the second, and the
first, find each angle of the triangle.
If
1.
double the
is
2. How many degrees in each angle of an isoscples triangle
the vertex angle is (1) three times the sum of the base angles?
(2) ^2 the sum of the base angles? (3) \i the sum of the base
if
sum
angles? (4) equal to the
3.
4.
have only one right angle or one obtuse
a triangle have a right angle and an obtuse angle?
triangle can
May
angle.
of the base angles?
the vertex angle of an isosceles triangle
If
is
42, find the
number
of degrees in the angles at the intersection of the bisectors
Find also the number of degrees in the angles
of the base angles.
at the intersection of the bisectors of the exterior angles at the
base of the triangle.
In Fig. Ill, J\,ABC
5.
what
in length,
6.
is
and
the legs
to decrease
bisect
What
AO
is isosceles.
A A and B respectively.
CA and CB are made to increase and
OB
If
the upper limit to
AAOB'i
^i^
the lower limit?
is
the vertex angle of an isosceles triangle
If
is
62, find the
of degrees that the bisector of one base angle
number
makes with
the opposite side.
7.
If
the vertex angle of an isosceles triangle
is
70, find the
number
of degrees in the angles at the intersection of the perpendiculars drawn to the equal sides from the extremities of the base.
In Fig. 112, l\ABC is isosceles.
pendicular to BC and AC respectively.
8.
AC
and
BY
the legs
to increase and to decrease in
and BC are made
what is the upper
length,
its
AX
limit to
If
ZAOB ? What
are perc
is
lower limit?
9.
times
If,
AABC, ZA
in
Z C,
find the
is
4 times
number
ZC
and
of degrees in
ZB
is
^ig. 112
each of the angles of
the triangle.
10.
Find the number of degrees
isosceles
(2)
triangle
if
each base angle
3 times the vertex angle.
in
is
each of the angles of an
(1) >! the vertex angle;
PARALLELS AND ANGLES
63
ANGLES IN POLYGONS
segments are joined end to end and the
end of the last is joined to the free end of the first, the
The segments are called
figure formed is called a polygon.
the sides of the polygon; the common end points of the
segments are called the vertices. Segments joining any two
78. If several
free
nonconsecutive vertices are called diagonals.
the sides is called the perimeter of the polygon.
polygon
is
said to be convex
if
no
side
The sum
of
can be extended
so as to enter the polygon. Otherwise it is said to be
concave and has one or more reentrant angles.
Fig. 113
In Fig. 113 polygon 1 is convex; polygon 2 is concave with
one reentrant angle; polygon 3 is concave with two reentrant angles; polygon 4 is a cross polygon. Hereafter
unless otherwise stated a convex polygon is intended.
Polygons are named according to the number of sides:
a polygon of 3 sides is called a triangle ;
a polygon of 4 sides
a polygon of 5 sides
a polygon of 6
a polygon of 7
a quadrilateral;
is
called
is
called a
pentagon
a hexagon;
called a heptagon;
sides is called
sides is
a polygon of 8 sides is called an octagon
a polygon of 10 sides is called a decagon;
a polygon of 12 sides is called a duodecagon;
;
a polygon of 15 sides is called a pentadecagon.
Polygons are sometimes called by their English instead of
by their Latin or Greek names, thus: 4side, 7side, 8side,
9side, etc.
PLANE GEOMETRY
64
A
is
polygon with all of
a regular polygon.
and
its sides
all
of its angles equal
THE SUM OF THE ANGLES OF ANY POLYGON
79. Ex.
Ex.
Find the sum
2.
Find the sum of the four angles of a quadrilateral.
of the five angles of
a pentagon
(Fig. 114).
Analysis:
To
find the value of
ZA + ZB+ ZC+ ^D\ ZE,
divide the polygon into triangles whose vertices are the
vertices of the polygon and find the sum of all the
.*.
draw the diagonals from
angles of all the triangles.
one vertex and multiply the sum of the angles in one
triangle
Ex.
of
by the number
3.
i
//' \
\
j
>^^
^^^p
of triangles.
pj^
j^
Find the sum of the angles of a hexagon; of an octagon;
a decagon.
Theorem
20.
gon of n sides
The sum
is
of the iriterior angles of a poly
2(n2) right angles.
Let the pupil give the analysis.
Proof:
STATEMENTS
1.
The
diagonals
divide
the
polygon into
tri
angles.
2.
3.
The sum of the angles of each
The sum of the angles of the
triangle is
triangles is
Ex. 4. By substituting the proper number for n in the formula
given in Th. 20 find the sum of the angles of a hexagon; of an
octagon; of a 15side; of a 16side; of a 20side; of a 24side; of a
32side.
Fig. 115
Ex.
5.
Fig. 115.
Prove Th. 20 by means
of the constructions
shown
in
PARALLELS AND ANGLES
65
Ex. 6. How many degrees in each angle of a regular octagon?
of a regular pentagon? of a regular decagon? of a regular 12side?
of a regular 16side? of a regular 20side? of a regular 24side? of
a regular nside?
Ex.
angles
Is it possible to have a regular polygon each of whose
108? 150? 144? 128? 160? If such polygons are
7.
is
possible,
how many
sides
would there be
in
each case?
Ex. 8. Find the sum of the interior angles of a peAtagon that
has one reentrant angle; of an octagon with two reentrant angles.
Ex.
How many
9.
regular triangles can be placed adjacent with
the same point? Will the space about the
their vertices
at
point be
exactly?
Ex.
filled
Can
10.
Why?
regular hexagons be placed with their vertices at
the same point and the space be
regular quadrilaterals be so placed?
filled
exactly?
Why? Can
regular pentagons?
regular
Why?
octagons?
THE SUM OF THE EXTERIOR ANGLES OF ANY POLYGON
Find the sum of the exterior angles of a pentagon.
80. Ex. 1.
Analysis:
To
sum of the exterior angles of ABCDE,
sum of the interior angles from the sum
find the
subtract the
and
of the interior
exterior angles (Fig. 116).
Let the pupil give the proof.
^^
_
Fig. 116
Ex. 2. Find the sum of the exterior angles of an octagon; of
a decagon; of a 12side.
Theorem 21. The sum of the exterior
gon of n sides is four right angles.
angles of a poly
Let the pupil give the analysis and the proof.
Ex.
3.
Is
it
exterior angles
possible to have a regular polygon each of
24? 36? 40? If so, how many sides
is
these polygons have?
whose
would
PLANE GEOMETRY
66
MISCELLANEOUS THEOREMS
TEST
81.
triangle.
FOR CONGRUENT RIGHT TRIANGLES
triangle that contains a right angle is called a right
The side opposite the right angle of a right triangle
The perpendicular sides are called
called the hypotenuse.
the legs of the right triangle.
is
Ex.
1.
Construct a right triangle with the hypotenuse equal
and one acute angle equal to a given angle.
to a given segment
Theorem
22.
Two
right triangles are congruent
hypotenuse and an acute angle of one are equal
hypotenuse and an acute angle of the other.
if
the
to the
Fig. 117
Hypothesis:
In
AABC
Z X, and Z B and Z Y
Conclusion:
Analysis:
are
AABC
To prove
and
rt.
AXYZ, AC = XZ, AA =
A
m AXYZ.
AABC
Let the pupil give the proof.
^ AXYZ, prove
Use Cor.
II,
ZC=
ZZ.
75.
Ex. 2. Perpendiculars dropped from the midpoints of the
equal sides of an isosceles triangle to the base are equal.
Ex. 3. Perpendiculars from the midpoint of the
base of an isosceles triangle to the legs are equal.
CO is the perpendicular
are the limiting values of the
length of the perpendicular from O to the segment
as
moves along the ray OC?
Ex.
4.
bisector of
BX
If,
in Fig. 118,
AB, what
PARALLELS AND ANGLES
TEST
II
67
FOR CONGRUENT RIGHT TRIANGLES
Construct a right triangle with the hypotenuse and
82. Ex. 1.
one side equal respectively to given segments.
Theorem 23. Two right triangles are congruent if the
hypotenuse and a side of one are equal to the hypotenuse
and a side of the other.
Fig. 119
In the
Hypothesis:
YZ, and Z
and
Conclusion:
A ABC
ZY are
AABC
rt.
and XYZ,
AC = XZ, BC =
^ AXYZ.
Analysis and construction:
I.
II.
Toprove
AA^C
^ AXYZ, prove
ZA= ZX,
prove ZA = ZX, place AABC so that BC
falls on YZ, B on Y, C on Z, and A opposite X,
To
XYAZ an isosceles triangle.
XYAZ a triangle, prove XYA
and prove
III.
To
prove
a straight
line (As. 19).
Let the pupil give the proof.
Cor.
For
use Th. 22.
a perpendicular is erected to a straight line,
equal segments drawn from the same point in the perIf
pendicular cut off equal distances from the foot of the
perpendicular.
Ex.
2.
chord of the
line
from the center of a
circle bisects
circle
perpendicular to a
the chord.
Ex. 3. Construct an isosceles triangle, given one leg and the
perpendicular from the vertex to the base.
Ex. 4. Perpendiculars drawn from an arbitrary point in the
bisector of an angle to the sides of the angle are equal.
PLANE GEOMETRY
68
TESTS FOR ISOSCELES TRIANGLES
Theorem
83.
the triangle
The
analysis
We now
24.
two angles
If
of.
and the proof are
have two
left to
the pupil.
tests for isosceles triangles.
To prove a triangle isosceles, prove
L Two sides are equal, or
Two
II.
of
a triangle are equal,
is isosceles.
that
angles are equal.
Of these two tests the first is derived from the definition
an isosceles triangle and is therefore the fundamental one.
Ex.
The
form a second
Ex.
2.
bisectors of the base angles of
The
3.
isosceles triangle
bisectors of the exterior angles at the base of
form a second
isosceles triangle
Ex.
an
isosceles triangle.
an
isosceles triangle.
Construct an isosceles triangle whose base shall be
equal to a given segment and whose vertex angle shall
be equal to a given angle.
Ex.
with
4.
In Fig. 120,
CA = CB.
If
AAOB
at 0, prove that
Ex.
and
0.
5.
In Fig. 121,
Extend
Prove that
AXOY
6.
isosceles,
If,
in Fig.
XA = YB
an
is
and
isosceles triangle
AD and BE intersect
a^
is isosceles.
Fig. 120
AABC is isosceles. AX = BY
CZ = CW.
Ex.
ABC
CD CE
and
XZ
and
YW
to meet at
121,
AXOY
XZ=YW,
c^
zy^w
is isosceles.
AX
is
constructed
prove that
AABC
Fig. 121
is
isosceles.
PROPERTY OF ISOSCELES TRIANGLES
84.
Theorem
25.
segment from the vertex
of
an
isos
celes triangle perpendicular to the base bisects the base
and the vertex angle.
The
analysis
and the proof are
For other properties
left to
the pupil.
of isosceles triangles, see
Th. 6 and Th.
7.
PARALLELS AND ANGLES
69
SUPPLEMENTARY EXERCISES
EXERCISES INVOLVING ANGLES OF POLYGONS
85.
of
In Fig. 122,
1.
ABCDE
whose angles are obtuse.
is
a convex polygon of
sides of the
five sides, all
The
polygon are extended until they intersect, formFind the sum of
ing the star polygon shown.
the angles in the points of the star. What
of the angles in the points
If it
of the star if the polygon had six sides?
would be the sum
had eight
Fig. 122
sides?
Suppose the convex polygons used in Ex. 1 were regular,
degrees would there be in the angle at any point of
the star polygons formed?
2.
how many
3. Fig.
123 shows a regular triangle with each
If the points
side divided into three equal parts.
are joined as indicated, prove that
DEFGHK
is
regular hexagon.
4. Fig.
124 shows a kite formed of two regular
same base AC. If the sides
triangles with the
are bisected
that
and the points joined as shown, prove
AEFCGH
is
a regular hexagon.
shows a regular hexagon ABCDEF,
are extended in both directions as
indicated, prove that a regular triangle XYZ is
5.
Fig. 125
If alternate sides
formed.
Note.
triangles
Tiled
so
and mosaic
colored
floors
are
often
made
of
that various patterns are formed.
equilateral
Fig.
126
XJLXJL
Fig. 126
represents three of these designs containing the figures used in the
preceding exercises. The use of equilateral triangles, squares, and
hexagons for tiles probably dates back to the ancient Egyptians.
PLANE GEOMETRY
70
MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES
86.
Be prepared
Note.
to prove the theorems
on which each of
the following exercises depends.
perpendicular from any vertex of a triangle to the
opposite side is called an altitude of the triangle.
Make
1,
review diagrams for Ths. 11, 15, 19, and 25.
ABC
2. If
an
is
sides
BC and ^C
^5
is
the perpendiculars
AB\.o the equal
if
extremities of the base
intersect at 0,
In Fig. 127,
3.
and
isosceles triangle
A Y and BX drawn from the
t\AOB
isosceles.
is
any segment,
Zl=
From D and C perpendiculars
AB. What segments and angles
Z2,
and AD = BC.
are
drawn to
are
equal?
4.
Fig. 127
Why?
Investigate
obtuse angles.
the case, Ex. 3, in which
Zl and Z2
are
Give proof.
the ray which is drawn through the vertex of a triangle
the base bisects the exterior angle at the vertex, the
to
parallel
5.
If
triangle is isosceles.
6. A segment drawn from an arbitrary point in the bisector
an angle to one side of the angle and parallel to the other side
forms with the bisector and the side to which it is drawn an
of
isosceles triangle.
7.
Z CA
In Fig. 128, BD\\ XY. AB bisects
F. Prove that BC = CD.
ZX^IC and
AD
bisects
x_
Construct an isosceles triangle with the
vertex angle Vs of a right angle and the alti b
8.
129, ABC is an isosceles triangle
any point in ^C extended. From D a perProve
at E.
pendicular is drawn to AB cutting CB
that CDE is an isosceles triangle.
9.
with
In Fig.
10. Investigate the
point
is
on
c"
^^^ ^28
tude 4.7 cm.
J5
case, Ex.
extended.
9,
in
which the
PARALLELS AND ANGLES
U. In
with
ZC
Cto AB.
Fig. 130,
ABC is an
CD
a right angle.
Construct
71
isosceles right triangle
is
XY=YC
perpendicular from
and
YZ= YC.
Note. The patterns used in applied design are usually made by
repeating at regular intervals some very simple figure called the unit.
Show how Fig.
Figs. 131 and 132 show two parquet floor patterns.
130 in whole or in part is used in each of these designs. The possibilities of Fig. 130 as a design unit may be discovered by making four
or eight copies of the figure, coloring the spaces to suit one's fancy,
cutting the figures out, and fitting them together in various ways.
^^
PLANE GEOMETRY
72
16.
In surveying,
135), so that
(Fig.
it
is
will
it
often necessary to run a
be in the same
straight line with LA but on the othfer side
of some obstacle to vision, such as a house
line,
CD
as
^^^
Show
Fig. 135
that the following method
will give the desired result:
Lay off the Z a so as to clear the
Take AB, a. convenient distance. Lay off Zb = 2Za.
obstacle.
or wood.
Make BC=BA,
^
17.
Lay
off
Zc=
Za.
Perpendiculars from the ends
of the base of
an
isosceles
triangle to the opposite sides are equal.
18.
In any
AABC
the median to the side
the arbitrary
AABC
is
perpendiculars from points A and B to
AB are equal. For what special case of
the proof of this exercise meaningless?
19. If two parallel lines are cut by a third straight line, the
bisectors of the interior angles on the same side of the transversal
are perpendicular to each other.
20. If two parallel lines are cut by a third straight line, the
bisectors of the four interior angles form a quadrilateral with
four right angles.
21. If a perpendicular be drawn from the vertex of the right
angle of a right triangle to the hypotenuse, the two triangles formed
are mutually equiangular.
22. Construct
an
the base angles each
23.
with altitude 4.3 cm. and
isosceles triangle
H of a right angle.
Corresponding altitudes of congruent triangles are equal
(Fig. 136).
24.
sides
Two
triangles are congruent if two
altitude to the third side
g,
and the
one are equal respectively to two sides
and the altitude to the third side of the
of
Fig. 136
other (Fig. 136).
25.
Prove Ex. 24 when /.B and
AABC so
AB = 6 cm.
26. Construct
the altitude on
that
AC = 10
(Fig.
cm.,
136) are obtuse.
BC = 7
cm.,
and
PARALLELS AND ANGLES
27.
73
Two
triangles are congruent if two sides and the altitude
in one triangle are equal respectively to two
the corresponding altitude of the other.
on one of these sides
and
sides
28.
A ABC
Construct
29.
The
AB = 7
so that
cm.,
AC^b
cm., and
to ^45 = 3 cm.
the perpendicular from
line bisecting the exterior angle at the vertex of
an
isosceles triangle is parallel to the base.
30.
an
The
made by the
angle
bisectors of the base angles of
isosceles triangle is equal to the exterior angle at the base of
the triangle.
3L
sides,
ABD
If
and
if
prove that
i4D
BC
is
an
is
extended through
perpendicular to
is
an exterior angle
32. If
with
isosceles triangle
DA
to point
is
and
until
DB equal
DC = DA,
AB.
of a triangle
is
bisected
of the interior nonadjacent angles, the angle,
bisectors
and
made by
also
one
the two
the other interior nonadjacent angle.
through a given point a ray that shall make a
with
a
given line. Is there more than one solution
given angle
33. Construct
for this
problem?
34. If
two medians
of a triangle are
extended beyond their
bases and segments are taken on the extended lines equal to the
corresponding medians, the points thus found and the other vertex
of the triangle are
on a straight
line
that
parallel to the opposite
is
side of the triangle.
35. In Fig.
ZA
angle
137,
ABC
is
an
isosceles triangle
Note. Fig. 137 cannot be constructed at
without a protractor.
Fig. 138, ABC is an
ZB = 54. AXCB from A
36. In
with
with
ZC. Find the number of degrees in each
shown in the figure ii AX bisects ZA.
twice
of degrees in
37. Construct
isosceles
present
Fig. 137
triangle
Find the number
and Z 2.
AABC
with
ZA=30,
and the perpendicular from C to
AB
ZB = 45,
6.4 cm.
Pig. 138
PLANE GEOMETRY
74
t38. In each of the figures shown in Fig. 139, lines a and a'
are perpendicular to each other, also lines b and b'.
Prove that
Zab= Za'b'.
Apply Cor.
Suggestion.
Ill, 75.
Fig. 139
139. Investigate the truth of the statement that if two angles
have the sides of one perpendicular respectively to the sides of
the other the angles are equal.
40. In
140,
Fig.
A BCD
figure with its sides equal
and
is
its
foursided
angles right
AE = BF = BG = CH = etc. EX and HY
^C; XF and MW are parallel to
angles.
are parallel to
DB.
NW, KZ, GY, and LZ are similarly drawn.
ANOE, EOF, and EXF are isosceles.
Prove that
How many
isosceles triangles
H and E
Find the relation between the base angles of two
isosceles
What
triangles in the figure are congruent?
are joined, prove
41.
does the figure
If
contain?
triangles
if
EH

AC.
the vertex angles are supplementary.
42. If a
segment meets the sides
equal distances from the vertex,
it
is
of
an
isosceles triangle at
parallel to the base.
two angles are parallel right side to right
to left side, the bisectors of the angles are
43. If the sides of
side
and
parallel.
left
side
/
44.
Find the number of degrees
45.
Prove that a convex polygon cannot have more than three
in the angles at the intersection of the bisectors of the acute angles of a right triangle.
obtuse exterior angles or more than three acute interior angles.
CHAPTER
IV
Quadrilaterals
SYMMETRY
87. We have seen in chapter ii that under certain circumstances two figures can be placed one upon the other so
as to coincide exactly.
Moreover, if we wish to prove two
segments or two angles equal, we often look for two triangles
that contain these segments or angles and try to prove these
In many cases we can make one of
triangles congruent.
these triangles coincide with the other by folding the figure
along some line in the figure, or by rotating part of the figure
about some one point.
No.
shows four figures of this kind which we have had.
and 2 are folded along the line AB, the two parts
coincide.
If Nos. 3 and 4 are rotated about point O
Fig. 141
If
Nos.
will
through 180, each figure
will coincide
with
its original
impression. Figures or parts of figures that can be made to
coincide in either of these ways are said to be symmetric.
Points, lines, segments, or angles that coincide under these
circumstances are said to be symmetric to each other.
Can you find any other figures in chapter ii or
which are symmetric? Can you find any figures in
these chapters which are not symmetric?
Exercise.
chapter
iii
75
PLANE GEOMETRY
76
DEFINITIONS OF AXIAL SYMMETRY
88.
symmetric with respect to a
one part coincides with the
figure is said to be
an axis
line as
if
remainder when
it is
folded on that line as an
axis (Fig. 142).
Two
figures are said to be symmetric with
respect to a line as an axis if one figure
coincides with the other when the plane in
which
it lies is
folded on that line as an axis
>
(Fig. 143).
Such a figure or such
have axial symmetry.
figures are said to
Fig. 143
THEOREMS AND EXERCISES INVOLVING AXIAL
SYMMETRY
89.
Theorem
The
26.
bisector of the vertex angle of
of symmetry of the triangle.
Analysis:
To prove
A ABC
an
CD
that
(Fig. 144),
cide with
an
an axis
isosceles triangle is
ABCD
is
an
axis of
prove that
if
AABC
is
symmetry
AACD
of
will coin
folded on
CD
as
Fig. 144
axis.
Ex.
1.
The end
points of a segment are
respect to the perpendicular bisector of that
Ex.
2.
What
symmetric with
segment as an axis.
axes of symmetry have two parallel lines?
Show how
to place two congruent triangles so that
they are symmetric with respect to a side of one as an axis.
Ex.
90.
3.
Theorem
27.
Two
polygons are symmetric with
respect to an axis if the vertices of one are symmetric to
the corresponding vertices of the other.
Ex.
1.
How
parts of the
Ex.
2.
would Th. 27 read
same polygon?
Show how
if
the two polygons were
to construct a pentagon symmetric to a
given pentagon with a given
line as axis,
QUADRILATERALS
77
SYMMETRY
DEFINITIONS OF CENTRAL
91. A figure is said to be symmetric with respect to a
point as a center if one part of the figure coincides with the remainder when it is rotated
through an angle of 180 about the point as a
Fig. 145
fcenter (Fig. 145).
Two
figures are said to be symmetric with
respect to a point as a center if one figure
coincides with the other
when
it
is
*?=^^^
^^^
rotated
/;\
through an angle of 180 about the point as
a center (Fig. 146).
^\^::i^
Fig,
^q
figure or such figures are said to have central
symmetry. These definitions give us the following test for
central symmetry: A figure is symmetric with respect to
Such a
a point as a center
for every point in it there
if
so
situated
that
responding point
sjrmmetric with respect to the center.
similar test for axial
is
a cor
the two points
Can you
are
state a
symmetry?
THEOREMS AND EXERCISES INVOLVING CENTRAL
SYMMETRY
92.
Ex.
The
1.
center of
symmetry
of
two points
is
the mid
point of the segment joining the two points.
Ex.
2.
Two
vertical
angles are symmetric with
respect to
their vertex as a center.
Ex.
3.
many such
Find a center of symmetry of two
parallel lines.
How
centers are possible?
Two polygons are symmetric with respect
the vertices of one are symmetric to the corresponding vertices of the other.
Theorem
to a center
Ex.
4.
28.
if
How
would Th. 28 read
if
the two polygons were
halves of the same polygon?
Ex. 5. Which letters of the alphabet have central
symmetry?
Which ones are symmetric with respect to an axis?
PLANE GEOMETRY
78
RELATION BETWEEN AXIAL AND CENTRAL SYMMETRY
93.
metry
Theorem
29.
Any figure that has two axes of symat right angles to each other has the intersection of
the axes as a center of symmetry.
v>
Fig. 147
Hypothesis: P is a point on any figiire which is symmetric
with respect to xx' and yy' as axes. Axis xx' _L axis yy'
.
0, the intersection of xx' and yy'
center of symmetry of the figure.
Conclusion:
is
the
Analysis:
I.
To prove
the figure s)mimetric with respect to point
O, prove that for every point in the figure there
a point symmetric to
a center.
exists
II.
.*.
it
with respect to
as
be any point in the figure and P' be symP with respect to yy' and P" be
symmetric to P' with respect to xx' and prove O
let
metric to
the midpoint of PP".
III.
To prove O
the midpoint of PP", join PO, P'O, P"0,
PO = P'V and POP" a straight
To prove PO = P"0, prove them both equal to
To prove that POP" is a straight line, prove
and prove
IV.
V.
Zi1Z2+Z3+Z4 = 2rt.
VI.
To prove
that
Z 1+
Let the pupil give the proof in
and Z2}Z3 = l
full.
that
A.
Z2+ Z3+ Z4 = 2 rt.
Z1=Z2, Z3=Z4,
line.
P'O.
A, prove
Z.
rt.
QUADRILATERALS
Ex.
How many
Ex.
Has
angle?
it
axes of symmetry has an equilateral
tri
a center of symmetry?
Prove that a quadrilateral with
2.
79
its
four sides equal
has a center of symmetry.
Note.
figures are
Symmetric
much used
in
make constant
use of the idea of symmetry.
found in ornamental windows, wall paper, etc.
in nature, as in
snow
metric encaustic
How
ornament.
Designers
may bo
Illustrations
Symmetry
also occurs
Fig. 148 shows three symLet the pupil find other illustrations.
crystals, flowers, etc.
tile
designs.
might kaleidoscopes and mirrors be used by designers?
K^SZrasa
^V/?f^1
Fig. 148
PARALLELOGRAMS
DEFINITIONS
94. Ex. 1.
Construct
BC = G.7
cm.
From A
construct
CD
parallel to
Ex.
Construct
2.
parallel.
Make one
ZABC = (jO. Make ^5 = 5.3 cm. and
AD parallel to ^C. From C
construct
AB.
a quadrilateral with its opposite sides
angle 45 and the sides that include the
angle 3.8 cm. and 5.9 cm. respectively.
quadrilateral with each side parallel to its opposite is
called a parallelogram.
In Fig. 149, X and
z,
also
and
y, are called opposite sides ; w and x
are called consecutive sides; A A
and
are called opposite angles;
are called consecutive
D
AC and BD
A A and
Fig. 149
are called diagonals. While any side
angles;
be
considered
as
the base, x and z are usually called
may
the bases.
PLANE GEOMETRY
80
PROPERTIES OF PARALLELOGRAMS
95. The fundamental characteristic of
parallelograms is
stated in the definition, namely: The opposite sides are
The next three theorems depend directly upon
parallel.
this fact.
Theorem
it
into
30.
Each diagonal
two congruent triangles.
Theorem
of a parallelogram divides
31.
The
opposite sides of a parallelogram are
32.
The
opposite angles of a parallelogram are
equal.
Theorem
equal.
Ex.
1.
Two
consecutive angles of a parallelogram are supple
mentary.
Ex.
2.
The sum
of the angles of a parallelogram
is
four right
angles.
96. The diagonals of a parallelogram differ from the
diagonals of other foursided figures in important respects.
Note the exercise on p. 81.
We
shall
assume that the diagonals of convex quadri
laterals intersect.
Theorem
The
33.
diagonals of a parallelogram bisect
each other.
Analysts:
I.
that
To prove
that the diagonals bisect each other, prove
that BO = OD.
AO = OC and
IL To prove
I
^^^^^,
prove
ADOC ^ AAOB
QUADRILATERALS
81
Fig. 151 shows a parallelogram, a convex quadri1
and a concave quadrilateral. In V ~~7 /
which cases do the diagonals intersect? In \\
/
/
^^
^^~^
which case do they bisect each other?
v
Exercise.
lateral,
i
Fig. 151
97.
Theorem
parallelogram
is
The intersection of the diagonals of a
34.
the center of symmetry of the parallelogram.
CONGRUENCE OF PARALLELOGRAMS
Two parallelograms are congruent if
98. The OR I'M 35.
two sides and the included angle of one are equal to two
sides and the included angle of the other.
Fig. 152
In [s] ABCD and
Hypothesis:
and
ZA=
A'B'CD\ w = w', x = x\
ZA'.
Conclusion:
ABCD U EJ A 'B'CD'.
To prove CJ ABCD ^ OJ A'B'CD\
/Z7
Analysis:
that they will
fit
when
prove
superposed.
Proof:
STATEMENTS
I.
'eJABCD upon EJ A'B'C'D'
Place
of
ZA
and
on the
will fall
along w'
sides of
Point
upon point
B'.
III.
Point
D will fall upon point
D'.
1.
ZD
will fall
and
respectively.
2. z will fall
/.D' are supplements of
.'.
ZD=
AD'.
along the line of z\
V
Let the pupil give
x'
II.
IV.
so that the sides
Z.A\ x lying along
all
reasons and complete the proof.
^4
and A\
PLANE GEOMETRY
82
TESTS FOR PARALLELOGRAMS
99.
The
definition of a parallelogram is the fundamental
Other tests are dependent primarily
test for parallelograms.
upon the fundamental
Theorem
A BCD
Construct a quadrilateral
100. Exercise.
AD
opposite sides
one.
and
If
36.
BC
are parallel
and
so that the
equal.
a quadrilateral has one side equal and
it is a parallelogram.
parallel to its opposite,
Fig. 153
Hypothesis:
In the quadrilateral
Conclusion:
ABCD
is
ABCD,
x = z and
x\\z.
ZZ7.
Analysis and construction:
I.
To prove
III.
ABCD
/Z7,
*'
"
w\\y, draw
"
"
Z1=Z2,
II.
prove
AC
\\
y.
and prove Z
= Z 2.
prove
Let the pupil complete the analysis and give the proof.
Construct a quadrilateral ABCD so that the
BC, also the sides AB and DC, are equal.
101. Exercise.
AD and
opposite sides,
Theorem
its
opposite,
37.
If
it is
a quadrilateral has each side equal to
a parallelogram.
Fig. 154
Hypothesis:
Conclusion:
The
analysis
In the quadrilateral
ABCD is a O.
and the proof are
left to
ABCD,
the pupil.
x = z and
w = y.
QUADRILATERALS
83
If the diagonals of a quadrilateral
102. Thp:orkm 3S.
bisect each other, the quadrilateral is a parallelogram.
EXERCISES INVOLVING TESTS FOR PARALLELOGRAMS
103. To prove that any given quadrilateral
gram, prove that it has
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
1.
angle.
is
a parallelo
Each side parallel to its opposite, or
Each side equal to its opposite, or
One side equal and parallel to its opposite,
The diagonals bisecting each other.
or
Construct a parallelogram, given two sides and the included
In how many ways is this possible?
2. If two sides of a quadrilateral are parallel
angles are equal, the figure is a parallelogram.
3. If A BCD is a parallelogram and E and
and
the midpoints of the opposite sides
CD, prove that AECF is a parallelogram.
and two opposite
are respectively
AB
4. Given EJ ABCD, with points E and F
on the diagonal .4C so that AE = CF, prove
that BFDE is a parallelogram (Fig. 155).
Investigate Ex. 4 if points
are on the diagonal extended.
5.
6.
Given
7.
HJABCD, AE = CG,
EFGH
prove that
is
and
Fig. 155
AH = CF,
a parallelogram (Fig. 156).
Fig. 156
Construct a parallelogram, given the sides and one diagonal.
THEOREMS AND EXERCISES INVOLVING TESTS FOR
EQUAL AND PARALLEL SEGMENTS
Ths. 36 and 37, together with the definition of a parallelogram, give an additional test for equal and for parallel
104.
segments
To prove two segments
equal or parallel, find a quadri
which these segments are opposite sides and prove
that the quadrilateral is a parallelogram.
lateral of
PLANE GEOMETRY
84
Theorem
39.
Segments
of parallels intercepted
between
parallel lines are equal.
Theorem
between
Ex.
40.
Segments
of
perpendiculars intercepted
parallel lines are equal.
Construct through a given point a line that shall be
1.
parallel to a given line.
Ex.
If
2.
A BCD
is
a parallelogram and
tively the midpoints of the opposite sides
and
are respecthat
A B and CD, prove
AF\\CE.
H the midpoints
CJABCD
Ex. 3. Given
with E, F, G, and
the sides, and the points joined as indicated in
the figure; prove that
is a parallelogram
of
AXCY
(Fig. 157).
Ex.
In what other
4.
in Fig. 157
way may
the points ^
f^
be joined so as to form a parallelo
ftg.
157
gram?
Ex.
5.
Construct a
of a given triangle
shall
be intercepted by the sides
to
the
base of the triangle and
parallel
line that shall
and be
have a given length.
SPECIAL QUADRILATERALS
105.
foursided figure
is
called a quadrilateral.
Unless
otherwise stated, a quadrilateral should be drawn with no
sides equal
and no
sides parallel.
The following special kinds of quadrilaterals
quadrilateral formed
site sides of
is
isosceles triangles on oppocalled a kite (Fig. 158, No. 1).
quadrilateral with but one pair of parallel sides
a trapezoid has
its
an isosceles trapezoid
by two
the same base
a trapezoid (Fig. 158, No.
If
are important
is
called
it is
called
2).
nonparallel sides equal,
(Fig. 158,
No.
3).
The nonparallel sides of a trapezoid are sometimes called
the legs of the trapezoid.
The
parallel sides of a trapezoid are called the bases.
QUADRILATERALS
85
The perpendicular
zoid
No.
distance between the bases of a trapecalled the altitude of the trapezoid.
In Fig. 158,
2, b and b' are the bases and a is the altitude.
is
A quadrilateral with two pairs of parallel sides has been
defined as a parallelogram.
The perpendicular
distance between the bases of a paralcalled the altitude of the parallelogram.
parallelogram has two altitudes, since each pair of parallel
In Fig. 158, No. 4, b
sides may be 'Considered as bases.
lelogram
is
'
be considered as a base with a as the corresponding
altitude, or b' may be considered as a base with a' as the cor
may
responding altitude.
The following special kinds of parallelograms are of considerable importance and of widespread occurrence:
parallelogram with one right angle
(Fig.
158, No.
is
called a rectangle
5).
parallelogram with two consecutive sides equal
a rhombus
(Fig. 158,
No.
is
called
6).
rectangle with two consecutive sides equal
square (Fig. 158, No. 7).
is
called a
The segment joining the midpoints of two opposite sides
of a quadrilateral is called a median of the quadrilateral
(segment
The
XY,
definition of
test for the
Fig. 158,
any
No.
8).
particular figure
determination of that figure.
is
the fimdamental
PLANE GEOMETRY
86
KITES
One diagonal
106. Ex. 1.
Ex.
2.
The
axis of
through whose vertex
Theorem
it
of a kite is
symmetry
of
an
axis of
symmetry.
a kite bisects the angles
passes.
The
diagonals of a kite are perpendicular
the
to each other, and
one which is an axis of symmetry
bisects the other.
Ex.
107.
41.
ISOSCELES TRAPEZOIDS
The base angles of an isosceles trapezoid
1.
are
equal and the diagonals are equal.
Ex.
2.
Ex.
zoid
The segment
an
sides of
3.
joining the midpoints of the parallel
an axis of symmetry. 
isosceles trapezoid is
the base angles of a trapezoid are equal, the trape
If
is isosceles.
Ex.
4.
and the
Construct an isosceles trapezoid, given the two bases
altitude.
Construct an isosceles trapezoid, given two consecutive
5.
and the included angle.
Ex.
sides
RECTANGLES
Ex.
108.
1.
Theorem
Construct a rectangle, given two adjacent
42.
sides.
All the angles of a rectangle are right
angles.
Ex. 2. What properties has a rectangle
virtue of the fact that it is a parallelogram?
Ex.
3.
The
by
diagonals of a rectangle are equal.
the diagonals of a parallelogram are
the
parallelogram is a rectangle (Fig. 159).
equal,
Ex.
4.
If
Analysis:
I.
III.
To ipToveOJABCD a
prove ZA=aTt.Z.
Z^=art. Z, prove Z.4 = Z5.
"
Z^ = ZB, prove
'
II.
^^ ^^^
*'
'
Let the pupil complete the analysis and give the proof.
Ex.
5.
Construct a rectangle, given one side and one diagonal.
QUADRILATERALS
87
6.
Construct a rectangle, given one diagonal and the
between
the diagonals.
angle
Ex. 7. The medians of a rectangle bisect each other at right
Ex.
angles.
Make a list of all of the properties of the rectangle.
8.
of these properties are special properties of the rectangle?
Ex.
Which
RHOMBUSES
Construct a rhombus, given one side and one
109. Ex. 1.
angle.
Theorem
43.
All the sides of a
Theorem
44.
The diagonals
dicular to each other
rhombus are
equal.
of a rhombus are perpenand bisect the angles through which
they pass.
Ex.
The diagonals
2.
of a
rhombus are axes
of
symmetry.
the diagonals of a quadrilateral bisect each other
at right angles, the figure is a rhombus.
Ex.
3.
If
Ex.
4.
The
Ex.
5.
Construct a rhombus, given one side and one diagonal.
Ex.
When
Ex.
that
7.
it is
rhombus.
rhombus are
equal.
Construct a rhombus, given one side and the altitude.
6.
is
altitudes of a
this
problem impossible?
What
properties has a
a parallelogram?
Which
Make
rhombus by virtue
a
list
of the fact
of all the properties of the
of these are special properties of the
rhombus?
SQUARES
110.
Ex.
1.
Construct a square, given one
Ex.
2.
Show
Ex.
3.
Each diagonal and each median
side.
that a square may be classified as a special kind
of a rectangle, or rhombus.
From these facts make a list of all
the properties of the square.
of
of a square
is
an
axis
symmetry.
Ex. 4. If the diagonals of a quadrilateral are equal and bisect
each other at right angles, the figure is a square.
Ex. 5. Construct a square, given one diagonal.
PLANE GEOMETRY
88
PARALLELS AND SEGMENTS ON TRANSVERSALS
TEST FOR EQUAL SEGMENTS
Theorem
111,
45.
If
a series of parallels cuts
segments on one transversal,
all
it
off
equal
cuts off equal segments on
transversals.
Fig. 160
Hypothesis:
segments
X, y,
and
A, b,
li,\\l2,\\h,\\U,
and
on transversal
Conclusion :
cut the transversal h so that
c are equal,
and cut
off
the segments
k.
x = y = z.
Analysis:
I.
II.
To prove x = y = z, draw MN, PQ, and RS
prove AMNP ^ APQR ^ ARST.
To prove
AMNP m APQR
mARST,
prove]
\\
h and
^^7= Z2= Z3
^^^^g^^g'.
Let the pupil complete the analysis and give the proof.
Ex.
1.
Prove Th. 45 by drawing the construction
the points of division on h instead of from those on
Problem
7.
To
divide a given
segment
into
lines
from
k.
any num
ber of equal parts.
From point A draw a
Solution: Let AB he the given segment.
ray making any convenient angle with AB. From point A lay off
equal divisions on this ray. The number of divisions must be the
same as the number of parts into which ^5 is to be divided. Join
the last point of division with B. Draw parallels from the other
points of division.
Let the pupil draw the figure and give the proof.
QUADRILATERALS
Ex.
2.
line
may
be divided into any
of equal parts (for example, 5) by the
construction shown in Fig. 161. Give the
number
complete directions and the proof.
Note.
to divide
sheet of ruled paper
may
be used
a segment into a given number
of
equal parts. Number the lines ps in Fig. 162.
If the segment is to be divided into 7 equal
parts, put the ends of the segment on lines
and
Why?
7.
Ex.
3.
may be
Show how a carpenter's steel square
used to divide a board into strips
of equal width (Fig. 163).
Note.
By the width of the board is meant
perpendicular distance between the sides.
the
^
Fig.
163
RELATED THEOREMS CONCERNING TRIANGLES
112.
Theorem
triangle
segment parallel to the base of a
and bisecting one side is equal to half the base.
46.
PLANE GEOMETRY
90
A segment parallel to the base of a
47.
and bisecting one side bisects the other side also.
Suggestion. Draw a line through the vertex of the triangle parallel
Theorem
113.
triangle
to the base
and apply Th.
45.
114. Theorem 48.
segment bisecting
triangle is parallel to the third side.
two sides of a
Fig. 165
points oi
A ABC, XY
In
Hypothesis:
joins
and Y, the mid
AC and BC respectively.
XY\\AB.
Conclusion:
Analysis and construction:
To prove XY\\AB, prove that
segment that is to AB.
I.
XY
coincides with a

11.
/.
draw XZ\\AB from
cides with
To prove
III.
and prove that
XZ
coin
XY,
that
XZ
coincides with
XY, show that XZ
XY both pass through X and
and
Proof
Y.
STATEMENTS
a.
I.
b.
c.
11.
XY
XZ
XZ
XY
passes through
and Y.
passes through X.
passes through Y.
and
XZ coincide.
XYWAB,
III.
Let the pupil give reasons.
Apply Th. 47
Exercise.
in Ic.
to half the base.
For
II see As. 6.
segment bisecting two sides of a triangle
is
equal
QUADRILATERALS
91
115. If three or more lines pass through a
they are said to be concurrent.
Theorem
The medians
49.
common point,
of a triangle are concurrent
from each vertex to
in a point that is twothirds the distance
the midpoint of the opposite side.
Hypothesis:
ABC is
Conclusion:
(1)
any
triangle.
The medians
are concurrent.
(2)
The
point of intersection is twothirds the distance from
each vertex to the midpoint of the opposite side.
Analysis and construction for
I.
To prove
that
AF
E and prove that AE = EB.
AE = EB, prove that AB may be the
diagonal of a 17
III.
..
prove
H so that OH = CO, join HB
AHBO a O.
HB OF (part of AF) and AH OG (part
extend
..
CE
and HA.
IV.
that the medians are concurrent, let any
two medians, as
and BG, meet at O. Join CO
and extend to
II.
(1)
To prove
to
Prove
\\
\\
oiBG).
The
proof
is left
Analysis for
Exercise.
to the pupil.
(2)
Prove
Segments
CO = % CE.
drawn
from
one
vertex of a parallelogram to the midpoints
of the opposite sides trisect the diagonal
t/
which they intersect (Fig. 167).
Fig. 167
Suggestion.
Draw
diagonal
AC
and apply Th.
49.
PLANE GEOMETRY
92
116.
Theorem
The median from
50.
right angle of a right triangle to the
the vertex of the
hypotenuse
is
onehalf
the h5rpotenuse.
ABC,
Hypothesis: In the rt.
the /.A to the hypotenuse CB.
AX =
Conclusion:
AX
is
the median from
CB.
}/2
Analysis:
I.
II.
AX = y2 CB, prove AX X5 isosceles.
AXXB isosceles, from X construct XO AC
To prove
"
"
that
\\
and prove
XO
bisector of
AB.
Let the pupil give the proof.
117.
Ex.
The
1.
following exercises are applications of Ths. 4650.
The segments
a triangle divide
Ex.
2.
it
joining the midpoints of the sides of
into four congruent triangles.
Construct a triangle, given the midpoints of
its sides.
Perpendiculars from the 'midpoints of two sides of a
to
the
third side are equal. How might this exercise be
triangle
proved if the given triangle were isosceles?
Ex.
3.
Ex. 4. If D is any point in the side ^C of a AABC, the segments joining the midpoints oi AD, DC, CB, and AB form a
parallelogram.
Ex. 5. Through a given point within an angle draw a segment terminated by the sides of the angle and bisected by the
given point.
Ex.
6.
Divide a right triangle into two isosceles triangles.
Ex.
7.
Would Ths.
well as for triangles?
46, 47, and 48 be true
Give proofs.
for parallelograms as
QUADRILATERALS
93
TRAPEZOIDS
Theorem
118.
The segment
51.
joining the midpoints of
is parallel to the bases.
the nonparallel sides of a trapezoid
.L
Fig. 169
XY joins X and Y, the midAD and BC respectively.
Hypothesis: In C^ABCD,
points of the nonparallel sides
XY AB
Conclusion:
\\
and CD.
Analysis and construction:
To prove
I.
XY
II..
draw
.*.
XY AB
\\
XZ AB
\\
cides with
To
III.
and therefore

coincides with a segment that
from
DC, prove that
AB.
is

X and prove that XZ coin
XY,
prove that
XZ coincides with XY, show.
Let the pupil complete the analysis and give the proof.
The segment joining the midpoints
sides
of a trapezoid is equal to onehalf
of the nonparallel
bases.
the sum of the
Theorem
119.
52.
~vO
Fig. 170
Analysis:
secting
XY
To prove A'F = K> (AB+DC), draw
at
and prove
XO = y^ AB
Construct a trapezoid so that
=
cm., CD=4: cm., AD 2.S cm.
Ex.
1.
and
ABQ
D^ interOY = }i DC.
cm.,
BC = 3.2
two trapezoids have the four sides of one equal
the four sides of the other, the angles of one are
to
respectively
of the other.
equal respectively to the corresponding angles
Ex.
2.
If
PLANE GEOMETRY
94
SUPPLEMENTARY EXERCISES
EXERCISES INVOLVING PARALLELOGRAMS
Be prepared
Note.
120.
to prove the theorems on which
any
of
the following exercises depend.
1.
Make a
review diagram for Th. 36.
2. Any segment drawn through the intersection of the diagonals of a parallelogram, and terminated by the sides of the parallelogram, is bisected by the point of intersection of the diagonals.
3. Perpendiculars drawn to a diagonal of a parallelogram
from the opposite vertices are equal.
4. The bisectors of two consecutive angles of a parallelogram are
perpendicular to each other.
5.
The
bisectors of
two opposite angles
of
a parallelogram
are parallel.
6.
The
bisectors
of
the angles of a parallelogram form a
rectangle.
is
7. The median to one pair of opposite sides of a parallelogram
equal and parallel to the other two sides.
8.
The medians
of a parallelogram bisect each other.
In Fig. 171, ABCD is a parallelogram.
The sides are extended through A and C so that
9.
CE = AG and CF = AH.
Prove that
EFGH
is
a parallelogram.
ABCD is a paralleloCD and AB are extended so that
DE = BF, DF cuts CB at Y and BE cuts
DA at X. Prove DX = BY.
10.
In Fig. 172,
gram.
Fig. 172
11.
DY
If,
are
drawn and
DX
made
equal to
extended to meet CD at
in Fig. 172,
is
DE = BF.
12. In Fig. 173, ABCD is a parallelogram.
DX and BY are perpendicular to ^C from
D and B respectively. DY and BX are
Prove DXBY a parallelogram.
joined.
BX and
AB at F
BY, and
and
respectively, prove
^"
Fig. 173
QUADRILATERALS
13.
AH =
In Fig. 174,
Prove
CF.
95
AE = CG
A BCD is a parallelogram.
^ AGOF.
A0^
14. Investigate the case,
Ex.
13, in
which
and
__^
E, Hj F, and G are on the side of the parallelogram extended.
pic. 174
From a Roman
floor design
OXZY is any parallelogram,
any line through O. YA XB, and ZC are
drawn from F, X, and Z respectively perpendicuProve OC = OA + OB.
lar to OC.
15. In Fig. 175,
OC
is
176 shows two forms of parallel rulers
16. Fig.
often used in mechanical drawing for constructShow how each is constructed
ing parallel lines.
and upoii what theorems in geometry the construction depends. Which one of these is sometimes used in folding gates?
ADEF are parallel respecAABC and pass through the
17. If the sides of
tively to the sides of
vertices of
BF
and
prove that FE = 2AB, and that
bisect each other (Fig. 177).
AABC,
AC
18. If the opposite
figure
is
Fig. 177
angles of a quadrilateral are equal, the
a parallelogram.
19. The sum of the perpendiculars drawn from an arbitrary
point in the base of an isosceles triangle to the equal sides is equal
to the perpendicular from one end of the base to the opposite side.
20. Investigate the case,
is
in the
Ex.
19, in
which the arbitrary point
base extended.
21. The sum of the perpendiculars drawn from an arbitrary
point within an equilateral triangle to the sides is equal to the
altitude of the triangle.
is
22. Investigate the case, Ex. 21, in which the arbitrary point
outside of the triangle.
PLANE GEOMETRY
96
EXERCISES INVOLVING SPECIAL QUADRILATERALS
121.
Are the diagonals
of a rhombus?
1.
each other?
of a rectangle?
kite?
2.
of a parallelogram perpendicular to
of a square?
Name
of a trapezoid?
of
the quadrilaterals in which the diagonals are equal
to each other.
3.
Name
by the
the quadrilaterals in which the angles are bisected
diagonals.
4. What quadrilaterals have one axis of
quadrilaterals have two axes of symmetry?
laterals
more than two axes
of
symmetry? What
Have any quadri
Name
symmetry?
the axis or the
axes in each case.
5.
What
quadrilaterals have a center of
Name
symmetry?
the center of symmetry in each case.
6.
The
7.
The
formed by joining the midpoints of the sides
figure
of a rectangle
is
figure
a rhombus
is
a rhombus.
formed by joining the midpoints of the sides of
a rectangle.
8. The figure formed
of a square is a square.
9.
In Fig. 178,
distances
A BCD
is
is
joining the midpoints of the sides
a square with the equal
etc., measured on the
AE, BF, BG, CH,
sides in each direction
EHKN
by
and
from the
FGLM are
vertices;
rectangles
prove that
and that
XYZW
a square.
11.
In Fig. 179,
ABDC is
are divided into the
a rectangle,
same number
parts and the points joined as indicated.
that the figures formed are rhombuses.
A BCD
AB and
is
a rhombus
M y
E F G
of equal
Prove
Would
be possible to construct the figure so that
squares are formed instead of rhombuses?
it
JTB
Fig. 178
10. Investigate the case, Ex. 9, in which
or a rectangle instead of a square.
CD
^'
Fig. 179
QUADRILATERALS
12.
In
180,
Fig.
square with
its
A BCD is a
A C and BD.
diagonals
AE = BF=CG = DH. GW
and
are parallel to AC, and
are parallel to DB.
FZ
WXYZ
is
YE
and
Prove
HX
that
97
Fig. 180a
a square.
Parquet
floor
design
Given A BCD a square with
U AX = CY, prove
that 5FZ)X is a rhombus (Fig.
13.
i4
a diagonal.
181).
Is
A BCD
is
is
this
exercise
a rhombus?
true
if
A BCD
If
Investigate the case, Ex.
extended.
14.
AC
13,
hi
DABCD
In Fig. 182 given the
midpoints of the sides, and the
15.
points joined as indicated.
is a square.
that
Fig. 181a
Fig. 181
any parallelogram?
parquet
which
floor design
and
with , F, G, and
are on
the
p_
Prove
WXYZ
Analysis:
To
prove
it a
WXYZ
a
Zl=a
rt.
with
D,
prove
WX = XY and
Fig. 182 a
Fig. 182
Parquet
floor design
Z.
16.
A BCD is a square with AX = BY
^
Prove that PFXFZ is a square.
In Fig. 183,
CZ = DW.
z B
Fig. 183
From a Roman
floor design
In Fig. 184, ABC is an isosceles triangle
ZC = art.Z,C0^5 from C. AX=XY=YB.
XW and YZ are AB from X and Y. Prove that
17.
with
PFXFZ
18.
is
Construct a square that shall have
rhombus.
sides of a
Fig. 184
a square.
its
vertices
on the
PLANE GEOMETRY
98
EXERCISES INVOLVING PARALLELS AND TRANSVERSALS
Be prepared
Note.
to prove the theorems on which
any
of
2.
Make review diagrams for Ths. 45,
Name two important special cases
3.
Prove the converse to each of the theorems called for
in
122.
the following exercises depend.
1.
49,
of
and
50.
Th. 45.
Ex.2.
4. The segments which join the midpoints of
the sides of a quadrilateral taken in order form a
parallelogram
Prove Ex. 4 for a concave quadrilateral
a cross quadrilateral.
5.
and
The medians
J^
for
6.
^f
'[//
(Fig.. 185).
Fig.
185
of a quadrilateral bisect each other.
join the midpoints of two opposite
sides of a quadrilateral to the midpoints of the diagonals form a
The segments which
7.
parallelogram.
8. If from two opposite vertices of a parallelogram segments
are drawij to the midpoints of the opposite sides, these segments
trisect the diagonal joining the other two vertices.
9.
It is said
that an Arab, about 900 a.d., trisected a given
is the same
segment as in Fig. 186. Show that this
construction as that given in Ex. 8.
10.
segment joining the midpoints of the nona trapezoid bisects both diagonals.
parallel sides of
11.
p^,^
jgg^
The segment
trapezoid
is
joining the midpoints of the diagonals of a
to
the bases and equal to >^ their difference.
parallel
one leg
ot a trapezoid is perpendicular to the bases, the
the
midpoint of the other leg to the extremities
segments joining
of the first leg are equal.
12. If
the midpoints of the legs of an isosceles triangle are
the midpoint of the base, the figure formed is a
to
joined
13. If
rhombus.
Given A BCD a trapezoid with the base AB twice the base
diagonals AC and BD intersect at 0. Prove that ^O is
twice OC.
14.
CD.
The
Suggestion.
Join the midpoints of .40 and
OB
with
and
C.
CHAPTER V
Inequalities
ASSUMPTIONS FOR COMBINING INEQUALITIES
123. To As. 28 and As. 29 in chapter iii, which were
assumptions of inequality, we must now add the following:
If equal segments (or angles) are added to
segments
(or angles), the resulting segments (or
unequal
angles) are unequal in the same order.
As. 31.
As. 32. If equal segments (or angles) are subtracted
from unequal segments (or angles), the resulting segments
(or angles) are unequal in the same order.
If unequal segments (or angles) are added to
segments
(or angles) the greater to the greater and
unequal
the lesser to the lesser, the resulting segments (or angles)
As. 33.
are unequal in the
same
order.
As. 34. If unequal segments (or angles) are subtracted
from equal segments (or angles), the resulting segments (or
angles) are unequal in the opposite order.
If unequal segments (or angles) are mtdtiplied
the
same
number, the resulting segments (or angles) are
by
in
the
same order.
unequal
As. 35.
As. 36.
unequal segments (or angles) are divided by
If
the same number, the resulting segments (or angles) are
unequal in the same order.
Exercise.
Illustrate each of the foregoing assumptions, using
numbers to represent the lengths
of degrees in the angles.
99
of the
segments or the number
PLANE GEOMETRY
100
FUNDAMENTAL TESTS OF INEQUALITY
124.
The fundamental
in 57, the
125.
Th.
whole
test of inequality
greater than any of
is
is
As. 29, given
its parts.
TEST FOR UNEQUAL ANGLES
The fundamental theorem for unequal
an exterior angle
8,
of
a triangle
is
angles
is
greater than
either of the nonadjacent interior angles.
126.
TESTS FOR UNEQUAL SEGMENTS
The two following tests for unequal segments are
As. 37 may be called the fundamental test for
unequal segments. It is known to every one who goes
'cross lots rather than around the corner.
important.
As. 37.
The sum
of
two sides of a triangle
is
greater
than the third.
As. 38.
is less
Ex.
11, 19,
Ex.
The
between two sides
difference
How many
1.
If
2.
triangles can be
two sides
and lower
of
3.
If
Ex.
4.
The sum
point in the side
of the diagonals of
The perimeter
5.
of*
BC
AABC,
of
any quadrilateral
is
greater
sides.
a quadrilateral
is
greater than the
of its diagonals.
Ex.
of these
fiom a point within a triangle segments
to the vertices of the triangle, the sum
If
6.
drawn
segments
is
greater than >^ the perimeter of
the triangle.
Ex.
7,
a triangle are 8 cm. and 15 cm., what
than the sum of either pair of opposite
are
formed with the sides
limits of the third side?
D is an arbitrary
AB+BC+AC > 2AD.
Ex.
Ex.
a triangle
and 15 cm.?
are the upper
sum
of
than the third side.
7.
The median
than }4 the sum
to one side of a triangle is less
of the other two sides (Fig. 187).
J''
Fig. 187
INEQUALITVES."
127.
Theorem
53.
ments are drawn
is less
from a point within a triangle segone side, their sum
the other two sides of the triangle.
If
to the extremities of
sum
than the
101
of
Pig. 188
Ift
Hypothesis:
from point
AABC,
segments
DA
and
DB
are
drawn
AB.
to the extremities of
AD+DB < AC\CB.
Conclusion:
Analysis and construction: To prove AD\DB< AC\CB,
to meet BC at E and prove
extend
DE\EB and
DB<
AD
AD\DE<AC+CE.
Proof:
STATEMENTS
1.
DB<DE\EB.
2.
AD+DE<AC+CE.
3.
,\
DB\AD{DE<DE+EB+AC+CE.
4.
.\
DB+ADKEB+CE+AC.
5.
:.
DB\AD<BC+AC.
Let the pupil give the reasons.
For 4 use As.
For 3 use As. 33.
Ex.
1.
The sum
the vertices
is less
of the distances from any point in a triangle to
than the perimeter of the triangle.
Ex.
2.
In Fig. 188 prove that
Ex.
3.
If
<AB+AC,
8
32.
is
any point
ZADB>ZC.
in the side
AC
of
AABC, OC+OB
PLANE GEOMETRY
lOS
TESTS FOR UNEQUAL SIDES AND ANGLES IN ONE
TRIANGLE
If one angle of a
128. Theorem 54.
triangle
than a second, the side opposite the first angle
than the side opposite the second angle.
is
greater
is
greater
Fig. 189
Hypothesis:
Conclusion:
AB> /.A.
AABC,
AC > CB.
In
Analysis and construction:
I.
AC > CB, construct a triangle with BC for
one side such that the sum of the other two sides
To prove
shall equal
II.
/.
construct
is,
so that
and
The proof
AC.
from point B so that OB = OA, that
Z 2 = Z 1, and compare AC with OC^OB
OB
OC+OB with CB.
is left
to the pupil.
129. Theorem 55.
If one side of a triangle is greater than
a second, the angle opposite the greater side is greater than
the angle opposite the lesser side.
Fig. 190
AABC,
Hypothesis:
In
Conclusion :
AB> /.A.
AOCB.
INEQUALITIES
103
Analysis and construction:
ZB>ZA,
To prove
I.
that
II.
.*.
on
is
compare
ZB
with an angle
greater than /.A.
AC take CD = CB,
ZB and ZA.
draw BD, and compare Z
with
Proof:
STATEMENTS
I.
11.
III.
a.
Zl=
b.
ZB >Z2.
c.
:.ZB>Z\.
Z2.
Zl>ZA.
ZB> ZA.
..
Let the pupil give the reasons.
Ex.
1.
Review Ths. 3 and 24 concerning the equal
sides
and
angles of a triangle.
Prove Th. 55 by an indirect proof.
Prove Th. 55 by the following construction:
Bisect
Z C, continue the bisector to meet ABaX E. On CA take CD = CB.
Join E and D.
Ex.
2.
Ex.
3.
Ex.
4.
'
In Fig. 191,
dicular bisector of
AB.
XO
ZW
is
the perpen
AB.
If point
to the right and to the left along ZW,
will the relative lengths of CA and CB
\\
C moves
how
What
change?
How
will
will
be the limits of
the relative sizes ol
Z CAB
and
AA
Fig. 19i
change?
Ex.
5.
The
angles at the extremities of the greater side of a
triangle are acute.
Ex.
DB
Ex.
Ex.
6.
If,
in
a ^ BCD, BC < CD,
does not bisect
6.
Z Z), but Z 2 < Z
the diagonal
(Fig.
192).
State and investigate the converse of ^^
Prove your conclusion.
7.
Fig. 192
Ex. 8. An angle of a triangle is right, acute, or obtuse according as the median from its vertex is equal to, greater than, or less
than half the side that it bisects.
104
PLANE GEOMETRY
130.
DISTANCES AND OBLIQUE SEGMENTS
Theorem 56. The perpendicular is the
segment from a point
The proof
Ex.
the
1.
sum
Ex.
is left
The
a straight
shortest
line.
to the pupil.
altitude to one side of a triangle
of the other
2.
to
The sum
two
is less
than half
sides.
of the three altitudes of a triangle
is
less
than
the perimeter.
The distance between a point and a line is defined as the
length of the perpendicular from the point to the line.
Theorem
If from a point in a perpendicular to a
two oblique segments are drawn cutting the
straight line at unequal distances from the foot of the perpendicular, the more remote is the greater.
57.
straight line
0'
Fig.
Hypothesis: AO _L line
are so drawn that
and
AC
Conclusion:
o
193
and the oblique segments
AB
OB>OC.
AB>AC.
Analysis:
I.
To prove AB > AC, prove Z 2 > Z 1.
"
Z2>Z1, " Z 2 an obtuse angle.
"
"
Z2 an obtuse angle, prove Z2 > Z4.
*
II.
III.
If from a point in a perpendicular to a
two unequal oblique segments are drawn, the
line at the greater distance from
greater cuts the straight
Theorem
58.
straight line
the foot of the perpendicular.
Suggestion.
Use an
indirect proof.
INEQUALITIES
105
TESTS FOR UNEQUAL SIDES AND ANGLES IN
TRIANGLES
TWO
Theorem
If two triangles have two sides of one
59.
two sides of the other, but the included angle of one
greater than the included angle of the other, the third side
of the first is greater than the third side of the second.
131.
equal to
Fig. 194
In
Hypothesis:
and
^ABC sxid A' B'C\AB = A' B\BC = B'C\
ZB> ZB\
AC>A'C.
Conclusion:
Analysis and construction:
I.
To prove AC>A'C\ compare
that
II.
is
place
..
greater than
AC
with a segment
A'C
AA'B'C on \ABC
so that A'B' coin
AB, A' on A, and B' on B. Bisect
LC'BC\ let the bisector meet AC at X\ join XC
Compare AXAXC with AC and AC,
To compare AX\XC' with AC, prove XC = XC.
cides with
III.
Let the pupil complete the analysis and give the proof.
In constructing Fig. 194 according to state
Discussion.
ment
will fall
may happen that point
on the Hne AC or within the triangle as well as in the position shown in the figure,
li
falls within the triangle, the
falls
proof is the same as for the case given above. If
on AC, the theorem is evident without proof.
II of the analysis it
Exercise.
Z i4
is less
If,
in
EJABCD, ZA<ZB,
than the diagonal opposite Z B.
the diagonal opposite
PLANE GEOMETRY
106
If two triangles have two sides of
132. Theorem 60.
one equal to two sides of the other, but the third side of
one greater than the third side of the other, the angle
the first is greater than the
the second.
the
third
side
of
angle opposite
the
opposite
third side of
Use an
Suggestion.
indirect proof.
Exercise.
Review any theorem or theorems concerning congruent triangles that are closely related to Ths. 59 and 60.
SUPPLEMENTARY EXERCISES
Be prepared to prove the theorems on which any of
133. Note.
the following exercises depend.
Name
1.
the theorems that are tests for unequal angles; for
unequal segments.
2.
If,
AABC,
in
In quadrilateral
3.
CD
4.
is
and B, prove
If
in
ZADB
is
AB in AABC, and
CD is joined to A
^X+^^<^I^+^I^.
bisected at right angles
is
drawn and
ZXBA > ZXAB.
straight line.
that
any point
In Fig. 195 prove that
5.
is
AD=BC and ZD>
A BCD,
the median to side
ZB > ZA.
^^'
AD
LB > ZA.
Prove
jLC,
the median
AC> AB.
acute, prove
is
any point
by ZY. J5^'
ZY. Prove
in
is
also
Pig. 196
Zr=Z2.
Ex. 5 illustrates some important facts from physics.
Note.
XY represents a plane mirror with a candle
E represents the eye. The reflection C of the
Fig. 196,
In
in front of
it.
candle seems to be as far behind the mirror as C is
The light from C strikes the mirror at
it.
in front of
M and
turned back to the eye at E so that the
The light
is the least possible.
Zl= Z2.
C.
Also
from
to
come
directly
appears
Similar relations hold when an elastic object strikes
a surface and rebounds freely.
is
distance
CME
c'
Fig.
1!
INEQUALITIES
6.
is
at
107
Show how to find the path of a billiard ball which
A (Fig. 197) and which is struck so as to rebound
from the
XY and strike
side of the table
ball B.
Fig. 197
Show
the path of a billiard ball which is struck so as to
rebound from each side of the table and return to its original
7.
(From O.
position.
Elementary
Henrici,
Geometry,
Congruent
Figures.)
Prove Th. 54 by the construction shown
8.
in
Fig. 198.
A nalysis:
I.
fB
prove i4C>CS, construct a triangle with AC
for one side such that the difference between
the other two sides will be BC.
To
II.
Z1=Z2
construct
.'.
and compare
Prove Th. 55 by the construction shown
9.
in
Fig. 199.
Analysis:
I.
To
II.
If
Zl, compare
Z4 with an
angle that
greater than Zl.
construct
.'.
10.
Z4 >
prove
is
^O
so that
two opposite
Z2= Z3
and compare
sides of a quadrilateral are equal
but the
diagonals are unequal, the angles which are opposite the longer
diagonal are respectively greater than the angles which are opposite
the shorter diagonal.
two
11. If
median drawn
drawn to the longer
sides of a triangle are unequal, the
to the shorter side
is
longer than the median
side (Fig. 200).
Analysis:
I.
To
prove
CX > AY,
prove
CO > AO.
(See Th. 49.)
II.
CO > AO, draw the median BZ and
ACZO and AAZO.
To compare ACZO and AAZO, prove Zl>'
To
prove
compare
III.
Z2.
IV.
To
prove
Zl >Z2, compare
ACZB
and
AAZB,
CHAPTER
VI
Circles and Related Lines
INTRODUCTORY
DEFINITIONS
134.
We
chord,
and
Two
have already defined
arc.
circle,
radius,
diameter,
(See 12.)
circles or
two
arcs that can be
made
to coincide are
called congruent circles or arcs.
we
two ways of
and by the
number of degrees that it contains. Each method gives a
numerical measure for the arc, but the measures and the
methods are different. Before two arcs can be made to
coincide they must have not only the same measure but the
same radius. Congruent arcs will have, the same measure
whichever method is used in measuring them and will be
In succeeding chapters
measuring an
arc,
shall
namely: by
its
consider
length
called equal arcs.
The chord
joining the ends of an arc is called the chord of
Every arc has one and only one chord. Every
chord, however, has two arcs. If the chord is a diameter,
If
its two arcs are congruent and are called semicircles.
the chord is not a diameter, its two arcs are unequal. The
larger arc of a chord is called the major arc and the smaller
arc is called the minor arc.
the arc.
An angle with its vertex at the center of a circle is called
a central angle. The sides of the angle cut off two arcs on
a circle. The minor arc cut off by the sides of a central
angle is said to be the arc intercepted by the angle,
108
CIRCLES
136.
As.
ASSUMPTIONS CONCERNING CIRCLES
we have:
Circles with equal radii are congruent.
9.
Congruent
As. 39.
The diameter
circle
have equal radii.
shall add the following:
a circle is twice its radius.
circles
these two assumptions
As. 40.
its
109
In 29
As. 10.
To
AND RELATED LINES
of
we
located definitely
is
if its
center and
radius are known.
As. 41. If a line passes through a point within a circle,
the Hne and the circle intersect in two and only two points.
Every diameter
As. 42.
As. 43.
an
axis
ter as
bisects the circle.
symmetric with respect to any diameand with respect to its center as a center.
circle is
Between the same two points on a circle there
one and only one minor arc of the circle, provided these
points are not the ends of a diameter.
As. 44.
is
As. 45.
the center
As. 46.
segment joining a point within a circle and
shorter than the radius.
is
If
a segment that has one end at the center of a
than the radius, it lies wholly within the
circle is shorter
circle.
As. 47.
the center
As. 48.
is
If
segment joining a point without a
longer than the radius.
circle
and
a segment that has one end at the center of
it extends without the
longer than the radius,
circle and cuts the circle but once.
circle
As. 49.
is
In the same
circle or in congiiient circles
central angles intercept equal
minor
equal
arcs.
As. 50. In the same circle or in congruent circles equal
minor arcs intercept equal central angles.
Note. Ass. 49 and 50 should be verified. Draw the figures on
fairfy
thin paper, place the centers together, and hold to the light.
may be drawn to illustrate Ass. 3948.
Figures
The assumptions in
30 are true fpr ^rcs of the same circle.
PLANE GEOMETRY
110
RELATED ARCS, CHORDS, AND CENTRAL ANGLES
136. Ass. 49 and 50 are closely related to the two following theorems and should be learned with them.
Theorem
61.
In the same circle or in congruent circles
A. Equal chords intercept equal central angles.
B. Equal central angles intercept equal chords.
Fig. 201
Suggestion.
Prove by congruent
Theorem
62.
triangles.
In the same circle or in congruent circles
A. Equal chords have equal minor arcs.
B. Equal minor arcs have equal chords.
Analysts A:
To prove BC = ZT, prove /.A= ZX.
Use Th. 61A and As.
49.
Analysis B:
To prove BC = ZY, prove /.A= AX.
Use
As. 50
Ex.
1.
If
and Th. 61 B.
two
circles are
not congruent, can an arc of one be
congruent to an arc of the other?
Ex.
2.
For what
special cases
do the proofs
of Ths. 61
and
62 have no meaning?
Ex.
3.
Ex., 4.
Show how
to bisect a given arc.
A ray from the center of a circle through
of a chord is perpendicular to the chord
chord.
and
the midpoint
bisects the arc of the
CIRCLES
AND RELATED LINES
CHORDS
111
GENERAL
IN
FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM
Theorem
137.
63.
bisects the chord
and
radius perpendicular to a chord
its arc.
Hypothesis:
OO, and
Conclusion:
The
analysis
Ex.
The
the radius
CO
OO
Fig. 202
is
any
bisects the
and the proof are
AB
AB and the
left to
Investigate the case
1.
circle;
is
any chord
of
OC AB.
in
AB.
the pupil.
which
AB
(Fig.
202)
is
diameter.
Ex. 2. Construct through a given point within a circle a chord
that shall be bisected at the given point.
Ex.
If a diameter is perpendicular to a chord, the quadriformed by joining the extremities of the chord to the
3.
lateral
extremities of the diameter
Ex.
both of
is
kite.
have the same center and a line intersects
them, the segments intercepted between the circles are
If
4.
two
circles
equal.
Draw a radius perpendicular to the given
segments from equal segments.
Suggestion.
tract equal
Ex.
of
and sub
5.
an arc
line
is
segment from the center of a circle to the midpoint
a perpendicular bisector of the chord of the arc.
Ex. 6. If, in a circle whose center is 0, B is the midpoint of
ACf perpendiculars from B to AO and CO are equal.
Ex. 7. If two circles intersect, the segment that joins the
centers bisects the
common
chord at right angles.
is formed by the radii drawn to the
Show that a kite
Suggestion^
points of intersection.
PLANE GEOMETRY
112
138.
TEST FOR DIAMETERS
Theorem 64. The perpendicular bisector
passes through the center of the
of
a chord
circle.
Fig. 203
OO
Hypothesis:
Xy is
the
any
is
bisector of
_L
Conclusion:
AB
circle;
is
any chord
of
OO;
AB.
XY passes through point O.
Analysis and construction:
I.
11.
that XY passes through point 0, prove that
XY coincides with a line that passes through O.
construct OZ from
J_ AB and prove that XY
To prove
.*.
OZ coincide.
and
IIL
To prove
that
are both
XY and OZ
bisectors of
show that they
coincide,
AB.
Proof:
STATEMENTS
I.
a.
6.
c.
II.
III.
REASONS
Xy is the _L bisector of A6.
OZ
OZ
_L
I.
AB.
bisects
AB.
a.
Given.
h.
Construction.
c.
XY coincides with OZ.
XY passes through point O.
II.
IIL
Why?
(See As. 7.)
Why?
CONSTRUCTION AND DEFINITE LOCATION OF CIRCLES
139. Ex.
To
1.
Ex.
2.
find the center for a given arc.
Find the intersection
Suggestion.
To
of
two diameters.
construct a circle that shall pass through the three
vertices of a triangle.
Suggestion.
The
sides of the triangle will be chords of the circle.
CIRCLES AND RELATED LINES
113
One and only one circle can be drawn
65.
noncollinear
three
points.
through
Theorem
The proof
We
two methods
have, therefore,
definitely
a.
to the pupil.
is left
If
of
locating
circles
the center and radius are known, the circle
is
located definitely (As. 40).
6.
If
points,
through three given noncollinear
circle passes
it is
located definitely (Th. 65).
TEST FOR EQUAL CHORDS
140.
Theorem
66.
If in
the
same
circle or in
from the center
circles perpendiculars
to
congruent
two chords are
equal, the chords are equal.
Fig. 204
OA = eX, AD BC
Hypothesis:
from A,
XZ YW
iromX, SindAD = XZ.
Conclusion :
BC=YW,
Analysis and
construction:
CD=wz, CD=y2
CB,
To prove
BCYW,
prove
wz=y2 yw.
Let the pupil complete the analysis and give the prooL
Exercise.
141.
State
all tests for
equal chords.
EQUAL DISTANCES
Theorem 67. In the same circle
circles perpendiculars
are equal.
from the center
to
(See Fig. 204.)
Let the pupil give the analysis and the proof.
or in congruent
two equal chords
PLANE GEOMETRY
114
TANGENTS
TESTS FOR TANGENTS
142.
line that
touches a circle at one point but does not
This definition is the
called a tangent to the circle.
fundamental test for tangents.
cut
it is
The point at which the tangent touches the circle is called
the point of contact or the point of tangency of the tangent.
143.
Theorem
radius at
its
68.
line
outer extremity
which is perpendicular
a tangent to the circle.
to a
is
Fig. 205
OO
Hypothesis:
line
AB OA
any
is
circle;
Conclusion:
AB
Analysis and
construction:
i.
To prove
all
II.

radius
OA
is
any radius;
at A.
is
tangent to
OO at A.
AB is tangent to OO at A, prove that
AB except A lie outside the circle.
that any point in AB other than A, such as
that
points in
To prove
M, lies
OM >
outside the
circle, join
O and
and prove
OA.
Proof:
REASONS
STATEMENTS
I.
II.
OM >
.'.
OA.
lies
outside
I.
OO.
III. All
points except
outside OO.
IV.
..
AB
is
tangent to
II.
lie
Th. 56 (quote in
As. 48.
III. Since
AB
OO.
IV.
full).
is any point in
other than A.
Whyi
CIRCLES AND RELATED LINES
115
To construct a tangent to a circle at
144. Problem 8.
a given point on the circle.
Ex. 1. Construct a circle of given radius tangent to a given
line at a given point.
Ex.
Show
2.
at a given point
that only one tangent can be
on the circle.
drawn to a
circle
TEST FOR PERPENDICULARS
145.
Theorem
69.
drawn
to the radius
tangent to a circle
is
perpendicular
to the point of contact.
Fig. 206
OO
Hypothesis:
OA
is
is
any
circle,
Conclusion:
AO
Analysis and
construction:
L'
II.
AB
is
tangent to
the radius drawn to the point of contact
OO
A
at
AB.
AO AB, show that the supposition that
AB is not J_ AO'^leads to an absurdity.
If AO is not J_ AB, suppose some other line, as DO^
is AB, and show that the supposition that DO is
AB contradicts the hypothesis.
To prove
Ex.
1.
Two
Ex.
2.
tangents at
tangents at the ends of a diameter are parallel.
diameter bisects
all
chords that are parallel to the
its extremities.
LENGTHS OF TANGENTS; TEST FOR EQUAL SEGMENTS
IIG. Theorem 70.
If two tangents meet at a point without a circle, the distances from the intersection to the points
of tangency are equal.
The analysis and the proof are left to the pupil.
PLANE GEOMETRY
116
TEST FOR DIAMETERS
Theorem
147.
71.
perpendicular to a tangent at the
point of contact passes through the center of the circle.
Fig. 207
Hypothesis:
AC AB
Sit
Conclusion:
In QO,
A.
AB
is
tangent to
AC passes through
OO
at
and
0.
Analysis and construction:
AC
To prove
that
passes through 0, prove that
coincides with a Hne that does pass through 0.
I.
11.
and
connect
.*.
and prove that
AO
and
AC
AC
coincide.
To prove
III.
are both
The
proof
is left
AO and AC
AB at A.
that
to
coincide,
show that they
(See As. 7.)
to the pupil.
EXERCISES INVOLVING TANGENTS
Construct a line that shall be tangent to a given
and parallel to a given line.
148.
2.
1.
Construct a
line
that shall be tangent to a given circle
and perpendicular to a given
3.
Construct a
make a
circle
line.
that shall be tangent to a given circle and
line
given angle with a given
line.
4.
tangent to a
circle at
the midpoint of an arc
is
parallel
to the chord of the arc.
5.
which
If
is
two
circles
have the same center, a chord
a tangent of the inner
is
of the larger
of tangency.
at
the
point
b^isected
CIRCLES AND RELATED LINES
117
6. If two circles have the same center, chords of the larger which
are tangents of the inner are equal.
circle meet at a point
the bisector of the angle between
the tangents passes through the center of the circle.
7.
If
two tangents to a
without the
8.
circle,
Fig. 208
shows an instrument that
used to find the center of a metal disk.
made and how would
TWO
it
may
How
be
is it
be used?
CIRCLES AND RELATED LINES
DEFINITIONS
@6)999
No.
yo. 3
So. 2
No. 6
So. 5
So. 4
Fig. 209
shows the
209
149. Fig.
possible relations of
six
two
circles.
Two
circles are said to
same center
(Fig.
209, No.
Two
circles are said to
The
line passing
be concentric
if
they have the
1).
be tangent if they have but one
common point. They may be tangent internally as in
Fig. 209, No. 3, or tangent externally as in Fig. 209, No. 5.
This definition is the fundamental test for tangent circles.
through the centers of two
called the line of centers of the
The segment through
circles is called
150.
the
two
circles is
circles.
the points of intersection of two
chord of the two circles.
common
Since any diameter of a circle
we will assume
Th^ line of centers
is
an
axis of
symmetry
of that circle,
As. 51.
sjnnmetry of the two
Exercise.
of
two
circles is
an axis
circles.
When have two
circles
a center of symmetry?
of
lis
PLANE GE:OMETRY
INTERSECTING CIRCLES
Theorem
151.
72.
If
two
circles intersect in
one point
not on the line of centers, they intersect in two points.
Fig, 210
(DA and
Hypothesis:
line of centers
intersect at point
intersect in a second point.
not on the
AB.
(DA and
Conclusion:
To prove that (DA and B intersect at a
second point, prove that there is on each circle one
point P' which is symmetric to point P.
Analysis:
Cor.
two
If
circles intersect, the points of intersection
are symmetric points.
We
will
assume as evident that
Two
As. 52.
circles
cannot intersect at more than two
points.
Theorem
centers
is
Suggestion.
Ex.
1.
ment and
73.
If
any two
circles intersect, the line of
the perpendicular bisector of the
Prove by folding the
figure
Use Th. 73 to construct a
on the axis of symmetry.
bisector to a given seg
If two equal circles intersect, the
Ex.
tends equal central angles in the two circles.
3.
In Fig. 211,
equal (D intersecting at
centers meets the
Prove
chord.
to construct a _L to a line from a point not in the line.
2.
Ex.
common
0
ZACB=ZADB,
common chord
and 0' are two
A and B. The line of
at C and QO' at D.
cf
sub
CIRCLES AND RELATED LINES
Theorem 74. If two congruent circles
common chord is an axis of symmetry of the
119
152.
the
intersect,
figure.
Fig. 212
Suggestion.
on point B.
Cor.
If
Fold the figure on PP' as an
The
two congruent
joining the centers and the
bisectors of each other.
Exercise.
axis.
Point
will fall
circles will coincide.
Solve Ex.
1,
circles intersect,
common
151,
the segment
chord are perpendicular
by Th. 74 Cor.
TANGENT CIRCLES
153.
Theorem
75.
If
two
circles
meet
at a point
on
their
line of centers, the circles are tangent.
Fig. 213
Suggestion.
Use an indirect proof. Suppose that they have a
See Th. 72 and Th. 65, 139.
second point in common.
CoR.
is
I.
If
the segment joining the centers of two circles
sum of the radii, the circles are tangent
equal to the
externally.
CoR. IL
is
If
the segment joining the centers of two circles
equal to the difference between the radii* the circles are
tangent internally.
PLANE GEOMETRY
120
Theorem
contact
76.
and
Show that they have a common
OX, at point 0. Construct OX.
Ex.
In Fig. 214,
2.
are tangent, the point of
indirect proof.
In Fig. 214,
1.
circles
line of centers.
Use an
Suggestion.
Ex.
two
If
on the
is
XY
and
are
tangent at
XY = XZ
Ex.
if
Y and Z
XZ
are tan
Fig. 214
are the points of contact.
^ and B are two equal circles
the common tangent at the
any point on XF may be the
In Fig. 215,
3.
tangent at C.
XY
is
point C. Prove that
center of a circle tangent to
Ex.
0.
r^
gent to d) A and B respectively from any
Prove
point in the common tangent OX.
that
point
tangent,
In Fig. 216,
4.
A and B
Y
Fig. 215
and B.
are
two equal
XF is a bisector of the
Prove that any point on XF
circles.
nonintersecting
line of centers AB.
may be the center of a circle tangent to A and B.
Ex.
5.
Investigate the case, Ex.
Ex.
6.
Show how
each of two
Ex.
circles
4,
if
Fig. 216
the circles intersect.
to construct circles that will be tangent to
concentric circles.
7.
With three given segments as radii construct three
each tangent to the other two.
SUPPLEMENTARY EXERCISES
EXERCISES INVOLVING INSCRIBED AND
CIRCUMSCRIBED POLYGONS
154.
polygon
vertices are
on the
is
said to be inscribed in a circle
circle
and
its
if its
sides are chords of the
In this case the circle is said to be circumscribed
about the polygon. A polygon is said to be circumscribed
about a circle if its sides are tangent to the circle. In this
case the circle is said to be inscribed in the polygon.
circle.
CIRCLES AND RELATED LINES
an
Inscribe
1.
121
equilateral octagon in a given circle.
Suggestion. It is necessary to divide the pcrigon at the center of
the circle into 8 equal parts.
Inscribe an equilateral hexagon in a given circle.
2.
Suggestion. Onesixth of the perigon
60 constructed?
Inscribe
3.
also
one of 16
an equilateral polygon
is
60.
are angles of
of 12 sides in a given circle;
sides.
Prove that the polygons constructed
4.
How
in Exs. 1, 2,
and 3 are
regular.
a regular pentagon
If
5.
is
inscribed in a circle,
its
diagonals are
equal.
The
Note.
pupil cannot construct a regular pentagon at present
without a protractor.
of the longer
Any
6.
diagonals
diameter of the circumscribed
How many
7.
AB
CD
The sum
is
circle?
two diameters
and
Prove that tangents at
are
each other.
9.
a regular hexagon
sets of equal diagonals has a regular octagon?
Are any of them diameters of the
8.
of
circle.
of
two opposite
lateral is equal to the
sum
of the
of a circle perpendicular to
their extremities
form a square.
sides of a circumscribed quadri
two remaining
sides.
10. AX and BX are tangents to 0 And meet at point X
without OO. AO and BO are radii drawn to the points of
contact A and B. Prove that Z0\ ZX = 2 rt. A that OX bisects
ZO and ZX and is a perpendicular bisector of the chord AB.
;
To
11.
circumscribe about a given circle a triangle
shall be equal to three given angles.
whose angles
Analysis and directions:
I.
To
circumscribe a triangle about a
the sides tangent to the
II.
To
construct
construct
ZA
circle,
construct
circle.
equal to one of the given angles,
to the supplement of Z^ (Fig. 217).
Z YOX equal
Let the pupil complete the directions, construct the
the proof.
figure,
and give
PLANE GEOMETRY
122
MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES
Note.
155.
Be prepared
to prove the theorems on which
any
of
the following exercises depend'.
1. If two lines intersect at a point within a circle and make
equal angles with the segment joining the point of intersection and
the center of the circle, the chords cut off are equal.
Investigate the case, Ex. 1, {a) when the point of intersection
circle; (b) when the point of intersection is without the
2.
is
on the
circle.
3. If two equal chords intersect within a circle, they make equal
angles with the segment joining the point of intersection and the
center of the circle.
Investigate the case, Ex. 3, (a) when the equal chords intercircle; (b) when the equal chords are segments of lines
4.
sect
on the
that intersect without the
5.
A perpendicular
circle.
bisector of a chord bisects all chords parallel
to the given chord.
6.
7.
If
8.
Two
line joining the midpoints of two parallel chords passes
the
center of the circle.
through
a tangent and^a chord are
parallel,
they cut
off
equal arcs.
parallel chords in a circle cut off equal arcs.
Suggestion. Draw a diameter perpendicular to one of the chords and
use the As.
Equal arcs subtracted from equal arcs give equal arcs.
:
9.
chord through the point of tangency of tangent
subtends equal central angles in the two
10.
by two
line
circles.
through the center of a circle is cut
Prove that the segments
parallel tangents.
cut from this line between the tangents and the
circle are equal.
11. In Fig. 218, AB is any chord and CD is a
diameter intersecting the chord. DE and CF are
AB from D and C respectively. Prove that
AE = BF.
is
CD
12. In Fig. 219, ^^ is any chord in O 0.
a diameter drawn to the midpoint of arc AB.
Prove
/1=Z2.
circles
CHAPTER
VII
Circles and Related Angles
RELATION BETWEEN CENTRAL ANGLES AND
THEIR ARCS
UNITS FOR MEASUREMENT *OF ARCS
156.
There are two ways by which an arc
is
measured:
In
length and by the number of degrees it contains.
this chapter we consider the measure of an arc in degrees.
by
its
The number of degrees in an arc is closely related to the
number of degrees in certain angles.
The degree of angle is Meo of a complete rotation. Since
in the same circle equal central angles intercept equal arcs,
Heo of a complete rotation about any point, as O, will intercept Keo of any circle drawn with O as center. The arc
of
circle is
circle.
of one degree at the center
taken as a unit for measuring the arcs of that
by the unit angle
intercepted
The
unit arc
a degree of
is
therefore
Meo
of the circle
and
is
Smaller units are obtained by
using smaller divisions of the dngle. An arc of one minute
An arc of
(') corresponds to a central angle of one minute.
called
one second
Ex.
1.
gruent?
2.
how many
Ex.
3.
corresponds to a central angle of one second.
Are two angles of the same number of degrees conAre two arcs of the same number of degrees always
congruent?
Ex.
(")
arc.
Illustrate
by a
figure.
a wheel makes 250 revolutions a minute, through
degrees does it revolve in one second?
If
If
a A BCD
degrees in the arc
is
inscribed
AB?
123
in
circle,
how many
PLANE GEOMETRY
124
FUNDAMENTAL RELATION
a central angle of 30 intercepts an
arc of 30; a central angle of 42 7' 15" intercepts an arc of
42 7' 15".
shall accordingly assume that if the measure
of a central angle is any number whatsoever, the measure
167. It follows that
We
of the intercepted arc is expressed
We
by the same number.
have, therefore,
The measure of a central angle and its intercepted arc are expressed by the same number, or a central
As. 53.
angle
158.
is
measured by
protractor
its
intercepted arc.
an instrument for measuring angles.
a semicircle or circle divided into unit
any other scale for measuring. Fig. 220
is
It usually consists of
and is used like
shows one form of protractor.
arcs
Ex.
1,
To measure an
angle with a protractor,
Place the protractor with the center C on the vertex of the
angle and the line of zeros CO along a side of the angle. Read off
the number of degrees on the scale as indicated by the other side
of the angle.
Ex.
2.
Show how
that shall have a given
Ex.
3.
40, 18.
Ex.
4.
to construct with the protractor an angle
number
of degrees.
Construct with the protractor angles of 54, 72, 125,
Draw a number of angles; measure each with protractor.
With a protractor
divide a given circle into 10 equal
By this means
parts; into 9 equal parts; into 15 equal parts.
inscribe in a given circle equilateral polygons of 10, 9, and 15
Prove that these polygons are regular.
sides.
CIRCLES AND RELATED ANGLES
125
INEQUALITIES IN CIRCLES
The
169.
following
the
are
concerning inequalities in
fundamental assumptions
circles:
As. 54. In the same circle or in congruent circles, if
two central angles are unequal, the minor arc subtended by
the greater angle is greater than the minor arc subtended
by the lesser angle.
In the same circle or in congruent
As. 55.
circles,
if
two minor arcs are unequal, the angle subtended by the
greater arc is greater than the angle subtended by the
lesser arc.
fEx.
In the same circle or in congruent
1.
are unequal, the central angle subtended
greater than the central angle subtended
Draw
Suggestion.
if
two chords
is
ends of the chords and apply Th. 60.
Investigate the converse of Ex.
2.
fEx.
radii to the
circles,
by the greater chord
by the lesser chord.
and prove your
conclusion.
In the same circle or in congruent circles, if two minor
by the greater arc is greater
3.
fEx.
arcs are unequal, the chord subtended
than the chord subtended by the lesser arc.
Suggestion.
Apply As. 55 and the preceding
Investigate the converse of Ex.
4.
fEx.
exercise.
3.
Prove your con
clusions.
In the same or in congruent circles the greater of two
is at the less distance from the center (Fig. 221).
5.
fEx.
unequal chords
A nalysis:
I.
To prove
perpendicular
OX, prove
11.
.*.
OY <
a part
of
perpendicular
OX.
5 with point A on point C, and so that
between D and C, prove that OZ cuts
DC, and that OF < a part of OZ.
place
III.
OF <
To
/1
^~^
lies
place
AB
in position required in II,
prove
Fig. 221
AB <
DC.
Prove the converse of Ex. 5 by an indirect proof.
Ex. 7. Construct in a given circle the shortest chord that
shall pass through a given point.
fEx.
6.
PLANE GEOMETRY
126
RELATION BETWEEN INSCRIBED ANGLES
AND THEIR ARCS
THE MEASURE OF THE INSCRIBED ANGLES
160.
vertex
The
is
An
is
angle
on the
is
said to be inscribed in a circle
and
circle
its sides
if its
are chords of the circle.
arc cut off between the sides of an inscribed angle
called its intercepted arc.
Exercise.
etc.
Inscribe in a given circle angles of 44, 72, 105,
of the intercepted arcs.
Use a protractor.
Find the measure
161.
Theorem
onehalf
its
77.
An
inscribed angle
is
measured by
intercepted arc.
Fig. 222
Hypothesis:
ZCAB
Conclusion:
Z CAB
Case A.
When
is
inscribed in
OO.
measured by }4 EC.
the center of the circle is on one
is
side of
the angle.
Analysis and construction:
I.
To prove
that Z.A is measured by ^i BC, compare
with an angle whose measure is known.
and compare ZA and Zx.
connect C and
ZA
II.
III.
.*.
Tocompare ZAa.nd
Z:^;,
compare Z A \
Proof:
STATEMENTS
I.
1.
ZA+ZC= Zx.
2.
ZA=ZC.
3.
:.2ZA=Zx.
ZA
Zx.
ZC with Zx^
CIRCLES AND RELATED ANGLES
Zx
II.
is
127
measured by BC.
is measured by J^ BC.
ZA
,'.
Let the pupil give
all
reasons.
When the center of the circle is within the angle.
Case B.
Analysis:
To prove
I.
that
ZA
is
measured by >2 BC, compare
Zi4 with angles whose measures are known.
II.
.%
draw the diameter through point
with Zx and Zy.
and compare
ZA
Proof:
REASONS
STATEMENTS
1.
2.
3.
Zx
L Why?
2. Why?
measured by 3^ 5X.
Z;v is measured by }4 CX.
ZA is measured by }4
BC.
is
3.
.*.
equal numbers are
added to equal numIf
bers, etc.
When
Case C.
the center of the circle
is
without the
angle.
The
analysis
left to
the pupil.
two angles of an inscribed triangle are 70 and 50*,
the number of degrees in the arcs subtended by each side.
Ex.
find
and the proof are
Ex.
1.
If
2.
The
arcs
subtended
by the
sides of
Find the
triangle are in the ratio of 1:2:3.
bar of degrees in each angle of the triangle.
Ex.
3.
In Fig. 223, the semicircle
is
divided into
and G. E is the
5 equal parts
by^the points C, D, F,
midpoint of FD. Find the nurfiber of degrees in
each angle of the figure.
_Ex.^.
AD = BC.
an inscribed
num
f e ^
^^^r^fT^^^c
\
^^^' ^23
^dSign^
In Fig. 224, i^ = 120 and j5c=100.
Find the number of degrees in each angle
of the figure.
Fig. 224
PLANE GEOMETRY
128
TESTS FOR EQUAL ANGLES, RIGHT ANGLES
AND SUPPLEMENTARY ANGLES
COROLLARIES:
Cor.
162.
Inscribed angles measured by the
I.
same
or
by equal arcs are equal, and, conversely, arcs that measure
equal inscribed angles are equal.
Ex.
is
1,
the vertices of a square A BCD lie on a circle and
in the arc AB, ptove that CE and
trisect the
If
DE
any point
ZAEB.
An
angle
said to be inscribed in
is
on the arc
an arc
vertex
if its
sides pass through the extremities
of the chord of the arc.
In this case the arc is said to
lies
affti its
contain the angle.
Cor.
An
II.
angle inscribed in a semicircle
is
a right
angle.
For summary
of
tests
for
perpendiculars
and
right
angles, see p. 301.
Ex.
2.
The angle between the segments
in a circle to the
Ex.
out a
3.
is
the ends of a diameter
the radius of one circle
joining a point with
an obtuse
The angle between the segments
circle to
Ex.
ends of a diameter
is
angle.
joining a point with
an acute
angle.
the diameter of a second,
any chord of the larger drawn from the point of contact is bisected
^
by the smaller circle.
4.
If
is
Construct a right triangle, given
Ex.
5.
The hypotenuse and one
Ex.
6.
The hypotenuse and an acute
CoR.
sum
Inscribed
III.
angles
leg.
are
angle.
supplementary
if
the
of their intercepted arcs is 360.
Ex.
7.
The
opposite angles of an inscribed quadrilateral are
supplementary.
Ex.
8.
If
a triangle
is
inscribed in a circle, the sum of the
by the sides is 4 right angles.
angles inscribed in the arcs subtended
CIRCLES AxND RELATED ANGLES
129
EXERCISES INVOLVING CENTRAL AND INSCRIBED ANGLES
The
163.
foregoing theorem and
L A new method
its corollaries
give us
for proving angles equal.
A new method for proving arcs equal.
A new method for proving angles supplementary.
A new method for determining and constructing
XL
III.
IV.
right
angles.
ZACD
Find the arc which measures
1.
in
Fig. 225.
If
2.
diameter
PQ
from point P on a circle
PR are drawn, a radius
bisects
3.
and a
b\
Fig. 225
QR.
circle is
AB.
point of
PQ
parallel to
A ABC
circumscribed about
ZABP
Prove that
is
and
is
the mid
/C.
Construct a number of angles inscribed in the same arc and
What theorem can be
4.
the bisector of each angle.
inferred from the drawing?
Prove
it.
that the center of a given circle may be
5.
found with a carpenter's steel square as shown in
Show
Give reasons (Th.
Fig. 226.
ABC
6.
that
7.
is
a triangle inscribed in a circle whose
OD
ZCOD=ZB.
center
is
50).
0.
perpendicular to AC.
is
Prove
center of a given arc may be
steel squares as shown
Show that the
found by using two carpenter's
in Fig. 227.
Give reasons.
8.
In
points on CD
and 0' are two equal
A and B. C and D are any
and 0' respectively. Prove Z BCA
228,
circles intersecting at
Fig.
= ZADB.
9.
the
Fig. 228
central angle
same
^"
is
twice an inscribed angle that intercepts
arc.
10. Inscribe in
a given
circle
to the angles of a given triangle.
a triangle whose angles are equal
Use Ex. 9.
Suggestion.
PLANE GEOMETRY
130
ANGLES FORiVLED BY INTERSECTING CHORDS
Theorem
164.
An
78.
formed by two chords
measured by onehalf the
angle
intersecting within a circle is
sum of the intercepted arcs.
Fig. 229
Hypothesis:
AC
The chords
and
BD
intersect within
OO.
Conclusion:
Zl
is
measured by '^ {AD{BC).
Analysis and construction:
I.
il.
To prove that Z 1 is measured by }4 {AD {EC), compare Z 1 with angles whose measures are known.
connect
.*.
and
and prove
Zl=
Z.A\
ZB.
Let the pupil give the proof.
_Ex.
l._
If,
in Fig. 230,
^=
55,
^'S=140; and
BC=% AD, find the number of degrees in each angle
of the figurCo
Ex.
2.
Discuss the special case of Th. 78 in
which the given chords intersect at the center of
the circle.
Ex.
3.
In Fig. 231,
is
the midpoint of CD
from P. Prove that
PA and PB are any two chords
Zl=Zl'and Z2=Z2'.
p,^ 231
Ex. 4. Find the sum of each pair of opposite arcs into which
two perpendicular chords divide a circle.
Ex.
72,
5.
and
If,
AC had been a diameter, Z 1 had been
AB, what would have been the number of
in Fig. 230,
DC had
been
degrees in each of the other angles of the figure?
CIRCLES AND RELATED ANGLES
131
ANGLES FORMED BY SECANTS INTERSECTING
WITHOUT THE CIRCLE
165.
line of indefinite length. which cuts
circle in
two
called a secant.
places is
Theorem
79.
An
angle formed by two secants interby onehalf the differ
secting without a circle is measured
ence of the intercepted arcs.
Fig. 232
The
Hypothesis:
secants
BA
and
BC
intersect without
oo.
Z.B
Conclusion:
is
measured by ^4
{ACXY).
Analysis and construction:
To prove /LB measured by
I.
AB
'
>^ {ACXY), compare
with angles whose measures are known.
II.
.*.
connect
III.
..
prove
C and
and prove
AB= Z.AXC AC.
AAXC = ZB + ZC.
Let the pupil give the proof.
Ex.
without
1.
In Fig. 233, secants a and b meet
If secant b moves until it
OO.
comes into the positions
41, 2, and 3 measured?
b'
and b'\ how are
Give the theorem
Fig. 233
that applies in each case.
Ex 2. If, in Fig. 234, Z C = 25 and XV =
A
H B, find the number of degrees in Z XA Y
and in ZBYA.
Ex. 3. If, in Fig. 234, ZC = 24, XY^VsAB,^
.
and
in
AV is
3.
diameter, find the
each angle of the figure.
number
of degrees
Fig. 234
PLANE GEOMETRY
132
ARCS FORMED BY PARALLEL CHORDS: TEST
FOR EQUAL ARCS
Theorem
166.
on a
Parallel chords intercept equal arc:
80.
circle.
Fig. 235
Hypothesis:
Conclusion:
OO is any
AD = BC.
circle
and
AB

DC.
Analysis and construction:
To prove AD = BC, prove
I.
that they are intercepted
by
equal inscribed angles.
II.
.*.
join
AC
Let the pupil complete the analysis and give the proof.
_Ex.
AB,
Ex.
allel
1.
If,
find the
2.
If
AD = 32
in Fig. 235,
number
on a
and minor
DC
is
H of minor
of degrees in each arc.
circle
AC = BD,
prove that
AD
is
either par
with or equal to BC.
Ex.
3.
If
nals are equal
Ex.
4.
the vertices of a trapezoid lie on a
and its base angles are equal.
Prove Th. 79 by comparing
circle, its
diago
ZB
with one inscribed angle.
Suggestion.
toAB and
Ex.
5.
From D
compare
construct a line parallel
ZB with ZFDC (Fig.
236).
Fig. 236
Prove Th. 78 by comparing Zl with one inscribed
angle.
Suggestion.
From A
construct a line

DB.
CIRCLES AXD RELATED ANGLES
133
CONSTRUCTION OF PERPENDICULARS
To construct
167. Probleim 9.
line from a point in the line.
/!>.
perpendicular
to
^''
Fig. 237
Analysis and constniction:
I.
In order to construct a perpendicular to line
construct a right angle at A
at A,
II.
To
construct a right angle at A, inscribe in a semian angle with its vertex at A.
circle
III.
To construct a semicircle through A,
as center
and segment
OA
take any point
as radius
Let the pupil complete the directions and give the proof.
168.
line
Problem
10.
To
construct
from a point not in the
^^
line.
a perpendicular to a
PLANE GEOMETRY
134
CONSTRUCTION OF TANGENTS
Problem
169.
To
11.
construct a tangent to a circle
from a given point without the
circle.
Fig. 239
QO
Given
To
and point
construct
without the
tangent to
sl
Analysis and
OO
circle.
from point A.
construction:
In order to construct a tangent to OO from point Ay
construct a right angle whose vertex is on OO
and whose sides pass through points O and A.
I.
II.
/.
join
OA
cutting
and construct a
at X and Y.
circle
OO
Join
on
OA
AX
as diameter,
and AY.
Let the pupil give the proof.
Ex.
1.
Let
represent
any point within
OO (Fig. 240). Suppose to move away
from the center along the ray OX. How
many tangents can be drawn to OO through
point
P when P
on the
is
is
circle?
within the circle?
when P
is
when
outside the
pj^,^
240
How
are these tangents constructed
Locate various positions of P outside the circle
in each case?
and sketch in the tangents from P at each position of P. As P
circle?
moves away from the
How
circle
how
does the angle between the
What
of contact move?
do the points
tangents change?
are the limiting positions of these points? How does the length
What
of the segment between P and the point of contact change?
are the limiting lengths of this segment?
Ex.
2.
Circumscribe an isosceles triangle about a circle, given
Is the problem always possible?
the base of the triangle.
CIRCLES
AND RELATED ANGLES
135
RELATION BETWEEN ANGLES FORMED BY
TANGENTS AND CHORDS, AND THEIR ARCS
MEASUREMENT OF THE ANGLE
170.
An angle formed by a tangent and
measured by onehalf its intercepted arc.
Theorem 8L
a chord
is
Fig. 241
AB
oX A and
is tangent to
Hypothesis:
A the point of contact of the tangent.
from
QO
^C is drawn
Z1
Conclusion:
is
measiired
by
AC.
Analysis and construction:
I.
II.
III.
To prove that Zl is measured by >^ AC, compare
Z 1 with angles whose measures are known.
.*.
draw diameter
and Z2.
To
find the
AD
and compare Zl wdth
measure of
Z3
Z3 = 90 and
Z3, prove
ACD = \m\
The proof
Ex.
1.
is left
In
to the pupil.
Fig.
241, prove
that
ABAC
Is
measured by
ADC.
Ex.2.
Prove Th. 81 by comparing
A CAB
with one inscribed angle.
Suggestion.
Draw CD.
Ex.3. Prove Th. 81 by comparing
with a central angle (Fig. 242).
A CAB
Fig. 242
PLANE GEOMETRY
136
ARCS FORMED BY PARALLEL CHORD AND TANGENT
Theorem
171.
they cut
allel,
The
analysis
82.
off
equal arcs.
and the proof are
The chord
Exercise.
a chord and a tangent are par
If
of
the pupil.
left to
an arc
is
parallel to the tangent
drawn
to the midpoint of the arc.
ANGLES FORMED BY SECANTS AND TANGENTS
An angle formed by a secant and a
83.
measured by onehalf the difference of the inter
Theorem
172.
is
tangent
cepted arcs.
Theorem 84. An angle formed by two tangents is
measured by onehalf the difference of the intercepted arcs.
Let the pupil review Ths. 78 and
Ex.
the
In Fig. 243,
1.
number
Ex.
2.
number
Ex.
In Fig. 243,
of degrees in
3.
Two
to each other.
AXC
if
of degrees in
if
79.
is
220, find
ZB.
Z5
AXC
is
68, find the
and A YC.
tangents are perpendicular
How many degrees in the arcs
formed by the points of tangency?
Ex.
to
4.
If line
BC
its original position,
through point
Ex.
5.
represent
within
(Fig. 243)
how
In Fig. 244
0.
moves
ZB
so that it remains parallel
he measured when BC passes
A?
let
any two chords
How will the
CD revolves
will
AB
and
CD
intersecting
How is Z 1 measured?
measure of Z 1 change if
about point C in either
lines.
vase in
Fig. 244
Various positions of CD are shown by the dotted
How would Zl be measured in each case? Discuss the
direction?
which
CD
becomes
parallel to
AB.
CIRCLES
AND RELATED ANGLES
137
SUMMARY AND SUPPLEMENTARY EXERCISES
SUMMARY OF IMPORTANT POINTS
173.
I.
IN
CHAPTER
VII
Tests for measurement of angles.
a.
central angle
is
m'easured by, etc. (157).
An inscribed angle is measured by,
An angle formed by a tangent and
b.
c.
etc. (161).
a chord,
etc.
(170).
An
d.
angle formed
by two chords
intersecting
within, etc. (164).
An
/.
angle formed by two secants intersecting
without, etc. (165).
An angle formed by a secant and a tangent
g.
An
e.
(172).
II.
General
by two
angle formed
tangents, etc. (172).
test.
Angles and arcs are both measured in degrees.
same
dent, therefore, that in the
circles
circle
It is evi
or in congruent
they are measured by equal arcs.
Angles are equal
if
Arcs are equal
they measure equal angles.
if
For summary of
test of equal arcs, see p. 303.
EXERCISES CONCERNING TANGENTS TO CIRCLES
1. Prove that a tangent can be drawn to a circle from
174.
a given point without the circle by the following method (Fig.
^*
24 r>) Let yl be the given point. Join 0/1. With
,
/ ^ ^
as center
and
OA
as radius
draw
circle
ABC.
'>
cut the given circle at D. At D draw
o^^l.^P^^
BC tangent to the given circle and ciitting the \ V ^V>4/'
outer circle at B and C. Draw OB and OC cut '\^
^^'l^'
and AF
ting the given circle at E and F.
"*""!'
Let
OA
;'
i.
XI.
AE
1
Fig. 245
are tangent to the given circle.
Suggestion.
Prove
Z1=Z2 = 1
rt.
Z, by comparing
AOEA
AODB.
Note.
The
construction given in Ex. 1
is
similar to Euclid's.
with
PLANE GEOMETRY
138
t2.
From
the following figures (Fig. 246) give the analysis,
proof for constructing the common tangents
and
directions,
V
Fig. 246
to
two given
circles.
Note the application
pulleys.
3.
A line
that
is
tangent to each of two equal
to the segment joining their centers or
4.
Two common
5. Is
of this to belts over
it
interior tangents to
circles is parallel
bisects this segment.
two
circles are equal.
the same true of the exterior tangents?
6. How many common tangents can be drawn to two circles
they are in each of the possible positions shown in Fig. 209?
Show how to construct the tangents in each case.
if
7. An angle between two tangents to a circle is double the
angle between the chord joining the point of contact and the
^
radius drawn to one point of contact.
8.
Circumscribe an isosceles triangle about a circle, given the
Is the problem always possible?
altitude of the triangle.
9.
one
Circumscribe about a given circle a right triangle, given
Is the problem always possible?
leg.
MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES
175. Note.
Be prepared to prove the theorems on which any of
the following exercises depend.
1.
Make
2.
In Fig. 247 the sides of
gent to the
review diagrams for Ths. 82 and 83.
circle at
AXFZ
are tan
the vertices of the inscribed
If Zl=43 and Z3
62, find^
triangle ABC.
the number of degrees in each angle of the figure.
^
Fig. 247
AND RELATED ANGLES
CIRCLES
3.
4.
in
ZCAB = 5S, find the number of degrees
ZC^F BF is given tangent to the circle.
in Fig. 248,
If,
ZD, ZE, and
gents at
in
if
chord forms equal angles with the tanits
extremities.
which the chord
is
Discuss the special case
a diameter of the
circle.
Prove Ths. 83 and 84 bv a method similar
5.
139
to that suggested for Th. 79 in Ex. 4, 166.
In Fig. 249,
6.
Prove that Z
7.
8.
If
CAB
AC
is
is tangent to
^ 0.
equal to
OO
at ^.
tangent at the vertex of an inscribed angle forms equal
with
the sides of the given angle if these sides are equal.
angles
an
isosceles
triangle
is
inscribed in a circle,
the tan
gent at the vertex makes equal angles with the legs and
parallel to the base.
AB
is
CD
9. In Fig. 250,
and the chords
equals
Prove that the
are produced to intersect at P.
segment PA equals the segment PD.
two chords intersect in a circle and a segone is equal to a segment of the other,
the chords are equal.
10.
ment
If
of
11. State
and investigate the converse
of Ex. 10.
Fig. 250
Prove your
conclusions.
12.
circles.
AB
P and Q are the points of intersection of two arbitrary
PA and PB are the diameters through P. Prove that
passes through Q.
13.
circle
constructed on side
^B
of
A ABC ^
as diameter passes through the feet of the perpendiculars from A and B to the sides BC and
re
AC
spectively (Fig. 251).
See Th. 50.
Fig. 25;
PLANE GEOMETRY
140
14. Circles
will intersect
15.
constructed on two sides of a triangle as diameters
on the third
circle
side.
constructed on one leg of an isosceles triangle as a
diameter passes through the midpoint of the base.
constructed on the sides
If semicircles are
16.
an
equilateral triangle as diameters, they will
intersect at the midpoints of the opposite sides
of
(Fig. 252).
at^^
FiG.'252
Church window
detail
The ray which
17.
bisects the angle
a chord bisects also the intercepted
18. If
a tangent
is
drawn to a
formed by a tangent and
arc.
circle at
chord, the midpoint of the intercepted arc
the chord and the tangent.
19.
If
is
the extremity of a
equally distant from
the extremities of any two diameters in a circle are
formed is a rectangle.
joined in order, the figure
20. If, in
Fig._^53,
and
AB
(S)_0
and
and O' are tan
CD
pass through the
point of contact, prove that ^C is parallel
to BD.
gent at
Fig. 253
Prove Ex. 20
21.
if
22. If, in
Fig^ 254,
gent at
the circles are tangent internally.
(D
and 0' are tan
X and A B passes through point
that tangents at
A and B
X, prove
are parallel.
Fig. 254
23.
Prove Ex. 22
24. In Fig 255,
and
if
the circles are tangent internally.
and 0' are tangent
AB
passes through X. Prove that
diameters from A and B are parallel.
at
Fig. 255
25.
Prove Ex. 24
if
the circles are tangent internally.
CIRCLES AND RELATED ANGLES
the
is
common
are tangent at C.
exterior tangents with
Prove
contact.
of
points
and
26. In Fig. 256, CD
of the
that
141
AB
is
one
A and B
ZACB
a right angle.
27. If
is
segment
two equal circles intersect and a
drawn through either point of inter
Fig. 256
section terminating in the circumferences, the
segments joining the extremities with the other point of intersection of the circles are equal.
is
at
BD
AC
and
are tangent to
257,
CD
at opposite ends of the diameter AB.
28. In Fig.
OO
an arbitrary tangent intersecting AC and
C and D respectively. Prove that /.COD
BD
is
right angle.
Suggestion.
If
is
the point of contact of tangent
CD, draw OX, OC, and
}/i
the straight angle.
.'.
OD
prove
and prove Z2f Z3 =
Z 1 = Z 2 and Z 3 = Z 4.
29. Given a circle (Fig. 258) divided
and the points joined as indicated,
Fig. 257
into eight equal
parts
prove
a.
b.
c.
d.
AK = KB = BYr
/.A = ZB=ZC.
AK = KP.
OPQRSTU Visa regulsLT
octagon.
e.
WXYZ
30. In Fig.
is
a square.
258 find the num
ber of degrees
in
ZA,
ZAKB,
ZHVB, ZBVC.
31. Construct
a figure similar to Fig. 258 by dividing the
equal parts and joining every seventh point of
or
division,
by dividing the circle into twelve equal parts and
joining every fifth point, and find the number of degrees in the
circle into sixteen
angles formed.
Note.
are
Stars similar to the above, though often
common
in cutglass designs.
more complicated,
PLANE GEOMETRY
142
32.
Two
circles intersect at
a variable secant
is
CBD
that the angle
the points
drawn cutting the
constant for
is
all
A and B. Through A
C and D. Prove
circles in
positions of the secant.
College Entrance Examination Board, Plane Geometry Examination, 1908.
33.
In
divided
259 the
Fig.
into
Find the center of
circle
equal
eight
AOC
is
parts.
so that
it
through the three points
A, 0, and C. Prove that AOC is a
shall pass
semicircle.
34. In Fig.
259 prove that
the midpoint of OLA
Prove that OL and
is
and OLB.
OM
also
are equal;
AL, LB, and BM.
35.
'
^
Fig. ^,,,
259
'
Do you know any
practical uses of
rosettes similar to
the above?
36.
quadrilateral
A BCD
inscribed in a circle. At the
drawn forming a circumscribed
BC=UO, CS = 35. Find the number
is
points of division tangents are
A^ =
quadrilateral.
o5,
of degrees in each angle of the inscribed quadrilateral, in each
angle of the circumscribed quadrilateral, and in the angles formed
by the diagonals
37. Fig.
of each quadrilateral.
260 shows a simple turnout used on
The rails AE and CF are
street railroad tracks.
AB
arcs of circles tangent to rails
and
and C respectively. Rail
crosses rail
AE
rail
CD
equal to Z2.
Prove that Zl made by
^E at H is
AE and CF.
to
CD at A
CD at H.
and. the tangent
the center for
is
shows two opposite turnouts
a straight track. The curved
rails are tangent to the straight ones at C and D
Prove that the angle between the
respectively.
tangents at F is equal to ZX + ZY ii X and Y
38. Fig.
Fig. 260
261
from the end
of
are the centers for the arcs.
'
Fig. 261
CHAPTER
VIII
Loci
GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
DEFINITIONS
The
176.
tions
exercises below illustrate the following defini
point which
ment
moves
so as to
fulfill
some given
The path
of a point which moves so as to
given requirement is called a locus.
require
called a variable point.
is
line or
group of lines
points which
no other points.
all
fulfill
is
called a locus
if
fulfill
some
they contain
some given requirement and contain
1.
Find a point which is 2 in. from a fixed point O. Is
more than one such point? If you consider such a point
as so moving that it shall always, remain 2 in. from 0, what will
Ex.
there
be
its
Is this
path?
Ex.
2.
as far from
What
is
path located definitely?
A and B
If
are
as from B.
two
How?
fixed points, find a point
How many
which
is
such points can you find?
the path of a point moving so that
distant from
two
fixed points?
Is this
it is always equally
a
fixed path?
path
TO FIND THE LOCUS
177.
In some cases the line or set of lines that
make up
the locus can be found directly from a knowledge of the
geometry involved. In other cases the locus may be found
by locating several positions of the moving point. If
positions enough are located, the locus may often be inferred
from them. This is a method of discovery that is common
to all scientific inquiry.
The
143
correctness of the inference
144
PLANE GEOMETRY
then determined by a careful demonstration, the nature
which will be discussed in the next section.
is
of
One
Note.
here
if
or
more
of the following exercises
In
the teacher desires.
many
may
be introduced
the locus cannot be
cases
found unless a very large number of points are located. Some of
these exercises lead to other kinds of lines than the straight line and
the circle, lines that are studied in more advanced courses in geometry.
In these latter exercises the locating of the points must be by experiment, as the pupil knows no construction by which he can find them.
Such exercises are valuable in that they force home to the pupil the
possibility and the occasional necessity of finding loci by experiment
and in that they set him to thinking on a subject entirely new to him.
No
proofs should be required.
EXERCISES IN FINDING LOCI
Find the following loci by experiment.
1. The ray a starts from point P on O X
as
Find the locus of the midpoints of the
chords cut from this ray by the circle as the ray
moves about point P (Fig. 262).
origin.
Find the locus called
2.
for in Ex. 1
if
Fig. 262
the origin of a
is
without
OX.
3. A ladder stands upright against a wall.
Find the locus of a
point on the middle round if the foot of the ladder is pulled out
until the ladder is flat on the ground.
4. OX and OY are two lines at right angles to each other.
Find the locus of a point which is twice as far from OX as from OY.
5.
and
In
any
Fig.
ABCD
263,
line.
Imagine
is
line
parallelogram
to
move
so as
always to remain parallel to its original position.
Find the locus of the midpoints of the segments
cut from / by the sides of the parallelogram.
6.
in
Ex.
7.
Find the locus
way up
Fig. 263
the ladder mentioned
3.
Find the locus
given circles
circles
of a point }4 the
when
intersect,
circles are
of centers of circles tangent to
(1)
(3)
the one circle
one
circle
is
tangent internally, (5) the
each of two
within the other, (2) the
without the other, (4) the
is
circles are
tangent externally.
LOCI
145
8. Find the locus of centers of circles which pass through a
given point and are tangent to a given line when (1) the point is
on the given line, (2) the point is not on the given Hne.
9. Find the locus of centers of circles which are tangent to
a given circle and to a given line when (1) the line intersects the
circle,
the line
(2)
without the
What
is
11.
12.
The hub
13.
14.
A
A
circle,
(3)
the line
is
wholly
point on the knob of a swinging door?
point on the side of a spinning top?
of a wheel of
a moving bicycle?
point on the tire of a moving wheel?point on the rim of a plate moving about another plate?
No
Note.
tangent to the
the locus of:
A
A
10.
is
circle.
drawings are required for Exs. 1012.
COMPLETE PROOFS FOR LOCI
178.
After the locus has been found by some method,
it
necessary to give a complete formal proof that the line,
or set of lines, found really constitutes the locus.
It is
is
necessary to show, therefore, that every point on the line
or set of lines is a possible position of the variable point
and that every possible position of the variable point is
on
If these two facts can be proved,
evident that the line or set of lines constitutes the whole
this line or set of lines.
it is
locus
and nothing but the
To put
it
locus.
more formally:
In order to prove that a line or set of lines
of a point
which moves so as to
fulfill
is
the locus
certain requirements,
prove
I.
Every point
in the line or set of lines fulfills the
requirements, and
II.
Every point which
fulfills
the requirements
is
on the
line or set of lines.
Note.
It is
immaterial in which order
and
II are proved.
PLANE GEOMETRY
146
LOGI OF POINTS
THE BISECTOR OF AN ANGLE
Theorem 85. The bisector of an angle
179.
from the sides
of points equally distant
is
the locus
of the angle.
Fig. 264
Hypothesis:
Conclusion:
from
AB
AX bisects
^X is the
and AC; that
Every point
I.
in
lies
The
analysis
in
locus of points equally distant
is,
AX
IL Every point that
Z CAB.
is
is
equally distant from
equally distant from
AB and AC.
AB and AC
AX.
and the proof
for I are left to the pupil.
Analysis and constriction for II:
be a point equally distant from
1.
Let
2.
To prove
3.
To
that
lies
in
AX,
AX coincide.
QA
prove that QA and AX
that
join
AB
and AC.
Q and A and
prove
and
coincide,
show that both
bisect /.A.
Let the pupil complete the analysis and give the proof.
Ex.
sides of
Ex.
Can you determine a point equally distant from the
an angle without constructing the bisector of the angle?
1.
2.
What
intersecting lines?
is
the locus of a point equally distant from two
LOCI
147
THE PERPENDICULAR BISECTOR OF A SEGMENT
The perpendicular bisector of a seg8G.
the locus of a point equally distant from the ends
Theorem
180.
ment
is
of the segment.
OP
Hypothesis:
the perpendicular
is
of
bisector
the
segment AB.
OP
Conclusion:
from
and
Every point
I.
is,
in
OP
Every point that
OP.
II.
in
the locus of a point equally distant
is
that
The
analysis
is
and the proof
is
equally distant from
equally distant from
and B,
and
lies
for I are left to the pupil.
Analysis and construction Jor II:
1.
2.
3.
Let
be a point such that
QA=QB.
To prove that Q lies in OP, join Q and 0, the midpoint
of AB, and prove that QO and OP coincide.
To prove that QO and OP coincide, show that both
QO and OP are perpendicular bisectors oi AB.
Let the pupil complete the analysis and give the proof.
two points are each equally distant from the
extremities of a segment, the line passing through these
points is the perpendicular bisector of the segment.
181.
Cor.
Suggestion.
If
Show
that the two given points must both
perpendicular bisector.
lie
on the
PLANE GEOMETRY
148
Prove the following by Th. 86 and Cor.
Ex.
1.
The
diagonals of a rhombus or of a square bisect
each other at right angles.
Ex.
Ex.
2.
One diagonal
3.
If
two
common
dicular bisector of the
Ex.
centers
of a kite bisects the other at right angles.
circles intersect, the line of centers is
a perpen
chord.
If two equal circles intersect, the segment joining the
and the common chord bisect each other at right angles.
4.
Ex. 5. The perpendicular bisector of a chord passes through
the center of the circle.
Ex.
6.
radius to the midpoint of an arc
the perpen
is
dicular bisector of the chord of the arc.
Two
tangents to a circle where the center is O interProve that OX is the perpendicular bisector of
the chord joining the points of contact of the two tangents.
Ex.
7.
sect at point
X.
OTHER SIMPLE LOCI
183.
Find the
loci
called for in the following exercises;
and
give complete proof for each as for Ths. 85
Find the locus
of a point
which
86.
is
Ex.
1.
Ex.
2.
At a given distance from a given point.
At a given distance from a given straight
Ex.
3.
Equally distant from
two given
line.
parallels.
CONCURRENT LINES
183.
The two
following exercises are preliminary and
be quoted as theorems in proving Ths. 87 and
Ex.
1.
may
89.
Lines that are perpendicular to intersecting straight
lines will intersect.
Suggestion.
Use an
the given intersecting
ii
AC and BC
were
indirect proof.
lines.
parallel,
AD
and
DB
are
A and B. Show that.
Z1+ Z2 would equal two
Join
right angles (Fig. 266).
Ex.
2.
The
bisectors of
triangle will intersect.
any two angles
of
Fig. 266
LOCI
149
The perpendicular bisectors of the
184. Theorem 87.
sides of a triangle are concurrent at a point which is equally
distant from the vertices.
Fig. 267
AABC
is any triangle.
Lines
Hypothesis:
of
bisectors
are the perpendicular
AB, EC, and
and
x, y,
AC
respec
tively.
Conclusion:
x, y,
and
z are
concurrent at a point equally
distant from the vertices.
Analysis:
I.
To prove
a.
b.
x, y, and z concurrent, prove
That x and y intersect at some point, as
That the intersection of x and y is on z.
0.
IL To prove that the intersection of x and y is on
is equally distant from A and C.
prove that
III.
equally distant from
prove
.'.
and
and B,
also
from
C.
Proof:
STATEMENTS
I.
IL
X and y intersect at some point, as at 0.
a. X is locus of points equally distant from
b.
O is equally distant from A and B.
and B.
.'.
III. a.
b.
IV.
'
V.
.'.
is
locus of points equally distant from
is equally distant from
and C.
O is
equally distant from
a. z is locus of points
b.
.'.
C.
C.
and C.
equally distant from
O is on z.
Let the pupil give the reasons.
11
B and
.:
and
z,
PLANE GEOMETRY
150
Theorem
The
88.
altitudes of a triangle are concurrent.
Fig. 268
Hypothesis:
AABC
altitudes to sides
Conclusion:
is
any
triangle,
AB, EC, and CA
x, y,
and
x, y,
and
are the
respectively.
z are concurrent.
Analysis: To prove x, y, and z conctirrent, construct
through A, B, and C lines parallel to the opposite sides of
and prove that x, y, and z are the perpendicular
AABC
bisectors of the sides of the triangle so formed.
Let the pupil put in the construction, complete the analysis, and
give the proof.
185. Theorem 89.
The bisectors of the angles of a triangle are concurrent at a point equally distant from the
sides of the triangle.
AABC
is any triangle,
Hypothesis:
AA, B, and C respectively.
Conclusion:
x, y,
and
distant from the sides.
x, y,
z are concurrent at
and
z bisect
a point equally
LOCI
161
Analysts:
To prove
I.
a.
b.
x, y, and z concurrent, prove
That x and y intersect at some point, as
That the intersection of x and y is on z.
To prove
11.
that the intersection of x and y is on z,
and BC.
O is equally distant from
prove that
III.
prove that O is equally distant from
from AB and
.*.
Problem
186.
The
This
12.
problem
To circumscribe a
has
been
discussion here should be based
Problem
AC
AC and
AB,
^C
also
angle.
Note.
at O.
13.
To
circle
elsewhere
discussed
upon Th.
about a
tri
(139).
87.
inscribe a circle in a given triangle.
Fig. 270
Given
To
AABC.
inscribe a circle in
AABC.
Analysis and constmction:
I.
To
construct a circle inscribed in
a
II.
/.
III.
.'.
circle
AABC,
AABC.
construct
find a point, such as O, so situated that perpendiculars from O to the sides, such as OE, OF, and
OG, are
IV.
tangent to the sides of
radii.
construct
To prove
the perpendiculars radii, prove
them
equal.
Let the pupil give the directions and the proof.
Exercise.
and to two
circle
extended
Construct a
circle
tangent to one side of a triangle
sides extended.
tangent to one side of a triangle and to two sides
said to be escribed to the triangle.
is
PLANE GEOMETRY
152
DETERMINATION OF POINTS BY THE
INTERSECTION OF LOCI
187.
Give analysis, directions, proof, and discussion for
the following exercises.
Ex. L Find in a given
from two given points.
line
a point that
is
equally distant
A nalysis:
I.
II.
Let
represent the given line and
A and B
the given points.
find a point in Hne / equally distant from A and B, find the
intersection of line / with the locus of points equally distant
To
from
and B.
Let the pupil give the directions and the proof.
Discussion:
How many
points can be found as required?
special positions of the given line or the given points
that will alter the results? Give all reasons.
Are there any
Find
in a given line a point that
is
At a given distance from a given point.
Equally distant from two given parallel
Ex.
2.
Ex.
3.
Ex.
4.
Ex.
5.
lines.
At a given distance from a second given line.
Equally distant from two given intersecting lines.
In the preceding five problems the required point must
not only be in a given line, but must also fulfill a second
requirement which calls for the construction of a locus. In
the problems that follow, the construction of two loci are
necessary in order to determine the point. The analysis
should state clearly what loci are needed. We have seen
that the intersection of two straight lines locates a point
and that the intersection of a straight line and a circle
locates
two
lines, it is
points.
As some
two straight
more than one point that
loci consist of
often possible to find
fulfills the requirements.
The pupil should begin by drawing a figure to illustrate the maximum number of points
possible, and after giving the analysis with the directions
for the construction
draw
and the proof he should discuss and
figures for all special cases.
LOCI
Ex.
6.
153
Find a point which is at a given distance from a
C and at the same time equally distant from
given point
two given points A and B.
A nalysis:
I. To find
all points that are at a given distance from point C,
construct the locus of
To
II.
find all points equally distant
from
A and
B, construct the
locus of
III.
construct
.'.
Let the pupil give definite directions for the construction, also the
proof and the discussion.
Ex.
7.
Points
may
be found which
will fulfill
any two
of the
following requirements:
a. Be at a given distance (1>2 in.) frbm a given point.
h. Be at a given distance (1>^ in.) from a given line.
c.
d.
e.
Be equally
Be equally
Be equally
two given points.
two given parallel lines.
from two given intersecting lines.
distant from
distant from
distant
State and solve problems
requirements given above.
made by combining
into pairs the
LOCI OF CENTERS OF CIRCLES
DETERMINATION OF THE LOCI
188.
In the determination of the
loci of centers of circles,
we may think of a circle as changing.
number of circles of the same radius tangent to line
circles
I.
A great many more such
We might,
Fig. 271
shows a
(^^TT^T^^fHT^'T^
might be drawn.
however, consider these as various positions of one circle which rolls or slides
along the line. In the same way in Fig.
Fig. 27]
272 a number of
to
AB
circles are shown tangent
and AC\ but we might consider
them as various positions of one circle
which expands and contracts as it rolls
or slides between AB and AC.
Fig. 272
154
'
PLANE GEOMETRY
Find the locus called for in each of the following
and give complete proof for each.
Ex. 1. ^Find the locus of the centers of
tangent to the sides of an angle.
I.
To
find the locus, sketch in a
sides of the given angle
To prove
II.
a.
ZA
number
.
Every
The
be the locus.
AX is the required locus, prove that
point in AX may be the center of a circle
AB
and A
C,
tangent
and
toAB and A C lies in AX.
AX may be considered as the path of a circle that
expands and contracts as
AB
of circles tangent to the
AX
center of every circle tangent
III. Discussion.
which are
that
to the sides of the angle,
b.
Let
circles
exercises
it rolls
or slides between the rays
and AC.
Find the locus of the center
of a circle
which
Ex.
2.
Ex.
3.
Ex.
4.
tangent to each of two intersecting lines.
Passes through two given points.
Is tangent to a given line at a given point.
Ex.
5.
Is
Ex.
6.
Is
Ex.
7.
tangent to a given line and has a given radius.
tangent to a given circle at a given point.
Is tangent to a given circle and has a given radius.
Ex.
8.
Passes through a given point and has a given radius.
Is
CONSTRUCTION OF CIRCLES
189.
Make
exercises.
section of
Ex.
line at
Ex.
the constructions called for in the
follov^^ing
The
two
center of the required circle is the interloci.
The discussion is often interesting.
Construct a circle that shall be tangent to a given
a given point and pass through a second given point.
1.
Construct a
2.
circle
tangent to the sides of an angle and
to one of these sides at a given point.
Ex.
3.
circle at
Construct a circle that shall be tangent to a given
a given point and pass through a second given point.
Construct a
Ex.
circle of
Be tangent
given radius that shall
to each of
two given
intersecting lines.
Pass through a given point and be tangent to a given
or to a siven circle.
Ex.
line
4.
5.
LOCI
155
SUPPLEMENTARY EXERCISES
EXERCISES INVOLVING CONCURRENT LINES
To
190.
the tests for concurrent lines given in this chapter
should be added Th. 49, given in chapter
iv.
Each triangle has four sets of concurrent lines. The
intersection of each set has a special name as shown below.
The medians
I.
centroid or center of gravity
II. Perpendicular bisectors of the sides
III.
The
circumcenter
orthocenter
altitudes
incenter
IV. Bisectors of the angles
to prove the theorems
Review Th. 49.
on which any of the
incenter, circumcenter,
and orthocenter of
do you know con
Be prepared
Note.
following exercises depend.
The
1.
centroid,
an equilateral
triangle coincide.
What
facts
cerning this point?
the medians
that
ABC
In Fig. 273,
2.
AYf BZy and
XYZ
CX
is
an
equilateral triangle.
are equal distances laid off on
AF^ BG, and
CE
respectively.
Prove
"
'
is
an
equilateral triangle.
Fig'' 273
ZA
AC
AB
and
equal distances
laid off, perpendiculars erected to the sides of the angle at
C will intersect on the bisector of ZA.
on the
3. If
sides of
are
B and
4. The bisector of two exterior angles of a triangle and of the
opposite interior angle are concurrent.
5.
The medians and
6.
Construct
A = 7.S
cm.,
Suggestion.
7.
A ABC,
given
^5 = 5.8
and the median from
cm., the median from
= 6.4
J5
cm.
See Th. 49.
Construct
the median from
8.
diagonals of a square are concurrent.
Construct
A ABC,
A
given AC,
AB, and
(Fig. 274).
A ABC,
given
the
three
medians.
Suggestion.
by means
^.
fy"
of
Reduce
Th. 49.
this exercise to the preceding
^
Fig. 274
PLANE GEOMETRY
156
EXERCISES INVOLVING CONSTRUCTION OF CIRCLE3
Notice (1) that a circle can be circumscribed about
a polygon if there is a point equally distant from the vertices, that is, if the perpendicular bisectors of the sides are
191.
concurrent, and (2) that a circle can be inscribed in a polygon if there is a point equally distant from the sides, that
is, if the bisectors of the angles are concurrent.
Construct a
1.
circle of
two given points.
2. Given the base
the circumscribed
3.
Can a
given radius that shall pass through
an isosceles triangle and the radius of
to construct the triangle.
be passed through four arbitrary points?
of
circle,
circle
Why?
4.
When
triangle
will the
meet on one
perpendicular bisectors of the sides of a
meet within the triangle?
triangle?
When will they
they meet without the
of the sides of the triangle?
When,
will
Why?
Can a
circle be circumscribed about a parallelogram?
In case the circumscribed circle is possible, give
In case the circumscribed circle
analysis, directions, and proof.
is not possible, show why.
5.
a. rectangle?
Answer the questions
6.
and
for
7.
How many
circles
three intersecting lines?
8.
Can a
trary lines?
9.
in Ex.
5 for an
isosceles trapezoid
a trapezoid.
circle
can be constructed tangent to each of
Discuss
all
possible cases.
be constructed tangent to each of three arbi
Discuss
all
possible cases.
Inscribe a circle in a given rhombus.
a circle in a given kite.
Circumscribe about a given circle an isosceles
10. Inscribe
11.
right triangle.
12.
Construct in
13.
Prove that the center of the
full Fig. 275.
Fig. 275
equilateral triangle
is
circle
circumscribed about an
also the center of the inscribed circle.
LOCI
157
Construct the inscribed, the circumscribed, and the three
14.
Prove that the radius
escribed circles of an equilateral triangle.
of the inscribed circle is ^4 the radius of the circumscribed circle
and
}4 the radius of the escribed circles.
15. Make the complete drawing for the
molding shown in Fig. 276. The arc ^40 is
tangent to line AX at A. The arc BO is
^t
tangent to line BY at B. Both arcs pass
through O, the midpoint of segment AB.
Are the arcs AO and BO tangent to each other?
Note.
Compound
curves
B
Fig. 276
may be made from
tangent circles as shown in Fig. 277. These may
be used for moldings as shown in Fig. 276, or for
other architectural details.
/^'
p
V.J
277
Show by a complete drawing how to construct
Two diagonal streets meet at A. The corner building
Fig. 278
16.
has a front that
is an arc of a circle of a given radius
tangent to each of the streets. If Z /I is 60 and the
radius of the circle 50 ft., what will be the length of
AB and BC d B and C are the points of tangency?
sector of a circle
is
a figure bounded
Fig. 278
by two
radii
and
the subtended arc.
17.
Construct a
circle inscribed in
a sector of a given
circle.
c
18. Fig.
Z A CB
of
is
ZC.
sides of
a right angle.
A DB
Construct the small
ZC
279 shows a decorated rafter design.
is
tangent to the sides
circle
tangent to the
and to ADB.
Fig. 279
280 shows a decorated tile design. ABCD\
a square with its diagonals. Construct (D O and
19. Fig.
is
O' inscribed
in the
A A DC
and
Construct the quadrants with
and 0'.
tangent to (D
Note.
The
ABC
respectively.
as centers
A and C
p^^
possibilities of this figure as
by drawing several figures of the same
them together in various positions.
a design unit
size, like Fig.
may
280,
280
be seen
and placing
PLANE GEOMETRY
158
is
20. Fig. 281 shows a window and rafter
O
Construct
isosceles right triangle.
ABC
an
inscribed in
A ABC
and
(D
and
the sides of the triangle and to
Y tangent
to
0.
Fig. 281
21. Inscribe a trefoil in a given circle (Fig. 282).
The
Note.
large circle
three small circles are tangent to the
and to each
other.
Fig. 282
Show how
22.
to construct circles which
are tangent to each of
Any
23.
two concentric
circles.
point in the perpendicular bisec
tor of the segment joining the centers of two
equal circles may be used as the center of a
.
tangent to each of the two given
Use various positions of the two given
circle
The perpendicular
Note.
in Ex.
23
bisector
circles.
circles.
mentioned
a part of the locus of the center of
a circle tangent to each of two equal circles. The
remainder of the locus is beyond the province
of elementary geometry, but may be readily
found by experiment.
24.
is
In Fig. 283,
DF
and
BC
are concen
with point A as center. DE and A C are
concentric with point B as center. DF and
DE are tangent at D. AD = DB. AF and
tric
BE
are
drawn with
as radius.
Construct
as center
and
J/2
AB
tangent to AC,
BC, FD, and DE.
_25. In
Fig. 284,
A ABC
is
equilateral.
Fig. 283 a
AB,
BC, and AC are drawn with AB as radius and
C, A and B as centers respectively. Construct
O tangent to AB, BC, and AC.
,
Note.
Fig. 284
is
from a church window design.
Fig. 284
LOCI
159
MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES
What
192. 1.
is
the locus of the midpoints of
all
equal chords
of a circle?
2.
What
is
the locus of the midpoints of a series of parallel
chords?
3. What is the locus of the midpoints of segments drawn from
a given point to a given line?
t4.
Find
the
locus
of
the
vertices
given base and a given vertex angle.
given angle is a right angle?
of
What
triangles having a
is this locus if the
Construct a triangle, given
5. The base, the vertex angle,
tex to the base.
6.
The
base, the vertex angle,
and the
7.
The
base, the vertex angle,
and one base
8.
The
base, the vertex angle,
9.
Find the locus of the midpoints of segments drawn to the
from a fixed point (a) without the circle, (b) on the circle,
circle
within the
(c)
and the median from the ver
altitude.
and one
angle.
side.
circle.
circle of radius 5 inches contains a moving chord AB,
8
inches, which is divided into four equal parts by the
length
Determine the loci of P, Q, and R. College Enpoints P, Q, R.
trance Examination Board, Plane Geometry Examination, 1913.
10.
11.
series
of parallelograms stand on the same base and
Find the locus of the intersection
parallels.
between the same
of the diagonals.
12.
are
From any
drawn
point in the base of a triangle straight lines
Find the locus of the intersection
parallel to the sides.
of the diagonals of all the parallelograms that
of
can be thus formed.
13. Find the locus of the points at which two equal segments
a straight line subtend equal angles.
PLANE GEOMETRY
160
Find the locus
14.
of the extremities of tangents to
circle
that have the same length.
15.
circle
Find the locus
meet at a given
of points
from which tangents to a given
angle.
Find the locus of points of contact of
tangents drawn from a fixed point to a system
16.
of concentric circles.
Construct a series of
17.
each
other
at
the
circles
same point
tangent to
(Fig.
285).
Find the locus of points of contact of tangents
drawn to these circles from any point in the
common
18.
tangent.
Two
Fig. 285
tangent to a given straight line at
are also tangent to each other.
Find
circles are
two given
points and
the locus of points of tangency of the two circles.
Let A and B he the two given
the point of tangency of the two circles.
Prove that CO is always equal to 14 A B (Fig. 286).
Suggestion.
points,
19.
In Fig. 287,
AACB
is
a right triangle with
the right angle at C. BCDE is the square constructed on side BC. Find the locus of the vertex
D asC moves about the semicircle BCA Use Ex
20. Upon a line segment AB an arc of a
.
Fig. 287
circle
containing
constructed and in the arc any chord CD having an arc
of 60 is drawn.
Find the locus (a) of the point of intersection oi AC and BD, (b) of the point of intersection oi
and BC.
240
is
College
AD
Entrance Examination Board, Plane Geometry Exami
nation, 1906.
21. Let A and B be two fixed points on a given circle and P
and Q the extremities of a variable diameter of the same circle.
Find the locus of the point of intersection of the straight lines AP
and BQ. College Entrance Examination Board, Plane Geometry
Examination, 1908.
22.
From a
bisected
by
given point on a circle draw the chords that are
a given, chord. Is it always possible to draw such
Give reasons for your answer. College Entrance Examination Board, Plane Geometry Examination, 1907.
chords?
CHAPTER IX
Ratio and Proportion
MEASUREMENT OF SEGMENTS
193.
that
it
To measure a
segilient
is
number of times
taken as a unit.
to find the
contains another segment which
is
In measuring the segment two methods are possible. By the first
is actually laid down successively on the segment to
method the unit
be measured. This method might be used in finding the length
of a room if nothing but a yardstick were at hand.
By the second
method another segment, upon which the unit and its subdivisions
are already marked, is laid beside the segment to be measured.
The number found
is
measure number, the
called the
measure, or the length of the segment.
194.
segment
is
said to be
measured exactly
if it
will
contain the unit without remainder.
segment that
is
not measured exactly
may
be measured
approximately.
In considering the theoretical measurement of segments
we have
the following cases:
The unit chosen may be contained in the given
remainder. The length of the segment is
without
segment
The segment is measured exactly.
an
then
integer.
First:
If the unit chosen is a segment of one inch, it may
Illustration 1.
be contained in a given segment 5 times with no remainder. The
length of the given segment is 5.
Second: The unit chosen may not be contained in the
given segment without remainder. In such cases it may
happen that some fraction of the unit can be found that
will
measure the segment exactly.
161
If
one inch
is
the unit
PLANE GEOMETRY
162
chosen, 3^ in., J^ in., 34 in., or .1 in. may be used. If such
a unit can be found, the segment is said to be measured
tn such a case the length will be an integer when
exactly,
expressed in terms of the new unit, but a fraction when
expressed in terms of the old unit. In either case the seg
ment has been measured
exactly.
chosen is one inch, it may be contained
in a given segment 7 times with a remainder less than one inch; but
when 3^ inch is chosen as a unit the measure may come out exactly 31.
The length is 31 quarterinches, or 7% in.; or
Illustration 2.
If the unit
Illustration 3.
The unit chosen, one inch, may be contained in a
given segment 3 times with a remainder less than one inch; a smaller
unit, .1 in,, maybe contained in the segment 32 times with a remainder
less than .1 in.; a still smaller unit, .01 in., may be contained in the
segment 324 times with a remainder less than .01 in.; but the unit
.001 in. may be contained exactly 3247 times.
The length of the segment is 3247 thousandths of an inch, or, as it is usually written, 3.247 in.
Third: It may happen that no subdivision of the unit
can be found that will measure the segment exactly. In
such a case we may obtain an approximate measure. By
subdividing the unit used the approximation may be made
as close as desired.
Illustration 4.
The unit chosen, one inch, may be contained in the
given segment 5 times with a remainder less than one inch. In this
case 5 would be an approximate length of the segment.
If we choose .1
in. as a unit, it may be contained in the given segment 56 times with a
remainder
less
than
.1 in.
We now
have 5.6
in.
But if we should choose .01 in. as a unit,
length.
closer approximation.
It might happen that .01 in.
as an approximate
we could
get a
still
would be contained
in the segment 562 times with a remainder less than .01 in.
The
approximate length is now 5.62 in. This process might be continued
indefinitely.
195. In actual practice an exact measurement can never
be obtained. We cannot be sure that a segment is exactly
7 in. or 7J4 in. long. In trying to measure the segment, the
end will fall between two marks on the scale. Either of
these gives an approximation to the length of the segment,
one a little too small and one a little too large. It is the
RATIO AND PROPORTION
'
163
usual practice to use the nearest one as the approximate
length of the segment. Often extremely close approximations are necessary, but the degree of accuracy depends
upon the fineness of the scale used and the definiteness of
the end of the segment to be measured.
Draw a segment 3)4 in. long. Measure it in centimeters
Ex. 1
and millimeters. Make two approximate measures, one as close
.
as possible but a
a little too large.
little
too small, the other as close as possible but
result compute the number of centi
From each
meters to an inch and the number of inches to a centimeter. Compare your result with the government standard equivalent (p 300)
Ex. 2. Draw a segment 5.6.cm. long. Make two approximate
.
measures of this segment
From your
make
results
and sixteenths
in inches
of
an
the computations called for in Ex.
inch.
.
RATIOS
DEFINITIONS
two numbers is the relation expressed
by dividing one number by the other. The ratio of a to 6
a :b or. It is read the ratio of
is written in two forms
are
numbers
a to b. Two
involved, the first term or divithe
antecedent, and the second term or
dend, also called*
196.
The
ratio of
divisor, also called the consequent.
say that the ratio of 12 to 4 is 3, or ^ = 3, we
that 12 is 3 times 4; when we say that the ratio of a
to b is r, or J =r, we mean that a is r times 6, or a = br.
When we
mean
The quotient
It is
the
sometimes called the value of the ratio.
practice to use the term ratio to mean
r is
common
either the indicated relation
or 3.
or the quotient r; either ^
f
In any case the two numbers or terms a and b are
always involved.
Two ratios
that have the same value are said to be equal.
Exercise. Express the following ratios in decimals of three places
5^
45
12
_3
9'
27'
59'
25'
19'
24'
44'
PLANE GEOMETRY
164
RATIO OF SEGMENTS
By the ratio of two segments is meant the ratio of
measures when expressed in the same unit.
197.
their
Exercise.
Draw two segments, one 2 cm. and one 3 cm. long.
Measure each in inches and sixteenths of an inch or in inches
and tenths of an inch. Find an approximate ratio.
198. Two segments are said to be commensurable if they
can be measured exactly by a common unit of measure.
Two segments are said to be incommensurable if there is
no common unit that will measure each exactly. We shall
later prove that the side and the diagonal of a square are
incommensurable. If the side of a square is one inch, the
diagonal is V2~ inches, an irrational number.
An irrational number is a number that cannot
as
be expressed
an integer or as the quotient of two integers.
The ratio of two commensurable segments is an integer
or a fraction.
The
ratio of
tional
number.
two incommensurable segments
Other illustrations of incommensurables
especially may be mentioned:
will
is
an
be met
irra
later.
Two
1.
The
side of
an equilateral triangle and the altitude
of
the same triangle are incommensurable.
2.
The diameter
of a circle
circumference of the
Note.
is
incommensurable with the
circle.
The nature
to irrational
are rational
of the decimals that correspond to rational and
numbers is interesting and should be noted. Fractions
and when reduced to decimals give decimals that either
terminate or repeat, for example:
He = 0625
K = .1666+
>^
or .16
= .333+
or
.3
H = .142857142857
or .112857
on the other hand, give decimals which neither
terminate nor repeat. An inexact root like V2~or V 3" is an irrational
number, but not the only kind of an irrational number. Another
example is the number called T (pi) (see 298, 301, and 311).
Irrational numbers,
RATIO AND PROPORTION
165
ASSUMPTIONS INVOLVING RATIOS
The
following assumptions will be used; As. 56
fundamental characteristic of ratios:
the
expresses
As. 56. Multiplying or dividing both terms of a ratio by
199.
the
same number does not change the value of the ratio.
Ratios equal to the same ratio are equal.
As. 57.
As. 58.
Equal ratios
may be
substituted for equal ratios.
THEORY OF PROPORTION
^
DEFINITIONS
200.
proportion
an equality of ratios; that is, if two
numbers involved are in proportion.
be written in two forms, a:b = c:d or
is
ratios are equal, the four
may
proportion
r = t' and
is
read, a
is
to 6 as
<;
is
to d, or the ratio a to 6
equals the ratio c to d. The extremes of the proportion are
a and d. The means are b and c.
Since in dealing with ratios we are dealing with numbers,
the laws of algebraic equations apply to proportions.
Find the value of x
Exercise.
^'
in each of the following:
""
55~64
FUNDAMENTAL THEOREMS OF PROPORTION
201.
Theorem
90.
the product of the
extremes.
The
proof
is left
If
four
means
is
numbers are
in proportion,
the
to
product of the
equal
to the pupil.
If the product of two numbers equals the
91.
two
other
numbers, either pair of factors may be
product of
and the other pair the means of a
extremes
made the
Theorem
proportion.
Hypothesis:
Suggestion.
12
ay = bx.
Conclusion:
Divide both sides of ay = bx by
r =
by.
PLANE GEOMETRY
166
Given ay = bx,prove = X
Ex.1.
= and
7
Ex.
= .
Derive at least two proportions from each of the
2.
following equations:
a. ab = xy
b.
^
aia+b)=:x(x+y)
Theorem
92.
(x^y) = ab
{a1) {x+l) = {a{l) (xl)
c.
{x\y)
d.
three terms of one proportion are equal
If
respectively to three corresponding terms of another proportion, the fourth
Hypothesis:
The proof
t
terms are equal.
=  and
r
=
>
x = y.
Conclusion:
to the pupil.
is left
TRANSFORMATIONS OF PROPORTIONS
202.
the
is,
Theorem
93.
four
If
they are in proportion by
Hypothesis:
Suggestion.
Theorem
numbers are
the third as the second
first is to
by
If
=
X
= bx;
then use Th. 91.
numbers are
four
in proportion,
the fourth; that
alternation.
Conclusion:
First prove that ay
94.
mean
is to
fourth is to the second as the third
in proportion, the
the
is to
first;
that
is,
they are in proportion by extreme alternation.
Hypothesis:
= 
Conclusion:
by
^b = a
'
Let the pupil give the proof.
Theorem
second
is to
95.
If
the
four
first
numbers are
as the fourth
in proportion, the
is to
the third; that
is,
they are in proportion by inversion.
Hypothesis:
by
Conclusion:
_=2_.
ax
Let the pupil give the proof.
Ex.
1.
Verify proportion
28 15
8
..
and mversion
^ri
j^
^^
by mean and extreme
9
^, and
a2
^
= ac
y^^
alternation
RATIO AND PROPORTION
Theorem
96.
If
four
numbers are
167
in proportion, the
plus the second is to the second as the third plus the
fourth is to the fourth; that is, they are in proportion byfirst
addition.
This
is
sometimes called proportion by compo
sition.
Hypothesis:
Conclusion:
PLANE GEOMETRY
168
Ex.
4.
a\b
a.
b.
li
r =
prove each of the following:
RATIO AND PROPORTION
169
Verification:
I.
Let the
common
AB
BC be
c.
unit of measure of segments
segment p.
Let the measure of AB = m. (In the figure m = 3.)
Let the measure of BC = n. (In the figure w = 4.)
d.
The
a.
b.
II. a.
and
ratio of f77^=
BC
The Hnes
the figure
(In
^
*=*
= t'^
w
CZ divide XY into m equal
YZ into n equal segments (Th. 45).
segments may be taken as the unit
parallel to
segments and
b.
One
of
c.
III.
.*.
^^
The
of these
ratio
1.
For
Note
2.
Since
YZ.
rr^='
YZ n
the ratio of
Note
YZ
XY and
.XY m
of
measure oi
^^
d and II
the ratio of
c see 197,
we assume
yy
the ratio of two segments.
number of divisions on X F and
number of divisions on AB and BC,
that the
are respectively equal to the
the formal reasoning above has been called a verification rather than a
proof.
Case B: When AB and BC are incommensurable. Since
not possible in this case to express the lengths oi AB
and BC in integral or fractional terms of the same unit,
the argument given for Case A cannot be used. Case
B will be assumed without proof. The proof is possible,
but too difficult for this course.
it is
In the next six exercises the letters refer to Fig. 288.
Ex.5.
AB = 7,
BC=9, XF = 17K,
=
AB 12, XF=15, FZ= 18,
AB = S, BC=yl2,XY = 5,
AB = 3}^, BC=IK YZ = 7,
AB = 2^J^,XY = 5, FZ = 7,
Ex.
BC=2.3,
Ex.1.
Ex.2.
Ex.3.
Ex.4.
G.
XF = 5.7, FZ = 9,
find
FZ.
find
5C.
find
YZ.
find
XF.
find
5C.
find .45.
PLANE GEOMETRY
170
APPLICATION OF THEOREM
Theorem
204.
99.
If
a line
98
TO TRIANGLES
is parallel to
the base of a
triangle, the ratio of the segments on one side equals the
ratio of the corresponding segments on the other side.
Cor.
If
a line
the base of a triangle, one
segments as the other side is to its
is parallel to
side is to either of
its
corresponding segment.
Suggestion.
Ex.
1.
Use Th.
In Fig. 289 prove that
^=^
CE be'
Ex.
2.
96.
A^
9A9R
cb~eb' cb~ce'
Prove Th. 99
if
the parallel cuts the
Fig 289
sides of the triangle extended.
Ex. 3. Verify Th. 98 and Th. 99 and its cor, by measuring
each of the segments in Figs. 288 and 289 in inches and sixteenths
(or tenths) of an inch, also in centimeters
finding the ratios from the measurements.
and
millimeters,
In the next eight exercises the letters refer to Fig. 289.
Ex.4.
Ex.5.
CD = S}^, DA = 3H,
CE = 2}4,
find
5.
and
RATIO AND PROPORTION
171
EQUAL RATIO TEST FOR PARALLELS
Theorem 100. If a line divides the sides
205.
of a trione segment as a second side
corresponding segment, the line is parallel to the
angle so that one side
is to its
is to
third side of the triangle.
Fig. 291
AABC
Hypothesis:
is
any
triangle with
DE
so
drawn
CB
CA
DE
Conclusion:
AB.
\\
Analysis and construction:
To prove DE AB, prove
line AB,
I.
that
\\
DE
coincides with a
II
II.
construct
.*.
DX
coincides with
To prove
III.
E falls
that
from
D AB

and prove that
DE
DX.
DE
coincides with
DX, prove
that
on X.
E falls on X, prove that CE = CX.
CA _CB
CA_CB
M
u
that.rT7
CE = r^
and
V. To prove ,u
CX, show
To prove
IV.
that
rr.
t^
The
proof
Cor.
If
ratio of the
is left
to the pupil.
For
Yy)
'rx'
use Th. 92.
a Hne divides the sides of a triangle so that the
segments on one side is equal to the ratio of the
segments on the other, the
line is parallel to the third side
of the triangle.
Exercise.
If
base?
Give proof,
a trapezoid
the line be parallel to the
line divides the nonparallel sides of
into segments having the
same
ratio, will
PLANE GEOMETRY
172
CONSTRUCTION OF PROPORTIONAL SEGMENTS
206. Ex. 1.
By algebra divide 120 into parts that shall be
in
the ratio of 7:8.
Ex.
2.
Using Prob.
Ex.
3.
By
in the ratio of 4, 5,
Problem
7, 111, find
^f of a given segment.
algebra divide 144 into three parts that shall be
and
To
14.
9.
divide a segment into two segments
ratio as two given segments.
same
that shall be in the
Fig. 292
XY
the given segment, show how to construct
Suggestion.
h k
the figure so that you can prove that = t"
Segments lettered alike
If
is
'
are equal.
Give proof.
Problem
To
15.
proportional to
divide a given segment into segments
any number
of given segments.
Y^
;i
Z'
Fig. 293
Suggestion.
It is
..
Ex.
4.
necessary to construct the figure so that you
.h = k = n
7
can prove that
a
Show
"
that Prob. 15
may
be solved as follows (Fig. 294)
From
A draw ray / and from B draw m\\l.
Lay off the given segments on / and 7n
:
as
shown
pomts
in the figure
of division.
and
a
c
J
join the
Fig. 294
RATIO AND PROPORTION
173
CONSTRUCTION OF FOURTH PROPORTIONALS
207. Ex.
Given three segments
1.
a,
and
b,
fourth segment x so that 7 =  (Fig. 295).
^ *
Suggestion.
The
construction
Th. 99. How are the segments
off on the sides of Z 0?
Ex.
a, b,
and
Ex.
o^*:::
3.
a:?
Do any of
Why?
a = b
c
^i.
c laid
,
^
pj^
295
so
be
= , so that = , so that b = aax
ex
ax
value for
Using the three segments given
2.
in Fig.
^ 295,' construct x so that
that
based on
is
construct a
c,
J.
so thatr =
*
ox~
the figures called for in Ex. 2 give the
same
The fourth term of a proportion in which the other three
terms are the three given numbers taken in order is called
the fourth proportional to the three given numbers; for
if
example,
Ex.
b.
5a, 3a,
is
the fourth proportional to
a, b,
and
c.
Find the fourth proportional to
4.
a. 21, 5,
t=,
and 4
and 2b
Problem
e.
To
16.
6H, 8Hj and 5
a+1, and Qa^
d. a,
e.
a+l,
f.
Qj^, 26,
a,
and a+4
and 35
construct a fourth proportional to three
given segments.
Analysts:
Let a, b, and c represent the given segments and x the
fourth proportional.
To
construct a foiuth proportional to
X so that
=
a, 6,
and
c,
construct
(See Fig. 295.)
Using three given segments a, b, ,and c, find a fourth
Are the
a, c, and b; to b, c, and a; to c, a, and b.
words "in order" essential in the definition of the fourth proporEx.
5.
proportional to
tional?
Why?
PLANE GEOMETRY
174
Ex. 6. Find by geometry a fourth proportional to the segments
whose lengths are given below. In each case verify by measurement and computation.
a. 4.2 cm., 2.5 cm., 37 cm.
3.5 cm., 4.9 cm., 2.5 cm.
cm., 3.5 cm., 4.2 cm.
b.
c.
Ex.
If a, b,
7.
and
c represent three
fourth segment x so that {a) x=^;
x=
(b)
given segments, find a
;
(c)
x = %b
MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES INVOLVING
RATIOS AND PARALLELS
208. 1. In
Fig. 296,
DF\\CB, prove that
ratio of
DF
CD = 1
^=
DE
If
3*
AB.
y^
DE\\AB and
What
the
is
to CJ5?
'f~^
Fig. 296
2.
shall
Construct between two sides of a triangle a segment that
be parallel to the third side and equal to
of the third side.
3.
If,
prove
in Fig. 297,
ED CB
and
\\
AD_AB AD_AB
^^^^ ABJf'
^^^
CF EB,
\\
AB _AF
DBJp
A nalysis:
To prove
the two ratios equal, prove
them each equal
to a third ratio.
4. A line is drawn through the intersection of the medians
a triangle cutting two of the sides of the triangle and parallel
to a third.
In what ratio are these sides divided? Why?
of
c
5.
In Fig. 298,
O is any
point within
A ABC,
A'B'\\AB from A', an arbitrary point in AO,
and intersects OB at B'
B'C BC from B' and
intersects OC at C. A' and
are joined. Prove
.
\\
that
^'C'MC.
6. Would Ex. 5 be true if point
the figure and give the proof.
^^^^^^
were outside
A^^C? Draw
RATIO AND PROPORTION
In Fig. 299,
7.
X is a point
on CO.
example,
(for
CA?
KH
Answer
\\
an arbitrary segment from
:r^
AB
to
equal to a given ratio
is
the locus of point
as
and
^
AB.
line
In Fig. 300,
8.
= liAB, and
If
^^), find
moves along the
to
CO is
175
is
OC.
the midpoint oi AB,
What is the ratio of
this question
\i
AK
CH
AK=% AB.
/^^ (f
Fig. 300
AD = CE,
AB = BC,
AC\\DE FG.
9. If, in Fig. 301,
BG, prove that
10.
and
FB^
\\
Prove by Th. 99 that
if
line is parallel to
the base of a triangle and bisects one side,
the other also.
it
bisects /^^V^f^
Fig. 301
11. Prove the converse of the theorem quoted in Ex. 10 by
Th. 100. Cor.
12.
Prove by Th. 98 that
trapezoid and bisects one side,
the converse of this be proved
13.
it
line is parallel to the bases of a
bisects the other side also.
Can
by proportion?
Given any angle and P, any point within it. Draw a line
P meeting the sides of the angle in two points M, N, such
= 2PN. College Entrance Examination Board, Plane
through
that
if
MP
Geometry Examination, 1912.
14. Show that a carpenter's steel square may be used to solve
problems in proportion. Fig. 302 shows a steel square graduated
to halfinches. ACD is a frame made of
two pieces of wood hinged at C. AC can
slide
on the long arm
a number x so that
=
9
16
that the outer edge of
arm
(12 half inches)
of the square.
12
Place
Find
ACD
so
CD is on 6 on the long
and 4>^ on the short
Without changing the angle
p^^
3Q2
of adjustment of the frame,
to the left until the outer edge of CD passes
through 8 on the long arm. How is the value of x found? Why?
arm.
move the frame
PLANE GEOMETRY
176
SIMILAR TRIANGLES
I FOR SIMILAR TRIANGLES
TEST
209. Theorem 101.
If two triangles have the angles of
one respectively equal to the angles of the other, the corresponding sides have equal ratios.
AABC and ADEF are any
ZA=ZD, ZB=ZE, and ZC= ZF.
= = Conclusion
DE EF FD
Hypothesis:
two
triangles
with
Analysis and construction:
AT?
T^
To prove r=,
I.
of
II.
.*.
use a line parallel to a third side
/\DEF.
/lABC upon ADEF with point B on point E,
DE, and BC along EF. Then prove
place
AB
along
A'a DF.
II
Let the pupil complete the analysis and give the proof.
T^
It IS
^
necessary also to prove
1
BC =
CA
FD

EF
If a and a', b and b', c and
mutually equiangular triangles, find
Exercise.
sides of
1.
^j'andc',
if
2.
yandc',
and c,
if
3. b
210.
it
o =12,
a =3M,
a
= lOH,
6=18,
6=4,
a'
= 16,
=24,
=5>i
= 20,
b'
Two polygons are said to be
c'
anda' = 20.
and a' = 25.
and c' = 27.
similar
a.
The
b.
Corresponding sides have equal
are corresponding
if
angles of one are equal to the corresponding
angles of the other and
ratios.
RATIO AND PROPORTION
Theorem 101
We
will state it
Theorem
177
gives us our first test for similar triangles.
formally as
102.
Two
mutually equiangular triangles are
Why?
similar.
popular language, similar figures have the same
shape. All enlargements and drawings to scale are practical
In
examples of similar
Ex.
1.
Prove that
Ex.
2.
Are
two
figures.
all
equilateral triangles are similar.
all isosceles
triangles similar?
Why?
When
are
isosceles triangles similar?
3.
If two isosceles triangles have equal vertex angles, the
have the same ratio as the bases.
Ex.
legs
4.
Are
Ex.
5.
Is
Ex.
6.
Construct two rectangles that are similar.
Ex.
two
all
right triangles
right triangles similar?
similar?
a square similar to a rectangle?
Why?
When
are
Why?
TESTS FOR EQUAL PRODUCTS AND EQUAL RATIOS
At the beginning of the course in geometry considwas spent on the use of congruent triangles in
proving segments and angles equal. So important is this
that when it is necessary to prove two segments equal we
211.
erable time
a pair of congruent triangles. In this
are studying especially equal ratios, which are
The tests for equal
just as important as equal segments.
ratios are as important as the tests for equal segments.
often look
chapter
When two
bilities
first for
we
ratios are to
be proved equal, the following possi
must be considered:
A. Our fundamental methods for proving ratios equal are:
1.
2.
By
By
parallels and transversals.
similar triangles.
B. Before either of these mechods can be applied it is
often necessary to find a third ratio to which each of thei
given ratios can be proved equal.
PLANE GEOMETRY
178
The use
of similar triangles in proving ratios equal is of
The following considerations are
considerable importance.
often helpful
:
To
First:
select the
The
proper triangles:
definition of
have equal
similar figures says that corresponding sides
ratios.
then,
This gives
we
= 77
two
are to prove
and by alternation
c
ratios equal, say
7
ir
If.
77
e
we may
choose the triangles so that one of them shall have c and e
as sides and the other shall have d and / as sides, or so that
one of them shall have c and d as sides and the other shall
have e and / as sides that is so that the numerators shall
be sides of one triangle and the denominators sides of the
other, or so that the terms of one ratio shall be sides of one
triangle; and the terms of the other ratio sides of the other.
;
Second:
To
corresponding sides of a pair of
In Fig. 303 the triangles are so placed
select the
similar triangles:
that corresponding sides can be selected immediately by
When the triangles are not thus conveniently
inspection.
placed it is necessary to remember that corresponding sides
are always opposite equal angles. The corresponding sides
should be selected carefully from the equal angles as illustrated in the proof to Ex.
may be designated by
When it is required
of equal ratios may be
on p.
179.
Notice that equal angles
Z2 and Z2'.
the same numbers, as
two products equal, a pair
obtained from the equal products by
Th. 91 and the ratios proved equal as explained above.
Note.
If
to prove
we say that corresponding
a
equal ratios, the ratios should be read ~'
sides of similar triangles
b
'^
~y'
If>
however, we say that
corresponding sides of similar triangles are proportional,
either ^
= 77 or ? = ^
divided proportionally,
Similarly in Fig. 289
we may
or either of the forms in Ex.
if
have
we may
we say the
use
sides are
use the ratios given in Th. 99 and Cor.
1,
204.
RATIO AND PROPORTION
179
EXERCISES INVOLVING THE USE OF TEST
SIMILAR TRIANGLES
FOR
The diagonals of a trapezoid divide each other into
have the same ratio (see Fig. 304).
that
segments
212.
1.
Analysis:
To prove
X = y prove
ADOC equal y
the angles of
respectively to the angles of
^^^' ^O^
AOBA.
Proof:
STATEMENTS
Z1=Z1'.
Z2=Z2'.
1.
2.
ADOC=ZAOB.
3.
X (opposite Z2) _ y (opposite Zl)
z (opposite Z2')
zy (opposite Zl')
is any point in segment AB.
drawn through point O not perpenFrom A and B perpendiculars
dicular to AB.
are drawn meeting this line at points F and X.
In Fig. 305,
2.
Any
line is
A BCD
3.
line
a parallelogram with
is
drawn through
;,
'^"'^
intersecting
its
AC
diagonal
\^
j^
Fig, 305
BX
AC.
Y and ^D
at
at X.
is a
Prove
BY = BC
XY AX
In Fig. 306, ABC is an isosceles triangle.
Prove that b^ = cm.
4.
Z 1 = Z 2.
y^^^^^
^^'.k..J^.B
F^c. 306
Analysis:
I.
y^
To prove
b^
= cm,
prove that r=
tn
the product of two segments equals the square of a
third segment, the last segment is called a mean proporIf
tional
between the other two.
In Ex.
proportional between c and m.
or X = Va6,
5.
:!c
is
If
4,
h'^
= cm,
4, in
a mean
=r' =iX^ = ab,
d
%
OC
a mean proportional between a and
Investigate the case, Fx.
is
which
AA
>
Z.C.
h.
Why
PLANE GEOMETRY
180
Z5
6. In Fig. 307, AABC is a right
DE is drawn AC from any point
AB 'AD = AE 'AC.
AB
on
Z.
rt.
Investigate the case, Ex. 6, in which point
extended.
7.
is
triangle with
in AB.
Prove
(.
Fig. 307
Investigate the case, Ex.
extended.
8.
6,
in
which point
is
on
BA
parallel sides of a trapezoid have the same
segments into which one diagonal is divided by the
Prove that the
9.
ratio as the
other.
c
10. In Fig. 308, AABC is isosceles and BX = BA.
Prove that c is a mean proportional between AC
^>
and AX,
11.
d09,CXAB
In Fig.
and
BYAC.
Prove
AC = CX
^,
^^^^AB
12,
BY'
In Fig. 309, prove that
BO BY=^BA
BX.
X B
Fig. 309
13. In Fig. 310, lines h and k are parallel and are
cut by the pencil of rays from point 0. Prove that
a _c
~b~l'
Suggestion.
Prove that each ratio
is
equal to a third
Fig. 310
ratio.
14.
What
ratios
on opposite sides
15.
with
would be equal
of point
In Fig. 311,
if
h and k (Fig. 310) were
O?
AABC is a right triangle
CDAB from C. Prove
Z C a right angle.
AACD^ACBD
spending
sides.
and read the
ratios of corre ^.
Fig. 311
RATIO AND PROPORTION
181
a diameter of OO, BD tangent
from A cutting the circle
at E and the tangent at D.
Prove that AB \s2i mean
proportional between AE and AD.
a.t
AD
B.
any
is
is
line
In Fig. 312 draw BE.
17.
mean
^B
In Fig. 312,
16.
circle
proportional between
AE
Prove that
BE
is
and ED.
In Fig. 313, CZ) is a diameter perpendicular to
Prove that ^C is a mean proportional
18.
chord AB.
between
tional
CE
and CD.
In Fig. '313 prove that /IE
19.
between
20. In Fig.
is
a mean propor
and ED.
313 prove that
Fig. 313
CEED = AE^EB.
The
crosssection of a street surface
circle;
the distance from curb to curb
21.
of
CE
is
the arc
is
30
ft.;
the rise of the center of the street above the gutter
7 inches. What is the radius of the circle?
22. In Fig. 314,
XF ^5 and FZ
II
II
is
BC. Prove that
Fig. 314
b~l'
23. Draw a square A BCD and the diagonals AC and BD.
Let E, F, G, and
be the midpoints of the sides AB, BC, CD,
and DA respectively. Join each vertex to the midpoints of the two
nonadjacent sides, that is, join A to points F and G, and so on.
Find pairs of similar triangles and read the ratios of corresponding
sides.
24. Fig.
315
shows
XY\\AB, and YZ\\BC.
three
concurrent
Prove that
j y
lines
25. In Fig. 316 the circles are tangent at X,
the point of tan
AB and CD are drawn through
gency, meeting the circles as shown.
cb
= ad.
Prove that
(See 175, Ex.20.)
26. Investigate the case, Ex. 25, in
circles are
13
tangent internally.
which the
Fig. 316
PLANE GEOMETRY
182
IMPORTANT SPECIAL CASES
INTERSECTING CHORDS
213.
Theorem
103.
two chords intersect within a
If
circle, the product of the segments of one
product of the segments of the other.
is
equal to the
Fig. 317
Hypothesis:
and
of
Circle
AB
is
any
circle
with the chords
AB
so that a and h are the segments
intersecting at
and c and d the segments of CD.
Conclusion :
The
CD
ab
= cd.
analysis, construction,
and proof are
left to
the pupil.
In the next six exercises the letters refer to Fig. 317.
Ex.
1.
Ex.
2.
Ex.
3.
Ex.
4.
Ex.5.
Ex.
6.
Find b, if a = 12, ^ = 2%, and c=15.
Find a and b,iiAB = 22,d = 8, and c = 12.
Find a and d, if AB = 19, 6 = 10, and c = 6.
Find d, if a = 5>^, = 43^, and b = 5.
<;
I^mda,iid = 8li,c = 2%,sindb = 3y5,
Find c and d,iiAB = 2Q,b = 8, and c = d.
AC
and
214. If point C is between A and B on line AB,
is said to be divided
C5 are said to be segments oiAB and
^B
internally at C.
internally at C.
AB
ylC+C5 = A5.
on
is
divided
^
i
5"
c'
AB
but not between
said to be segments of AB.
In Fig. 318,
said to be divided externally at C.
If point
In Fig. 318,
and 5,
is
line
AC and BC are
still
AB is
AB is divided externally at C. AC'BC' = AB if C is
on AB extended. BC'AC'=BA if C is on BA extended.
RATIO AND PROPORTION
183
INTERSECTING SECANTS
Theorem 104. If two secants intersect without a
the product of one secant and its external segment
is equal to the product of the other secant and its external segment.
215.
circle,
Fig. 319
Hypothesis: Circle O is any circle with the two secants
h and k intersecting without the circle at E so that a and b
are the external segments of h and k respectively.
ah = bk.
Conclusion:
The
analysis, construction,
and proof are
left to
the pupil.
The
following data refer to Fig. 319; c and d are the
Find the length of the
internal segments of h and k respectively.
Ex.
1.
segments required.
and
a.
Find
b.
Find
b, if
Find
Find
a, if
c.
d.
a, if
d, if
a = 9,
A=15, a = 7, and ^ = 35.
k= 12, and c = 4.
= 8, c= 13, and 6 = 4.
c=10, b = 4, and d = 20.
<f
2.
If in QO the chords AB and CD
kind of segments are AX, BX,
what
320),
CX, and DX? If point B moves along the
circle until AB' intersects CD without the
circle at X', what kind of segments are AX',
B'X', CX', and DX'? Show that the chords
are divided in one case internally and in the
Ex.
intersect at
(Fig.
Fig. 320
other case externally so that the product of the segments of one
chord is equal to the product of the segments of the other.
'
PLANE GEOMETRY
184
INTERSECTING TANGENT AND SECANT
If a secant and a tangent meet
216. Theorem 105.
without a circle, the tangent is a mean proportional between
the whole secant and its external segment.
Fig. 321
is any circle with secant k and
Hypothesis: Circle
tangent h meeting without the circle at C so that a is the
external segment oi k.
h'^=ak.
Conclusion:
The
analysis, construction,
In the next
and proof are
left to
the pupil.
five exercises the letters refer to Fig. 321.
a = 4: a.nd h = 6.
Ex.
1.
Find
Ex.
2.
Find kanda^ii
Ex.
3.
Find
k, ii
a, if
AB = 7
and h = 12.
h=10, the radius
of the circle is 7j^,
and the
secant passes through the center of the^circle.
Ex.
Ex.
Find k and
4.
Find
5.
a, if
.45 = 27 and h =
the radius of the circle
secant passes through the center of the
Ex.
In Fig. 320, what motion of
6.
if
18.
a = 4, h =
l2,
and the
circle.
AX'
will
show the
relation
between Ths. 104 and 105?
Draw a segment AC=S cm. On AC from C lay off
Draw any circle passing through points A and B.
Draw a tangent to this circle from point C. Draw several figures,
Ex.
CB = 2
7.
cm.
varying the radius of the
and
Can you
Ex.
8.
drawn, but using always ^C = S cm.
the lengths of the various tangents.
circle
C5 = 2 cm. Compare
explain the results?
Tangents drawn to two intersecting
common chord are equal.
point in their
circles
from any
RATIO AND PROPORTION
185
SEGMENTS MADE BY THE BISECTOR OF AN ANGLE
OF A TRIANGLE
The bisector of an angle of a tri217. Theorem 106.
angle divides the opposite side internally into segments
that have the same ratio as the other two sides of the
triangle.
Fig. 322
Hypothesis:
ZBCA
AABC is any triangle with CO
AB into segments r and
and dividing
Conclusion:
=t
5
b
bisecting
s.
Analysis and construction:
I.
Two
II.
III.
'Let
.*.
ratios may be proved equal by use of Th. 98,
Th. 99, or Th. 101. (Why?) We will use Th. 99.
a
T
construct AD from A OC and get = r,'
\\
Y
a
To prove = t, prove
= h' and
substitute in
the pupil complete the analysis and give the proof.
In the next
Ex.
1.
six exercises
the letters refor to Fig. 322.
T = a
j,
PLANE GEOMETRY
186
SEGMENTS MADE BY THE BISECTOR OF AN
EXTERIOR ANGLE OF A TRIANGLE
Theorem
218.
The
107.
bisector of
an
exterior angle of
a triangle divides the opposite side externally into segments
that have the same ratio as the other two sides of the triangle.
Fig. 323
AABC is any triangle with CO bisecting the
ZACE and dividing BA externally into segments
Hypothesis:
exterior
r
and
5.
Let
Conclusion :
BC = a, CA = b,
L^.
s
The
an
CD = b'.
analysis, construction,
and proof are
Theorem 107
Discussion.
of
and
is
left to
the pupil.
not true for the vertex angle
isosceles triangle.
In the next four exercises the letters refer to Fig. 323.
Ex.
2.
Find
= 24, 5 = 6, and 6 = 5.
r,iia= 18, 6 = 5, and ^ = 7.
Ex.
3.
Find
and
s, if
Ex.
4.
Find
and
s, if
Ex.
1.
Find
a, if r
AB=S, a=12, and & = 6.
AB = a = 9, and b = 6.
4:,
two points divide a segment internally and extersame ratio, the segment is said to be divided
harmonically by the two points.
^^^
219. If
nally in the
Ex.
1.
In Fig. 324,
ABC
is
any
triangle.
CX bisects ZACB
and CX' bisects the exterior
Prove that AB is divided harmoniat X and X'.
/.BCD.
cally
Ex.
2.
Show how
Suggestion.
^ ^
^'^ ^^4
to divide any given segment harmonically.
Construct any triangle on the segment
AB
as base.
RATIO AND PROPORTION
187
PROPORTIONAL SEGMENTS IN RIGHT TRIANGLES
Theorem 108. If a perpendicular is drawn from the
vertex of the right angle of a right triangle to the hypotenuse,
the perpendicular is a mean proportional between the segments of the hypotenuse.
220.
Fig. 325
A ABC is any triangle with ZC = rt. Z,
AB
AB = c\ m and n are the segments of c.
from
C.
p
Conclusion: ^ is a mean proportional between m and n.
Hypothesis:
The
analysis
and the proof are
left to
the pupil.
Theorem 109. If a perpendicular is drawn from the vertex of the right angle of right triangle to the h3rpotenuse,
either leg is a mean proportional between the whole hypotenuse and the segment adjacent to that leg.
The analysis and the proof are left to the pupil.
Exercise.
(6) 6
= Z cm. and = 7
(a) m
= 2.4 cm. and w = 1.2 cm. In
Construct Fig. 325 so that
= 6 cm. and c = 9 cm.;
(c) 6
cm.;
each case measure the remaining segments and compare them with
the results obtained by computation.
CONSTRUCTION OF MEAN PROPORTIONALS
221.
Problem
17.
To
construct
mean
proportional
between two given segments.
Solution I. The solution may be based on Fig. 326, by making the
hypotenuse of the right triangle equal to the sum of the two given
segments. Construct the right triangle by means of a semicircle.
II.
The
by making
Solution
solution
may
be based on
equal to the longer and
equal to the shorter of the given segments.
Fig. 326,
Can you invent a
solution based on Fig. 321?
m
Fig. 326
PLANE GEOMETRY
188
Ex.
1.
If
X so that (1)
a and_b are two given segments, cons truct a
segment
ylah; (2) x= ^2ab; {S)x= V^^a^; (4) x = }^ ^ab,
x=
Ex. 2. JTaking any given length to represent 1, find
segments
equal to V2, V8, V12. Measure the results and compare them
with the approximate square roots of 2, 8, and 12.
Suggestion.
If
x=yl2,x'^
2
= 2. Then " = X
^*
RELATION BETWEEN THE SIDES OF A RIGHT TRIANGLE
Theorem 110. The sum of the squares of the legs
of a right triangle is equal to the square of the hypotenuse.
222.
Fig. 327
AABC
rt.
is any right triangle with
Hypothesis:
Z c the hypotenuse, and a and b the legs.
ZC
Conclusion:
a^\b^=c'^.
Analysis and construction:
I.
To prove
for b^
II.
a^\ = c^, find a value for a^
The terms a^ and
III.
.*.
b^
above suggest the use of the mean
proportional theorem.
draw a perpendicular from
and
b^
and a value
and add.
in terms oi
C to AB and
AB and its segments.
find a^
Proof:
STATEMENTS
1.
2.
3.
= nc and b^ = mc.
a^]b^ = nc]mc={n\'m)c.
a2 +62 = ^2.
a^
Let the pupil give the reasons. For 2 use: the sum of numbers
having a common factor is the common factor multiplied by the sum
of the coefficients.
RATIO AND PROPORTION
189
Note. Th. 110 is one of the most important theorems of geometry
and one of tlie most frequently used. More than one hundred proofs
are known. It is called the Pythagorean theorem. Pythagoras, a
Greek, is supposed to have given a general proof, although the fact was
believed to be true much earlier. We do not know the nature of the
proof that Pythagoras gave, but it is probable that it was something
one given above. Pythagoras settled in Crotona, Southern
where he founded a brotherhood, the members of which were
like the
Italy,
pledged to secrecy.
They spent
their time in the study of philosophy,
and mathematics and discovered many important theorems
ethics,
Pythagoras died about 501
in geometry.
What
Exercise.
is
B.C.
the hypotenuse of a right triangle
if
the
perpendicular sides are 3 and 4?
The
sides are 3, 4, and 5 is a
were known to the Egyptians
more than three thousand years before the time of Pythagoras.
The Egyptians used ropes knotted at equal distances. These were
stretched about three poles so as to form a. right triangle. The
Note.
fact that a triangle
relation 3^+42
and the
right triangle
whose
= 52
Egyptians called the men who knew how to use these ropes ropestretchers.
Surveyors use similar methods today. How many knots
must there be in the rope and how is it used to construct a right
triangle?
The pyramids of Egypt have an angle nearly equal to an acute
angle of a triangle whose sides are 3, 4, and 5. The Chinese and
the Hindus probably knew about this right triangle at a very early
date.
APPLICATIONS OF PYTHAGOREAN THEOREM
223. Ex.
are 25
Ex.
ft.
2.
1.
What
and 60
3.
Find
b.
m=
8,
c.
p=
9,
Ex.
4.
all
of the
6=17.
w=12.
The
Find the length
center.
of a rectangle
is
50
ft.;
one side
is
14
ft.
side.
= 16, p=12.
a.
the diagonal of a rectangle whose sides
The diagonal
Find the other
Ex.
is
ft.?
segments in Fig. 328,
d.
e.
/.
if
6=10, a = 24.
c=50, 6 = 30.
w = 28, = 63.
of a circle is 11 in.
a tangent drawn from a point 61
radius
of
in.
from the
PLANE GEOMETRY
190
In a given circle let r represent the radius, c a chord,
Find the missing
of the chord from the center.
terms as indicated below:
Ex.
5.
and d the distance
d = 8,
a,
d=?,
b.
Ex.
= 32,
r=?
c=28,
d=12,
c.
r=18.
d = 5,
d.
c=?,
c=?,
= 36.
r=45.
Find the sides of an isosceles
side of a square is 12.
formed by joining the midpoint of one side to the opposite
One
6.
triangle
vertices.
One side of a square is 14. Find the sides of an isosceles
formed
by joining one vertex to the midpoints of the sides
triangle
not passing through that yertex.
Ex.
7.
Ex.
8.
diagonal
if
Ex.
9.
Ex.
10.
Find the
If one side of a square is 8, find the diagonal.
one side is 6; 10; 12; 20; 5.
If
a diagonal of a square
If
is
15, find the side.
the hypotenuse of an isosceles right triangle
is
12,
find the side.
Theorem HI.
is s
V2.
If
Ex. 11.
are 18.
Ex.
tude
is
Ex.
whose
Ex.
side.
The base
What
12.
If
of
13.
14.
an
Find one of the
is s, its diagonal
d, the side is ^/id yl2.
isosceles triangle is 12; the equal sides
legs of
an
isosceles triangle
if
the
alti
is 12.
Find the altitude of an equilateral triangle one of
Find the altitude if the side is 5; 10; 12; 5.
is 4.
If
the altitude of an equilateral triangle
if the altitude is 6; 8; 7>^; a.
is
14, find the
Find the side
Theorem
112.
its altitude is
V2
If
one side of an equilateral triangle is s,
If the altitude is a, one side of the
s ^3.
equilateral triangle is ^/s
a VJ.
Ex. 15. One side of a rhombus
Find the diagonals.
Ex. 16.
is 12.
is
altitude?
is its
8 and the base
sides
one side of a square
the diagonal of a square
One
Find the
angle of a
side.
is
rhombus
24; one of its angles
is
60.
The
is
60.
longer diagonal
RATIO AND PROPORTION
191
APPLICATIONS OF EQUAL RATIOS
MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES
329 shows proportional compasses used
reduce drawings to scale. How must
the instrument be adjusted so that b is twice a ? so that
224.
to
1.
Fig.
or
enlarge
times a
b is three
The shadow
2.
of
a tree
that the shadow of an
is
the tree
8ft.
is
36
ft.
pole
is
at the
same time
How
ft.
high
Fig. 329
How may
the height of a flagpole be found by noticing just
when the length of the shadow of a certain post is equal to the
height of the post? Why?
3.
Note. It is said that the Greek Thales astonished the Egyptians
by measuring the heights of the pyramids from their shadows. Whether
he used the method of Ex. 2 or the special case mentioned in Ex. 3
is not known.
Thales lived from about 640 to 548 B.C. and introduced
x
the study of geometry into Greece.
An
4.
may
point
8ft.
'' '^
pole is placed at B (Fig. 330). How
located and what lines must be meas
CX?
Xb
A be
ured in order to find the height of the tower
5.
Fig. 330
Why?
Can you use
the method of Ex. 4 in determining the length
on the comer of a building? Could the length
using the special method of Ex. 3?
of a flagpole placed
be determined by
Show that an inaccessible distance AB (Fig.
by the following method: Make
AC LAB. Take C, any point on .4 C from which
6.
be obtained
is visible.
CD
Make CD CB. Find
E, the point
331)
may
^'
and BA would intersect. What
lines must be measured?
7. Show how the measurement suggested in Ex. 6 may be
performed practically by the aid of a pole and a carpenter's steel
at which
square.
Note.
In Ex. 6 stakes are set up at the points indicated and the
on the ground. In Ex. 7 the figure is set up in a vertical
figure laid out
plane.
PLANE GEOMETRY
192
8.
Show that an
obtained as follows:
AC
CD
AB
inaccessible distance
Make CA AB and
(Fig. 332)
some convenient part oi AC i}4
DEAD. Find E, the point at
which BC and DE would intersect. What measurement must be taken? Is it necessary that AB and
DEheAD? Why?
until
be
is
Make
or H).
9.
may
extend
Fig. 332
Before the invention of the telescope an instrument called
the crossstaff was sometimes used to measure inaccessible heights
and distances. The crossbar c was made to slide
Tp^^
^
''^
up and down the staff a (Fig. 333). Show how this
^
instrument could be used to find the width of the
Fig, 333
How
stream R.
could
it
be used to find the height of a steeple?
TRIGONOMETRIC RATIOS
From 210 we know
225.
AABCc^AA'B'C
or
T = T}' Why?
b
h'
(Fig. 334)
that
if
^=y
The second
pro
may be translated thus: The ratio of two sides of
one of two similar triangles equals the ratio of the two corresponding sides of the other. In right triangles we have:
portion
two right triangles have an acute angle of one equal to
an acute angle of the other, the ratio of any two sides of
one is equal to the ratio of the two corresponding sides of
If
the other.
Ex.
In Fig. 335,
1.
similar
right
given above.
Note.
triangles.
AABC
and A'B'C are
Apply the proportion
Obtain three pairs of equal
ratios.
In Fig. 335 the triangles are lettered so
is opposite A A, side b is opposite Z.B,
that side a
Z C. Angle C is the right angle.
in the discussion that follows, the
right triangles will be lettered in this way.
side c is opposite
For convenience
RATIO AND PROPORTION
The
ratio
is
the same for
same acute angle A.
Why?
and r We may say,
ratios
all right triangles
having the
The same may be
said of the
therefore, that
an acute angle of a right triangle
If
I.
193
is
known, we can
find the ratios of the sides.
XL
the ratio of any pair of sides of a right triangle
find the angle.
If
is
known, we can
These same
much importance
ratios are of so
in relation
to the /.A that they have been given special names.
names of the ratios are as follows:
a or
side opposite Z.A
:;
^^:
IS
called sine oi Z.A
and
is
The
written
hypotenuse
sin A.
h or
side adjacent to
T^
ZA
,,
called cosine of
/.A and
is
r
. ^
4.
called tangent 01
Zy Aa andj
is
IS
hypotenuse
written cos
ZA
TH
ZA
side opposite
TT^
r or T;
7
side adjacent to
written tan
Ex.
but
2.
IS
Construct two right triangles with angle A = 50 in each
In each triangle measure a, ft,
with sides of different lengths.
and
I
and compute the
Ex.
3.
ratios
a b
,
and r
Follow the directions given in Ex. 2 for triangles with
angles of 40, 35, 62.
Compare the
results obtained in Exs. 3
and 4 with the tables
given on page 299 showing the values of these ratios for angles
of all degrees from 1 to 90.
The ratios in the tables are given
approximately with three figures. With your crude methods of
measuring you cannot expect to be as accurate.
Q
Ex. 4. Construct a right triangle so that the ratio r is %.
Measure ZA with a protractor and compare the result with the
Look for the tangent that is nearest
and note the angle.
table.
PLANE GEOMETRY
194
226. It is important to notice that every acute angle has
a particular value for each of the three ratios. If the angle
is given, the ratios, sine, cosine, and tangent can be read
from the table; for example,
sin 23 is .391.
Ex.
Find from the table
1.
sin 36; cos 42; tan 27.
sin 49; cos 15; tan 76.
So also
the ratio
if
is
given, the angle can be found
from
the table.
What is Z^ if
sin ^ = .515 sin ^ = .966 sin ^ = .777.
cos ^ = .961 cos yl = .839 ,cosA = .292.
tan A = .325; tan ^ = 1.00; tan ^ =3.73.
Ex.2.
If the given ratio is not found in the table, use the one
nearest to it; for example,
Ex.3.
sin yl
if
tan
Find
sin
227.
A = .472
cos
The trigonometric
and angles
Ex.
= 239, Z A is about 14,
A = 1 56, Z A is about 57.
Z^ when
if
(;
tan
^ = .726.
ratios are used to find the sides
of right triangles.
In
1.
a = 23 and
^ = .395
A ABC (Fig. 336)
= 30;
find
it
is
known
that
ZA.
Solution:
Select the ratio involving the opposite side
and the
hypotenuse.
Fig. 336
sin
A =
c
_23
"30
= .767
..
(by division).
Z.4 =50" about (from table).
RATIO AND PROPORTION
Ex.2. Find side b of the
/.A =35 and c=42 (Fig. 337).
AABC
195
when
Solution:
Select the ratio involving the adjacent side
and
y^
hypotenuse.
Fig. 337
cosA=c
cos
A =cos
35
= .819
(from table).
..A=.819.
Let the pupil complete the solution.
Ex.
3.
Find
side
a = 42
when
and
Z^=65.
Solution:
Select the ratio involving the opposite side and
the adjacent side (Fig. 338).
tan
A =r
tan
A =tan
'
65
= 2.14
(from table).
Why?
..2.14=^Let the pupil complete the solution.
These exercises illustrate the general method which maybe stated in words: To find any particular part of a right
triangle, select the ratio formula involving that part and the
two known parts; form an equation and solve it for the
unknown
part.
= 31,
and a = 54,
Ex.
4.
If
Zyl=64 and
Ex.
ZA= 32
5.
li
Ex.6.
If
Ex.
If
7.
Ex.
8.
If
Ex.
9.
If
find
c.
find
b.
= 19andc=16, finda.
a = 35 and c = 47, find Z^l.
6 = 52 and c = 73, find ZA.
a = 62 and 6 = 26, find ZA.
Zyl
228. The methods illustrated above are especially used
in solving problems involving heights and distances.
tape for measuring distances and some instrument for
measuring angles are needed to get the necessary data
PLANE GEOMETRY
196
For measuring angles the surveyor uses a transit which is
two protractors, a leveling tube, and a telescope for
easy and accurate seeing. For accurate work he measures
angles to the nearest minute or even closer and uses more
extended ratio tables. Rough approximations may be
made with instruments that any ingenious pupil can make.
A good protractor, a plumb line, and a couple of pegs for
In
sights are all that is needed for a rough angle measurer.
Measuring Implements of Long Ago Mr. W. E. Stark
describes some ancient forms of such instruments.
really
In finding heights the angle of elevation is
If B is the top of a tower (Fig. 339), the
Z CAB is the angle of elevation. Notice that j^
used.
line
AC is horizontal.
^,
Fig. 339
It is suggested that after solving the following exercises
the pupil apply his knowledge to some practical problems
of his
Ex.
own
1.
devising.
A tower stands on level ground.
of its top at a point 160
ft.
from
its
base
The angle
is
of elevation
Find the height
43.
of the tower.
2.
What is the angle of elevation of the sun
high casts a shadow 18 ft. long?
Ex.
32
ft.
is
19
Ex.
below
3.
What
is
a tree
if
the height of a balloon if its angle of elevation
place 10 miles from a point directly
when seen from a
it?
4.
The length of a string attached to a kite is 300 ft.
Find the height of the kite if its angle of elevation is 56.
Note. Ex. 4, of course, assumes that the string is straight, which
Ex.
is
never really true.
Ex.
5.
perpendicular
of elevation of 48.
Ex.
6.
Will the height found be too
How
Show how
cliff
far is
it
650
ft.
i/rea,t
high subtends an angle
to the base of the
to measure
or too small?
cliff ?
an angle A
without the use of a protractor by
measuring the segments marked on Fig. 340.
If ZA is given, how is the remainder of the^.indirectly
figure constructed?
Fig. 340
RATIO AND PROPORTION
197
SUMMARY AND SUPPLEMENTARY EXERCISES
229.
SUMMARY OF IMPORTANT POINTS
IN
CHAPTER
IX
A. Tests.
I.
To prove two
products equal, use the factors of one
and the factors of the others as
as the extremes
the means of a proportion and prove the ratios
equal (Th. 91 and 211).
II.
To prove two
a.
Two
ratios equal, look for
similar triangles (211 and Ths. 101
and
102).
b.
Two
transversals cut
and Th.
c.
d.
Two
parallels (211
98).
line parallel to the
and Th.
by three
base of a triangle (211
99).
ratios equal to
a third ratio (211 and
As. 57).
B. Algebraic equations indicating constructions.
I.
PLANE GEOMETRY
198
A BCD
In Fig. 342,
3.
and
a parallelogram
is
an arbitrary point
is
in
DC
extended.
Prove that AO^ = 0X OY.
Draw any
4.
triangle
pairs of similar triangles
342
p^^,
and its three altitudes. Find all possible
and read the ratios of corresponding sides.
5. In Fig. 343, P is the midpoint of the arc CD.
PA and PB are arbitrary chords intersecting chord
CD at X and Y respectively. Prove that PY PB= j
PA PX.

Fig. 344 is a square with its diagonals A C
bisects Z BAC. The other segments
6.
and BD.
AE
are similarly drawn.
and read the
angles
Find pairs of similar
tri
ratios of corresponding sides.
DB
First prove that AE, CG, and
Suggestion.
and CF are parallel.
are concurrent and that
AE
What
What
other segments must be proved concurrent?
ones must be proved parallel?
1 7. If
two parallel lines are cut by a pencil of rays, correspondon the parallels have equal ratios. Investigate two
ing segments
cases.
t8. State
In Fig. 345,
9.
XW
II
ABC
BC and YZ AC.
\\
II
10. If,
WZ
and prove the converse
^B,
11.
in
is
Fig.
FZ
345,
ll^C?
is
of Ex. 7.
any triangle. AX = BY.
Prove that WZ AB.
\\
AX = BY,
XW\\CB, and
The common tangent
to
two
/^
Give proof.
Fig. 345
the segment
circles divides
joining the centers into segments that have the same ratio as the
Investigate different cases.
radii.
12.
a
that
7
In Fig. 346,
= by
CO
bisects
ABCA.
prolonging i5C so that
Prove
P
CD = CA
and joining AD.
13. If,
bisects
in
Fig.
ZBCA.
346,
J,
prove that
CO
>
Fig. 346
RATIO AND PROPORTION
CO
In Fig. 347,
14.
/.ACE.
bisects the exterior
= by making CD = CA
199
Prove that
and joining AD.
BO = r and AO = s.
15.
in Fig. 347,
If,
bisects
= ,
prove that
CO
Fig. 347
Z.ACE.
AB
In Fig. 348,
is a diameter of OO, CB and
If
are tangents at the ends of the diameter.
intersect on the circle at E, prove that
and
16.
AD
BD
AC
AB
BC AD.
'
17.
In Fig.
inscribed in
AB
ting
at
ABC
an isosceles triangle
drawn from C cutProve that
and the circle at D.
349,
OO.
Any
is
line is
AC^ =CD'CE.
18.
Investigate the
extended.
case, Ex.
17, in
which
CE
AB
cuts
19.
one of the parallel sides of a trapezoid
If
is
double the
other, the diagonals trisect each other.
A BC is any triangle inscribed in
CQ bisects ZC. Prove that CA CB =
20. In Fig. 350,
the
circle.
CP
A\
CQ.
21. If
two chords
intersect within a circle so that
one of them is bisected by the other, half of the first
chord is a mean proportional between the segments
of the second chord.
22.
Use Ex. 21 to construct a mean proportional to two given
segments.
EXERCISES INVOLVING THE PYTHAGOREAN
231.
1.
2.
The
Make a
review diagram for Th. 110.
radius of a circle
two chords which are 72
cases are possible?
THEOREM
ft.
is
48
ft.
and 36
Find the distance between
ft.
respectively.
What two
PLANE GEOMETRY
200
3. In Fig. 351, ED is a perpendicular bisector of the chord AB.
In each case given below construct the figure to scale from
the data given. Compute the lengths of the segments
required and verify your results
CE = i,
AB = S6,
AE = 26,
AE = Q1,
a.
b.
c.
d.
AB = 20.
by measurement.
AE,EO, and AD.
EC, ^, and ^Z>.
AB, EO, and A D.
CE, ED, and AD.
Find
Find
Find
Find
0 = 30.
CE= 10.
AB = 120.
Find the length
4. The radius of a circle is 12 in.
drawn from a point 13 inches from the center.
AX
BX
of a tangent
OO
from point X.
In Fig. 352,
and
are tangent to
the chord joining the points of contact. In each case given
below construct the figure to scale from the data
5.
AB
is
Compute the
given.
lengths of the segments re
quired and verify your
results
by measurement.
d.
AX = 6, OX = 10. Find^Oand^^.
AX = 40, A0 = 9. Find OZ and ^5.
A0=15, 0X = S9. Find ^Z and ^5.
A0 = 5, AB = 8. Find ^X and OX.
6.
The
a.
b.
c.
radii of
Find the length
two concentric
of a
circles are 9
chord of the outer
circle
and 15
which
respectively.
is
a tangent
of the inner.
In the middle of a pond 10 ft. square grew a reed. The reed
projected one foot above the surface of the water. When blown
aside by the wind, its top reached to the midpoint of a side of
7.
How
the pond.
16
(An old Chinese problem.)
length of the common chord of two intersecting circles
Find the disthe radii are 10 and 17 in. respectively.
The
8.
is
deep was the pond?
in.,
tance between the centers.
9.
The span
circle of
which
of a circular arch
it is
a part
is
720
is
ft.,
120
ft.
If
the radius of the
find the height of the middle
of the arch.
10.
Find the altitude of an isosceles trapezoid if the parallel
40 in. and 58 in. respectively and the nonparallel sides
sides are
are 41
in.
RATIO AND PROPORTION
Two parallel
11.
radius of the circle
Is there
of this problem?
two expressions each equal to the square of the
and form an equation. Solve the equation.
parallel to
CY.
Show how
CY
to
^C and
isosceles right triangle.
so constructed as to equal
XY
to construct
YO
(see 86, Ex.
XO and hence the length of XO
In Fig. 355 the arcs
AB
a.s
radius and
The
tively.
circle
to the semicircle.
OO
and
find
"*
jf
the
12).
inscribed circle.
its
15.
to V2.
354 shows an isosceles right triangle
Find the ratio of CX to
14. Fig.
with
353 shows an
13. Fig.
XY is
ratio of
Find the
one inch apart.
Divide a given segment in the ratio of
2.
with
circle are
the chords are 8 and 6 inches long respectively.
more than one solution
Find
Suggestion.
radius of the circle
1
chords in a
if
201
find r in
is r,
O
If
AC
ii
AB = ^.
and
BC
are
drawn
B and A
is
as centers respectangent to AC, CB, and
AB = s
terms of
and the radius of i
and construct the
d
^^^ ^^^
A church window
figure.
design
0D =
DB = ^s,
OB=sr,
}4s\r,
Suggestion.
the substitutions and solve the equation.
OB^ = 0^ ^Dl^
Make
Find the shortest path that an insect can take (without
one corner of a room to the diagonally opposite corner
from
flying)
if the room is 15 ft. long, 12 ft. wide, and 10 ft. high.
16.
17. Choose two points, A and B, upon a given straight line, and
two other points, C and Z>, upon a straight line perpendicular to
AB. Prove that the hypotenuse of a right triangle whose legs
are equal to ^C and BD is equal to the hypotenuse of a right
triangle whose legs are equal to ^Z> and BC.
College Entrance
Examination Board, Plane Geometry Examination, 1910.
A BCD is a rhombus with A and C as opposite vertices.
a point within the rhombus such that OB = OD. Prove
that A O, and C are on the same straight line, and that OA OC =
18.
is
AB OB
2
.
College
Entrance Examination Board, Plane Geom
etry Examination, 1916.
PLANE GEOMETRY
202
embankment
rises from a level field.
One end
on the ground 16 ft. from the foot of
the embankment, and the other end rests 9 ft. up the embankment,
measured along its sloping side. How high is the upper end of
the prop above the level field? Result in feet to one decimal.
College Entrance Examination Board, Plane Geometry Exami
19.
of
sloping
a prop, 20
ft.
long, rests
nation, 1914.
AB = AC = \, show that
=
AD BC, what is the length of
20. If, in Fig. 356,
BC=
yJ2.
BD}
If
If
AE = BD,
Show how
what
the figure
may
is
the length of
BE?
be continued so as to
D E
Fig. 356
construct segments equal to V5, V6, V7, etc.
21. In Fig. 357,
is
A BCD
the radius for the arc
and
a square.
is
BE A
;
is
is
the center and
the center
j>
EF; D is the
and DF is the radius for the arc FG,
Find the length of DE, AF, DG, AH,
DB
g
the radius for the arc
is
center
etc.
etc., if
AB = 1.
Fig. 357
EXERCISES INVOLVING THE TRIGONOMETRIC TABLES
232. 1.
if
the base
2.
One
base angle
3.
The
Find the legs and the altitude of an
is 24 and each acute angle is 49.
an isosceles triangle
Find the base and the altitude.
of the equal sides of
is
68.
distance across a stream
follows
as
isosceles triangle
(Fig.
358):
Lay
may
off
is
45 and each
be found
AC
AB,
AC to some point from which B is visible.
Measure AC and angle C. Find ^15 if ^C = 300
ft. and ZC = 56.
extending
4.
Fig.
Find the distance
359.
CB
is
AC
across a
perpendicular
to
pond as shown in
AC, Z5 = 34,
C5 = 165ft.
Fig. 359
RATIO AND PROPORTION
5.
circle
chord of a
an angle of
203
8 in. It subtends at the center of a
Find the radius of the circle and the dis
circle is
36.
tance of the chord from the center.
Find
6. An angle at the center of a circle of radius 6 ft. is 40.
the length of the subtended chord and the distance of the chord
from the center of the circle.
7.
Prove that in any triangle 7=
From the figure find sin
Suggestion.
divide one equation by the other.
8.
65,
~.
sin
(see Fig. 360).
>
A and
sin
and
^
Find the sides of a triangle if Z^=42, ZB =
AB = 8. Use the formula obtained in Ex. 7.
and
9.
and
Find
the
sides of
triangle
ZC = 49,
Z^=68,
if
= 25.
10. Two observers IX miles apart observe at the same moment
the altitude of the base of a thundercloud that is between them.
If
the angles are 42 and 61,
how
high was the cloud?
Note. Ex. 10 illustrates a method actually used by weather bureau
men. The two observers are in telephonic communication, select some
singular part of the cloud that neither can fail to recognize, and take
the observation at a stated time
by the watch.
MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES
233.
Be prepared
Note.
to prove the theorems
on which any of
the following exercises depend.
1.
In drawing a certain
ratio
What
100 000
coimty which
2.
is
lengths
ABC
CE=EB = CF = FA.
is
the value of
an
represent
the sides
respectively.
II?
iscsceles triangle.
FG, CO, and
'
is
segments are reduced in the
all
will
of
a rectangle 25 miles long and 18 miles wide?
In Fig. 301,
from F, C, and
map
If
EH are
CO =
^
BO
A.
AB
'^
^,
8'
^b
^^f^^'^^k
g
o
h
'
what
'^
Fig. 361
^'"""^
IS^'''^''
PLANE GEOMETRY
204
A BCD is a square. AK = BF==
and ZW are medians. GN is parfrom G. li DG=H DC, what is the
= % HK, what is the
?
If
to
to
AD
HM
DG
ratio of
XY
ratio of
allel
G Z
In Fig. 362,
3.
CG = DH,
HM
MK
DC?
to
Fig. 362
104 so that two From a
Pompeian
mosaic
ratios, rather than two products, are to be proved
In Th. 103 the segments of the chords, and in Th. 104 the
equal.
Restate
4.
Ths.
103 and
segments of the secants, are inversely or reciprocally proportional
Why?
In Fig. 363, 0)0 and
5.
A and
AD
B.
X intersect at points
AC are tangent
and
(DX and
to
Prove that
mean proportional between DB and BC.
respectively at point A.
Fig. 364
6.
ABC
is
an
shows the outline
isosceles
HK
is
of a roof truss.
The equal
triangle.
are each divided into 3 equal parts.
AB. If AC=35, and
are
and
AB
CD, EF,
CD=^ AB,
find the length of
AB, CD, EF, and ED.
In Fig. 365,
ABC
k^^tv.
sides
d k
Fig. 364
From
any inscribed
triangle.
and that
is
Z1=Z2. Frove that AC' RB = CR' AT
AC'TB = CTAR,
7.
^S<1\ /fS^
a roof truss
design
a^
Fig. 365
8.
point
Two
tangents each 24
in.
circle of radius 7
in.
to.
long are drawn from the same
Find the length of the chord
joining the points of contact.
t9.
angle of
perpendicular is drawn from the vertex of the right
a right triangle to the hypotenuse. Prove that the ratio
of the squares of the legs equals the ratio of the adjacent
of the hypotenuse.
10.
CN
In Fig. 366,
ABC is any inscribed triangle.
AB and CD is a diameter.
AN = CN DB; (2) AC NB =
perpendicular to
Prove that (1) CB is
CN' AD;
(3)
segments
AC CB = CD'CN.
RATIO AND PROPORTION
DE
367 shows a diagram of the roof of a barn.
11. Fig.
with DE.
AD and FD make equal angles
If ^ = 26 ft., AD = ZO ft., and
Z?C = 13
find
The
205
rafters
ft.,
CB
CB.
is
AF.
A_
^F.
Pig. 367
Find by geometry two segments whose sum is equal to
a segment 5 cm. long and whose ratio is 3:7. Find by algebra
a
3
the value of a and b if a{b = 5 and r=='^'
12.
13.
Find by geometry two segments whose difference is 1.5
is 5 to 8.
Find by algebra the value of
cm., and whose ratio
a and 6
^
if
a^6
1.5
and r= 38
ABC
an isosceles triangle.
FG, CO, and EH are
AB from F, C, and E respectively. Prove that if
G O H
B
EFGH is a square CO=OB. What must be the
Fig. 368
ratio of CO to OB if CE = )4 CB and EFGH is From a roof truss
design
a square? Construct the figure in each case.
14.
In Fig. 368,
is
CE=y3 CB, CF^VsCA.
a square in a given triangle.
15. Inscribe
Suggestion.
)9.
The
To prove
construction
that
16. Solve Ex. 15
HG = HE,
17.
18.
(2) as
prove
^ = ^.
HG HE
Fig. 371
Show how
;
suggested in Fig.
by the construction shown
Fig. 370
Fig. 371
is
Fig. 369
in Fig. 370.
Fig. 372
to inscribe a square in a sector (1) as
in Fig. 372.
shown
in
shown
Inscribe a square in a given semicircle.
Suggestion.
Solve
method employed
Fig. 373.
by
at least two methods; use the
for Fig. 372; also that suggested
by
A
Pig. 373
PLANE GEOMETRY
206
Let
19.
CD
ABC
be a triangle with a right angle at C. Draw
equally inclined to CB, and meeting AB (or AB proD and E respectively. Let be the midpoint of AB.
CE
and
longed) in
Prove that
MB
MD
and ME.
College Entrance Examination Board, Plane Geometry Examinais
mean
proportional between
tion, 1910.
The
20.
distance between
two
parallel chords
of the center of a given circle is 6
cm.
on the same
side
the chords are 36 cm.
If
and 48 cm. respectively, find the radius of the circle. What would
be the distance between the chords if they were on opposite sides
of the center?
21. If two circles are tangent externally and a segment is
drawn through the point of contact terminated by the circles,
the chords intercepted in the two circles have the same ratio as
the radii.
22. Fig.
The
arcs
374 represents a gable over an equilateral Gothic arch.
are drawn with B and A as
CA and CB
DE
and A B as
The sides of the gable
radius.
are tangent to the sides of the arch from a
point in the common chord GC extended.
centers
and
DF
DE = DF.
a.
Prove that
b.
Construct the figure so that
AB = 6
cm. and
AB = Q
cm. and
DC = 4cm.
c.
DE=
Construct the figure so that
10 cm.
d.
Construct the figure so that
AB = Q
Fig. 374
cm. and
Prove the Pythagorean theorem by means
23.
of Fig. 375.
Let a represent the distance OB, b repreSuggestion.
sent the radius of
O, and c represent the half chord
perpendicular to ^ C at B. Prove that {ba) {b+a)
or &2_a2
x=
= c2.
24. Construct a
segment x so that x = ^ ^ab;
and
2^2
,
where
a, b,
are given segments.
ZZ)F = 30'
RATIO AND PROPORTION
207
25. Show that the following construction will give graphically
the solution of the equation x^ 2x = 24:
circle whose diameter is 2.
_At any point on the
a tangent whose length is V24. From the end of
the tangent draw a secant which passes through the center of the
The entire secant will be one of the roots of the given
circle.
Construct a
circle construct
equation.
26. Ovals are of frequent use in landscape gardening and other
Agreeable ovals may be laid out as
branches of engineering.
follows (Fig. 376):
Let
AB
be the total
ofi on AB
two equal intersecting circles with any radius.
Draw the common chord CC and extend CC\
equal to a diameter of the circles.
making
length of the desired oval.
Lay
CD
Through
draw
lines
through the centers of
O and
O' intersecting the circles at
With
as radius draw XY: In a similar
the circles
DX
X and Y.
draw ZW Show that the
and AB==lo ft., find DD'
circles are
tangent at
If
manner
^0' = HAB
ABC is any triangle inscribed in
CX is the altitude to AB, A Y is the altitude
CB. OK is the perpendicular from the center of
27. In Fig. 377,
OO.
to
the circumscribed circle to
Prove
of the altitudes.
A B.
H is the intersection
OK = 14
CH.
Fig. 377
28. Find the locus of points from which the distances to two
given intersecting lines are in a given ratio.
29. Investigate the case, Ex. 28, in
which the two given
lines
are parallel.
30.
Two
equal circles intersect in such a manner that the
is equal to the segment joining the centers.
If the
common chord
common chord
is
of the oval formed.
and the width
in.,
If
find the radius of the circles
the radius
is
in.,
find the
and the width
common chord
of the oval formed.
31. Find the hypotenuse of a right triangle
and K(""~l); (2) and(>^)2 1. Verify
substituting numbers for n.
if
the legs are (1) n
each case by
in
CHAPTER X
Area and Equivalence
INTRODUCTORY
MEASURING SURFACES
To measure the surface inclosed by the sides of a
polygon is to find how many times it contains another sur234.
face chosen as a unit of measure.
The area
of a polygon is the
measure number of the
surface of the polygon.
common practice to use as a unit of surface a
Thus if the unit of
side is a unit of length.
whose
square
a
is
of
surface
unit
the
is
an
square whose side
inch,
length
is an inch and is called a square inch.
It is the
may be used as a unit of length with
corresponding unit of surface, it is most convenient pracof length,
tically to use one of the recognized standard units
such as the inch, foot, yard, mile, tenth of an inch, centiWhile any segment
its
with their corresponding units of surface
inch,
square mile, etc. The particular unit chosen
square
depends upon the surface to be measured.
meter,
etc.,
EQUIVALENT POLYGONS
235. Ex.
and
CD
Show
the
that
In Fig. 378,
1.
is
perpendicular from C to AB.
and h are congruent. Draw
cut out Aa and b and place
Aa
AABC;
them together
so as to
form
congruent?
AABC is isosceles
AD coincides with DB
AXYZ. Are AABC and XYZ
so that
Do
they cover the same extent
of surface?
208
AREA AND EQUIVALENCE
209
Two polyp^ons that cover the same extent of surface are
The symbol ( = ) is used for
called equivalent polygons.
Since
area
is
the
measure of surface,
equivalence.
1.
Equivalent polygons have equal areas.
2.
Polygons with equal areas are equivalent.
Since congruent polygons can be made to coincide, they
may be made to cover the same surface and are equivalent.
Congruent polygons are the simplest examples of equivalent
polygons.
It
does not follow that equivalent polygons are always
congruent. The following exercise gives illustrations of
polygons that may be made to cover the same surface but
are not necessarily congruent.
Construct two congruent right triangles that are not
Cut them out and place them together in different
positions so as to form two isosceles triangles, a rectangle, a kite,
two oblique parallelograms, and other polygons, all of which are
Make careful drawings of these figures. The use of
equivalent.
Ex.
2.
isosceles.
crosssection paper
is
suggested.
combinations of congruent polygons
are equivalent but not necessarily
that
polygons
The
following definitions are necessary:
congruent.
236. It is evident that
will give
If two polygons are so placed that a side of one falls upon
a side of the other, but neither polygon overlaps the other,
the polygon inclosed by the entire perimeter is the sum of
the two polygons.
If one polygon is placed entirely within another, the space
between the perimeters is the difference between the
polygons.
A
it
polygon
into
is
bisected by a segment
two equivalent
if
the segment divides
the diagonal
for example,
parts;
of a parallelogram bisects the parallelogram.
Similarly, a
be
or
be
trisected
divided
into any
polygon may
may
number
of equivalent parts.
PLANE GEOMETRY
210
One
figure is transformed into
equivalent to the
a second
the second
if
is
first.
237. The following assumptions will be used in the discussion of equivalent figures:
As. 59. If equivalent polygons are added to equivalent
polygons, the results are equivalent polygons.
As. 60.
If
equivalent polygons are subtracted from equiv
alent polygons, the results are equivalent polygons.
If equivalent polygons are divided into the same
As. 61.
number of equivalent polygons, each part of one is equivalent
to any part of the other.
As. 62. Polygons equivalent to the same polygon or to
equivalent polygons are equivalent.
238.
We
have then the following preliminary
equivalent polygons
test for
I. To prove two polygons equivalent, prove that they are
made up of parts congruent in pairs.
II. To construct two polygons equivalent, construct them
of parts congruent in pairs.
Ex.
Given
1.
point of AC.
AABC
with
the mid
DF\\AB and BF AC.

AABC=OJABFD
Prove
(Fig. 379).
^/..[\e._..^f
a^
"y'''
i/
Fig. 379
A nalysis:
I.
To prove
are the
II.
III.
Ex.
..prove
.*.
prove
2.
AABC=OJABFD,
sums
of
prove that they
congruent parts.
ABED + Al=ABED + All.
AI ^ AIL
Transform a trapezoid into
lelogram (Fig. 380).
a paral
A
Fig. 380
A nalysis:
To
transform A BCD into a parallelogram, construct the parts of
the parallelogram congruent to the parts of A BCD.
AREA AND EQUIVALENCE
211
Ex.
3.
Ex.
4.
Transform a triangle into a rectangle.
Transform a trapezoid into a rectangle.
Ex.
5.
Any segment through
the intersection of the diagoby the sides divides the
nals of a parallelogram and terminated
parallelogram into two equivalent parts.
Ex.
Show how to bisect a parallelogram by a
6.
dicular to the base
and
(2) parallel
line (1)
perpen
to the base.
MEASUREMENT OF POLYGONS
FUNDAMENTAL ASSUMPTION
As. 63.
239.
is
The number
of units of area in a rectangle
number of units of length in
equal to the product of the
the base and altitude.
If
base,
represents the area of a rectangle, b the length of its
of its altitude, As. 63 may be stated
and a the length
as a formula,
S = ab.
The assumption
be discussed under two heads
will
A. When the sides of the rectangle are both commensurable
with a given unit of length.
In this case the unit of length can be applied an integral
of times to both the base and the altitude of the
number
The assumption is evident at once.
rectangle.
of length chosen may be contained in the base
The
unit
m times and
in the altitude
n times,
if
and n are whole numbers.
drawing the proper lines the rectangle
n rows with m unit squares in a row.
Illustration 1
Suppose the unit chosen
is
may
a square centimeter and
the rectangle is 3 cm. long and 2 cm. wide (Fig. 381).
length is contained in the base 3 times and p,
The
in the altitude 2 times.
By drawing
seg
ments through the points of division parto the sides, the rectangle is divided
into 2 rows with 3 sq. cm. in a row, or into
2X3 sq. cm., or 6 sq. cm. The measure
number
a"
allel
surface
of the surface
is
sq.
cm.
is
6; the area of the
By
be divided into
3 cm.
Fig. 381
unit of
,0
PLANE GEOMETRY
212
Sometimes one or both of the
sides of the given rectangle
unit
divisible
the
not
are
chosen, but are divisible
by
exactly
unit.
In this case this part
of
this
by some aliquot part
a new unit of length,
as
be
taken
unit
of the chosen
may
linear
is
this
new
unit may be conwhose
side
a
and square
of
area.
The
unit
sidered as the
assumption is then evident
as above.
Illustration
Suppose the unit chosen
2.
is
a square inch.
Fig. 382 one inch is not contained exactly in either
AB
or
AC.
In
One
is, however, exactly contained
both AB and A C. One quarterinch may
be used as a convenient linear unit. The
measure number of ^5 is 5 and of A C is 3.
A square quarterinch may be considered as
quarterinch
in
By drawing the proper
that the rectangle con^
sists of 3 rows with 5 units of surface in a
row. The measure number of the area is 15.
the unit of area.
lines
we can show
Fig. 382
In this case we may express the unit, the measure of the sides, and
the area in fractional terms of a larger unit.
in.
The unit one quarterinch is
in.
The measure of AB, 5 quarterinches, is
The measure of ^C, 3 quarterinches, is ^ in.
The area, 15 square quarterinches, is i^e sq. in.
B. When one or both sides of the rectangle are incommensurable with the chosen unit.
not possible to measure one side or perhaps
both sides of the rectangle in integral or fractional terms of
the chosen unit. Since the ratio of two incommensurable
segments is an irrational number ( 198), these sides may be
In this case
it is
expressed in irrational terms of the chosen unit, and are
measured approximately. From these approximate lengths
an approximate area
computed by the rule contained in
have seen (194) that by subdividing
is
the assumption. We
the unit of length we can obtain approximate measures for
the sides of the rectangle that are as close as we choose to
make them. It is evident that the approximation for the
area
may
also be m.ade as close as
we choose
to
make
it.
AREA AND EQUIVALENCE
213
Suppose the unit chosen is one square centimeter.
2 cm. and is commensurable with the unit; AC
is equal to the diagonal of a square whose side
is 2 cm. and is incommensurable with the unit.
The length oi AC cannot be expressed in integral
or fractional terms of the unit. We know, however, that we can express i4 C as 2 V2 cm. AccordIllustration 3.
In Fig.
3S3,AB
is
ing to our_ assumption,, therefore, the area of R
While the length of
is 2X2 V2"or 4 V2'sq. cm.
AC
cannot be expressed exactly, an approximate
length can be found for it. From this approximate
length an approximate area can be found for R.
Fig. 383
These approximate values can be made as close as_we choose.
Suppose that 1.4 is taken as the approximate V2, then 2X1 .4 cm.,
or 2.8 cm., is the approximate length of AC, and 2X2.8 sq. cm., or
5.6 sq. cm., is the approximate area of R. In Fig. 383, the area of the
rectangle ABGH represents this approximate area of R.
Suppose, again, that 1.41 is taken as the approximate V2, then
41 cm., or 2 .82 cm., is the approximate length of A C, and 2X2 82
2X 1
5.64 sq. cm., is the approximate area of R. Although this
approximation cannot be represented on the figure, we know that
it is closer than the other but a little less than the area of R.
sq. cm., or
In this case the following points should be noted
1.
The
side or sides that are
incommensurable with the
unit cannot be expressed in integral or fractional terms of
that unit.
2.
The
side or sides that are
incommensurable with the
unit can be expressed in irrational terms of that unit.
illustration 3,
is expressed as 2V2 cm.
In
AC
3.
It
can be proved that As. 63
is
true for those cases in
which the sides of the rectangle can be expressed only in
The proof is, however,
irrational tenns of the chosen unit.
too difficult for this course.
4. Sometimes when the sides of the rectangle can be
expressed only by irrational numbers, it is possible to express
the area of the rectangle by rational numbers.
Connect the midpoints of the sides of a square whose
Find one side of the square so formed and its area.
Illustration 4.
side is 4
15
cm.
PLANE GEOMETRY
214
240. Practical measurements.
When
it
is
desired to use
the rule contained in As. 63 to compute the area of a given
rectangle from measurements actually made, an approximate
area only is possible.
We
have seen, 195, that the exact length of a given
segment cannot be obtained in terms of a unit chosen in
advance. Since the measures of the sides must of necessity
be approximate, the area must of necessity be approximate
The approximate area may, however, be made as
also.
close as
we choose
if
made
only the divisions of the scale are
sufficiently small.
EXERCISES INVOLVING AREA OF RECTANGLES
241. 1. Draw a rectangle whose sides are 3.4 cm. and 2.6 cm.
Find the approximate area of this rectangle in inches, measuring
(1)
to the nearest inch, (2) to the nearest half inch, (3) to the
nearest quarter inch, (4) to the nearest sixteenth inch. Make an
accurate drawing for each approximation and compare it with
the given rectangle.
2.
4^2
3.
3M
Find the area of a rectangle whose sides are SHe
in.
and
in.
If
in.,
the area of a rectangle
is
321^6
sq. in.
and one
side
is
find the other side.
4. Find the area of a walk 3 ft. 6 in. wide which completely
surrounds a lot 300 ft. X 500 ft. The dimensions of the lot are
taken on the inside of the walk.
>'
7^^"
Fig. 384
5. Fig.
384 shows forms of columns in crosssection.
outside measures and the width are the same in each case.
The
Find
the area of each crosssection shown.
Note. The area of the crosssection
determining the strength of the column.
is
an important element in
AREA AND EQUIVALENCE
Using any three given segments
6.
and
rectangle whose sides are (a+b)
a,
b,
215
and
c,
construct a
Show how
c.
illustrates geometrically the algebraic identity
this figure
c(a\b)=ac+bc.
c(a\b)=ac\bc may be translated into geometry:
rectangle whose side3 are c and {a\b) may be divided into two
rectangles whose sides are a and c, and b and c, respectively.
Suggestion.
The
Illustrate geometrically the identity c{a
7.
Suggestion.
c{a
b)=ac bc may
be
b) = ac bc.
translated
into
geometry:
b) may be obtained by cutting
rectangle whose sides are c and {a
a rectangle whose sides are b and c from a rectangle whose sides are
The
a and
c.
Using any two given segments a and b, construct a square
on the segment {a\b) and illustrate geometrically the identity
8.
Translate {a\bY = a'^\b'^\2ab into geometry. Draw
Suggestion.
the segments necessary to divide the square on a\b into the required
parts.
Illustrate geometrically the identity {a
9.
bY = a^\b^ 2ab.
bY=a^\b'^ 2ab
{a
Translate
into geometry.
ConSuggestion.
struct a figure formed by adding a square whose side is a to a
square whose side is b. Show how two rectangles may be cut from
What will be the sides of these
this so as to leave the desired result.
rectangles?
10.
Translate into geometry and illustrate by a figure:
{a\b) {d
b.
{a^l)^)
11. If the length of
the area
is
70
+ c) = ad^bd\ac\bc.
= {ab) (a + 6).
a.
a rectangle
sq. ft., find
the length of a rectangle
360, find the dimensions.
12. If
area
is
13.
its
14.
and
its
15.
in.
The
diagonal
and
is
ft.
more than the width and
the dimensions.
is
2K
times the width and the
length of a rectangle is 14 ft. more than
is 26 ft., find the dimensions and area.
Find the dimensions
area 84 sq.
of a rectangle
if its
its
width.
If
is
38
in.
diagonal
is
13
perimeter
in.
Find the dimensions of a rectangle
its area 60 sq. in.
if
its
PLANE GEOMETRY
216
MEASUREMENT OF THE PARALLELOGRAM
242.
Theorem
113.
product of the base
The area
and
altitude.
of a parallelogram is the
AREA AND EQUIVALENCE
217
MEASUREMENT OF THE TRIANGLES
Theorem
243.
The area
114.
of a triangle is onehalf
the product of the base and altitude.
Fig. 386
Hypothesis:
ABC
Conclusion:
Area
is
A with
ABC = \
base h and altitude
a.
ah.
Analysis and construction:
that area ABC = \ ah, compare
ABC
with a parallelogram whose sides are AB and BC.
To prove
I.
II.
.*.
construct
Let the pupil give the construction.
Proof:
STATEMENTS
1.
A ABC
2.
Area EJ=ah.
3.
.'.
area
is
equivalent to J the parallelogram.
A = i a6.
Let the pupil give the reasons.
Ex. 1. Find the area of a
whose altitude is 2 ft. 7 in.
Ex.
and
its
Ex.
2.
is
is
ft.
is
Find the area of an
leg is 34 ft.
8
area
is
isosceles triangle
if its
base
6.
and
sq. ft.
if
is
32
ft.
each side
in.
Ex. 5. The base of a triangle is 3 ft. more than its
Find the base and the altitude if the area is 90 sq. ft.
Ex.
in.
S%
if its
Find the area of an equilateral triangle
in.;
ft.
in.
3.
Ex. 4.
4 in.; 6
whose base
Find the altitude of a triangle
base
and one
triangle
The base
of a triangle
the base and the altitude
if
is
the area
3 times
is
336
altitude.
its altitude.
sq.
ft.
Find
PLANE GEOMETRY
218
244.
MEASUREMENT OF THE TRAPEZOID
Theorem 115. The area of a trapezoid is
onehalf the product of the altitude and the
equal to
sum of the bases.
Fig. 387
ABCD
Hypothesis:
tude a.
Area
Conclusion:
is
ABCD = 
a{b\b')
II.
.'.
triangles
alti
and add
ABCD
into
b'
Analysis and construction:
I. To prove area ABCD = l
a{b+b'), divide
two
and
a ZZ\ with bases b and
their areas.
construct
Let the pupil complete the analysis.
Proof:
STATEMENTS
ABC = i ab.
ADC = ia'b\
Area ABC+avea, ADC = i ab+i
Area
Area
1.
2.
3.
a'b'.
a = a'.
4.
Area
5.
ABCD = \
a{b+b').
Let the pupil give the reasons.
Ex.
1.
One base
If its altitude is
Ex.
2.
one base 9
Ex.
3.
The
ft.
ft.
of
a trapezoid
and
its
is
area 81 sq.
ft.
more than the
ft.,
find the bases.
area of a trapezoid is 96 sq.
Find the other base.
The area
of
a trapezoid
is
ft., its
sides.
means
of Fig.
Prove Th. 115 by
388 and suggest other possible
i)
ABCD
construction lines in the trapezoid
(Fig.
388) so as to divide it into parts whose areas
be found and added.
altitude 8
ft.,
the product of the altitude
and the median drawn between the nonparallel
"
Ex. 4. There are other methods of drawing
may
other.
"\
/j
j.
Fig. 38S
figures.
AREA AND EQUIVALENCE
219
MEASUREMENT OF IRREGULAR POLYGONS
The
finding of the area of a field shaped like an
irregular polygon is one of the important problems that a
surveyor must solve. One method frequently used is to
246.
divide the field into triangles and apply the
finding the areas of the triangles.
Ex.
in Fig.
Compute
1.
Ex.
shown
;/
= 104ft.
= 82it.
Compute the area
2.
of the field
shown
390 from the following data:
BD=U
13
for
389 from the following data:
AC = 270 It.
in Fig.
the area of the field
method
ft.
CI = 9
ft.
EK=\0
ft.
in.
ft.
^=16 ft. 3 in. PM =
BL= 11 ft. 2 in.
in.
in.
Sometimes the
field to be surveyed is bounded on one side
shore
of a lake, or a curved road.
the
a
In such
by stream,
cases a straight line is run near the curved boundary, and
the inclosed figure is cut into trapezoidal shaped figures by
run perpendicular to the line, as shown in Fig. 391.
In such cases care should be taken that the curved
boundaries of the figures are as nearly straight as possible.
offsets
Ex.
3.
and the
Find the area inclosed between the fence
from the following data:
AF
(Fig. 391)
river
5 = 150 ft. DE = 250 ft. CC = 180 ft.
5C=140ft. F=100ft. DD' = 95it.
CD=160ft. BB'=UO(t. ' = 120 ft.
yl
Pig. 391
The distances along the straight line (AF, Fig. 391) are
made
equal, as the computation is then much easier.
usually
Compute the area referred to in Ex. 3 if the offsets are run as
indicated below. Draw the figure to scale.
Ex.
4.
Distances on ylF
Length
of offsets
55
100
200
300
400
76
83
80
50
500
42
600
65
PLANE GEOMETRY
220
Ex.
Find the
5.
^5 = 300
area
BC = UO
of
ZB
the
ft.
field
shown
,^
yV \\
y^ j\c
The
ft.
at 50
ft.
at 100
Ex.
ft.
6.
^^'^^^^^^'^^^^
at 150
ft.
22
at 200
ft.
26
at 250
ft.
...
the
area
Find
shown
393, using the dimensions given.
20
^^^=^^
in
Z^^!^"'"''"^
'^
Fig. 392
18
Fig.
A BCD
is
AE = BF.
a rectangle.
392.
Fig.
is
lengths of the offsets are
at
in
a right
Offsets are run every
ft.,
DE= 125 ft.
from D to A. ^D = 310
angle,
50
ft.,
^
*^'
7
/
Fig. 393
Ex.
7.
Two
streets intersect at right angles.
third street cuts the other
two at angles
of 30
and
f1pir"
60.
The
LiF
shortest side of the triangular park left is 200 feet.
If the streets are 60 feet wide each, find the area of
pavement at
their intersection.
^B'^
Fig. 394
The
area of an irregular polygon may be found approximately by weighing. Cut the figure and also a square unit
from the same sheet of paper or cardboard and weigh them
The areas have the same ratio as the weights. Archimedes used this method to find the areas of certain figures.
Surveyors sometimes use it today.
both.
EQUIVALENT POLYGONS
TESTS FOR EQUIVALENCE
246.
The
For
A ABC
following notations will be used:
or EJABCD, S for area, b for base,
and a
for
altitude.
For
AA'B'C
or
EJA'B'CD',
S' for area,
h'
for base,
and
a' for altitude.
preliminary test for equivalent polygons was given in
Others are given in the assumptions of 237. The
238.
following tests are
for convenience
now
evident and are here stated formally
AREA AND EQUIVALENCE
221
Test a: for equivalent triangles or parallelograms.
is really a corollary of Ths. 113 and 114.
Th.
116
Theorem
equivalent
Two
116.
parallelograms or two triangles are
if
They have equal bases and
1.
are between the
same
parallels.
a = a^ and b = b\
ab = a'h'.
2.
3.
Test b: for triangles and parallelograms.
corollary of Ths. 113 and 114.
Th. 117
is
Theorem 117. If a triangle and a parallelogram have
equal bases and equal altitudes, the triangle is equivalent
to half the parallelogram.
the
By
equivalent
assumptions of 237 any two polygons are
they are sums, dijBferences, or equal parts of
if
equivalent polygons.
EXERCISES IN TRANSFORMATION
247.
2.
1.
Find
in Fig.
395 four equivalent parallelograms.
How many
equivalent parallelograms can be constructed with their bases
on two given parallels?
3. Using any OJABCD, construct two
parallelograms equivalent to it, (1) using
as the common base, and (2) using
AD
AB
4.
What
be found
same
allel
in
,'
\ \^
\\/^\',C^
Fir
a.s
the
'iQ'i
common
base.
equivalent parallelograms can
Segments with the
Fig. 396?
letters are equal.
Transform
lelogram having
The
lines are par
m n, r
EJABCD into
as indicated: k\\h,
5.
ed
jkh g f
>/
its
\\
\\
s.
a paral
base equal to
one side equal to a given segment.
problem always possible?
AB
and
Is the
Fig. 396
Transform OJABCD into a parallelogram having its base
AB and one angle equal to a given angle. Is this problem
always possible?
6.
equal to
PLANE GEOMETRY
222
How many
7.
The
equivalent triangles can you find in Fig. 397?
are
alike
lettered
segments
equal. The lines are parallel as in.
dicated: k h and
II

Transform a given
^ABC
8.
into
the
triangle having
and one angle
equal to
to a given angle.
AB
9.
base
equal
Fig. 397
triangle having the base equal to
BC
and one
side equal
to a given segment.
10.
(1)
An
AB,
11.
BC,
(3)
AC.
triangle having
Suggestion.
248.
a right triangle having the base equal to
isosceles or
(2)
Two
two
sides equal to given segments.
transformations are necessary.
The transformations
in the previous section
may
be
performed by means of an algebraic analysis.
Problem 18. To transform a given parallelogram into
a rectangle which shall have a given segment as its base.
Fig. 398
Given the
b'
EJ ABCD with
the given segment.
Let
h its
base and a
P represent
the
its altitude,
and
CO ABCD.
To transform CJ ABCD into a rectangle with
h'
as its base.
Analysis and construction:
Let
I.
R represent
To
IL
.*.
in.
.'.
the rectangle, a'
construct
R = P,
its altitude.
construct a' so that ah = a'h'.
construct a' so that r ~/'
h
construct a fourth proportional to
Let the pupil make the construction in
full
6', 6,
and give
and
proof.
a.
AREA AND EQUIVALENCE
Problem
To transform a given
19.
223
parallelogram into
a square.
Analysis and construction:
To construct the square = P,
I.
unknown side
.'.construct x sl mean
where x
II.
Ex.
is
the
construct x so that ab
proportional between a and
Transform a given triangle into
1.
a given base,
(2)
= x^,
of the square.
(1)
b.
a rectangle having
a square.
Transform a given parallelogram into an isosceles
triangle having a given base.
Ex. 3. Construct a square which shall be equivalent to three
Ex.
2.
times a given square.
Construct on a given base an isosceles triangle which
4.
be equivalent to twice a given square.
Ex.
shall
Problem
249.
ABCD
20.
To transform a given
into a triangle with the
base in the line
quadrilateral
AB
and the
vertex at point D.
Fig. 399
Given the quadrilateral
To transform it into a
AB and its vertex at D.
ABCD.
triangle with its base in the line
Analysis and construction:
I.
Since the base
is
to be in the line
AB
and the vertex
AABD will be a part of the required triangle.
transform ADBC into a triangle with DB for one
at D,
.*.
side
II.
.'.
and another
side
on
construct a line from .C
\\
AB extended.
BD and join DE.
Let the pupil name the required triangle and give analysis for the
proof and then the proof.
PLANE GEOMETRY
224
Ex.
Transform a given quadrilateral
1.
A BCD
into a triangle
that shall have
a.
Its base in the line
AB
b.
Its base in the line
c.
Its base in the line
BC and vertex
BC and vertex
and vertex
at C.
at
d.
Its
base in the line
AD and vertex at
e.
Its
base in the line
DC and
Problem
21.
at D.
C.
vertex at B.
To transform a given polygon
into
triangle.
Fig. 400
The
analysis, directions,
and proof are
left to
the pupil.
The
figure
Let the pupil extend the method so as to
transform a given hexagon into a triangle.
suggests the construction.
Ex.
2.
Construct a square equivalent to a given 4side.
Ex.
3.
Construct on a given base a rectangle equivalent to a
given 4side.
Ex.
4.
Construct on a given base an isosceles triangle equiva
lent to a given 4side.
EXERCISES INVOLVING EQUIVALENT FIGURES
250.
1.
The median
of a triangle divides
it
into
two equiva
lent parts.
2.
Divide a given triangle into three equivalent parts by seg
ments drawn from the vertex to the base.
3.
The
diagonals of a parallelogram divide
it
into four equiva
lent triangles.
4.
Given the
in the diagonal
AAXB
CJABCD with X any point
AC.
Prove that
AAXD =
(see Fig. 401).
Investigate the case, Ex. 4, in which ^'^
is on ^C extended.
point
5.
Fig. 401
AREA AND EQUIVALENCE
6.
points
225
Given A BCD, any quadrilateral, with E and
Prove
oi AB and CD respectively.
AECF=AAFD^AEBC
the mid
(Fig. 402).
Draw AC.
Suggestion.
7. Two triangles are equivalent if two sides
of one are equal respectively to two sides of the
other and the angles included by these sides are supplementary.
A BCD is a trapezoid with its
AC and DB. Prove AAOD = ABOC.
First compare AABD and A ABC or
Suggestion.
In Fig. 403,
8.
diagonals
AADCand. ABDC.
In
9.
Fig. 403
404,
Fig.
a.^
AE\\DB.
Prove
AABE =
AAED; ABDE = ABDA; AABO=AEDO\
AADC = BCDE.
Fig. 404
10.
Can
Show how
this
to divide a triangle into four equivalent parts.
be done in more than one way?
11. If one base of a trapezoid is twice the other, the diagonal
divides the trapezoid into two parts one of which is double the
other.
a parallelogram. E and F are the midpoints
Prove that CF, CA, and CE divide
the parallelogram into 4 equivalent parts.
12.
o(
AB
13.
parts
is
AD
respectively.
Show how
by
14.
parts
A BCD
and
lines
to divide a parallelogram into six equivalent
vertex.
drawn from the same
Show how to divide a parallelogram
lines drawn from the same vertex.
into three equivalent
by
15.
An
isosceles right triangle is equivalent to
constructed on
16.
The
a square
K of the square
hypotenuse.
figure formed by joining the midpoints of the sides of
is
Suggestion.
17. Is
its
equivalent to J4 of the square.
Construct the medians of the given square.
Ex. 16 true for any parallelogram?
PLANE GEOMETRY
226
THE SQUARE ON THE HYPOTENUSE OF A
261.
RIGHT TRIANGLE
Theorem 118. The square constructed on
hjrpotenuse of a right triangle is equivalent to the
the squares constructed on the other two sides.
of
the
sum
Fig. 405
Hypothesis:
I, II,
and
ABC
is
rt.
III constructed
with
on the
ZA = 1
sides
rt. Z and
AB, AC^ and
the
BC
respectively.
Conclusion:
nUl=\JI+ nil.
Analysis and construction:
I.
Dili can be proved equivalent to DI+DII by
dividing Dili into two parts equivalent to DI
and nil respectively.
III.
D III into the two parts required
from A BC and proving
=
BEML D I and CDML = D II.
To prove CDML = D II, compare them with con
ly.
The
II.
One way of dividing
is by drawing a
line
gruent triangles.
triangles desired
may
be obtained by joining
AD and BK. Then prove
2. AACD = HCDML.
1.
AACDmBCK.
=
3.
ABCK }4 OIL
AREA AND EQUIVALENCE
227
AACD ^ ABCK, prove AC = CK, BC = CD,
ZACD=ZKCB,
To prove AACD = H CDML, show that CD is the
To prove
V.
Vr.
common
base and
CL
is
equal to the altitude of
each.
To prove ABCK = M II, show that CK is the common base and AC is equal to the altitude of each.
To prove AC equal to the altitude of ABCK, prove
VII.
VIII.
that
HAB
is
a straight Hne.
Let the pupil give the analysis to prove that
details of the proof,
BEAfL^DI,
full
and the conclusion.
For other methods of proof see 255; 254, Ex. 23; 233,
Ex. 23.
Problem
sum
22.
To
construct a square equivalent to the
two given squares.
of
Fig. 406
Given
DI
and
D II
constructed on the segments a and b
respectively.
To
The
construct
solution
a square equivalent to
is left
ni+ nil.
to the pupil.
To construct a square equivalent
23.
between two given squares.
Problem
difference
The
solution of this problem
is left
to the
to the pupil.
Construct a square equivalent to
;c=
Ex.
1.
Ex.
2.
Ex.
3.
The sum of three given squares.
The sum of two given parallelograms.
Ex. 4.
The diderence between two given triangles.
The sum of a given triangle and a given
Ex.
If
5.
Va'^l62;
rectangle.
a and b are two given segments, construct x so that
so that
x=
yla^b'^.
PLANE GEOMETRY
228
SUMMARY AND SUPPLEMENTARY EXERCISES
252.
SUMMARY OF IMPORTANT POINTS
IN
CHAPTER X
A. Formulae obtained.
Area of rectangle = a6 (239).
Area of parallelogram = a& ( 242)
III. Area of triangle = 3^ a6 (243).
IV. Area of trapezoid = M a (b+b') ( 244).
V. If a and b are the legs and c the hypotenuse
I.
II.
of a right
(251).
For area of triangle see 253, Ex. 41 and Ex. 44.
Ex.41. S = }i be sin A.
triangle, a'^^b^
^s{s a) (sb)
S=
Ex. 44.
sides of
c''
(s
c)
where
a, b,
and
are
A.
For areas of irregular polygons see 245.
263.
EXERCISES INVOLVING NUMERICAL COMPUTATIONS
Be prepared
Note.
to prove the theorems on which
any
of
the
following exercises depend.
1.
whose
2.
25
ft.
A rectangle whose base is 81
side
The
is
36
ft.
ft. has the same area as a square
Find the difference between the perimeters.
altitudes of
and 40
two
triangles are equal
ft.
respectively.
equivalent to their sum having
3.
What
and
their bases are
the base of a triangle
an altitude 2}^ times as great?
is
The base and altitude of a triangle are 18 ft. and 24 ft.
At a distance of 10 ft. from the base a line is drawn
respectively.
parallel to the base.
triangle
4.
is
Find the area of the two parts into which the
divided.
Find the altitude of a triangle with base 21
the same area as a parallelogram whose base
altitude is 15 in.
12
'
5.
The area
6.
ft.
Find the area of a rhombus if the sum
and their ratio is 3 5. Use Ex. 5.
7.
of
a rhombus
is
is
18
in.
which has
in.
and whose
the product of the diagonals.
of the diagonals
is
rectangular field
is
30X80
ft.
It is
surrounded by a road
of uniform width the entire area of which equals the area
field.
Find the width of the road.
of the
AREA AND EQUIVALENCE
229
The legs of a right triangle are 15 ft. and 20 ft. A perpenis drawn from the vertex of the right angle to the hypotenuse.
8.
dicular
Find the areas of the two triangles formed.
9. The area of a rectangle is 120 sq. ft.; one side
is
Find
ft.
the diagonal.
The perimeter
10.
is
14
ft.
of a rhombus
Find the area. Use Ex.
is
100
ft.;
the shorter diagonal
5.
The
area of a rhombus is 2184 sq. ft.; the shorter diagonal
Find the longer diagonal and one side. Use Ex. 5.
12. A house is 45 ft. long, 32 ft. wide, 24 ft. to the roof, and
30 ft. to the ridgepole. Find the number of sq. ft. in the entire
11.
is
26
ft.
exterior surface.
Find the area of a right triangle
13.
and
ft.;
ft.
its
perimeter
is
84
ft.
height of a leanto roof
the span is 15 ft. Find
the area of the roof
21
if
3:4:5.
The
14.
is
are in the ratio
its sides
if
the length
is
(see Fig. 407).
Fig. 407
15.
40
The
parallel sides of
an
30
isosceles trapezoid are
respectively; the nonparallel sides are each 13
the altitude and the area.
ft.
16.
The area
of a kite is
ft.
and
ft.
Find
JO
the product of the
diagonals.
17. In Fig. 408, /LA = l rt. Z.
^5 = ^Z)and
^C is the perpendicular bisector of DB. If ^5 = 4
in. and AC = ^}i in., find the area of A BCD
and the length
18.
The
of
design
DC.
shown
in Fig.
409
is
symmet
with regard to both diagonals of the square.
If AY = )4 AB and OX = }iOA, find the area of
the. kite AYXZ and hence of the Maltese cross
ric
shown,
19.
ft.
if
^5 = 6
Upon
in.
16
Fig. 409
the diagonal of a rectangle 11 ft. wide and 60
is constructed whose area equals the area of the
long a triangle
rectangle.
Find
its altitude.
230
PLANE GEOMETRY
IT
AREA AND EQUIVALENCE
231
31. Fig. 413 represents a square with each side divided into 4
equal parts and the points joined as indicated. If AB = 12 in.
find the area of' the star.
figure similar to Fig. 413, dividing
each side into 3 equal parts. Find the area of the
star
formed
if
each side of the square
is
lO
Lfe^<^J
in.
p^^^^3^^.
^
"
^
A square and an equilateral triangle have each
33.
g
i>(
Draw a
32.
*^
^^^' ^^^
a perimeter of 60 ft. Find the ratio of their areas.
34. Fig. 414 shows a square with each side divided
into three equal parts and the points joined as indiIf each side of the original square is 12 in.,
cated.
find the area of the eightpointed star
irregular octagon in the center.
The
Note.
in industrial
designs shown
ornament.
Fig.
and
of the
Fig. 414
413 and 414 are extensively used
from a parquet floor design. See
in Figs.
415
is
Fig. 181a.
Dciw
^(?
AX
and CY
35. Fig. 415 shows a square with
each onefourth the diagonal AC. If the points are
is a rhombus
joined as indicated, prove that
XBYD
and
AB = Q
find its area.
in.
36. If the parallel sides of
its
altitude
is
Fig. 415
find the area of
in.,
and 20 in. and
the two triangles formed by
a trapezoid are 8
in.
extending the nonparallel sides until they intersect.
XF = 50, ZF = 20, ZW = ob,
aF = 00. Find the
AX, DY, BZ, and CW are each
In Fig. 410,
YD =120,
37.
y4X = 63,
A BCD.
area of
perpendicular to
BZ = SO,
XW.
rz
ht
Fig. 416
38.
A BCD
ZA = }4
Tt.
a quadrilateral with
is
Z.
If
BC = 8
in.
AC
and ^Z>=15
and
in.,
rt.
A and
find the area of
the quadrilateral.
39.
If
The area
of
the base of the
relation
40.
one rectangle
first is
between their
The area
of
is
3 times the area of a second.
twice the base of the second, find the
altitudes.
a certain rectangle
is
3K
times the area of
the base of the triangle is twice the base o^ the
rectangle, find the relation between their altitudes.
triangle.
If
PLANE GEOMETRY
232
41. lie and b represent two sides of a triangle and A the included
angle, prove that the altitude upon side ft is c sin ^ that the altitude
upon side cis b sin A, and that the area is >2 be sin A.
,
AABC, using the trigonometric
=
.4j5
8.3cm., ^C = 3.9cm., ZA=37.
=
^5 9. 6cm., ^C = 5. 4cm., ZA=54,
Find the area of
42.
43.
t44. If a,
b,
and
if
are th e sides of a triangle,
the area of the triangle
is
^sis
a)
{s
b)
(s
c),
s = }4{a+b\c).
where
tables,
^^
Fig. 417
A nalysis:
To
I.
find the area of a triangle in terms of the three sides, find
the area in terms of the base and altitude and express the
altitude in terms of the three sides by means of the Pythago
rean theorem.
= y2ch (Fig.
= b^x\
h^ = a^{cxy.
II. Ave3.
417).
III. h^
IV.
Solve the two equations for h and x and substitute the value of h in
the area formula.
Outline of algebraic proof:
i2x2 = a2_(cx)2
b^x^ = a'^c^+2cxx'^
2c
(2bcb^c^+a^) (2bc+b^+c^a^)
4c2
,,,
"
~ (ab+c) (a+bc) (b+c+a) (b+ca)
4c^
may be put in a more concise form by noting that
a+bc = a\b+c2c
This
ab+c = a+b+c2b
b\ca
We may
let
= a\b{c2a
a\b^c=2s for convenience.
Then a\bc=2s2c = 2{sc)
ab+c = 2s2b = 2{sb)
b{ca = 2s2a = 2{sa)
AREA AND EQUIVALENCE
Substituting in the value for
^^,
2(sb)
2{sc)
233
/t',
25
2{sa)
4c^
= 2 V5(5a)
n
/.
area of
Note.
(sb) (sc)
A = 5 ch=
What
"^
s{sa)
changes must be
b)
{sc), where
made
in the details
(s
= ^{a^b{c).
above
if
falls
outside the triangle?
Note.
surveyor,
This formula was given by a noted Greek engineer and
of Alexandria (about 100 B.C.).
Hero
Find the areas of triangles whose sides are
45.
a.
13, 14, 15
b.
8, 10,
46.
shown
15, 18,
21
d. 24, 33,
41
c.
12
Compute from the
following data the area of the field
in Fig. 418, using the formula given in Ex. 44.
A B = 210
ft.
BC = 210
CD = 210
it.
it.
DE = 305 it.
EA =225 it.
BD = SMit.
AD = ^25 it.
*
EXERCISES INVOLVING EQUIVALENT POLYGONS
254. Note.
Be prepared to prove the theorems on which any of
the following exercises depend.
1.
Make a
2.
The area
and the radius
3.
The
review diagram for Th. 117.
of a triangle
is
onehalf the product of the perimeter
of the inscribed circle.
area of any polygon circumscribed about a circle
and the radius
is
one
half the product of the perimeter
of the inscribed circle.
4. Given the isosceles right A ABC with OF and
GE drawn from the midpoint oi AC parallel to AB
and BC respectively, prove area EBFG=}/2 area
ABC
5.
(see Fig. 419).
The
line
"
F J. 419
joining the midpoints of the parallel sides of
it into two parts that have equal areas.
a trapezoid divides
PLANE GEOMETRY
234
6. Given A^ BC with A" an arbitrary point on the
median CO. Prove AACX equivalent to ABCX.
The
7.
three medians of a triangle divide
it
into 6
equivalent triangles.
EC,
Given AADC and DEE with AD = DB, DE =
ZADC+ZBDE = 2 rt.A, prove area DBE = y>
area
ADC
8.
from
(Fig. 420).
Given
9.
to
Fig.
A ABC
with CD, an arbitrary segment
AB, divided
into three equal parts at points
and Y, compare area AYB, area AXB, and area
ACB
(Fig. 421).
Construct a square whose area shall be
the area of a given square.
10.
421
of
ABC is an isosceles right triAE = EB; BF = FC; G and Ffi^ are per
11. In. Fig. 422,
angle.
pendicular to
AC.
Compare
areas
AEG, EBF,
EFHG, and ABC.
*
In Fig. 423, ABC is an isosceles A. AC
are each divided into 3 equal parts.
CD,
and GN are A_ AB. Compare the areas of
12.
and
FM,
CB
Given the quadrilateral A BCD with the
diagonal BD bisected at X, prove that AX CD is
13.
equivalent to
AXCB
fJg.^423
Kingrod and
Queenrod truss
the various figures formed.
design
^
(see Fig. 424).
Transform quadrilateral A BCD into quadABCE so that (1) Z ECB shall be equal to
a given angle, (2) side AE shall be equal to a given
14.
rilateral
segment.
15.
nals
if
16.
Is the
quadrilateral
is
bisected
the second diagonal
Given
equivalent to
Fig. 424
problem always possible?
AABC
ABCE
is
by one
bisected
with EF\\AB.
of its diago
by the
Prove
first.
AACF
(Fig. 425).
Fig. 425
AREA AND EQUIVALENCE
235
17. In Fig. 426, A BCD is a square with its
diagonals and medians. The semimedians, OE,
OF, OG, and OH, are bisected at X, F, Z, and W,
Prove that the star formed
respectively,
is
the square.
18. Construct in a given square a star
that shall be ^i of the given square.
19. If
through any point on the diagonal
of a parallelogram segments are drawn parallel to the sides, the parallelograms on opposite sides of
the diagonal are equivalent (see Fig. 427).
[sj
428, ABC is any triangle,
and BFEC have the common side CE
and have AC and BC as bases. Prove that if d
20. In Fig.
AC ED
Z?F
is
ABFD is a parallelogram
ACED and BFEC.
joined,
sum of [sJ
to the
Suggestion.
Extend
EC
equivalent
and show that
can be broken up into parts equivalent to
21. In Fig. 429,
and
BCED
AC
and
ABC
is
any
MC.
Prove that
to
to
CJ ACFG] CJ BCED.
22.
of
23.
EJACED
ACFG
and
CO BFEC.
^
DE
lel
sum
^28
are any parallelograms on the sides
BC respectively. GF and
are
extended to meet at M. On
is constructed with one side
Note.
triangle.
p^^
CO ABFD
Ex. 21
Show
is
known
AB
a parallelogram
AH equal and paralCJABKH is equivalent
as Pappus' theorem (about 300 a.d.).
hoUr to construct a parallelogram equivalent to the
two given parallelograms.
Deduce the Pythagorean theorem from Pappus' theorem.
A BCD is a square with its diagoand medians. HE, EF, FG, and GH are each
D_
24. In Fig. 430,
nals
divided into 3 equal parts and the points are joined
as indicated. Compare the area of the shaded
portion with the area of the square
A BCD.
JSL.
e^
Fig. 430
PLANE GEOMETRY
236
ABCD
is a square with its
25. In Fig. 431,
diagonals and medians. OX, OY, OZ, and
of the corresponding semidiagonal,
are each
of the star with the area of the
area
the
Compare
OW
square
^'f^^f^^
a
ABCD.
ji
Fig. 431
Note.
Figs. 426, 430,
and 431 are from parquet
floor designs.
26. If the midpoints of two adjacent sides of a parallelogram
are joined, the triangle formed is equivalent to
the parallelo
gram.
27. If the midpoints of
any point
two
sides of a triangle are joined to
of the base, the quadrilateral
formed
is
equivalent to
3^ the triangle.
28. The triangle formed by joining the midpoint of one of
the nonparallel sides of a trapezoid with the extremities of the
opposite side is equivalent to >2 the trapezoid.
29.
Given the
gram, prove that
EJ ABCD and
/\AOB
\
0,
ADOC
any point within the
is
equivalent to
parallelo
EJABCD.
were without the OJ ABCD, what
between AAOB and DOC and EJ ABCD}
30. If in Ex. 29 point
would be the
relation
CD is
is isosceles.
31. In Fig. 432,
perpendicular to AB. AB, AC, and CB are
each divided into 3 equal parts and the points
are joined as indicated.
Compare the areas of
AABC
Fig. 432
From
the triangles formed.
t32. Construct a rectangle so that its area
be equal to the area of a given square
sum of its base and altitude equal to
the
and
shall
a roof truss
design
^"
;
a given segment (see Fig. 433).
a^
'
Fig. 433
A nalysis:
Let X represent the base and y the altitude of the rectangle.
construct a rectangle so that its area is equal to the area of the
X=a
=
square, construct x and y so that xy a^, or so that
To
/,
x\y
must be divided into two segments
and y.
portional between x
Directions and proof are left to the pupil.
so that a
is
mean
pro
AREA AND EQUIVALENCE
237
t33. Construct a rectangle so that its area shall be equal to
the area of a given square and the difference between
and
base
its
altitude
to
equal
segment
given
(see Fig. 434).
be one side of the square and x
of the rectangle. An analysis
similar to that for Ex. 32 will show that a will be the
mean proportional between two segments x and y whose
Let a
Suggestion.
and y the base and altitude
difference
Fig. 434
45 (see Fig. 434).
is
two triangles have an angle of one equal
an angle of the other, the ratio of the areas
134. If
to
equals the ratio of the products of the sides that
include the equal angles (see Fig. 435).
Fig. 435
A nalysis:
I.
area
To prove
ABC = be
,^, Tjy
.
area
A B'C
be
'
compare the area of each
triangle
^ wi th
the area of a third triangle having the same altitude.
TT
.
. .
II.
J
/D/
LB andJ cfindJ 4.U
draw
the
^
.area
ratio of
ABC
and
area
,>;
A B'C
.
area
of
AB'C
t^ttt^,
area A B'C
and multiply.
Let the pupil give the proof.
and
35. If s
shown
s'
represent the areas of the
A ABC
and A B'C
in Fig. 435, find
= 15,c=lS, and s = s'.
= 35, c = 70, and s = 2s'.
c' = 28, c = 45, and s=r2s'.
1.
c',iib =24,
b'
2.
c', if
6'
3. b,
if
=56,
6'=
18,
field A BC, show how to divide
two equivalent parts by running a fence from
point X on one side (see Fig. 436).
36.
it
Given a triangular
^/jy
into
Fig. 436
Suggestion.
Represent
.'.
^ C by
a' are to
struction in
Let
b,
be the point at which the fence meets BC.
XC by b\ CF by a', and 5C by a. Point Y and
be found,
full.
Find
a' so
that
ab_
a'b'
Why?
Give con
PLANE GEOMETRY
238
EXERCISES INVOLVING THE PYTHAGOREAN
256.
1.
Th. lis as
THEOREM
In the details of the proof of
given above, prove that
ACBF and ABE
have equal bases and
equal altitudes instead of proving
them
congruent (Fig. 437).
A nalysis:
To prove
I.
Fig. 437
that
and AABE have equal bases and equal
and AB as bases and prove the altitudes
ACBF
altitudes, use
BF
equal.
drop perpendiculars from E and C to ^B and
and prove ABEP^ ABRC.
II.
BF
extended
respectively
2. Give the details for the proof for Th. 118 (1) if square CE is
constructed on the opposite side of CB from that shown in Fig. 437;
(2) if square AF is constructed on the opposite side oi AB from
AF
are on opposite
(3) if both CE and
respectively from thovse shown in the figure.
Fig. 438 may be used to prove
that shown in the figure;
sides of
3.
CB and AB
Show how
Pythagorean theorem. A EH is the given
Extend AE and AH, making AB =
right triangle.
AD = a\b, Complete the square on a+b. Make
BF = CG = DH = a. Join E, F, G, and H. From E
and F draw lines parallel to AD and AB respecProve that EFGH is a square equivalent to
tively.
the
4.
Show how
Fig.
439
be used to prove
may
the Pythagorean theorem. ABE
Construct the square
triangle.
is
the given right
on AB.
AK = BE. JoinDK. Construct DCF and
congruent to AABE. Prove KHFD and
squares whose sum is equivalent to c^.
5.
Show how
squares
6.
'4a^
If
b'^
BGHE
Fig. 439
and
KHFD
438
a^\b^
may be
x*,^
Make
A C5G
BGHE
constructed
Fig. 439
by constructing
first.
a and b are two given segments, show by geometry that
is not a+b.
AREA AND EQUIVALENCE
7.
and
If a, b,
segment x so that
8.
239
are three given segments, construct a fourth
(I)
x= ^a^^Tc^,
(2)
x=
Construct a square whose area shall be
+ f^c^.
yja^
H of
the difference
between the areas of two given squares.
9. Construct on a given base a right triangle whose area
be equal to the sum of the areas of two given triangles.
AB
10.
is
located that
circle at
1 1
E.
D is a point on ^5 so
AB D and cuts the semiProve that the square on ^ is H the square on AB.
the diameter of a semicircle.
AD=/i AB. DE
^ BC
If
is
a.t
a,
and
6,
Z A an
S.
c are the'
\.y^
y^
^^^
B^ and C respectively,
2cp where p is the projection of
\c'^
sides opposite
6
is
triangle with
any
acute angle, and sides
a'^
upon
AA,
= h^{(cp)^
The
Note.
'V
\
l''
^.L.
A^
Fig. 440
c (Fig. 440).
Outline of algebraic proof:
a^
shall
Let h be the altitude on
c.
distance between the feet of the perpendiculars
drawn
to a given line from the ends of a segment is called the projection of
the segment upon the line.
12. Give the proof for Ex. 11 for a figure
which h falls on AB extended.
ABC
tl3. If
is
any
obtuse angle, and sides
in
triangle with
Z A any
and
opposite
a, b,
c are
is
Outline of algebraic proof:
''^
/
^^ :/pJ
I
= b'^\c^{2cp b
respectively, a^
the projection of b upon c (Fig. 441).
A A, B, and C
where p
^^,
>''^^/i^
^^^^
Let h be the altitude upon
^^^
c.
= A2 + (c+p)2
h2 = b^p2
a^ = i,i^p2^(^c{pr
a2
...
and prove the converse of the proposition that the
on
the
hypotenuse of a right triangle equals the sum of
square
the squares of the other two sides.
14. State
15. If the sides of
a triangle are as given below,
angle right, acute, or obtuse:
15, 36,
39
(1)
20,39,36?
(2)
is
the largest
15,30,39?
(3)
CHAPTER XI
Similarity
INTRODUCTORY
DEFINITION
256. Similar
polygons have been defined as polygons that
have
1. The angles of one equal to the corresponding angles of
the other, and
2.
Corresponding sides proportional.
By the ratio of
similitude of
two
similar polygons
the ratio of any two corresponding sides.
corresponding sides will be lettered alike,
is
meant
For convenience
as AB and A'B\
BC and B'C.
TESTS FOR SIMILAR POLYGONS
TEST
FOR SIMILAR TRIANGLES
The first test for similar triangles is given in Th. 102.
mutually equiangular triangles are similar.
257.
Two
Let the pupil review the proof for Th. 102.
Ex. 1. Two triangles are similar if two angles of one are
equal respectively to two angles of the other.
Ex. 2. Two right triangles are similar if an acute angle of
one is equal to an acute angle of the other.
Ex.
3.
Two
isosceles triangles are similar
equal to a corresponding angle of the other.
Ex. 4. Construct two similar triangles
similitude
Ex.
5.
if
an angle
with
the
of
one
ratio
is
of
%.
Two
triangles similar to a third are similar to each
other.
240
SIMILARITY
241
n FOR SIMILAR TRIANGLES
Given ABC any triangle, and A'B' of AA'B'C,
258. Ex. 1.
AB AC
construct AA'B'C so that Z^ = Z^' and
TEST
A'C
A'B'
Theorem
Two
triangles are similar if an angle of
angle of the other and the ratios of the
119.
equal to an
including sides are equal.
one
is
Fig. 442
Hypothesis:
In
AABC
and AA'B'C,
ZA=
ZA' and
AB =
ZB' and
A'C'
A'B'
Conclusion:
AABCooAA'B'C.
Analysis and construction:
L To prove AABC co AA'B'C
/:c=zc'.
II.
To prove
ZB=
ZB', place
so that the sides of
of
III.
prove
AABC
is left
BC\\ B'C, prove
^, = ^,.
to the pupil.
2.
Construct AA'B'C similar to
A'B' and B'C is given.
Ex.
sides
Ex. 3. If a segment is drawn
and terminated by the sides, the
given triangle. Give two proofs.
Ex.
4.
upon AA'B'C
are collinear with the sides
ZA' and prove BC\\B'C'.
To prove
The proof
ZA
Solve Ex. 3
the triangle extended.
if
AABC
if
the
sum
of
parallel to the base of a triangle
triangle
formed
is
similar to the
the parallel to the base cuts the sides of
PLANE GEOMETRY
242
TEST
Ex.
A 7?
259.
SO that
1.
FOR SIMILAR TRIANGLES
III
Given
A
J^r*
A ABC any triangle.
jr^'^'^X'^AX^'
Theorem
Two
120.
Construct
AA'B'C
(^
^^^^^ '^'^' ^ A^'j5'C'.
triangles are similar
sponding sides have equal
if
the corre
ratios.
Fig. 443
AABC and A A 'B'C\  = =>
cab
Hypothesis:
In
Conclusion:
AABC ~ A A 'B'C
Analysis and construction:
I.
To prove AABC<^ AA'B'C compare
,
each with a
third triangle.
II.
III.
IV.
CX = b\
on CB construct CY = a\
and prove 7i ~ Tg and Tz ^ Tg where T^ = AABC,
T2 = AA'B'C\ and T^ ^AXYC.
On CA
construct
c' = z.
(Use Th. 4.)
=
c'
z, compare two proportions containing
z and c'\ t =  from A Ti and 7,
and 7 =  given.
^
To prove
To prove
T2 ^Tg, prove
be
b'
V.
be
To prove => prove
^
Let the pupil give the proof.
Ex.
its
2.
T^
00
Tg.
(Use Th. 119.)
For IV use Th.
92.
Construct a triangle similar to a given triangle with
perimeter equal to a given segment.
Ex.
3.
Prove that two triangles are similar
the median to one of
parts of the other.
them
if
two
sides
and
are proportional to the corresponding
SIMILARITY
243
CONSTRUCTION OF SIMILAR TRIANGLES
260.
to
Problem
Upon a given segment corresponding
24.
a side of a given
triangle, to construct
a triangle similar
to the given triangle.
GENERAL TEST FOR SIMILAR POLYGONS
261.
Theorem
121.
Two
polygons are similar
if
diago
nals drawn from two corresponding vertices divide the
polygons into the same number of triangles similar each
to each and similarly placed.
E^AP
Fig. 444
Hypothesis: Polygons P and P' are divided into triangles
by the diagonals drawn from the corresponding vertices
AI~ AI', AII~ AlF,
Polygon P co polygon P'.
and A' so that
Conclusion:
etc.
Analysis:
I.
To prove Pc^^P/, prove
<
^^
ZB= IB\
_^_^
/.C= AC\
etc.
<^
'a'~~h'~7'
(
To prove
=
be
r>
/.
prove each ratio equal to
777^,C
yi
Let the pupil complete the analysis and give the proof.
CONSTRUCTION OF SIMILAR POLYGONS
Problem 25. Upon a given segment corresponding
a given side of a given polygon, to construct a polygon
262.
to
similar to the given polygon.
Can
this
problem be solved in more than one way.?
PLANE GEOMETRY
244
PROPERTIES OF SIMILAR POLYGONS
COMPOSITION OF SIMILAR POLYGONS
Theorem
263.
122.
If
two polygons are
similar, diago
drawn from two corresponding vertices divide the
polygon into the same number of triangles similar each to
each and similarly placed.
nals
The
analysis
and the proof are
left to
the pupil.
RATIOS OF CORRESPONDING SEGMENTS
264.
of
Theorem
123.
The
ratio of corresponding altitudes
two similar triangles equals the
ratio of the bases.
Fig. 445
In
Hypothesis:
sponding altitudes
Conclusion :
and
c'
h and
h'
are corre
are the bases.
ri^r
h
To prove
Analysis:
third ratio
AABC^ AA'B'C,
and
ti =
compare
t,
and
with the
Let the pupil complete the analysis and give the proof.
Prove that in two similar triangles the ratio of the
following segments equals the ratio of similitude of the triangles:
Ex.
1.
a.
Bisectors of corresponding angles.
h.
c.
Corresponding medians.
The radii of the circumscribed
d.
The
circles.
radii of the inscribed circles.
Ex. 2. Are there any other segments in two similar triangles
whose ratio is equal to the ratio of similitude of the triangles?
Give proofs.
SIMILARITY
Ex.
In two similar polygons the ratio of corresponding
equal to the ratio of similitude of the polygons.
3.
is
diagonals
Ex.
245
4.
If b
and
b'
two
are the bases of
the corresponding altitudes, show that ,
= 
and
similar
if
Theorem
265.
triangles
rr
if
and a and
a'
the triangles are
they are equivalent.
In a series of equal ratios the sum
sum of the consequents as any
124.
of the antecedents is to the
antecedent
TT
is to its
consequent.
e
= "7 = "7
= etc.
Hypothesis: T"
Conclusion:
6ffi+/+ctc.
Proof:
STATEMENTS
a
2.
__ e
= ab
=ad
be = af
ab
be
3. ab+bc{be\etc.
4.
^'
=ab{ad{af ^etc.
b{a{c+e+etc.) =a{b+d{f +etc.).
a + c + e 4etc. _ _a
^
'
+^H/+etc.~
Let the pupil give
all
reasons.
Ex.
1.
AD
and
Prove Th. 123 by provmg that
Jji^'^r^t
Theorem
125.
The
ratio of the perimeters of
= DB
^/
^/^/'
two similar
triangles is equal to the ratio of similitude.
Let the pupil give the analysis and the proof. Use Th. 124.
equal ratios is obtained from the ratios of corresponding
series of
Ex.
the
2.
same
17
The
sides.
Corresponding diagonals of two similar polygons have
ratio as the perimeters.
PLANE GEOMETRY
240
RATIOS OF AREAS
266.
Theorem
The areas
126.
have the same ratio as the squares
of two similar triangles
of the bases or the squares
of the altitudes.
Fig. 446
AABC^
l\A'B'C h and
Hypothesis: In
a'
the
altitudes.
and
and
a
bases
sponding
Area
Conclusion.
ABC
STATEMENTS
1.
Kve2iABC=y2ah.
2.
AreaA'^'C' = 3^a'6'.
area
0.
52
^2
To" ^^"^"
prove each
prove area
_^^ A\'i'Dtnt
a''
'^'C ^TJ'i.^~''i"
h'^
Proof:
are corre
ABC ^^_a^
ratio equal to a third ratio.
I.
h'
ArQ2i A' B'C
area
Analysis:
ABC
ah
SIMILARITY
Ex.
b
and
Ex.
sq.
ft.
b'
In two similar triangles let s and 5' represent the areas,
the bases, and a and a' the altitudes. Find
a.
s', if 5
b.
a\
c.
b', if
if
=45 and a=
a'.
= Hs''
and 5' = 35.
a =16 and s
^>= 10
The sum
2.
of the areas of
Two
areas and
267.
247
two similar triangles is 78
ft. and 15 ft.
Find the
corresponding sides are 10
the altitudes.
Theorem
have the same
127.
The areas
of
two similar polygons
two corresponding
ratio as the squares of
sides.
Fig. 447
Hypothesis:
sponding
In polygons
and
P', a
and
o' are corre
sides.
Conclusion :
Area P _a^
Area P'
Analysis and construction:
I.
To ^prove
PP = a^
a
area
'
area
tt,
?.>,
break the polygon up into
tri
angles that are similar in pairs and find the ratio of
the sums of the areas of the triangles; that is, draw
diagonals from corresponding vertices and prove
AfB+C+ete.
a2
A'+B'+C'+etc.
a'2
PLANE GEOMETRY
248
Ex.
If
1.
polygon, what
the area of one polygon is twice that of a similar
is the ratio of the bases?
Ex. 2. The area of one polygon is three times the area of
a similar polygon. If the base of one is 15, find the base of the
other.
Ex. 3. Two corresponding sides of two similar polygons are
5 and 9 respectively. If the area of the first is 30, find the area
of the second.
Ex.
The
4.
The sum
two similar polygons
Find the area.
of the areas of
ratio of similitude
is
%.
is
910.
SUMMARY AND SUPPLEMENTARY EXERCISES
268.
SUMMARY OF IMPORTANT POINTS
IN
CHAPTER
XI
A. Tests for similarity.
I.
To prove two triangles similar, prove that
a. They are mutually equiangular (257).
h.
Their corresponding sides have equal ratios
c.
An
(259).
angle of one equals an angle of the other,
and the
II.
ratios of, etc. (258).'
To prove two polygons
similar,
drawn from corresponding
prove that diagonals
vertices, etc. (261).
B. Properties of Similar polygons.
I.
Angles are equal and corresponding
equal ratios
sides
have
(256).
IL Two
similar polygons may be divided into triangles,
similar in pairs by, etc. (263).
III.
Ratios of corresponding segments in similar polygons equal the ratio of similitude of the polygons
(264,265).
IV. Ratio of the areas of similar polygons equals the
square of the ratio of similitude of the polygons
(266, 267).
SIMILARITY
249
EXERCISES INVOLVING SIMILAR POLYGONS
269. 1. Make review diagrams for Ths. 122 and 127.
If the segments which join the vertices of a polygon with a given
point are divided in the same ratio from the given point and the points
of division joined in the same order as the vertices of the polygon,
the polygon so formed and the given polygon are radially placed.
point may be without the polygon as in Fig. 448a, or within the
The
polygon as in Fig. 4486. In each case 7yTi = 7JW}^^^^ "^^^ radial point
is called
the center of similitude of the polygons.
o<
FiG. 4486
Two
polygons that are radially placed are similar.
the proof for the two cases.
2.
Give
Show how a polygon may be constructed
similar to a given
with a given segment A'B' corresponding to side
and with any arbitrary point O as a center of similitude.
3.
polygon A BCD
AB
The
Note.
center of similitude of two similar figures
may be
of
give a proof for Ex. 3 with point
use in enlarging or reducing drawings.
4.
Make a drawing and
falling (1)
5.
If
sides of
6.
on point A;
(2)
on AD.
the perimeter of an equilateral triangle
a similar triangle with half the altitude.
On
On
8.
What
is
the ratio of their
one side and on the diagonal of a square construct
equilateral triangles.
shall
66, find the
one side and on the altitude of an equilateral triangle
as bases construct similar triangles.
areas?
7.
is
What
is
the ratio of their areas?
Construct a triangle similar to a given triangle whose area,
be ^4 the area of a given triangle; ^2 the area; 14 the area;
}i the area.
PLANE GEOMETRY
250
t9. If the hypotenuse of a right triangle is twice the shorter
one of the acute angles of the triangle is 60.
side,
The
10.
AC
A BC
triangle
AD = 2DC.
so that
the size of angle A.
has a right angle at C, and D trisects
then found that AD = BD. Find
It is
College Entrance Examination Board, Plane
1907.
Geometry Examination,
two
triangles have their corresponding sides parallel
each to each, the triangles are similar.
fll. If
tl2. If two triangles have their corresponding sides perpendicular each to each, the triangles are similar.
13. Fig.
449 shows two quadrilaterals with their
If AC
A'C, prove the
sides respectively parallel.
\\
quadrilaterals similar.
Construct a quadrilateral similar to a given
quadrilateral having one diagonal equal to a given
14.
^^
Fig. 449
segment.
The perimeters
15.
The
of
altitude of the first
two
is 8.
similar triangles are 21 and c
Find the altitude of the second.
In Fig. 450, ABC is an isosceles triangle.
C to the base AB. PQ is the perA DC
Prove that
bisector
of AC.
pendicular
is similar to AAPQ and find the length of ^Q
16.
CD
J_
from
in
"*
terms of ^Z> and CD.
In Fig. 451, ABCD is a square. AE = BF=
the points are joined as indicated.
17.
CG = DH and
pairs of congruent triangles and of similar
Read the ratios between corretriangles formed.
= S6
sponding sides of the similar triangles. If
Find
''^
all
AB
cm. and
18.
10.
AE=y3AB,
The equal
sides of
Find the sides
19.
What
4^2 sq.
20.
sides of
in.?
The
is
find
of
AX, XY, and YF.
an
isosceles triangle are 13, the
a similar triangle whose altitude
base
is
is 4.
the area in acres of a portion of a map that covers
scale of the map is 1 inch = l mile.
The
sides of a polygon are 10, 15, 9, and 22.
a similar polygon if its perimeter is 140.
Find the
SIMILARITY
If
t21.
similar
251
polygons are constructed on the sides of a
right triangle as corresponding sides, the area of the
polygon constructed on the hypotenuse is equal to
the
sum
two
sides (see Fig. 452).
of the areas of the polygons
on the other
Fig. 452
Analysis:
To
prove that C=i4fB, find^ and ^ in terms of the sides of the
and add.
triangle,
To
t22.
construct a polygon equivalent to one of
similar to the other.
two given
polygons and
Fig. 453
Analysis:
I.
II.
Suppose it is required to construct a polygon
and similar to i4.
Since Cis to be ^^1
III. Since
IV.
C is
A
a*
=
C equivalent
to
A =A
^
to be equivalent to 5, 7;
B are not similar, we cannot compare their areas by
reduce A and B
comparing squares of corresponding sides.
As A and
.'.
to equivalent squares.
Let
Let
__
V.
A
B
be equivalent to a square whose side
be equivalent to a square whose side
_,,
is
m.
is n,
Then^=.
VL ..^=^.
n
a
VII.
.*.
to find
a',
find
a fourth proportional to m,
Let the pupil give directions in
the proof.
full,
make
n,
and
the drawing,
a.
and give
CHAPTER
XII
Regular Polygons
DEFINITION
270.
with
all
regular polygon has been defined as a polygon
of its sides
Ex.
1.
Ex.
2.
An
and
of its angles equal.
all
regular quadrilateral
equilateral triangle
is
a square.
is
a regular polygon.
CONSTRUCTION OF REGULAR POLYGONS
GENERAL THEOREMS
271.
Theorem
128.
If
circle is divided into
arcs, the chords joining the points of division
equal
form a regular
polygon.
The
analysis
and proof are
left to
the pupil.
Theorem 129. If a circle is divided into n equal
the
arcs,
tangents drawn to the points of division form a
272.
regular polygon.
Fig. 434
Hypothesis:
YZ,
etc.,
points of
OO is divided into the equal arcs WX,
and tangents AB, BC, CD,
division, X, Y, Z, etc.
Conclusion:
A BCD
etc. is
etc.,
are
a regular polygon.
252
XY,
drawn to the
REGULAR POLYGONS
253
Analysis and construction:
I.
To prove
ABCD etc.
that
AA= Z.B=
II.
is a regular polygon, prove
ZC; = ctc., and >lB = 5C: = CD = etc.
To prove that Z A = ZB= ZC = etc., and that
AB = BC = CD = etc., join WX, XY, YZ, Z\\ etc..
and prove AWXA m AXYB ^ AYZC m, etc.
Notice that
Suggestion.
AX = BY= CZ = etc
BX = CY = ZD =etc
By
By
congruent triangles.
congruent triangles.
Equal segments added to equal segments.
AB = BC= CD = etc
The proof
is left
to the pupil.
CONSTRUCTION OF THE INSCRIBED SQUARE AND
RELATED POLYGONS
273..
Problem
No.
To
2G.
inscribe a square in a circle.
No. 3
No. 2
Fig. 455
Analysis and construction (Fig. 455, No.
I.
To
inscribe a square in
4
II.
circle,
1)
divide the circle into
eqiial arcs.
.'.divide the perigon
about the center of the
circle
into 4 equal angles.
III.
.'.construct
Let the pupil complete the directions and give the proof.
274.
Problem
circle (Fig. 455,
Ex.
1.
What
27.
No.
To
inscribe a regular octagon in a
2).
other regular inscribed polygons can be obtained
from the inscribed square?
Ex.
of 4, 8,
2.
Show how
and 16
to construct regular circumscribed polygons
sides (Fig. 455,
No.
3).
PLANE GEOMETRY
254
CONSTRUCTION OF THE REGULAR INSCRIBED
HEXAGON AND RELATED POLYGONS
276.
Problem
To
28.
inscribe a regular
hexagon in a
circle.
No.S
Fig. 456
Analysis and construction (Fig. 456, No.
I.
To
a regular hexagon in a
inscribe
circle into
II.
1)
circle,
divide the
6 equal arcs.
the perigon about the center of the circle
.'.divide
into 6 equal angles.
III. Since
of 360
the center of the
IV.
.*.
is
60, construct 6 angles of 60
each at
circle.
.....
construct
Let the pupil complete the directions and give the proof.
Ex.
is
1.
Prove that the side of the regular inscribed hexagon
equal to the radius of the
an
circle.
Ex.
2.
Inscribe
Ex.
3.
Inscribe a regular 12side in a circle.
Ex.
4.
What other regular
equilateral triangle in
circle.
inscribed polygons
may be obtained
from the regular inscribed hexagon?
Ex.
of 3, 6,
5.
Show how
and 12
to construct regular circumscribed polygons
sides.
Note. Regular polygons are in very common use for towers, spires,
bay and dormer windows, hoppers, nuts, and the like. They are
extensively used in ornament. Even the less common forms, such as
polygons with
7, 9, 11,
or even 13 sides, occasionally occur.
REGULAR POLYGONS
255
CONSTRUCTION OF THE REGULAR INSCRIBED
DECAGON AND RELATED POLYGONS
The
construction of the regular inscribed decagon
depends directly upon the following problem.
276.
Problem
To divide a given segment so that the larger
29.
portion is a mean proportional between the whole
and the smaller portion.
segment
Fig. 457
Given the segment
a.
= X
Ci
To find a segment x
Analysis and
I.
To
so that
find X so that
=
a
1.
a'^ax = x'^
2. x'^^ax
3.
4.
ax
construction:
solve for x.
a'^.
x^+ax+{\aY = a^^(Aa)\
{x+\ay = a^+{\a)\
Equation 4 suggests the Pythagorean theorem.
construct a right triangle with a and \a
II.
.*.
dicular sides.
III.
.'.
The hypotenuse will be
and
1.
(^
x'^
x\\a.
X will be the difference between the hypotenuse
\a.
Outline of proof:
2.
for perpen
+ ia)2 = a2 + Ga)^
+ ax + {\ay = Vilay.
a''
3. x^^ax
i2_ ax = a{a x)
4.
x''
5.
^ = ^^x a X
Let the pupil give the reasons.
PLANE GEOMETRY
256
a segment is so divided that the larger portion is a mean
proportional between the whole segment and the smaller
portion, the segment is said to be divided into extreme
and mean ratio. Problem 30 may be stated To divide a
segment into extreme and mean ratio.
If
The
Note.
segment into extreme and mean
It was known to
division of a
ratio is often called the Golden Section.
the Pythagoreans. It is an interesting fact, often used in
the theory of design, that that division of a rectangle which
the most pleasing to the majority of people is the one
that most closely approximates the golden section. It might
^^ ^^^
be used in designs for doors or windows (Fig. 458)
is
Exercise.
Show
that
if
3
the ratio
is
approximately
8:13.
277.
Problem
To
30.
inscribe a regular decagon in
circle.
Fig. 459
Given
circle 0.
To construct a regular inscribed decagon.
Analysis:
I.
yo construct
Z0=
:.
II.
Ho
construct
AB, a
of 4
rt.
A ABO
side of the decagon, construct
or Vs of 2 rt. A.
isosceles so that
ZA=2Z0.
The problem is reduced to the construction of AAOB,
The fact that ZA = 2Z0 suggests drawing the
bisector of Z A. A ABC and ABO would then be
similar
and
.*.
=
r^
^^
or
AB =0B
'
BC.
REGULAR POLYGONS
257
Construction:
1.
Divide the radius of the
mean
IL Use the
in.
..
circle,
OB, into extreme and
ratio at C.
larger segment,
make AB = OC.
makeAB
OC, as a side of the decagon.
Join
OA and
Proof:
STATEMENTS
prove
ZO = M
of a
PLANE GEOMETRY
258
278.
Problem
31.
To
inscribe a regular pentagon in a
circle.
The
analysis
and the proof are
Ex.
1.
What
Ex.
2.
Show how
left
to the pupil (Fig. 461, No.
1).
other regular inscribed polygons can be obtained*
from the regular inscribed decagon?
and 10
of 5
279.
in
Problem
32.
To
inscribe a regular pentadecagon
circle.
Suggestion.
No.
to construct regular circumscribed polygons
sides.
The
central angle
must be 24 60" 36 = 24
:
(Fig. 461,
2).
What inscribed and circumscribed regular polygons
be obtained from the regular inscribed pentadecagon? How?
Exercise.
may
CONSTRUCTION OF OTHER REGULAR POLYGONS
280. Note.
From
the time of Euclid until 1796
it
was supposed
that the regular polygons mentioned in 273279 were the only ones
that could be constructed with ruler and compasses. This includes
polygons with 3 2", 4 2", 5 2", and 15 2'* sides. The smaller polyin
included
this
set
not
are
those
of
7, 9, 11, 13, 14, 17, 18, 19
gons
In 179G, however, Karl Friedrich Gauss, then a young man
sides.
of nineteen in one of the German universities, proved that regular
polygons with a prime number of sides could be inscribed in a circle
by means of a ruler and compasses if and only if the prime number was
form 2" + l. That no polygons of 7, 9, 11, 13, 19, etc., sides
can be constructed in the given manner follows from Gauss's proof.
A polygon of 7 sides can be constructed by the use of a parabola and
a circle; one of 9 sides by the use of a hyperbola and a circle.
of the
REGULAR POLYGONS
259
While regular polygons of 7, 9, 11, 13, etc., sides
cannot be constructed exactly with ruler and compasses,
methods for constructing them approximately are frequently
given in courses in mechanical drawing. The accuracy of
these methods can be tested by trigonometry.
281.
PROPERTIES OF REGULAR POLYGONS
THE CIRCUMSCRIBED CIRCLE
282.
Theorem
130.
circle
can be circumscribed about
any regular polygon.
Fig. 462
Hypothesis:
Conclusion:
A BCD
A BCD etc. is any regular polygon.
A circle can be circumscribed about polygon
etc.
Analysis:
I.
To prove
that a circle can be circumscribed about
ABCD etc.,
is
XL
prove that a point can be found which
from the vertices.
distant
equally
.'.construct perpendicular bisectors of
BC
secutive sides,
and
meet at O and prove that
III.
IV.
V.
To prove
To prove
To prove
that
OS = 0C,
OC = OZ),
that
OE = OB,
that
CD.
any two con
Let the bisectors
OB = OC = OD = OE = etc.
prove
prove
.....
prove
ABOC mADOE.
Let the pupil complete the analysis and give the proof.
Cor.
The
radius of the circumscribed circle of a regular
whose vertex it passes.
polygon bisects the angle through
PLANE GEOMETRY
260
THE INSCRIBED CIRCLE
283.
Theorem
131.
can be inscribed in any
circle
regular polygon.
Fig. 463
Hypothesis:
Conclusion:
ABCDE
ABODE etc. is
A circle can
any regular polygon.
be
inscribed
in
polygon
etc.
Analysis and construction:
An
I.
inscribed circle will be tangent to the sides of the
polygon,
perpendiculars from the center to the sides of
the polygon must be radii and .*. equal,
.'.the
11.
.'.construct the circumscribed circle,
III.
pendiculars OX, OY, OZ,
to the sides, and prove
etc.,
draw the
per
from the center
OX = OY = OZ etc.
The
proof
is left
Suggestion.
to the pupil.
Show
that Th. 131
may
be proved by Th. 67 or by
Th. 130 Cor. and Th. 85.
PROPERTIES DEPENDENT UPON THE CIRCUMSCRIBED AND
INSCRIBED CIRCLES
The
center of the circumscribed and of the inscribed
a regular polygon is called the center of the polygon.
The radius of the circumscribed circle of a regular polygon
284.
circle of
is
called the radius of the polygon.
The
radius of the inscribed circle of a regular polygon
apothem of the polygon.
is
called the
By the central angle of a regular polygon
angle between two consecutive radii.
is
ineant the
REGULAR POLYGONS
Cor.
is
Vn
I.
The
261
central angle of a regular polygon of
sides
of 360.
Cor. n. The radius of a regular polygon bisects the
angle between two consecutive apothems, and the apothem
bisects the angle between two consecutive radii.
Cor. Ill The radius of a regular polygon bisects the
arc between the points of contact of the inscribed circle.
Ex.
1.
Ex.
2.
pentagon
Ex.
gruent
Any two
Two
diagonals of a regular pentagon are equal.
diagonals from the
same vertex
of a
regular
trisect the angle at that vertex.
3.
Show how
to divide a regular hexagon into two conthree congruent rhombuses, or six
isosceles trapezoids,
congruent equilateral triangles.
Ex.
4.
On a
Ex.
5.
A principal diagonal of a regular hexagon
given base construct a regular hexagon without
circle.
the
circumscribed
constructing
passes through the center of the circumscribed circle
and is parallel to a pair of opposite sides (Fig. 464).
Ex. 6. If a regular polygon has an even number
of sides, the diameter of the circumscribed circle drawn
from any vertex passes through the opposite vertex.
Ex. 7. If a regular polygon has an even number of
sides,
the
opposite sides are parallel.
Ex. 8. If any regular polygon has an odd number of sides, the
diameter of the circumscribed circle drawn from any vertex is a
perpendicular bisector of the opposite side.
A side of an inscribed equilateral triangle bisects the
9.
drawn to the midpoint of the subtended arc.
Ex. 10. The central angle of a regular polygon is the supplement of the interior angle of the polygon.
Ex.
radius
Ex. 11. The area oC a square circumscribed about a circle
twice the area of the square inscribed in the same circle.
Ex.
12.
If
is
squares are described outwardly on the sides of a
regular hexagon, the outer vertices of the squares are the vertices
of a regular duodecagon.
18
PLANE GEOMETRY
262
THE ANGLE OF A REGULAR POLYGON
285.
Theorem
.,
2714
sides is
The proof
rt.
Each angle
132.
of a regular polygon of
A.
to the pupil.
is left
THE AREA OF A REGULAR POLYGON
133.
The area of a regular polygon is
of
the perimeter and the apothem.
the
onehalf
product
286.
Theorem
Analysis:
To
find the area of a regular polygon
of the triangles formed.
draw the
radii
and
add the areas
287.
SIMILAR REGULAR POLYGONS
TEST FOR SIMILAR REGULAR POLYGONS
Theorem 134. Two regular polygons of the same
number
of sides are similar.
Hypothesis:
same number
Conclusion:
The two
regular polygons
O and
G' h::vc the
of sides.
Polygon
0~ polygon
0\
Analysis:
I.
To prove polygon 0^^ polygon 0',
, I.
. r>/ = .
=
ZB'
ZB=
etc., and
prove
.ABBCCD
=
J7^f
To prove
IL ^
^^
The
proof
is left
AB = BC
^7^,
^T^f
AB
ZA=
to the pupil.
= ^^^
^^f
A'B'
=
= 1^
ve
^,^' pro ^^ ^^
LA',
REGULAR POLYGONS
263
RATIO OF CORRESPONDING SEGMENTS
288.
Theorem
135.
If
two regular polygons have the
same number
of sides, the ratio of the perimeters is equal
to the ratio of the radii or of the apothems.
Fig. 466
Hypothesis: In the two regular polygons O and O' with
the same number of sides, r and r' are the radii, a and a' the
apothems, p and p' the perimeters, and
Conclusion:
Outline
,
p'
and
s'
are sides.
= ,'=,
r'
of proof:
a'
s _r
J'~?
r__a
?~a'
Let the pupil make an analysis and give
Cor. The
all
the reasons in the proof.
ratio of the perimeter to the
diameter of the
inscribed or of the circumscribed circle is the
regular polygons of the
same number
same
for all
of sides.
RATIOS OF AREAS
289.
Theorem
136.
If
two regular polygons have the
same number
of sides, the ratio of the areas is equal to the
ratio of the squares of the radii or of the apothems.
The
analysis
and the proof are
left to
the pupil.
PLANE GEOMETRY
264
SUMMARY AND SUPPLEMENTARY EXERCISES
290.
SUMMARY OF IMPORTANT POINTS
CHAPTER XH
IN
A. Construction of regular polygons.
I.
To
construct a regular inscribed or circumscribed
polygon of n sides, divide the circle into n equal
by constructing an angle ^/n of 360 at the
center of the circle (271 and 272).
II. To construct regular 4, 8, or 18sided polygons,
arcs
construct two perpendicular diameters (273,
274).
III.
To
IV.
To
construct regular 3, 6, or 12sided polygons,
construct a central angle of 60 by means of an
equilateral triangle ( 275).
construct regular , 10, or 15sided polygons,
divide the radius of the circle into extreme and
mean
ratio (277, 278, 279).
B. Properties of regular polygons.
I.
II.
III.
A
A
circle
can be circumscribed about,
circle
can be inscribed
The
in, etc. ( 283).
radius of the circumscribed circle of a regular
polygon
IV.
etc. (282).
bisects, etc. (282).
Each angle
of a regular polygon
2w
is
4
rt.
ft
(285).
V.
The
central angle of a regular polygon
is
V of
360
(284).
C.
is
Regular polygons are similar
if
The area
of
a regular polygon
per.
apothem
(286).
D. Similar regular polygons.
I.
they have,
etc.
(287).
II.
III.
For
The
The
ratio of the perimeters equals, etc. (288).
ratio of the areas equals, etc. (289).
similar polygons in general see 268.
REGULAR POLYGONS
265
EXERCISES INVOLVING PROPERTIES OF AND SPECIAL
CONSTRUCTIONS FOR REGULAR POLYGONS
1. In a regular hexagon the secondary diagonals
are parallel to each other (Fig. 467).
291.
AC
In Fig. 467, prove that
2.
UVWXYZ
is
FD
and
a regu
lar
hexagon.
Note. The star shown in Fig. 467 is extremely common. It seems to be an ancient symbol of Deity. It
is used in such modern instances as the policeman's
star and many trademarks.
The
3.
area of the inscribed equilateral triangle
hexagon inscribed in the same circle.
Fig. 467
is
half the area
of the regular
is
4. Show that the area of a regular hexagon inscribed in a circle
a mean proportional between the areas of the inscribed and
circumscribed equilateral triangles.
5.
The
6.
Given a
central angle of a regular octagon
side of
the circumscribed
See
Suggestion.
Zl=22>^^
7.
is
45.
a regular octagon, to construct
circle.
Fig.
construct
468.
order
In
to
construct
Z2=45.
Fig. 468
AB
Given the secondary diagonal
oi
a regular octagon
(Fig. 469), to construct the octagon.
Suggestion.
Since the
AAEB may
known,
then to construct
Note.
Ex. 7
number
DCllAB
is
Zl
The problem
of degrees in
be constructed.
so that
is
is
DC=AD.
a problem which might occur
in
ADCB
would be the
building octagonal bay windows.
outline of the window and
the line on the house.
AB
8. Show that a regular octagon may be inscribed
a square by the following method (Fig. 470):
With O as center and OF, the half median, as
radius cut the diagonals at F, Z, W, and X. At
Fig. 469
in
F, Z,
W, and
diagonals.
J/
*j>
construct perpendiculars to the
Fig. 470
PLANE GEOMETRY
266
9. Show that a regular octagon 'may be inscribed in a square
by the following method (Fig. 471): With the j^ ^
s_o
'^'^^^
vertices of the square as centers and the semi
diagonal as radius cut the sides of the square at
Xy Y, Z, etc., and join the points as indicated.
Pig. 473
Note. Exs. 8 and 9 are extremely useful. They can be used
as shown in Fig. 472 to construct a tiledfloor pattern composed of
regular octagons and squares, or as in Fig. 473 to cut a square timber
down into an octagonal one. The cuttings at the sawmill would be
along the lines AB and BX, DC and CY, and so around the timber.
Ex. 9 gives the common method for cutting out an octagonal table top.
10. Fig.
diagonals.
474 shows an inscribed regular pentagon with
Prove
{\)AX = XB = BY^Qtc. {2)AB = AY. {Z) AC
is divided into extreme
and mean ratio at F.
(4) ^ F is divided into extreme and mean ratio at X.
CB
Suggestion
for
(3).
Prove
that
CB=AY.
CY
its
and
11. From the foregoing exercises show how to construct the
diagonal of a regular pentagon, given one side, and therefore how to
construct the regular pentagon, given one side.
12. Show that if AD \^ taken as the radius of a circle, AB
be a side of the regular inscribed decagon (Fig. 474).
13. Prove that VWXYZ is a regular pentagon (Fig. 474).
14.
The segments joining the midpoints
will
of the sides of a regular
form a regular pentagon.
pentagon
Note. The star shown in Fig. 474 is called the pentagram star
and was used as a symbol of recognition among the Pythagoreans,
an ancient Greek brotherhood that studied geometry. They called it
in order
Health.
It is also the star
used in the
flag of
the United States.
REGULAR POLYGONS
267
EXERCISES INVOLVING THE MEASUREMENT OF
292.
REGULAR POLYGONS
1. Show that if a square is inscribed in a circle of radius 1
the side of the square is V2, and that if the radius is R the side of
the square is i? V2. What is the area of the inscribed square?
2.
Find one side of a regular octagon inscribed in
without the tables.
circle of radius 1,
In Fig. 475, ^45
Suggestion.
square and
^4
A0 = l,AD = D0 = yzyl2.
3.
Find
regular octagon.
CD and
If
^ C.
.'.
Fig. 475
Find one side of the regular inscribed octagon
of the circle
4.
a side of the inscribed
is
of the_inscribed
if
the radius
R.
is
Find one side and the apothem of an inscribed equilateral
triangle
if
(1)
the radius of the circle
is
(2)
the radius
R.
is
Find one side of a regular duodecagon in1, without the tables.
5.
scribed in a circle of radius
and
If
0D = }4^^'
Find
and
BD = }4,
then
BC.
Fig. 476
is
is 1
is
if it is
the
if
the radius
R.
if
the radius of
1.
Let
represent one side of the decagon.
be obtained from the equation
is
Show
that
Find one side of the regular inscribed decagon
of the circle
if
R.
Find one side of the regular inscribed decagon
Suggestion.
9.
.:
Find a side of the regular circumscribed hexagon
the circle
may
side of the inscribed regular
Find one side of the regular inscribed duodecagon
of the circle
8.
a.
DC and
radius of the circle
7.
BC
BO = l, AB = 1,
duodecagon.
6.
^5 is a side of the inscribed
In Fig. 476,
Suggestion.
regular hexagon
if
the radius
R.
10. Using the side of the regular inscribed decagon
found in Ex. 9 and the radius of the circle as 1, find
a side of the regular inscribed pentagon.
In Fig. 477, BC is a mean proportional
Suggestion.
between DC and CE. BE can be found from BC and CE.
Fig. 477
PLANE GEOMETRY
268
11. Find the ratio of the side of a square inscribed in a circle
to the side of an equilateral triangle inscribed in the same circle.
ABCDEF is a regular hexagon. X, Y, and Z are the midAF, BC, and DE respectively. Prove that XYZ is an
AB = 20 in.
equilateral triangle and find its area
12.
points of
if
STAR POLYGONS
293. Fig. 474 shows a star polygon of five points and
There are one or more regular
Fig. 467 one of six points.
star polygons related to each of the
regular convex polygons.
They can
be constructed by dividing the
circle
n equal
parts and joining each
of
division
to the ^th one from
point
it, where k is an integer greater than
into
one and
less
than 
another illustration.
Fig. 478
shows
(See also Fig.
These figures have been studied
258.)
wherever geometry has been studied. They abound in cutThe fivepointed star mentioned in the note,
glass designs.
Ex.
14, and the sixpointed star mentioned in the
291,
aote, 291, Ex. 2, are of special importance.
Exercise.
In Fig. 478 the
circle is
and each point joined to the 7th from
divided into 16 equal parts
it.
The
following questions
apply to Fig. 478.
1.
How many
2.
Find the number of degrees in one angle of each
3.
Prove that
AH = HB = BK = etc.
How many
How many
other sets of equal segments are there?
4.
sets of equal angles are there?
set.
5.
regular polygons of 16 sides can be formed
joining corresponding intersections? Give proof for each.
6.
Can
intersections?
7.
regular octagons be formed
by
joining corresponding
How?
How many
by
squares are in the figure?
CHAPTER
XIII
Measurement of the Circle
THE CIRCUMFERENCE OF THE CIRCLE
DEFINITION
294.
as the
The length of a straightline segment was defined
number of times a certain straightline segment
taken as a unit can be applied to the segment to be measIt is at once evident that we cannot measure a circle
in this way.
We shall, however, assume that the circle can
be measured in terms of a straightHne unit. The measure
of the circle is called its length or its circumference.
ured.
GENERAL METHOD
295.
The perimeter
polygon of
many
the length of the
sides
an inscribed or of a circumscribed
may be used as an approximation to
of
circle.
If a regular hexagon is inscribed in a circle and the arcs
between its vertices are bisected, the chords joining the
points of division form a regular inscribed polygon of 12 sides.
the same process regular polygons of 24, 48, 96, 192
may be obtained, and so on indefinitely. If such a
succession of polygons is constructed, one is soon found
By
sides
difficulty be distinguished from the circle.
Instead of the regular inscribed hexagon, the inscribed
square might have been used as the starting point.
which can with
Ex.
gon
1.
is less
The perimeter of a regular inscribed polythan the perimeter of the regular polygon
of double the
number
of sides inscribed in the
same
circle (Fig. 479).
Fig. 479
269
PLANE GEOMETRY
270
If a regular hexagon is circumscribed about a circle and
the arcs between the points of tangency are bisected, the
tangents drawn at the points of division form a regular
circumscribed polygon of 12 sides. By the same process,
regular circumscribed polygons of 24, 48, 96, 192 sides may
be obtained, and so on indefinitely. Just as in the series of
regular inscribed polygons, so in this series of regular cir
cumscribed polygons, a polygon is soon found which can
with difficulty be distinguished from the circle. The starting point of this series might have been the circumscribed
square instead of the regular circumscribed hexagon.
The perimeters of the polygons in these series have been
computed. The computations can be made as indicated in
the next two problems.
Ex. 2. The perimeter of a regular circumscribed
polygon is greater than the perimeter of the regular
polygon of double the number of sides circumscribed about the same circle (Fig. 480).
Fig. 480
296. Problem 33.
To find a side of a regular inscribed
polygon of 2n sides, given a side of a regular inscribed
polygon of n sides and the radius of the
circle.
Fig. 481
Given a side
AC
(or a) of
inscribed in a circle of radius
Required to find a side
of
2w
sides.
a regular polygon of n sides
r.
(x) of
a regular inscribed polygon
MEASUREMENT OF THE CIRCLE
271
Analysis (segments are lettered as shown in Fig. 481)
I.
To
x^
= d^\{i
a),
^
J ^ use a
J=r
find
a,
TT a>
II.
To
known;
is
I
i
[
III.
To
known
find X in terms of the
lengths use
must be found.
fi
ri^ known.
r
y must be found.
.
find y, use
J"
Let the pupil
= r^ {\
make
a and
ay.
r are
known.
the ntlmerical computation
when ^ C
a side
is
the inscribed sciuare, (2) of the regular inscribed hexagon.
Use
for the radius of the circle (1) \, (2) r.
The following f ormula gives
(1) of
the value of x in terms of
and a jc= V
:
2r'^
r \'4r' a^.
297. Problkm 34.
To find a side of a regular circumscribed polygon of 2n sides, given a side of a regular circumscribed polygon of n sides and the radius of the circle.
Fig. 482
Given a side
AB
(or a) of a regular polygon of
circiunscribed about a circle of radius r.
Required to find a side
polygon of 2w sides.
of
{%)
sides
a regular circumscribed
Analysis (the segments are lettered as shown in Fig. 482) ;
I.
To
find X, use Th. 106.
''
y
II.
To
a and
2^'~2^
r are
known.
[>'tobe found.
find y, use y'^={\ ay\r.
Let the pupil make the numerical computation when
of the circumscribed square.
The
general formula
is
x=
Use
2r+
AB
for the radius of the circle (I)
7 o
..
V4r2f a^
\s,
o.
side
(2) r.
PLANE GEOMETRY
272
PERIMETERS OF REGULAR POLYGONS INSCRIBED IN OR
CIRCUMSCRIBED ABOUT A CIRCLE WITH DIAMETER ONE
298. The methods indicated in Probs. 33 and 34 have been
used in obtaining the results given in the tables below.
TABLE
Number
OF
Sides
MEASUREMENT OF THE CIRCLE
273
Table I shows the perimeters of a series of inscribed polygons and of a series of circumscribed polygons that start
with the regular inscribed and circumscribed hexagon
Table II shows the perimeters of two series
respectively.
that
start
respectively.
with the inscribed and circumscribed square
The diameter of the circle is 1 in each case.
Can you come
to
any conclusion by comparing
results
In higher mathematics it is proved that the perimeters
of the polygons in Tables I and II approach a definite number.
This number cannot be found exactly. It has been
named w
(pi).
COMPUTATION OF PERIMETERS OF REGULAR POLYGONS
INSCRIBED IN OR CIRCUMSCRIBED ABOUT ANY CIRCLE
35.
To find the perimeters of regular
in
inscribed
or
circumscribed about any circle.
polygons
299.
Problem
Solution:
I.
Let d and
d' represent
the diameters of two
circles.
p and
p' represent the perimeters of two regular
polygons of the same number of sides inscribed in
or circumscribed about the two circles.
II.
Then
=^
^
p a
(see
Th. 135 Cor.).
= d,whend' = l.
P
p = dp' if the diameter
^,
.'.
The perimeter
of circle
of a regular polygon of
about
p' is 1.
of sides
any number
inscribed in or circumscribed about a circle can be found
from the equation p = dp\ if the perimeter of a similar
polygon inscribed in or circumscribed about a circle of
diameter 1 is known.
The perimeters of polygons inscribed in or circumscribed
about any circle and similar to those in Tables I and II
may be found by multiplying the diameter of the given
circle
by the proper number
in the tables.
PLANE GEOMETRY
274
LIMITING VALUES OF PERIMETER OF INSCRIBED AND
CIRCUMSCRIBED POLYGONS
300. As. 64. The limit of the perimeters of a series of
regular polygons inscribed in or circumscribed about the
same circle as the number of sides is increased indefinitely
the same.
is
This limit doe? not depend upon the number of sides of
the initial polygon nor upon the method of increasing the
number of sides. This limit is ird.
This assumption
is
proved in higher mathematics.
LENGTH OF THE CIRCLE
The assumptions
301.
definition
in
300 lead us to the following
The length or the circumference of a circle is defined as
the limit of the perimeters of a series of regular polygons
inscribed in or circumscribed about a circle as the number
of sides
is
increased indefinitely.
The perimeter
as
of any one of the polygons may be regarded
an approximation to the length of the circle.
From As. 64 and the definition above, we have
Theorem 137. The circumference of a circle of diameter
is Tvd,
If c is
We
the circumference, d the diameter, r the radius,
have
.*.
c=
ird
The number
or c =
2Trr.
a very important number in mathematics.
but very unHke such irrational
numbers as V2 or V3. We found it possible by means of a straightedge and compasses to construct a straightline segment to represent
V2 (Ex. 2, 221). The ancient Greeks could do this. They failed,
however, in the attempt to construct a straightline segment to represent TT. In modern times it has been proved that it is impossible to
construct such a segment for tt by the use of straightedge and com
Note.
It is
tt is
an irrational number
(see 198),
passes. It can, however, be done by means of an instrument called an
integraph, invented by a Pole about 1878.
MEASUREMENT OF THE CIRCLE
275
AREAS OF CIRCLES, SECTORS, AND SEGMENTS
THE AREA OF THE CIRCLE
The
limit of the areas of a series of regular
in
or circumscribed about the same circle
inscribed
polygons
as the number of sides is increased indefinitely is the sam:'.
302. As. 65.
This limit
circle
and
onehalf the product of the radius of
is
the
circumference.
its
This assumption
proved in higher mathematics.
303. We shall define the area of a circle as the limit of
the areas of a scries of inscribed or circumscribed regular
is
polygons as the number of sides is increased indefinitely.
304. From 302 and 303 we have
Theorem
product of
Using
The area
138.
of
circle
onehalf the
is
radius and circumference.
its
for the area of the circle, r for the radius, c for
the circumference,
A = y2cr
=H
Note.
we cannot
'
We know
find that
2Trr=Trr^
that
tt
number
since c
= 27rr.
represents a definite number, although
have learned that a straight
exactly.
We
segment can be constructed which is equal to the circumference
of a given circle, although it cannot be constructed with compasses and
We will, therefore, assume that there is a triangle,
straightedge.
line
square, or rectangle equivalent to
figures
any given circle, although these
cannot be constructed with straightedge and compasses.
AREAS OF SECTORS
The area of a sector has
305. As. 66.
the area of a circle of which
it is
the
same
ratio to
a part as the angle of the
sector has to four right angles.
Using
5 for
sector,
Solvingfor
the area of the sector, a for the angle of the
for the area of the circle,
7rr
5,
^
PLANE GEOMETRY
270
AREAS OF SEGMENTS
306.
and
The
circular
segment
a figure boimded by an arc
is
chord.
its
between circular segments and
be
shown
may
by constructing the sector
arc
as
a given circular segment.
the
same
having
It is at once evident (Fig. 483) that the area
of a circular segment can be obtained if the
Fig. 483
areas of the associated sector and triangle can be obtained.
relation
sectors
RATIOS AND CIRCLES
307.
The
formulae
following theorems follow at once from the
:.
Theorem
diameter
139.
the
is
The ratio
same for all
If c
Theorem
The
140.
= wd,
of the circumference to the
circles.
then r
a
ratio of the circumferences of
circles equals the ratio of their
Using
and
ci
_Ci
and
c
^
"
^.
Smce
d
d
di
= ?r~=~">
2ri
n
Theorem
141.
The
'~r
c^
ratio
ri
two
circles,
for their radii,
two
radii.
d and
we have:
_d
di
Ci
2r
r
di
diameters or of their
for the circumferences of
di for their diameters, r
= tt.
ri
of the areas
of
two
circles
equals the ratio of the squares of their radii or of their
diameters.
Using
and Ai for the areas of two circles, r and n for
d and di for their diameters, we have:
their radii,
7rr2
Ai
Trn^
B.
PLANE GEOMETRY
278
10. Fig. 484 shows the construction of certain types of
Find the entire area if one side of the equilateral
triangle
11.
is
ft.
Find the
ratio of the area of
circle to
the
area of the inscribed square and to the area of the
circumscribed square.
12.
One
Show how
is
and
find its area.
13.
Fig.
14.
Fig.
if
ft.
the shaded portion
formed
formed and
is
is
figure in the square in
find its area if one side of the
Fig. 485
in.
Show how
the four leafshaped
figures
in
487 are formed and find the sum of their areas
one side of the square
15. If the equatorial
mi.,
is
Show how the shaded
486
square
Fig. 484
side of the equilateral triangle in Fig.
485
trefoils.
what
is
is
in.
diameter of the earth
is
7926
the length of a degree of longitude at
the equator?
Fig. 487
(a)
circle, radius onehalf inch, which rolls around an equilateral triangle, altitude two
inches,
(b) Compute to two decimals the area inclosed by the
Construct the locus of the center of a
16.
locus
and the perimeter of the locus. College Entrance ExaminaGeometry Examination, 1914.
tion Board, Plane
around a square whose side is
circle, and find to two
decimal places both the length of the locus and the area inclosed
by it. College Entrance Examination Board, Plane Geometry
17.
in.
circle of radius
in. rolls
Construct the locus of the center of the
Examination, 1915.
18. If
circle is
constructed on each of the sides of a right
triangle as diameter, the area of the circle on the hypotenuse
is equal to the sum of the areas of the other two circles.
19. Find by geometrical construction the diameter of a pipe
the area of whose crosssection is equal to the sum of the areas of
the crosssections of two given pipes.
MEASUREMENT OF THE CIRCLE
279
20. A 12in. water pipe branches into three equal pipes whose
combined capacity is the same as that of the 12in. pipe. If the
quantity of water carried depends upon the area of the crosssection
of the pipes, what must be the diameter of each of the three pipes?
21. Semicircles are constructed on the sides
a right triangle as shown in Fig. 488. Show
of
sum
that the
of the areas of the
two crescents
is
to the area of the triangle.
equal
^
^
Note.
solution
This problem
the
is
first
is
case of
Fig. 488
due to Hippocrates (about 470 B.C.). His
the area of a curvilinear figure proved equal
to the area of a rectilinear figure.
22.
ft. in diameter is cut by a straight
wide, one edge of which passes through the center
What is the area of the remaining grass plot?
circular grass plot 12
gravel path 3
of the plot.
ft.
College Entrance Examination Board, Plane Geometry Examination, 1911.
The diameters
of two circular pulleys are respectively 12 ft.
and
the
distance
between their centers is 10 ft. Find
ft.,
the length of the shortest string which will go around the pulleys,
correct to three significant figures.
College Entrance Examina23.
and 2
tion Board, Plane
Geometry Examination, 1910.
24. There are many reasons why an eggshaped sewer is more satisfactory than a circu
The crosssection of the sewer in
made up of four circular arcs A By
BC, CD, and DA. The center of arc AB is
F; of arc yl D is P; of arc DC is X. The figFig. 489
ure i^ symmetric with respect to line XY.
If ;?= 1 .2 ft., r= .7 ft., ^ = 2.0 ft., Z P = 30, find the entire
lar sewer.
Fig. 480
is
ference of the sewer.
AB is
a,
circum
semicircle.
25. Find the length of a circular railway curve of radius
mile and central angle 30.
26,
The
rail of
a streetcar track
is
12
ft.
from
In rounding a square corner it cannot
be closer than 3 ft. from the curb. What is the
the curb.
radius of curvature of the required curve?
far
back must the curve begin?
(Fig.
490.)
How
6
Fig. 490
PLANE GEOMETRY
280
27.
To
relieve the
a tangent to a
made up
curves are
jolt
that always comes in passing from
curve, many railway
of arcs of different curva
sharp
Find the length of the compound curve
ture.
in Fig. 491.
^O(5^)=300 ft. C is center of AM.
CO = C'O = OD=150 ft. C is center of NB.
ZP = 60. Z) is center of ikfiV. The figure
is
symmetric with respect to OP.
28.
Find the area of a circular segment
if
its
arc
is
60;
45^
492, the arcs AC and BC are
constructed with B and A as centers respecas radius.
Show that the entire
tively and
29. In Fig.
AB
area of the circular figure may be found by
subtracting the area of the triangle from twice
the area of the sector. What is the number
of degrees in the angle of the sector?
30.
The
figure
shown
in Fig.
^
Fig. 492
Find the area
493
is
if
AB = 8
ft.
a form
frequently used in church window designs. Show
how it is constructed and find its area if ^J5 = 6 ft.
31.
Find the area
centric circles
in.
if
of the ring
between two conin. and
the radii of the circles are 5
Fig. 493
respectively.
32.
^'
Find a formula for the area of the ring between con
centric circles
if
the radii are
and
r respec
tively.
33. Fig.
494
shows two concentric
circles.
AB
Show how
so that the
to find the segment
as diameter shall have
circle constructed on
AB
the same area as the ring.
34. The circumferences
Compute the width of the
three
significant figures.
Fig. 494
two concentric
circles differ by 6 in.
two circles correct to
College Entrance Examination Board,
of
ring between the
Plane Geometry Examination, 1909.
35. Compare the area of a circle with the area of a square if
the perimeter of the square equals the circumference of the circle.
MEASUREMENT OF THE CIRCLE
Show how
36.
area of
Fig. 405
HKLMFEH
of the square
and
A BCD
is
formed and find the
if one side
is
HKLMFGH
of
281
in.
37. If the sum of the radii of two given circles
equal to the radius of a third circle, prove that
the circumference of the third circle is equal to the
Fig. 495
is
sum
two given
of the circumferences of the
circles.
whose circumference
38. Construct a circle
From an
old
Roman
pavement
is
equal to the difTerence between the circumferences
of
two given
39.
area
if
circles.
Show how
Fig.
490
is
a side of the hexagon
is
are
its
Fig. 496
ft.
497 the diameter of the
40. In Fig.
divided into three equal parts.
shown
formed and find
circle
Show how
was
the arcs a
drawn and prove that they divide the
circle into three
equal parts.
Fig. 497
41.
area of
Show how
OABCD
if
Show how
by the arcs
42.
parts
lem be solved
Fig. 498
in
05 = 5
is
formed,
Find the
ft.
to divide a circle into four equal
of circles only.
Can
this prob
more than one way?
Note. Ex. 42 is said to be a problem which Napoleon once proposed to his staff. The figure formed by dividing the circle into two
equal parts (Fig. 498) is the trademark of one of the western railroads.
43. In Fig. 499, C is the midpoint of radius ^0 of
perpendicular to AO at C. Prove that the circle
with O as center and OX as radius has half the
OO.
is
area of the circle with radius AO.
44.
parts
Show how to divide a
by concentric circles.
circle into three
equal
Fig. 439
CX
PLANE GEOMETRY
282
45. It
and
desired to construct a halfmile track.
is
The
start
be straightways intersecting at right angles at
the goal. The rest of the track is to be an arc of a circle tangent
to the two straightways. Find the radius of the arc and the length
finish are to
of the arc in feet;
also the area inclosed
(Results to be correct to
two
decimals.)
the track in acres.
by
College
Entrance Exami
nation Board, Plane Geometry Examination, 1914.
APPROXIMATION CONSTRUCTIONS
310.
We have seen that numbers can be found which
more or less closely approximate the value of tt, although
a number cannot be found which is exactly equal to ir.
Similarly, segments can be constructed whose lengths more
or less closely approximate the value of tf, although no
segment can be constructed with ruler and compasses whose
length exactly represents the value of tf. The following
exercises give some of these constructions.
They are used
by draftsmen
by carpenters
in obtaining the development of cylinders,
in obtaining the dimensions of veneers for
and windows, and by mechanitradesmen generally. The computations for the true
lengths of the segments often involve considerable geomesemicircular heads of doors
cal
try,
and are necessary
in order to ascertain the degree of
approximation obtained.
Ex.
AB
its
1.
In Fig. 500,
diameter.
as one side.
parallel to
ACB
AABD
is
a semicircle with
is
AB
EF is a tangent to the semicircle
DA and DB are extended to meet
EF at F and E respectively. Using
AB = Q, find the difference between the length
EF and of the semicircle ACB. Find the ratio
this difference to the length of
Ex.
2.
AB.
the tangent
its
/.
equilateral, with
In Fig. 501,
diameter.
CO
ACB
of
of
A CB.
is
a semicircle with
bisector of
AB.
AB
ZOCZ) = 30.
Find the difference between the length oi AD and of
^
the arc AC, using AB = 5. Find the ratio of this
difference to the length of the arc AC.
n b
^^^ ^^^
MEASUREMENT OF THE CIRCLE
Ex.
3.
OELAB.
and the
Z ^0 is a central angle of 45
0 = 8, find the length of DE
In Fig. 502,
Using
WE {DE
between
Find the ratio
difference
circumference.
283
in circle O.
and the
of this difference
to the circumference.
Ex. 4. Inscribe a square in a given circle.
Find the value of three times the diameter of the
circle plus onefifth of
'
the side of the square, using the diameter
Find the difference between this sum and
the circumference of the circle. Find the ratio of this difference
of the circle as d.
to the circumference of the circle.
(From
Ball's
Mathematical
Recreations and Essays.)
5.
Determine the value of w by the following experiment:
a
Wrap
paper about a cylinder. Stick a pin through the overlapped paper. Measure the distance between the two pinholes
and the diameter of the cylinder and compute w.
Ex.
We do not know who made the first attempt to compare the area
a circle with the area of a square. But the first record that has so
far been found is on an Egyptian papyrus by Ahmes (about 1700 B.C.).
He says, "Cut off }i of a diameter and construct a square on the
256
remainder." This implies that the area of the circle is {% d)^ or^r';
81
311.
of
that
is,
the approximation to
256
is ^^j
ox
=3. 16049 .
This
is
a much
better approximation than was used by some other ancient peoples.
In the countries of Asia 3 was commonly used. Both 3 and 33^^ are found
Archimedes (287212 B.C.)
Kings 7: 23; Daniel 7: 25).
used inscribed and circumscribed polygons of 96 sides and showed that
TT was less than Sl'j and greater than 3 ^^f i
His method was practically
the only method used for the next 2,000 years until the invention of the
in the Bible (I
modern times. S}<i is an approximation close enough for
most practical work. In India a value appear^ before the Christian
Era.
In later times the Hindus used 3M, Vl0 = 3.162,_and 3.1416.
This last value was given in 476 a.d. The Chinese used V 10 as early as
In 1610 a European published a result correct
the second century a.d.
to 35 decimal places. Since the invention of the calculus new methods
In 1874 there was a value found
of computation have been devised.
calculus in
showing 707 decimal places. The first 97 digits are as follows: 7r
3.141.592653r)89793238462643383279502884197169399375105820974944
5923078164062862089986280348253421 17 +
.
CHAPTER XIV
Maxima and Minima
INTRODUCTORY
312. Of all geometrical magnitudes that fulfill a given
requirement, that which is the greatest is called the maximum; that which is the least is called the minimum.
TRIANGLES
AREAS OF TRIANGLES WITH TWO SIDES GIVEN
313.
Theorem
sides, that in
Of all triangles having two given
142.
which these sides are perpendicular to each
other has the greatest area.
A ABC
ZCAB = 1
In
Hypothesis:
and
AC = AD.
Area,
Analysis and
construction:
II.
III.
ABD
side
area,
area,
and prove
To prove DE<AC, prove
DE<AD.
The proof
is left
common
prove altitude of
DE from DAB
..draw
is
ABD.
area ABO
ABD,
AASO altitude of AABD.
To prove
AB
rt.Z.
ABO
Conclusion:
I.
and
to the pupil.
284
DE<AC.
MAXIMA AND MINIMA
Ex.
Of
1.
all
285
parallelograms having given sides, the rectangle
has the greatest area.
Ex. 2. Of all parallelograms having given diagonals, which
has the greatest area?
Ex. 3. Of all triangles having a given base and a given
median to the base, which has the greatest area?
MINIMUM PERIMETERS
Of all triangles having the same
314. Theorem 143.
base and the same area, the isosceles triangle has the least
perimeter.
Hypothesis:
area
mon and
Conclusion:
In AABC and AABD the base AB is
ABC = a,resL ABD. AABC is isosceles.
Perimeter ABC < perimeter ABD.
com
Analysis and construction:
I.
II.
ABC <^er. ABD,
AC+CB<AD^DB.
extend AC, making CE CB.
To prove
.'.
per.
and prove
III.
IV.
V.
VI.
AB
prove
Join
DE
and
AE<AD^DE.
,
^^^^^
To prove DE = DB, prove ACDE ^ACDB.
To prove ACDE ^ACDB, prove Z 1 = Z 2.
To prove Z 1 = Z 2, prove CD AB.
To prove CD\\AB, draw a perpendicular from
\\
and prove the
The proof
DC
is left
figure
formed a parallelogram.
to the pupil.
to
286
PLANE GEOMETRY
MAXIMUM AREAS
Of all triangles having the same
Theorem
base and equal perimeters, the isosceles triangle has the
315.
greatest area.
144.
MAXIMA AND MINIMA
POLYGONS
IN
287
GENERAL
PRELIMINARY THEOREM
145.
Of all polygons having
Theorem
all sides but
in
that
with the
taken
order,
segments
semicircle
with
can
in
a
the
area
be
inscribed
greatest
undetermined side as diameter.
316.
one equal
to given
Fig. 508
Hypothesis: The polygon ABCDEF is the maximum
polygon that can be formed with all sides but one equal to
the segments AB, EC, CD, DE, and EF taken in the order
given.
ABCDEF
Conclusion:
^F
with
can be inscribed in a semicircle
as diameter.
Analysis and construction:
To prove
I.
circle
that
with
as D, lies
To prove
11.
To prove
mum.
III.
The
proof
is left
on the
that
DF and
ABCDEF can
A Fas
be inscribed in a semi
diameter, prove that any vertex,
semicircle.
Hcs on the semicircle, join
prove /LADF=^l
AADF^l
rt.
Z, prove area
Suggestion for step III. Use indirect proof.
may increase or decrease A
/^
along the line
hypothesis.
ADF a maxi
ABCDE
If
area
ADF
is
not
ADF
by sliding points
XFuntilarca/lD/''is a maximum. If, as points
figures A BCD and DEFrviwixxn unchanged,
would be increased, which is contrary to tlie
A and Fmove along line .Y F,
the area of
and
to the pupil.
a maximum, we
A and
DA
rt.*Z.
PLANE GEOMETRY
288
TEST FOR MAXIMUM AREAS
317.
Theorem
Of
146.
all
polygons
that
have
their
sides equal respectively to given segments taken in order,
that which can be inscribed in a circle has the greatest area.
The polygon ABODE is inscribed in a circle
cannot be inscribed in a circle.
A'B'C'D'E'
and polygon
Hypothesis:
AB = A'B\ BC = B'C\ CD = CD\ etc.
Conclusion: Area ABODE > area A'B'C'D'E'.
Analysis and construction:
To prove area ABODE > area A'B'O'D'E',
Draw diameter AX.
Join OX and DX.
Construct AD'X'O' ^ADXO.
ABOX
Compare area
area
Subtract area
area
The proof
is left
with area A'B'O'X' and
AEDX with area A'E'D'X'.
DXO from area ABOXDE and
D'X'C from
area A'B'0'X'D'E\
to the pupil.
ABODE
have the same
Discussion.
Might one part of
area as the corresponding part of A'B'O'D'E'l Could both
have the same area as the corresponding
parts of
ABODE
parts of
A'B'O'D'E'l
Why?
MAXIMA AND MINIMA
289
THE MAXIMUM AREA WITH GIVEN PERIMETER
318. Theorem 147.
Of all polygons with a given perimeter and a given number of sides, that with the maximum
area
is
regular.
Fig. 508
Suggestion.
circle
and
mum
by
is
To prove P
regular, prove that
To prove AC=CB,
equilateral.
it
can be inscribed in a
a, maxi
prove
AABC
indirect proof.
THE MINIMUM PERIMETER WITH GIVEN AREA
319. Theorem 148.
Of all polygons with the same
and the same number
of sides, the regular polygon
area
has the
least perimeter.
Fig. 509
Analysis and construction:
I.
To prove
P<per. P\ compare
per.
and P' with a
third polygon.
II.
.*.
of sides
prove per.
III.
IV.
Q with the same
and same perimeter as P' and
P<per. Q.
construct the regular polygon
number
To prove
To prove
The proof
is left
per.
P<per.
area
Q, prove area
P<area
to the pupil.
P<area
Q, prove area
Q.
P'<area Q.
PLANE GEOMETRY
290
REGULAR POLYGONS
THE MAXIMUM AREA WITH GIVEN PERIMETER
320.
Theorem
Of
149.
all
perimeter, the one with the
number
regular polygons with a given
area has the greatest
maximum
of sides.
Analysis and construction:
I.
To prove
P>area P\ compare
area
and P' with a
third polygon.
II.
any point in AB, with C and construct
and prove (1) area P'=area
join E,
.*.
ACDE^AACE
BCDE;
III.
To prove
P>area BCDE.
P>area BCDE, prove
area
(2)
area
per.
P = per.
BCDE.
In the same manner it can
be proved that a regular polygon of five sides has a greater
area than a square of same perimeter and that a regular
hexagon has a greater area than a regular pentagon of same
Discussion and conclusion:
perimeter,
and so
on.
321. Since the area of
circle
has been defined as the
limit of the areas of a series of regular inscribed
as the
number
As. 67.
of sides
The area
any polygon
As. 68.
increased indefinitely,
of a circle is greater
polygons
we have:
than the area of
of equal perimeter.
In higher mathematics
circle
is
Of
has the
all
figures
maximum
we prove
having the same perimeter, the
area.
MAXIMA AND MINIMA
291
THE MINIMUM PERIMETER WITH GIVEN AREA
322.
same
Theorem
150.
Of all regular polygons with the
that
the
area,
having
greatest number of sides has the
least perimeter.
Fig. 511
Analysis and construction:
To prove
I.
per.
P<per.
P',
compare
and P' with a
third polygon.
II.
construct the regular polygon Q with the
sides as P' and same perimeter as
.*.
number of
same
P and
prove per. P' > per. Q.
To prove
III.
The
proof
is left
per.
P'>per. Q, prove area P'>area Q.
to the pupil.
323. Since the circumference of
circle
has been defined
as the limit of the perimeters of a series of regular inscribed
polygons as the number of sides is increased indefinitely,
we have:
As. 69.
The perimeter
polygon of the
same
of
circle is less
than that of any
area.
In higher mathematics we prove
As. 70. Of all figures having the same area, the
has the minimum perimeter.
:
circle
Note. As. 70 has an important application in engineering. The
flow of water in an aqueduct or sewer is checked by the friction of the
water on the walls. The friction is proportional to the perimeter of
the crosssection.
possible.
In case
The
it is
keep this perimeter as small as
the best form to meet this condition.
It is desirable to
circle,
then,
is
not desirable because of expense and other considerations
to use a circle, regular polygons are often used.
NOTES ON ARITHMETIC AND ALGEBRA
FRACTIONS
The
324.
lies all
following fundamental law of fractions underoperations that involve fractions.
Multiplying or dividing numerator and denominator of
a fraction by the same number does not alter the value of
the fraction.
A. The sum or difference of two or more fractions that
have a common denominator is the sum or difference of the
numerators divided by the common denominator.
Two
or
more
have not a common denomicommon denominator before
To reduce fractions to a common
fractions that
nator must be reduced to a
adding or subtracting.
denominator, apply the fundamental law given above.
Add and
1
^'
^'
subtract the following:
^+^
12^18
24^36
B. The product of two fractions is the product of the
numerators divided by the product of the denominators.
Where possible, divide numerator and denominator by com
mon
factors.
Multiply the following:
16
15
be
292
NOTES ON ARITHMETIC AND ALGEBRA
293
C. The quotient of one fraction divided by a second is
the product of the first multiplied by the reciprocal of the
second.
Divide the following:
,.
?^^6a6
8*3
14,33
25
2.
The
rule for square root
20
3.
"
"'"*
Uab^
"*
2a
ROOTS
is based on the algebraic
formula {a^by = a^\2ab}b\ Notice that a^{2ab\b^ may
be written a^\b{2a{b). The method is illustrated below:
325.
Illustration 1.
Find
V 694. 563
694.56,3
26.3
4_
= 40
40+6 = 46
2(260) = 520
520+3 = 523
294
2(20)
276
1856
1569
287
In the illustration above, notice:
(1) The number was divided into periods of two figures
each, counting to the left and to the right from the decimal
point.
(2)
The
under 6 is 4. The 4 was suband the next period annexed. This gave a
294.
The square root of 4, or 2, was written
largest square
tracted from 6
remainder of
as the
first figure in
the root.
making 20. The 20
The 40 is used as a trial divisor
for the remainder 294.
The next figure of the root is either
6 or 7. The 6 is added to the 40, making 46. The 46 is
multiplied by 6, giving 276. The 276 is subtracted from
The next period is annexed, giving 1856.
294, leaving 18.
The
(4)
process above is repeated at each step of the
was placed
(3)
was doubled, making 40.
zero
work; thus, a zero
giving the 520.
20
is
after the 2,
placed after 26 and the result doubled,
is then continued as above.
The work
PLANE GEOMETRY
294
In general we may say: Annex a zero to the part of the
To this result
root already found and double the result.
add the next figure of the root. Multiply the result by the
last figure of the root found.
Show
that this statement
lation of
may
b{2a+b) in the formula
be regarded as a trans= a^+b{2ahh).
{a\'b)^
Find the square root of the following:
4. 106276
1. 1369
2.
3.
3744
2304
7.
5.
8.
15
6.
9.
Because of the frequent occurrence of the square roots
and 3 in geometry work, the application of the following
law should be noted
of 2
The square
326.
root of a product is the product of the
square roots of the factors.
36
Illustration 2.
This law
roots
is
when one
=4X9
/.
V36 = Vi X V9
used most conveniently for inexact square
factor is a perfect square.
V 18
V9 X V2 3 V2
Illustration 3^ 18
9X2
Notice that V2 occurs when the side of a square and n
diagonal of the square are used in the same exercise.
.*.
12 = 4X3
Illustration 4.
..
Vr2 = Vi
V3 = 2 V3
Notice that V3 occurs when the side of an equilateral
angle and its altitude occur in the same exercise.
20
Illustration 5.
The V5 occurs
=4X5
/.
V20 = Vi
tri
V5 = 2 VS
in connection with the regular
decagon and
pentagon.
Find the value
of
the following
correct
to three
decimal
1.
Apply the law given above.
Vl28
10. Vl50
4. Vl08
V8
7.
13.
V54
2.
Vl8
5.
V32
8.
V75
11.
Vl25
14.
V45
3.
V27
6.
V80
9.
V320
12.
V98
15.
Vl80
places.
NOTES ON ARITHMETIC AND ALGEBRA
16.
V20
295
PLANE'
29G
GEOMETRY
EQUATIONS
The method
328.
below
Illustration
of solving linear equations is illustrated
Solve for
I.
:;:
2=4
.
Multiply both sides by the L. C.
denominators
M.
of the
24 = 48 4(::hl)
Ox+S 24 = 48 4x 4
3(3a:fl)
Performing multiplications
Combining terms
Add +21 and +4^
9jc21=44 4;c
= 65
x=b
to each side
13a;
Divide both sides by 13
Solve the following equations:
1
= ^
c7_ 3+2a;
7
"^
xb
2.r+7
3.
_^
'83
52x ^
34:y
an equation contains both the first and the second
powers of the unknown, two methods of solution are
329. If
suggested.
The equation may be
A.
Illustration 2.
Solve for
solved by factoring.
x = 20
a;2x20 =
a;:
x'^
(:r5)
(jc+4)=0
xb =
=5
:r+4 =
x=^
a;
Notice that to solve an equation by factoring, one
of the equation must be zero.
The equation may be solved by completing the
Solve for ac:
Zx^bx =
B.
Illustration Z.
'7
Divide both sides by 3
Add
member
the square of {}i
side
%)
bx 7
^''3=3"
square.
(1)
(2)
=
x^^^Oi %)^ +
(3)
to each
'
NOTES ON ARITHMETIC AND ALGEBRA
Take the square root of each
side
....
of the equation
.t^
^=
= Vl09
3^
10.44
(4)
(5)
5.44
^ 15.44
6
= 2.57+
=.90+
H)^ is added to the left side to make the
(3), (>i
a perfect square. It is added to the right side to
Notice in
left side
10.44
*~6
Vl09
....
^10.44
x^=j*"6"^
297
preserve the balance of the equation.
(H H^y or ^He, is
obtained by squaring half the coefficient of x. Notice that
in step (2) the equation is divided by 3 to make the first
term
ic^,
which
is
a perfect square.
Solve the following equations:
1.
2.
a;2+3:c=18
2x''x = \b
3. 3:^2ll:x:
=2
4. 2x''\bx
=17
330.
To solve a system of equations consisting of two
equations containing two unknowns, eliminate one of the
unknowns and solve the resulting equation for the other.
A. When both equations are of the first degree, eliminate
by addition or
Illustration
subtraction.
Ai.
Solve for
aj
5:c4y = 6.5
7jc+53; = 38.25
35;c28y = 45.5
35:c+25>'= 191.25
53y= 145.75
^ = 2.75
Notice that x
and
5:r4y = 6.5
y:
,
oo or
(1)
(2)
(1)
(2)
X7
X5
Subtract the third
equation from the second
be found by multiplying equation (1)
and
5
(2)
by 4 and adding the results or by
by
equation
substituting 2.75 for y in either equation (1) or (2) and
may
solving the result for x.
PLANE GEOMETRY
298
B. When one of the equations is of the first degree and
one of the second, solve the firstdegree equation for one of
the unknowns in terms of the other unknown and substitute
in the other equation.
Illustration 5.
Solve for x and
y:
\x hy
x2+3;2
Solve (1) for x,
Substitute 8 3; for
=8
= 34
(1)
(2)
x=8y
:v
in (2)
64163;+2/ = 34
2^216^+30 =
y^8y+15 =
(y5) (3'3)=0
y = D and y = 3
To
find X, substitute the values of y in (3)
(3)
NOTES ON ARITHMETIC AND ALGEBRA
332.
Deg.
TABLE OF SINES, COSINES, AND TANGENTS
299
PLANE GEOMETRY
300
333.
Units of Length
English
= 1 foot (ft.)
=
1 yard (yd.)
3 feet
5J yards = 1 rod (rd.)
or 5280 ft. = 1 mile (mi.)
12 inches
320 rods
(in.)
Metric
10 centimeters (cm.) = 1 decimeter (dm.)
10 decimeters = 1 meter (m.)
1000 meters = 1 kilometer (km.)
1
1
meter = 39. 37
.
1 foot
1
334.
in.
kilometer = 62 of a mile
= 30.48
centimeters
mile =1.6093 kilometers
Units of Surface
English
144 square inches (sq. in.) =
9 square feet =
=
square yards
160 square rods =
30M
4840 square yards =
640 acres =
square foot
square yard (sq. yd.)
square rod (sq. rd.)
(sq. ft.)
l acre (A.)
1 acre (A.)
1
square mile
(sq. mi.)
Metric
100 square centimeters = 1 square decimeter
100 square decimeters = 1 square meter
OUTLINE SUMMARY
PARALLELS AND PERPENDICULARS
Tests for parallels
Two
1.
2.
3.
same plane are parallel if;
The alt. int. angles are equal
61, Th.
The corresponding angles are equal
63, Th. 10
The int. angles on the same side of the transversal
straight lines in the
Th. 11
Th. 12
66, Th. 13
are sup
They are perpendicular to the same line
5. They are parallel to the same line
63,
4.
63,
one side of a triangle if:
through the midpoints of the other two
line is parallel to
6.
It passes
sides
7.
114, Th. 48
two
It divides the other
sides proportionally
20o, Th. 100
a trapezoid if:
It passes through the midpoints of the legs
and Cor.
line is parallel to the bases of
8.
118, Th. 51
Construction of parallels
Tests for perpendiculars:
64, Prob. 6
3.
A
A
4.
If
a ray starts from a point in a straight hne
one of two parallels
line tangent to a circle is perpendicular to
any two circles intersect the line of centers.
5.
If
two equal
the
common
6.
An
angle inscribed in a semicircle
1.
2.
If
line perpendicular to
circles intersect the line
chord
Construction of a perpendicular:
1. To a line from a point in the
2.
To a
3.
To a segment
line
from a point not
18
Th. 17
145, Th. 69
151, Th. 73
of centers and
152, Th. 74 Cor.
70,
162, Cor. II
line. 43,
Prob. 3; 167, Prob. 9
in the line
44, Prob. 4; 167. Prob. 10
bisecting the segment
45, Prob. 5
CONGRUENCE
Tests for congruent triangles
Any two triangles are congruent if:
1. Two sides and the included anglj
2. Two angles and the included side
3.
Three sides
3o,
36,
39,
301
Th. 1
Th. 2
Th. 4
PLANE GEOMETRY
302
Two
right triangles are congruent
if:
The hypotenuse and an acute
The hypotenuse and a side
4.
5.
angle
82,
Th. 22
Th. 23
98,
Th. 35
81,
Test for congruent parallelograms:
Two
parallelograms are congruent
included angle
General test for congruent figures
Any two figures are
congruent
Tests for equal angles
Two
Sums,
two sides and the
they can be
made to coincide
if
they are:
differences, equal multiples, or equal parts of
30,
22, 29
3.
4.
Vertical angles
5.
Corresponding angles of congruent triangles
Base angles of an isosceles triangle
Alt. int. angles of parallel Hnes
6.
7.
8.
47
equal angles
Right angles or straight angles
Supplements or complements of equal angles
2.
.... 33
angles are equal
1.
if
if
Corresponding angles of parallel
24, 25, 29
28, 29
38
Th. 3
68, Th. 14
69, Th. 15
37,
lines.
third angles of two triangles that have two
75, Cor. II
angles of one equal respectively
10. Angles with their sides parallel right side to right side 73, Ex. 3
9.
The
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
Angles with their sides perpendicular
Opposite angles of a parallelogram
Ceatral angles subtended by equal arcs
Central angles subtended by equal chords
39
Th. 32
135, As. 50
136, Th. 61
86, Exs. 38,
95,
Angles measured by equal arcs
Corresponding angles of similar figures
Angles of a regular polygon
Construction of equal angles
40, Prob.
173, II
210, 256
78, 270
1
41, Prob. 2
Tests for equal segments:
Two
segments are equal if they are:
Sums, differences, equal multiples, or equal parts of
equal segments
2. Radii of the same or equal circles
3. Sides of an isosceles triangle
1.
4.
5.
6.
30, 47
12, 29
34
38
Corresponding sides of congruent triangles
95, Th. 31
Opposite sides of a parallelogram
Parallel or perpendicular segments between parallels
104, Ths. 39, 40
OUTLINE SUMMARY
Equal segments are formed when:
7. The diagonals of a parallelogram
8.
9.
303
intersect
95,
bisector of an angle to the sides of the angle.
179, Th. 85
point in the perpendicular bisector of a segment
.
10.
180, Th. 86
joined to the extremities of the segment
radius is perpendicular to a chord
12. Perpendiculars are drawn from the center of
is
11.
Th. 33
equal segments on one
transversal intersect a second transversal
111, Th. 45
Perpendiculars are drawn from a point in the
series of parallels cutting
137, Th. 63
a.
two equal chords
141, Th. 67
tangents are drawn to a circle from a point
without
146, Th. 70
14. Three terms of one proportion are equal respeccircle to
13.
Two
tively to three terms of another proportion.
..
Division of a segment into equal parts
201, Th. 92
111, Prob. 7
Tests for equal arcs:
Two
arcs are equal
if:
2.
They have equal central
They have equal chords
3.
1.
is perpendicular to' the chord of an arc
137, Th. 63
are intercepted by parallel chords
166, Th. 80
are intercepted by a chord and a tangent
171, Th. 82
parallel to it
radius
5.
They
They
6.
They measure equal
4.
Tests for equal chords
Two
1.
2.
3.
135, As. 49
136, Th. 62
angles
173, II
angles
chords are equal
if:
They have equal central angles
They have equal arcs
They are equally distant from the
136, Th. 61
center
136, Th. 62
140, Th. 66
SIMILARITY
Tests for similar triangles
Two
triangles are similar
if:
210, Th. 102; 257
angle of one equals an angle of the other and
the sides including the angle are proportional .... 258, Th. 119
3. Corresponding sides are proportional
259, Th. 120
1.
They
2.
An
are mutually equiangular
PLANE GEOMETRY
304
Tests for similar polygons
Two
polygons are similar if:
1. The angles of one are equal respectively to the
angles of the other and the corresponding sides are
2.
3.
proportional
256
Diagonals from corresponding vertices divide the
polygons into triangles that are similar and similarly placed
261, Th. 121
They are regular polygons of the same number of
sides
287, Th. 134
Properties of similar figures:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
The corresponding
angles are equal.
210, 256
Corresponding sides have equal ratios
210, 256
Diagonals from corresponding vertices divide the
polygons into triangles that are similar and similarly placed
263, Th. 122
The ratio of corresponding segments equals the
ratio of simiHtude
264, Ths. 123, 125
The
ratio of the areas equals the square of the
ratio of similitude
Equal
ratios
and
266, Th. 126; 267, Th. 127
circles:
1.
The
2.
307, Th. 140
equals the ratio of the diameters or of the radii
The ratio of the areas of any two circles equals the
ratio of the circumferences of
any two
circles
.
ratio of the squares of the diameters or of the radii
307, Th. 141
Tests for equal ratios or equal products
Two
1.
2.
3.
two products are equal when
Parallels cut two transversals
ratios or
211
:
203, Th. 98; 204, Th. 99 and Cor.
210
Polygons are similar
Two ratios are equal to a third ratio
199, As. 57
Construction of proportional segments:
1.
The
to
2.
3.
division of a segment into parts proportional
of given segments
206, Prob. 15
fourth proportional to three given segments 207, Prob. 16
any number
The
The mean
proportional to two given segments .221, Prob. 17
Important cases of equal ratios occur when:
1. Two chords intersect within a circle
2. Two secants intersect without a circle.
213, Th. 103
215, Th. 104
OUTLINE SUMMARY
3.
4.
5.
6.
305
A secant and a tangent intersect without a circle. 216,
A line bisects an angle of a triangle
217,
A line bisects an exterior angle of a triangle
218,
A perpendicular is drawn from the vertex of the
Th. 105
Th. 106
Th. 107
right angle of a right triangle to the hypotenuse
220, Ths. 108, 109
EQUIVALENCE
246, Ths. IIG, 117
Tests for equivalence
Two
parallelograms or two triangles are equivalent or a
triangle is half of
1.
2.
a parallelogram
if:
They have the same base and the same
The product of the base and altitude of
altitude.
one, etc.
Any two
polygons are equivalent if they are:
Sums, differences, or equal parts of equivalent
figures.
Construction of equivalent figures:
1. To transform a parallelogram into a rectangle on a
248, Prob. 18
given base
2. To transform a parallelogram into a square
248, Prob. 19
3. To transform a polygon into a triangle.
249, Probs. 20, 21
.
4.
To
construct a square equal to the
sum
of
two
251, Prob. 22
squares
5. To construct a square equal to the difference
between two squares
251, Prob. 23
MEASUREMENT
Meastirement of angles:
1. Of central angles
157, As.
2. Of inscribed angles
161, Th.
3. Of an angle formed by a chord and a tangent. 170, Th.
4. Of an angle formed by two chords that intersect. 164, Th.
5. Of an angle formed by two secants, two tangents,
or a secant and a tangent ..165, Th. 79; 172, Ths. 83,
.
6.
By
trigonometric ratios
53
77
81
78
84
225
Anglesums:
The sum
of
1.
Adj. angles on one side of a
common vertex is 2 rt. 4
2.
Adj. angles about a point
3. Int. angles
on one
parallels are cut b}'
4.
The
side of
is
st.
rt.
line
26, 29
26, 29
a transversal when two
a third st. line is 2 rt.
a triangle is 2 rt. ^
interior angles of
having a
zi
69,
74,
Th. 16
Th. 18
PLANE GEOMETRY
306
The sum
5.
of
Two
angles of a triangle
equal to the opposite
is
exterior angle
6.
7.
8.
76,
The acute angles of a right triangle is 1 rt. Z
The interior angles of a polygon of n sides
2{n2) rt. A
The exterior angles of any polygon is 4 rt. A
.
is
79,
80,
Measurement of polygons:
1. The area of a rectangle is ab
2. The area of a parallelogram is ah
3. The area of a triangle is ^ a&
"
"
y2 he sin
Th. 20
Th. 21
239, As. 63
242, Th. 113
243, Th. 114
.^.
^s{sa){s
5.
The area of a trapezoid is 3^o(6+6')
The area of a regular polygon is %
6.
apothem
For the area
4.
Th. 19
75, Cor. Ill
h) {s'c)
per.
^.
.
253, Ex. 41
253, Ex. 44
244, Th. 115
.
X
286, Th. 133
of irregular polygons see
Measurement of circles and sectors
1. The circumference of a circle
2. The area of a circle is tt^^
245
3.
The area
of a sector
is
301, Th. 137
2itr
304, Th. 138
305, As. 66
is rrTTr
3b0
ELEMENTARY FIGURES
Properties of triangles:
1. The sum of the angles of a triangle is 2 rt. A
74, Th. 18
2. Thd angle opposite the greater side of a triangle. 129, Th. 55
3.
4.
5.
0.
7.
The side opposite the greater angle of a triangle. 128, Th. 54
The medians are concurrent
115, Th. 49
The perpendicular bisectors of the sides are con184, Th.87
current
184, Th. 88
The altitudes are concurrent
185, Th. 89
The bisectors of the angles are concurrent
.
Construction of triangles:
55, Ex. 4
Two sides and an angle opposite one
Properties of isosceles triangles:
1.
Two
2.
The base
3.
34
sides are equal
angles are equal
Bisector of vertex angle,
37,
the altitude, and the
median to the base coincide
50, Th. 6; 51, Th.
7; 84,
Th. 25
Th. 3
OUTLINE SUMMARY
Tests for isosceles triangles
triangle
1.
2.
is isosceles if
307
Two sides are equal
Two angles are equal
34, 83
83,
Th. 24
Properties of right triangles:
2.
The acute angles are cornplcnienLary
The median from the vertex of the right angle
3.
onehalf the hypotenuse
If a and b are the legs and c
1.
75, Cor. Ill
is
116, Th. 50
is
a2+62=c2
the hypotenuse,
222, Th. 110; 251, Th. 118
Properties of parallelograms:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
The opposite sides are parallel
The opposite sides are equal
The opposite angles are equal
The diagonal bisects the parallelogram
The diagonals bisect each other
Th.
95, Th.
95, Th.
96, Th.
95,
Properties of special parallelograms
95
31
32
30
33
105110
Tests for parallelograms:
quadrilateral is a parallelogram if:
1. Each side is parallel to its opposite
2.
3.
4.
99
One side is equal and parallel to its opposite
Each side is equal to its opposite
The diagonals bisect each other
100, Th. 36
'.
101, Th. 37
102, Th. 38
Properties of regular polygons:
1.
The
sides
and angles are equal
3.
A circle can be circumscribed about the polygon
A circle can be inscribed in the polygon
4.
The
5.
Each angle is
2.
4
rt.
Tests for regular polygons
polygon
1.
2.
is
b.
78, 270
282, Th. 130
285, Th. 132
regular if
The sides and angles are equal
A circle is divided into equal arcs
a.
283, Th. 131
282, Th. 130 Cor.
radius bisects the angle
27
78,
270
and
The points of division are joined
271, Th. 128
Tangents are drawn to the points of division 271, Th. 129
Construction of regular polygons
273280, 290
PLANE GEOMETRY
308
INEQUALITIES
Tests for unequal segments
1.
The sum
2.
If
3.
The perpendicular is the
of
two
sides of a triangle, etc
one angle of a triangle
etc
is
128, Th. 54
shortest distance, etc.
130, Th. 56
perpendicular to a line oblique
from a point in a
segments are drawn cutting
4. If
126, Ass. 37, 38
greater than another,
off
unequal distances,
130, Th. 57
from a point in a perpendicular to a line two
130, Th. 58
unequal oblique segments are drawn, etc
If two triangles have two sides of one equal to two
sides of the other but the included angles, etc.
131, Th. 59
If from a point within a triangle segments are
drawn to the extremities of one side
127, Th. .53
etc
5. If
6.
7.
Tests for unequal angles:
1.
The
exterior angle of a triangle, etc
125; 58, Th. 8
one side of a triangle is greater than another,
etc
129, Th. 55
If two triangles have two sides of one equal to two
sides of the other but the third side of one, etc.
132, Th. 60
2. If
3.
INDEX
[References are to page numbers)
Abbreviations
19
Acute angle
Addition or composition.
Addition: of angles
167
209
of polygons
Adjacent angles
formed by rotation..
included
inscribed in
22
128
126
an arc
inscribed in a circle
measurement of
11,
137
obtuse
222
Algebraic analysis
Algebraic equations indicating
constructions 197; 227, Ex. 5
of elevation
196
of sixty degrees
of regular polygon
60
262
Algebraic notation in proof s
reentrant
51
Ahmcs
63
9
58
6
6
283
Alternate exterior angles ....
49
Alternate interior angles. ...
49
166
Alternation: extreme
166
mean
right
Altitude: length of, in equi
supplement of
12
trisection of
vertex of
32
6
vertex, of isosceles triangle.
20
lateral triangle
190
85
of parallelogram
of trapezoid
84
70
of triangle
Altitudes of triangle, concur
rent
make an
Analysis, to
Angle
acute
arms
9
6
of
bisector of
8,
central, in circle
central,
of
regular
gon
complement
of
degree of
designation of
division of
exterior, of triangle
21
and
left sides of
sides of
size of
straight
9,
Angles: addition of
31
108, 124
poly260, 261
12
11
6
31
48, 61
309
16
adjacent
150
244
25
6
ratio of
right
alternate exterior
alternate interior
49
49
complementary
12
congruent
consecutive
7
of
parallelo
gram
79
construction of equal
7,
30
corresponding, of congruent figures
20
corresponding, of lines cut
by a transversal
49
definition
of
(See
exterior, of lines cut
by a
equal,
11
Equal angles)
transversal
49
INDEX
310
Arcs: congruent
Angles {continued)
interior nonadjacent
:
48
Area
by a
interior, of lines cut
transversal
made
by
54
maximum
15
parallelo79 80
gram
subtraction of
sum
sum
assumptions
of, in
polygon .......
64
in triangle
of,
concerning
211, 275, 290
opposite
of
Area: of
284, 290
circle
275, 277
of irregular polygons
219
of kite
229, Ex.16
of parallelogram
216
59
of rectangle
of regular polygon
supplementary
symmetric
12
of
75
of sector of circle
vertical
15
of
Angles and parallels
Anglesums
Antecedent
54, 57
16,
305
163
Apothem
Apothems, ratio of
Approximate constructions.
Approximate measure of
16, 17
i6
211, 275, 290
circles
16, 109, 118,
124, 125, 274,
275, 290, 291
congruence
equal angles
108
equivalence
126
48, 99, 100
inequality
location of lines, rays, and
inscribed
108
of. ..108, 123,
from
Carpentry
gable
Church windows; Gothic
{See
arch Mouldings Rafters
;
Roof
trusses;
beams)
137
108
220, 283
exercises
20
123
central
Architecture,
angles
anglesums
area
98
angle
major
measurement
minor
Archimedes
35
angle
of
of trapezoid
of triangle
275
276
218
217, 228
Assumption
of 7r..272, 283
of
intercepted,
circle
Assumptions concerning;
degree of
intercepted,
segment of
228, Ex. 5
263
282
161, 162
Approximate value
Arab
Arc
262
rhombus
Areas, ratio of
237, Ex. 34; 246, 247, 263, 276
of surface of rectangle .212, 214
of heights and distances.
196
.
211
260
length
108
208
49
and
parallels
transversals
opposite,
108
equal {See Equal arcs) ....
segments
location of points
maximum
minimum
16
210
15
15
area
290
perimeter
291
parallels
perimeters
ratios
sectors
53
274, 291
165
275
Steel
segments
straight angles
16, 17
16
INDEX
Axial
symmetry
relation
to
76
central
metry
78
Axis of symmetry
18,
chord)
117
19
20
Chords: equal, tests for {See
of angle
Base of an isosceles triangle
Bases of parallelogram
79
of trapezoid
Bisection: of an angle
of a polygon
84
8,
31
209
of a segment
4, 35
Bisector of an angle: as locus 146
construction of
8,
segments made by
of
Bisectors:
angles
31
185, 186
of
triangle, concurrent ...
Common
{See
fundamental theorem of
Chord and tangent, measure
76
1
Chord
common
sym
of circles
311
made by
perpendicular (See Perpen
Equal chords)
303
intersecting {See Intersect
ing chords)
132
parallel
Church windows
140, 158, 201,
Circle
275, 277
108
central angle of
chord of
5
269, 274
circumscribed
exercises
Carpentry,
from
31, 129, 157, I75 265,
Center: of a circle
of gravity
of regular
polygon
of similitude
of
of
symmetry
symmetry
gram
249
escribed
117
.
equal
angles;
test for
5
151
inscribed.
120, 151
126
inscribed, of regular poly
gon
measurement
260
of
277, 306
radius of
sector of
275
276
114, 134
157,
segment of
Unequal
108
124
Central angle of a regular
260
polygon
measure of
261
Central symmetry
77
relation to axial symmetry 78
Chinese
113
of.
inscribed angle of
Centers of circles, loci of
158
Central angle of a circle {See
angles)
measure of
151, 154, 156
definite location of
Centers, line of {See Line of
259
polygon
construction of.
diameter
81
regular
155
parallelo
centers)
of
260
77
of
120, 151
circumscribed,
266
77
189, 283
280
5
arc of
circumference of
dicular bisector)
1 1 1
135
area of
150
tangent to
Circles: assumptions concerning
16,
109, 118,
124, 125, 274
275, 290, 291
concentric
117
108
congruent
construction of.
inequalities in
.J
51, 154,
156
125
inde:
312
Circles {continued)
Coiicurrcnt lines
Ii8
intersecting
loci of centers of
153
tangent
tangents to
Circles and equal ratios
Circles
117, 119
137
276
and symmetry
Circumference
formula for
ratio of, to diameter
Congruence
Congruent angles
20, 301
7
108
arcs
circles
109, 118, 119
Circular segments
91
exercises involving
155
special cases of
115, 148, 150
276
269, 274
274
276
Circumferences, ratio of
Circumscribed circle
20
parallelograms
81
segments
triangles
301
276
Consecutive angles
Consecutive sides
120
Consequent
151
Construction lines
of regular polygons
259
Construction: of
Circumscribed polygon
Coincident rays
120
79
79
163
57
construction of
Collinear rays
Commensurable segments.
Common
chord
as bisector
'.
Compasses: proportional
angles
Composition or addition.
Compound
of circles
...
curves
of circumscribed circle ...
of decagon, regular
of equal segments
151
256
88
210, 222224, 227
12
of extreme
12
167
of fourth proportional
of hexagon, regular
254
157
of inscribed circle
151
of
regular
267
polygons
perimeters of regular
inscribed polygons. .270, 272
Concave polygon
63
Concentric circles
117
Conclusion
36
Concrete representation: of
of straight lines
31
of equivalent figures
mean
I
I
151
and mean
ratio.
256
1
73
187
proportional
of octagon, regular
of parallels
of pentadecagon, regular.
of pentagon, regular
253
53
258
258
of perpendiculars
of
points
30
of escribed circle
194, 196, 202
of
7,
.8,
151, 154, 156
164
214, 228, 277
trigonometric ratios
measurement
117
Computations: of areas
by
32
6,
Complement
Complementary
191
use of
equal
angles
of bisector of an angle.
119
118
bisected
108
6,
figures
910, 3335, 133
1 72
of proportional segments
of regular polygons.
.252258
.
of similar
115, 134, 137
of triangles
2 1 Ex. 4 24, Ex.
,
243
253
polygons
of square
of tangents
47, Ex.
INDEX
Constructions:
by
algebraic
222
analysis
indicated by equations
197; 227, Ex. 5
Contact, point of
Converse theorems
114
56
313
Direct proof
51
Distance between two points
4
from a point to a line
104
Division or subtraction
167
Division of angles
31
:
Convex polygon
63
Division of segments: external and internal
182
Corresponding angles: of congruent figures
of lines cut by a transversal
20
harmonic
186
in extreme and mean ratio
of similar figures
of similar triangles
176,
20
240
178
36
Corollary
Cosine of an acute angle. ... 193
Crosssections of columns.
214
.
Decagon
141, 268
Cutglass designs
{See Regular deca
gon)
Definite location of circles
:
255, 256
49
Corresponding sides: of congruent figures
given segments
Draftsman's methods,
chanical drawing
to
172
me
9, 10, 32, 53, 259,
Duodecagon
{See
63
Egypt, Egyptians
112
I,
69, 189, 191, 283
Elements, Euclid's
45
196
of lines
2,
15
Elevation, angle of
of points
of rays
2,
15
5,
15
Engineering, problems from
Sur{See Architecture
of segments
Degree of angle
4, 15
123
Design, theory and practice
of
71, 79, 157, 231,
Determination of points
256
152
of polygons
of quadrilaterals
63
80, 81
of square, formula for
190
Diagrams for review
Diameter of circle
angles
43
5
1
Railroading)
279, 291
Equal angles
1 1
tests for
16, 37,
16
302
108
Equal arcs
have equal central angles. 109
have equal chords
no
measure equal angles
137
measured by equal angles.. 137
.
79, 80
Diameters, ratio of
Difference : between
assumptions concerning.
Diagonals: of parallelograms
tests for
veying
11
of arc
282
Regular
duodecagon)
63
.
88
in equal parts
in parts proportional
12, 1 16
276
two
8
between two polygons .... 209
tests for
303
Equal central angles of a
circle: have equal arcs.
109
have equal chords
no
.
Equal chords: equally distant
from center
113
have equal arcs
no
have equal central angles. no
.
INDEX
314
179, 197
involving
important cases of
182
tests for
Equal
177
ratios: applications of.
191
exercises involving
important
245
177, 304
4
302
296
20
tests for
Equal segments
tests for
Equations
Equilateral triangle
altitude of, formula for...
angles equal
190
25
side of, formula for
value of each angle
190
60
Equivalent polygons
assumptions concerning.
209
210
construction of
210, 220, 236, Ex. 32; 237,
Ex. 33; 251, Ex. 22; 305
exercises involving .... 224, 233
tests for
210, 220, 305
Escribed circle
Euclid
151
45,
137,258
Exact measure
306
190
for side of square
190
Fourth proportional
173
173
construction of
Fractions
292
Fundamental assumption: of
measurement of poly211
gons
53
regarding parallels
Fundamental
characteristic:
80
of parallelograms
of ratios
165
Fundamental relation between arcs and angles.
124
Fundamental test: for in.
equality
for parallelograms. ...'.,.
for parallels
f ov
special quadrilaterals
Fundamental
theorems
100
82
50
84
of
165
proportion
161
Exterior angle of triangle
Exterior angles of lines cut
by
gons
228,
for side of equilateral triangle
174, 179, 197
special cases of 182
series of
measurement of circles
and sectors
277, 306
for measurement of polyfor
exercises
Equal products:
transversal
48
49
External division
182
Extreme alternation
Extreme and mean ratio.
Extremes
166
.
256
165
Fixed line, ray, or segment.
58
Floor designs
69, 79, 97,
157, 204, 230, 235, 266, 281
Gable
206
Gauss
258
General assumptions
Generation or formation of
16
angles
Geometric forms, occurrence
of
69,71,79, 106,
158, 231, 236, 254,
Formula:
for
altitude
equilateral triangle
for anglesums
for diagonal of square
265, 266, 281, 291
Geometrical
problem
Construction)
of
190
305
190
Golden section
Gothic arch
Gravitv, center of
{See
36
256
206, 280
I55
INDEX
Greek geometry
21,
2>2,
45, 59, 189, 191, 233,
235. 256, 258, 266, 274, 283
186
Harmonic division
Heptagon
Hero of Alexandria
Hexagon
63
233
{See Regular hexa
189,283
279
Hippocrates
Moderndiscoveries258,274,283
235
Pappus
164, 274 275. 283
Pi(7r)
59, 189
Pythagoras
Pythagoreans
Thales
189, 256,
266
27, 191
Trisection of angles
32
279
66
Hippocrates
Hypotenuse
36
Hypothesis
Inscribed angle in an arc. ..
Inscribed angle in a circle.
measure
128
26
126
of
Inscribed angle in a semicircle 128
1 20
Inscribed circle
construction of
in regular polygons
260
120
Inscribed polygon
63
Hindus
189,283
283
Historical notes: Ahmes
98
Arab
220, 283
Archimedes
Chinese
189, 283
Egyptians. i, 69, 189, 191, 283
Euclid
45. 137,258
Gauss
258
Greeks
32, 59 274
Hero of Alexandria
233
gon)
Hindus
315
Inscribed
regular
Integraph
Intercepted arc
polygons
253258
274
108, 126
Interior angles: of a polygon
64
262
of a regular polygon
of lines cut
by a transversal
118, 119
Intersecting circles
Intersecting chords: measure
of angle
130
1 82
of product of segments of.
.
Intersecting loci, use of: in
determination of points
in construction of circles.
Intersecting secant
152
Incommensurable segments.
of angle of
product of segments of
Intersecting
tangents:
131
Indirect proof
Inequalities
angles;
23
Irrational
51
1 1
5
13^
204
166
assumptions
48,99
in circles
for
properties of
concerning
fundamental test
numbers
164, 274
219
Irregular polygons, area of..
Isosceles trapezoid
84
legs of
{See
Unequal
Unequal sides);
183
are
equal
Inverse proportion
Inversion
164
54
and tan
gent measure of angles of 136
184
product of segments of
Intersecting secants: measure
22
155
Included angle
Included side
49
182
Internal division
measure of angle of
Incenter
51
Isosceles triangle
base angles of
100
properties of
125
tests for
84
86
20
24
3^6
..68,307
INDEX
31G
Kites.
84
229, Ex. 16
area of
86
properties of
Major and minor arc
108
Maximum and minimum.
Mean alternation
Mean proportional
..
179
construction of
Legs of an isosceles trapezoid
of a right triangle
84
66
Length of circle
of segment
269
4, 161
units of
300
Leveling device
Limiting values of perimeter
of inscribed and circum
41
Mean
ratio,
187
extreme and.
exercises
involving
165
Measure (measurement): ap161
proximate
exact
161
of angles
of arcs
...11, 137, 305
9, 90,
170
straight {See Straight line)
Line of centers
as axis of
118
as bisector
Lines
concrete
211220, 306
208
Measure number
of a
segment
162, 214
11
of angles
161
.
208
of a surface
{See
161
of segments
of surfaces
Mechanical drawing
representa
tion of
concurrent
269, 277, 306
practical
117
118
symmetry
123, 137
of polygons {See Polygons)
parallel
triangle
256
of circles {See Circles)
40, 57, 67, 103, 134, 136
to base of
Line:
...
Means
scribed regular polygons 274
Limits,
284
166
Concur
9, 10, 32, 53,
Median: of right
259, 282
triangle. ...
92
42
85
rent lines)
construction
91
definite location of
15
Medians
50
current
91
Midpoint of .segment, determination of
4, 35
Minimum
284
57
parallel {See parallel lines)
perpendicular {See perpendicular lines)
9
75
symmetric
Location, definite {See Defi
of a quadrilateral
of a triangle con
108
Minor arc
Minutes
nite location)
Loci
of a triangle
143
complete proofs for
145
finding of
143
Modern
discoveries in
n, 123
geom
258, 274,283
etry
I57
Moldings
152, 154
intersecting
miscellaneous exercises on
59
of centers of circles
53
of points
of vertices of triangles
146
159, Ex. 4
Nature
of
theorems
and
35
proofs
Navigation, exercise from...
Numbers:
ratio of
irrational
164,
71
274
163
INDEX
317
Obtuse angle
Octagon {See Regular octa
gon)
Opposite angles
Opposite angles of a parallelo
63
Pentagram
15
Perigon
Perimeter
80
minimum
285, 289, 291
ratio of, to diameter
263
Perimeters: computation for
gram
gon)
79.
Opposite sides of a parallelo
gram
Pentagon (See Regular penta
79.
Origin of ray
80
63
266
star
9
63
270, 271
Orthocenter
i55
lengths of
272
ratio of
235
Pappus
Parallel chord
Parallel chords
132
Parallel lines
fundamental
tests for
9
Perpendicular lines
construction of .9, 10,3335, ^33
95
Parallel to base of a triangle
89, 90, 170
and
transversals
angles formed by
98
168
bases of
consecutive
angles
79. 85
of
and
63, 79, 80, 81
diagonals of
opposite angles and sides of 79
:
congruence
81
properties of
test for
82, 83,
Pencil of rays
Pentadecagon (See Regular
pentadecagon)
point
contact
4,
of
line
circle
contact
307
307
5
63
35
and
114
of
tangent
circles
79
of
of. .273,
283
274
283
history of
is irrational
164, 274
Point: determination of midof
sides of
273
282
approximate value
85
216
area of
ig6, 138
approximate constructions
79. 85
altitude of
301
.
construction of
88,
Parallelograms
tests for
for
proportional segments
formed by
10.
Physics, exercises from.
Pi (tt)
54. 55
equal segments formed by
Parallelogram
147
construction of
53
53. 301
.*
Parallel rulers
53
assumption
regarding
bisector
locus
35
Perpendicular bisectors concurrent
149
50
construction of
Parallels
Perpendicular
and tangent ... 136
245, 263
as
20
of tangency
114
variable
143
Points: concrete representation of
definite location of
determination of
locus of
symmetric
Polygon
area of
15
2,
1
52
146
75, 118
63
208
INDEX
318
Polygon (continued)
direct synthetic
bisection of
209
1 20
circumscribed
concave
convex
63
63
63
1 20
diagonal of
inscribed
perimeter of
sides of
63
of parallelograms
of rectangles
307
86
64
of regular polygons
of rhombuses
307
87
307
87
63
209
63
209
vertices of
Polygons: addition of
congruence of (See ConCongruent
figures;
gruent
parallelograms;
Congruent triangles) .... 20
between
209
equivalence of {See Equivadifference
220, 305
lence)
measurement
names
of
regular (See Regular poly
252
similar (See Similar figures) 240
star (See Star polygons)
141, 268
gon)
of right triangles
of squares
of similar polygons
of trapezoids
304
93
306
of triangles
Proportion
by addition
165
167
166
by alternation
by composition
by division
by inversion
by subtraction
167
167
166
167
fundamental theorems of
inverse
211219, 228, 306
63
of
86
306
86
star (See Star polyrons) 141, 268
surn of angles of
64
trisection of
51
Properties: of isosceles trapezoids
of isosceles triangles
of kites
regular (See Regular poly
gon)
36, 51
indirect
165
204
204
reciprocal
Proportional compasses (See
Compasses)
subtraction of
209
sum
209
of
transformation of
210, 221
Pons asinorum
46
Practical measurements. .162, 214
Problem, geometrical (See
36
Construction)
Proportional: fourth
173
mean
179, 187
Proportional
Equal
segments
178
Construction of
304
182, 304
172,
special cases of
Proportionally, divided.'. ...
Equal products)
Proof
by superposition
178
239
36
36
178
Proportions, transformations
166
of
Protractor
124
Products, test for equal (See
Projection
(See
ratios)
59, 189
Pythagoras
Pythagorean theorem
89
exercises involving
189, 199, 238
INDEX
Pythagorean theorem
proofs for
(cont'd)
fixed
i88; 206, Ex. 22;
226; 235, Ex. 22; 238
related theorems
58
origin of
Rays: coincident
collinear
239, Exs. II, 12; 251, Ex. 21
189, 256,
Pythagoreans
3m
266
definite location of
15
pencil of
204
Reciprocally proportional
Quadrilateral
63
Quadrilaterals, special
84
249
263, 276
Radially placed
Radii, ratio of
Radius: of a circle
5
of a regular polygon.
260, 261
Rafter designs, decorated
.
(See Truss).:
Railroading, exercises
157. 158
from
142, 270,
Ratio: extreme and
mean
244
263
apothems
of areas
of
237, Ex. 34; 246, 247, 263, 276
circumference to dia
meter
of
of
of
of
of
of
276
circumferences
276
corresponding sides. 176, 240
diameters
276
263
perimeter to diameter
245, 263
perimeters
radii
263
.
of
segments
parallels
of similitude
of
made
by
168, 170
240
two numbers
163
Ratios: assumptions concern
trigonometric
Ratios and circles
Ray
exercises involving area of 214
86
properties of
Rediictio
ad ahsurdum
Reentrant angle
Regular decagon
165
192
276, 304
5
51
63.
construc
tion of
256
267
exercises involving
duodecagon
con
struction of
254
267
exercise involving
Regular hexagon,
construc
tion of
254
exercises involving. 69, 265, 267
occurrence of
69, 265,
Regular
octagon
construc
tion of
253
exercises involving 265, 266, 267
occurrence of
265, 266
Regular pentadecagon, construction of
258
Regular pentagon: construction of
258'
exercises concerning
occurrence of
Regular polygon
angle of
of
area of
center of
(See Equal ratios)
fundamental characteristic
equal
of
211
apothem
165
ing
85
area of
Regular
280
256
of altitudes
of
Rectangle
central angle of
radius of
266, 267
266
64
262
260
262
260
260
260
Regular polygons: construction of
253258, 265
occurrence of
254
INDEX
320
Regular polygons {continued)
270272
perimeters of
properties of. 259, 260, 265, 307
measurement of
262, 267
262
similar
:
tests for
307
Representation of points and
straight lines
43
85
228, Ex. 5
Rhombus
area of
properties of
Rigid figures
Right angles
87
41
{See
Perpen9
diculars)
66
66
66
Right triangle
hypotenuse of
legs of
properties of
307
250, Ex. 9
sixtydegree
Roof trusses, exercises based on
236
42, Ex. 15
42, 127, 203, 204, 205, 234,
parts of
rigidity of
Roots, rules for
41
293295
298
table of square
Rosettes
142
95
Rulers, parallel
136, 184
{See
intersecting
Division
58
4, 161
161
midpoint of
Segments: commensurable.
157
275, 306
center of
Line
area of
Segment, straightline
4
.
35
164
congruent
4
equal {See Equal segments)
4
incommensurable
164
proportional
178, 304
ratio of
164
Semicircle
108
measure of angle in
128
Series of equal ratios
245
Sewers
279, 291
Side included
23
Side: of equilateral triangle.
of square
190
190
Sides: consecutive
79
corresponding {See Corresponding sides)
of
an angle
of a parallelogram
of a polygon
79
;
and
left,
of
Similar figures,
an angle
63
79
58
or polygons
240
243
corresponding angles of 176,240
corresponding sides of 176, 140
properties of 244247, 248, 304
tests for 240243, 248, 303, 304
Similar regular polygons 262, 264
Similar triangles
176
176,
256
118
circles as bisector
{See
35
4, 15
construction of
Section, Golden
Sector of circles.
centers)
Segment of circles
length of
131
Intersecting secants)
bisected
of {See
of segments)
fixed
right
Secants,
Segment joining
division
opposite
Secant
Secant and tangent
area of
4.
definite location of
measure of
I
Review diagrams
bisection of
of
119
276
276
3
corresponding sides of
tests for
Similitude, center of
ratio of
178
240244, 248, 303
249
240
INDEX
Sine of an angle
Sixtydegree
193
right
triangle
250, Ex. 9
60
Sixtydegrees
Size of an angle
Special quadrilaterals
exercises concerning
Square
construction of inscribed.
diagonal
of,
formula
for.
side of, formula for
properties of
84
96
85
253
190
190
87
Square roots {See Roots)
266
Star pentagram
Star polygons: formation of.. 268
occurrence of
141, 265, 266
Steel square, carpenter's
31, 129, 175
Straight angle
32
1,2
Straightedge
Straight line
of polygons
Subtraction or division
Sum
of angles
55
Supplement
Supplementary
209
305
36
12
Supplementary angles
Surface: measure of
units of
between axial and
and central
Symmetry and circles
relation
13
12
208
300
Surveying, exercises from
27,46,72, 157, 170, 189,191,
196, 202
78
109, 118, 119
81
Symmetry and parallelograms
Synthetic form
36
Tables: of square roots
298
299
114
Tangency, point of
Tangent and chord parallel 136
measure of angle of.
135
Tangent and secant {See
trigonometric
Intersecting
secant and
tangent)
circles
117
119
193
114
1
15, 134, 137
tests for
114
Tangents to two circles
Tests: for congruence
138
301, 302
112, 116
for diameters
for equal angles
for equal arcs
for equal chords
for equal products.
for equal ratios
for equivalence
adjacetit
angles
76
77
central
construction of ...
interior of parallel lines
Sum of polygons
16,
79
axial
167
7
Superposition
209
64
59
65
Sums, angle
occurrence of
Symmetry
Tangent of an angle
Tangent to a circle
a polygon
of a triangle
exterior, of a polygon
of
tests for
Symbols and abbreviations.
19
Symmetric figures
75
Symmetric points
75, 118
Tangent
segment {See
Segment, straight line)
Straightline
Subtraction of angles
321
for inequality
for isosceles triangles
302
303
303
.178, 304
177, 304
305
100
307
for parallels
for parallelograms
301
for pehpendiculars
for regular polygons ......
301
for similar polygons
307
307
304
INDEX
322
Tests (continued)
for similar triangles
for special quadrilaterals
for tangent circles
for tangents
for unequal angles
for unequal segments
Thales
303
85
exterior angle of
incenter of
median
155
114
308
308
properties of
306
59
35
converse of
sum
36
235
of angles of
Triangle:
(See
equilateral
Equilateral triangle)
isosceles (See Isosceles tri
56
Tiles (See Floor designs)
42
orthocenter of
Theorems
Pappus'
Pythagorean (See Pythagorean theorem)
of
119
27, 191
proof of
48
155
angle)
right (See Right triangle)
Triangles: congruent, tests for 301
equivalent, tests for
1
89
230
Transformation of polygons
305
303
192, 202
32
similar, tests for
Trigonometric ratios
Trisection of angles
210, 221
Transformation
of
propor
and
Transversals
parallels
altitude of
85
218
area of
bases of
84
93
properties of
area of
center of gravity of
centroid of
measure of angles
of measure of arcs
of surface.
1 1
300
Variable point
143
angle
20
Vertex of an angle
70
of isosceles triangle
Vertical angles
217, 228
155
155
circumcenter of
1 55
construction of
21, Ex. 4; 24; 47, Ex. 4
Width
of
board
tri
20
6
20
15
63
159, Ex. 4
of polygons
Vertices, loci of
Windo#
308
308
300
108, 123
Vertex angle of isosceles
(See
Isosceles trapezoid)
altitude of
84
Triangle
of
Trapezoid
isosceles
Units of length
(See Parallels)
Trapezoid,
Unequal angles, tests for.
Unequal segments, tests for.
.
166
tions
89
designs 140, 158, 201, 280
YB 35952