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The Gallup Organization Flash EB N o 1 87 – 2006 Innobarom eter on Clusters

Flash Eurobarometer
European
Commission

The eurozone, 5 years after
the introduction of euro coins
and banknotes

Analytical report

Fieldwork: September 2006
Report: November 2006
Flash Eurobarometer 193 – The Gallup Organization

This surve y w as reques ted b y the D G EC FIN -R -4 : External Communica tion an d
coordina te d b y Euroba rometer Team o f the Europ ean Commission.

This do cumen t does no t re presen t the poin t o f view o f the Euro pean C ommission.
The i nterp re ta tio ns a nd opin ions con tained i n i t are sole l y those Analytical
o f the auReport,
thors . page 1
Flash EB Series #193

The eurozone,
5 years after the
introduction of euro
coins and banknotes

Conducted by
The Gallup Organization Hungary/Europe
upon the request of Directorate-General for
Economy and Finance (R-4, External
Communication)

Survey organised and managed by the
Eurobarometer Team of the European
Commission

This document does not represent the point of
view of the European Commission.
The interpretations and opinions contained in it
are solely those of the authors.

THE GALLUP ORGANIZATION
The Gallup Organization Flash EB N o 193 – The euro 5 y ears after

Table of contents

Introduction................................................................................................................................ 5
Main findings.............................................................................................................................. 6
1. Practical aspects of using the euro........................................................................................... 7
1.1 Difficulties encountered when using the euro..........................................................................7
1.2 Recognising and handling euro coins and banknotes ...............................................................9
1.3 The euro as a benchmark for price calculations .....................................................................11
1.4 Changes in consuming behaviour since the introduction of the euro .......................................13
1.5 Correct knowledge of charges for money and banking transactions across the eurozone ..........16
2. Future expectations ............................................................................................................... 19
2.1 The usefulness of dual price displays ...................................................................................19
2.2 The future of euro coins and banknotes ................................................................................22
2.2.1 Current selection of euro coins ......................................................................................22
2.2.2 Which coins should be removed? ..................................................................................23
2.2.3 Consequences of the suppression of small coins .............................................................24
2.2.4 New euro coin denominations .......................................................................................25

3. Using the euro outside the eurozone ...................................................................................... 26
4. Perceived consequences of adopting the euro ........................................................................ 29
4.1 Advantages and disadvantages of adopting the euro ..............................................................29
4.1.1 Overall evaluation of the adoption of the euro ................................................................29
4.1.2 Advantages of the adoption of the euro ..........................................................................32
4.1.3 Disadvantages of the adoption of the euro ......................................................................33
4.2 Perceived effect on prices....................................................................................................33
4.2.1 Price stability and the adoption of the euro.....................................................................33
4.2.2 Price convergence and the adoption of the euro ..............................................................35

5. The international role of the euro and European identity...................................................... 37
5.1 International status of the euro.............................................................................................37
5.2 The euro/dollar exchange rate..............................................................................................39
5.2.1 Concerns about the euro/dollar exchange rate.................................................................39
5.2.2 Knowledge of euro/dollar exchange rate ........................................................................41
5.3 The euro and the development of a European identity ...........................................................42
6. Enlargement of the eurozone with the New Member States................................................... 44
6.1 The extension of the eurozone to the New Member States.....................................................44
6.2 Citizens’ opinions on the extension of the euro to the New Member States.............................46

7. Coordination of economic policies within the EU Member States.......................................... 49
7.1 Awareness and evaluation of economic policy coordination ..................................................49
7.2 Evaluation of the domestic situation.....................................................................................53
7.3 Evaluation of public finances...............................................................................................56

Analytical Report, page 3
Flash EB No 193 – The euro fiv e y ears after The Gallup Organization

8. Public opinion and the Stability Pact..................................................................................... 59
8.1 Awareness of the Stability Pact............................................................................................59
8.2 Enforcement of the Stability Pact.........................................................................................62
8.3 The Stability Pact and a strong and stable euro .....................................................................63
8.4 Penalties for non-compliance with the Stability Pact.............................................................64
8.5 Eurozone countries respect Stability Pact rules .....................................................................66
9. Annex tables.......................................................................................................................... 69
10. Survey details .....................................................................................................................108
11. Survey questionnaire ..........................................................................................................111

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The Gallup Organization Flash EB N o 193 – The euro 5 y ears after

Introduction

The euro is the official currency of the European Union Member States of Austria, Belgium, Finland,
France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal and Spain, also
known as the euro area. Slovenia is scheduled to join the euro area in 2007. The euro is the single
currency of more than 300 million people in Europe. Especially since its launch in physical form (as
banknotes and coins), the euro has become a recognised international currency enjoying the kind of
stability and predictability favoured both by consumers and investors in the European Union and
elsewhere.

The European Commission repeatedly measures changes in citizens’ public perception in the 12
eurozone countries. The current report follows up on a series of earlier surveys of which the first
survey was conducted in March 2000 (Flash EB 76) that has been continued at regular intervals ever
since. The current study covers the following aspects of citizens’ experience with their new money:

- Practical aspects of the single currency
- Future expectations
- Use of the euro outside the eurozone
- Perceived consequences of the adoption of the euro
- The euro and European identity
- Opinions on the enlargement of the eurozone
- Opinions on typical economic events and the Stability Pact

The survey’s fieldwork was carried out between the 4th and 8th of September 2006. Over 12 000
randomly selected citizens aged 15 years and over were interviewed across the eurozone. The survey
was dominantly carried out by telephone, with WebCATI (web-based computer assisted telephone
interviewing). To correct for sampling disparities, a post-stratification weighting of the results was
implemented, based on socio-demographic variables.

Analytical Report, page 5
Flash EB No 193 – The euro fiv e y ears after The Gallup Organization

Main findings

 In 2006, the adoption of the euro is still perceived to be a positive change; however, we notice
a decreasing trend in enthusiasm for it since 2002. This survey found the lowest rate of
approval for the euro since its introduction.

 A majority of the citizens in the eurozone adjusted quite easily to the new currency. Part of the
citizens, however, still has difficulties adapting to it. Citizens are becoming more comfortable
with handling the euro, and are increasingly using the euro as a mental benchmark when
calculating the prices of common purchases. The main indices measuring how embedded the
euro is in the twelve eurozone countries – how comfortable citizens are in handling the euro,
and how often they use the euro as a mental benchmark when calculating the prices of
common and especially major purchases – show a very positive change since 2003.

 The majority of eurozone citizens prefers not to maintain the dual display of prices. While
there is some pressure to remove the smallest euro coin denominations, the majority are
satisfied with the variety of denominations which they currently have. Citizens are convinced
that the removal of small denominations would increase prices.

 The main benefits stemming from the introduction of the euro are regarded to be cheaper and
easier travel (most Europeans take euros with them even if they travel outside the eurozone);
easier price comparisons; and a stronger position of Europe in the world. On the other hand,
citizens almost unanimously blame the euro for increasing price levels and they do not believe
that the euro has contributed to a price convergence between the eurozone countries.

 The euro has maintained its perceived status as an international currency, and we see an
increasing trend in this perception since 2003. In 2006, three quarters of the citizens of the
eurozone perceive their currency to be an international currency comparable to the US dollar
and the Japanese yen. Most people do not care about the conversion rate, but still, the majority
are aware that one euro is worth more than one US dollar.

 Most citizens in the eurozone do not think that the euro has had any effect on their feelings of
being European. Among the minority who report such an effect, most respondents feel a
strengthened European identity due to the single currency. These perceptions did not change at
all compared to 2005.

 The future enlargement of the eurozone to the 10 New Member States is an event expected by
most citizens in the eurozone. Two thirds approve the inclusion of the New Member States in
the euro area.

 When evaluating their country’s economic situation in comparison to the economic situation
of other Member States, many of the respondents continue to believe that their country’s
economic situation is not as good as those of other countries that use the euro. However, they
do see their countries’ economic situation in more positive terms than they did a year ago.

 Awareness of the Stability Pact is very low; many citizens report that they have not heard
about it, and even the majority of those who say that they have heard about it have no clear
idea about what it exactly is. Still, many people have an opinion on the Stability Pact. Overall,
the Stability Pact is seen as a good thing, since it has made the euro a stable and strong
currency. Opinions vary on how strictly the rules of the Pact should be applied in difficult
economic periods, and as to whether sanctions are imposed in the same manner to all Member
States that do not respect the Stability Pact.

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The Gallup Organization Flash EB N o 193 – The euro 5 y ears after

1. Practical aspects of using the euro

The first chapter examines citizens’ experiences with the practical use of the euro. The questions
measure the state of the adaptation process to the euro with regard to practical difficulties using the
euro, the handling of euro coins and banknotes, the euro as a benchmark for price calculations, effects
on consumer habits, and knowledge of the transaction charges carried out between countries in the
eurozone.

Overall, it seems that citizens in the eurozone are adjusting more and more to having the euro as their
currency, as was already noted in previous years. Citizens are becoming more comfortable with
handling the euro, and are increasingly using the euro as a mental benchmark when calculating the
prices of common purchases.

1.1 Difficulties encountered when using the euro

Difficulties of using the euro

9/ 2006 1 0/ 2005 1 1 /2 004 1 1/ 2003

59
53
No difficu lt y at all
52
51

26
30
Some diffic ult y
33
35

15
17
A lot of diffic ult y
16
14

S ource:
F LASH EB 193 Q1. It’s five ( 4, 3, 2) years since we have been using the euro instea d of [NATIONAL CURRENCY ]. Today, would you say
S ept emb er 2006 that the euro continues to cause you a lot of difficulty, some difficulty or no difficulty at all?
GA LLU P % EU12

Today, 59% of citizens in the eurozone indicate that the euro causes them no difficulty at all. Between
2003 and 2005, the percentage of citizens experiencing no difficulties at all remained fairly stable.
However, comparing 2005 and 2006, there is an increase of 6 percentage points in the number of
citizens experiencing no difficulties at all (53% compared to 59%).

Although citizens are adjusting more and more to having the euro as their currency, we still find that
almost five years after its introduction, a significant number of respondents in the eurozone countries
claim to have some or a lot of difficulties with the euro (41%).

Within the groups of those experiencing difficulties with the euro, we notice a gradual decrease in the
percentage of citizens experiencing some difficulty. In 2003, 35% of the citizens reported that the euro
continued to cause some difficulty, while in 2006 this percentage has dropped to 26%. However, we
do not observe a similar decrease in the percentage of respondents experiencing a lot of difficulty –
this number has remained virtually unchanged since 2003.

Analytical Report, page 7
Flash EB No 193 – The euro fiv e y ears after The Gallup Organization

Difficulties of using the euro

No d ifficu lt y at a ll,
by count ry

IE 81

LU 77

PT 74

FI 68

NL 67

BE 67

ES 67

AT 66

DE 64

EU12 59

EL 59

FR 51

IT 45

Sou rc e:
FLA SH EB 193 Q1. It's five years since we have been using t he euro inst ead of [NATIONAL CURRENCY].
September 2006 Today, w ould you say that the euro continues t o cause you a lot of difficulty, some
GALLUP diffi cult y or no difficulty at all?

We find a large amount of variation between individual countries; the percentage of those
experiencing no difficulty at all ranges from 81% in Ireland to only 45% in Italy. Countries at the
higher end of this distribution are Luxembourg and Portugal, with 77 and 74% of citizens experiencing
no difficulty at all. At the lower end, Italy is joined by France; in France 51% experience no difficulty
at all. However, Italy is the only country where the number of respondents experiencing difficulties
with the euro outnumber those with no difficulties at all (55% compared to 45%).

Difficulties of using the euro, % of „No difficulty at all” answers, 2006

SEX OCCUPATION
Male 65 Self-em ploy ed 63
Female 53 Em ploy ee 62
AGE Manual worker 56
15 – 24 73 Not working 57
25 – 39 65 LOCALITY TYPE
40 – 54 56 Metropolitan area 62
55 + 52 Other towns 59
EDUCATION Rural zones 58
until 15 y ears of age 46 Q1. I t's fiv e y ears since we hav e been using the euro
16 - 20 instead of [NATI ONAL CU RRENCY ]. Today , would y ou
58 say that the euro continues to cause y ou a lot of difficulty ,
20 + some difficulty or no difficulty at all?
64
Still in education 74

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The Gallup Organization Flash EB N o 193 – The euro 5 y ears after

With regard to socio-demographic variables, the same pattern emerges as has been described in
previous years. Men experience less difficulty with the euro than women; 65% of men report having
no difficulty at all compared to 53% of women. Younger citizens also experience less difficulty. For
example, while 73% of the youngest age category report having no difficulty at all, only 52% of the
oldest age category feel this way. With regard to educational levels, those still in school are most
likely to report that they have no difficulty (74%), followed by those who have studied until 20 years
of age (64%). For respondents who did not study beyond 16 years of age, more (54%) experience
difficulties with the euro than experience no difficulties at all (46%).

The percentages also vary according to occupation and place of residence, although to a lesser extent.
Within the occupational groups we find a distinction between the self-employed and the employees on
the one hand, and the manual workers and those not working on the other hand. When it comes to
experiencing no difficulties, the self-employed and employees outnumber the manual workers and
those not working with slightly more than 5 percentage points. And finally, citizens living in
metropolitan areas experience less difficulty than citizens from rural areas (62% compared to 58%).

1.2 Recognising and handling euro coins and banknotes

Difficulty of distinguishing between and manipulating coins

% very + ra ther easy % ver y + rather diff icult % neither eas y nor difficult D K/N A

9/2006 74 24 2

10/2 005 73 25 2

11/2004 72 26 2

11/2003 71 26 3

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

Difficulty of disti nguishing between and manipulating banknotes

% very + r ather easy % very + rather diffic ult % neither easy nor dif ficult

9/2006 94 4 1

10/2 005 93 5 2

11/2004 93 5 1

11/2003 92 6 2

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

Source:
FLASH EB 193 Q4. When you pa y cash, would you say that it is: very easy, rather easy, ra ther difficult or very difficult
September 2 006 to distinguish and to ma nipula te coins/ bank notes?
G ALLU P % EU12

In 2006, 74% of the citizens of the eurozone find using the euro coins easy. Although this majority of
citizens thoroughly comfortable with the coins is large, there are even more people who find it very or
rather easy to use the banknotes (94%).

Analytical Report, page 9
Flash EB No 193 – The euro fiv e y ears after The Gallup Organization

While a large majority of citizens from EU12 countries finds using euro banknotes easy and three
quarters of the citizens are comfortable with euro coins, one quarter of citizens still consider it difficult
to distinguish between and manipulate the euro coins.

No significant changes can be observed between 2003 and 2006; the percentage of those comfortable
with euro coins and bank notes and the percentage of those experiencing difficulties with euro coins
and banknotes increases or decreases by no more than 1 percentage point from year to year.

Difficulty to distinguish and to manipulate coins, 2006
% v ery + rat her easy % very + rat he r difficult % neithe r e asy nor difficult DK /NA
1 00% 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 2
1 4 6 3 3
9 7 14 14
90% 7 21
23 24 27 26 29 31
80% 37
70%
60%
50%
89 89 87 85 85
40% 79 76 74 73 72 68 66
30% 61

20%
10%

0%
FI ES PT IE EL IT LU EU1 2 FR BE AT NL DE

Difficulty to distin guish and to manipul ate bank notes, 2006
% very + rather easy % very + rather difficult % neither easy nor difficult DK/NA
1 00% 12 1 13 1 4 1 1 1 2 4
3 4 5 4 4 6 6
5 9 6
90% 5

80%

70%

60%

50% 97 96 96 95
95 95 95 94 93 93 90 90 89
40%

30%

20%

10%

0%
FI BE LU FR EL IT DE EU1 2 NL AT IE ES PT

Source: Q4 b. W h en y o u pay c ash , w o uld y ou say th at it is : very eas y, r at her easy , r ath er d if f ic ul t o r ver y d if fi cu lt t o di s ti ngu i sh
FLASH EB 193 and t o m an ipu l ate c oi ns / b ank no tes ?
Septem ber 2 006 % b y co untry
GA LLU P

In 2006, Germany, the Netherlands, and Austria have the highest number of respondents with
difficulties using the coins of their new currency (37%, 31%, and 29%, respectively). The countries
with the lowest percentages of citizens having trouble with euro coins are Spain, Portugal and Finland
(7%, 7%, and 9%, respectively). The percentage of those who consider using euro banknotes difficult
is rather low across the eurozone, and there is also less variation. However, in some countries people
are somewhat more likely to say it is difficult, in particular Ireland (9%), Spain (6%), and the
Netherlands (6%).

page 1 0
The Gallup Organization Flash EB N o 193 – The euro 5 y ears after

1.3 The euro as a benchmark for price calculations

The euro as mental bench mark for:

... exceptional purchases
M ost often in euro As often in euro as in [N AT. CURREN CY] M ost often in [N A TION AL CURREN CY] DK/N A

9/2006 29 29 40

10/ 2005 24 31 43

11/2004 19 31 49

11/2003 16 27 54

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

... small purchases

9/2006 57 21 22

10/2 005 56 22 21

11/2004 52 22 25

11/2003 46 24 30

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

Source:
FLASH EB 193 Q2. Today, when purcha sing, do you count m entally: most often in euro, most often in [NATIONAL
September 2 006 CURRENCY], or as often in euro as in [NATIONAL CURRENCY] w hen it concerns ...
G ALLU P % EU12

The euro seems to have reached a “mental plateau” in the extent to which people use it as a benchmark
currency for small purchases. 57% of citizens of the eurozone state that they calculate prices in euros
when carrying out everyday shopping. This opinion is as widespread as it was in 2005, showing only a
nominal change (+1 percentage point).

The previous year’s trend of increasing comfort with the euro as a benchmark currency for exceptional
purchases, such as buying a car or a house, continues in 2006. For exceptional purchases, people
increasingly count in euro (+5 percentage points) and are less likely to calculate in national currencies
(-3 percentage points). We find that the euro is slowly becoming the benchmark currency for
significant purchases. Nevertheless, major purchases are still primarily calculated in former national
currencies (40%).

Analytical Report, page 11
Flash EB No 193 – The euro fiv e y ears after The Gallup Organization

Exc eptional purchases, 2006

M ost often in eu ro As often in euro as in [NATIONA L CURR ENCY] Most often in [NATIONAL CURR ENCY] DK/NA
1 00% 1 1 1 2 2 2 4 2 3 2 2 1
6
90% 5
28 27 28 27
80% 43 40 41 43
44
70% 57 55
65
60%
30 33
50% 40
21 47
88 29
40% 26 33
9 35
21
30%
16
20% 41 39 36 33 30 29 26
10% 24 24 22 20 18
0%
IE EL IT LU NL FI EU12 DE ES PT AT FR BE

Source: Q2a. Toda y, when purchasing , do you count mentally: most often in euro, most often in [NATIONA L CURRENCY], or
FLASH EB 193 as often in euro as in [NA TIONAL CURRENCY] when it concerns:
September 2 006 a) Exceptional purchases such as the purchase of a car or a house for ex ample
G ALLU P % by country

Small purchases, 2 006

M ost oft en in eu ro As oft en in euro as in [NA TIONAL CURRENCY] M ost often in [NATIONAL CURR ENCY] DK/ NA

1 00% 1 1 1 2 1 1
7 8
3 14 16 16 17
90% 20 18 22 22
26
16 31 30
80% 12
11 16 17
70% 21
15 21
9 28 40
60% 21
50%
91
40%
75 74
69 67 67
30% 60 60 58 57
50 49
20% 43

10%

0%
IE FI LU AT FR EL ES BE NL EU12 IT DE PT

Sou r c e : Q2b . T o day , w h en p urc h as in g, do y ou c ou n t m en t ally : m os t o ft en i n eu r o, m os t of ten in [N AT I ON AL C U RR E NC Y ], o r
F L AS H E B 1 9 3 as o f ten in eu ro as i n [NAT IO N AL C U RR EN C Y ] wh en i t c o nc ern s ...
Se pt em b e r 2 0 06
% b y co unt ry
GALLU P

At the country level, for both small and exceptional purchases, the Irish clearly distinguish themselves
from all other eurozone countries; small purchases are calculated in the euro by 91% of the Irish and
exceptional purchases by 88%.

In addition to Ireland, the euro is most often used as a benchmark currency for small purchases in
Finland and Luxembourg (75% and 74%, respectively) and as a benchmark currency for exceptional
purchases in Greece and Italy (41% and 39%, respectively). At the other end of the scale, there are
three countries in which 50% or fewer of the citizens use the euro as a mental benchmark for small
purchases: Portugal (43%), Germany (49%), and Italy (50%).

Focussing on the proportions using previous national currencies, we see that these currencies are used
for calculations in major purchases most often by Belgians (65%), the Dutch (57%), and Austrians
(55%). Common purchases are calculated in the previous national currency most often by the Dutch
(31%) and Germans (30%).

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The Gallup Organization Flash EB N o 193 – The euro 5 y ears after

1.4 Changes in consuming behaviour since the introduction of the euro

Reported change of consumer behaviour due to the introduction of euro

9 /2006 1 0/ 2005 11 / 2004 1 1/ 2003
33
Y ou buy le ss as you fe ar 39
sp ending too much 36
38
25
You buy more as y ou hav e
26
difficult y re alisin g h ow
30
mu ch you are spe ndin g
29
41
(Neithe r one or th e ot her: 34
no differe nce ) 32
31
1
1
(DK/NA )
1
1

Q7. For five years now all payments have been made in euro, some people buy more a s they don’t realise how much
So urce:
FLASH EB 193 they are spending; on the other hand others buy less as the y fear spending too much. Which of these two attitudes is
Sep temb er 2006 closer to yours?
GALL UP % EU 12

After almost five years of using the euro, a majority of the citizens (58%) continue to think that
making payments in the euro rather than their old national currency influences their spending habits.
However, the effects of using the euro on consumer behaviour are decreasing. Compared to the
previous year, the percentage of those stating that they buy less out of fear of spending too much has
decreased from 39% to 33%, and the proportion of those who spend more because they do not realise
how much they have spent has decreased from 26% to 25%.

All in all, it can be concluded that in four years time the proportion of those feeling that they buy less
or buy more due to the euro has gradually decreased. In 2006, 41% of citizens report that they have
experienced no change in their spending habits. This is an increase of 10% when compared with the
results from 2003.

R eported change of c onsumer behaviour due to the introduc tion of euro, 200 6

DK /NA
Neither one or the other: no difference
You bu y more as you have difficulty realising how much you are spending
You bu y less as you fear spending t oo much
1 00% 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 3
90%
28
80% 37 36
40 42 41 40 45 44 52 51 47
70% 57

60%

50% 19 18 44
25 32 34
28
40% 28 32
16 33 34 35
30%

20% 40 40
33 30 30 30 27 26 25 23
10% 15 15 14
0%
DE IT EU1 2 EL NL FR IE ES PT AT LU BE FI

Source: Q7. For five years now a ll paym ents have been ma de in euro, some people buy more as the y don’t realise how much
FLASH EB 193 they are spending; on the other ha nd others buy less as they fear spending too much. Which of these two attitudes is
September 2 006 closer to yours?
G ALLU P % by country

Analytical Report, page 13
Flash EB No 193 – The euro fiv e y ears after The Gallup Organization

Looking at country results, Ireland has the highest percentage of citizens who still report that making
payments in the euro instead of their old national currency influences their consumer habits (71%),
and Portugal has the lowest percentage of citizens continuing to report changed spending habits
(41%).

We also notice that countries with the same levels of supposed changed consumption habits do not
necessarily have the same proportions of citizens who report specifically buying less or more. For
example, in both the Netherlands and Italy the percentage of those reporting changed consumer
behaviour is 58%. However, those in Italy are 10 percent more likely to report buying less for fear of
spending too much than those in the Netherlands.

Distinguishing between those who report buying less or more, we find that citizens from Germany and
Italy (40% each) report being overly cautious due to difficulties using the euro, while the Irish are
most likely to think that they overspend (44%).

Changes in consumer behaviour, 2006
% y ou buy m ore
% y ou buy
as y ou have % Neither one
less as you
difficulty realising or the other:
fear spending
how much you no difference
too much
are spending
SEX
Male 25 29 44
Female 25 36 38
AGE
15 - 24 37 34 28
25 - 39 32 31 36
40 - 54 23 32 44
55 + 17 34 48
EDUCATION
until 15 years of age 17 39 43
16 - 20 25 34 41
20 + 28 25 46
Still in education 34 35 29
OCCUPATION
Self-em ployed 24 26 49
Em ployee 30 30 40
Manual worker 29 36 34
Not working 21 36 42
LOCALITY TY PE
Metropolitan area 29 29 41
Other towns 26 30 43
Rural zones 22 37 40
Q7. F or fiv e years now all pay ments hav e been made in euro, so me people buy more as they
don't realise how muc h they are spending; on the other hand others b uy less as they fear
spending too much. Which of these two attitudes is closer to y ours?

Examining the socio-demographic variables, a variation already observed in 2005 remains noticeable.
Comparing gender, men are more likely to see no difference in their consumption habits (44%
compared to 38%), while women are more likely to think that they buy less out of fear of spending too
much (36% compared to 29%).

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The Gallup Organization Flash EB N o 193 – The euro 5 y ears after

More respondents in the youngest age group (37%) think they buy more than do in the oldest age
group (17%). However, respondents in the oldest age group are more likely to answer that they see no
difference in their consumption habits (48%) as compared to those in the youngest age group (28%).

Looking at the differences between educational groups, we do not see significant disparity, with the
exception of those still studying. However, respondents with a low level of education are more likely
to respond that they spend less in comparison with those with a higher level of education (39%
compared to 25%).

Similarly, there are few differences in relation to place of residence, although citizens living in rural
areas are more likely to report that they spend less than those living in metropolitan areas (37%
compared to 29%).

Lastly, almost half of the self-employed respondents think that they have experienced no changes in
their spending behaviour, while 34% of manual workers do hold this opinion. 36% of both manual
workers and those not working report that they continue to buy less out of fear of spending too much.

Analytical Report, page 15
Flash EB No 193 – The euro fiv e y ears after The Gallup Organization

1.5 Correct knowledge of charges for money and banking transactions
across the eurozone

In this last section, we present the results from some questions that measure respondents’ knowledge
about bank card use and charges, as well as charges related to bank transfers throughout the eurozone.
Payment systems in the EU are going through a process of integration, with the objective of creating a
Single Euro Payments Area (SEPA) by 2010. One of the key steps in this process was the adoption of
Regulation 2560/2001 of the European Parliament and the Council which establishes the principle of
equality of charges for payments within Member States (national) and between member States (cross-
border). The regulation has applied to ATM cash withdrawals and purchases by payment card since
July 2002 and to credit transfers since July 2003.
Are there extra fees

... when with dra wing mon ey in an other coun try of th e eu rozon e

No (correct answer) Yes (incorrect answer) DK/NA

9/2006 23 27 51

10/2005 30 34 36

11/2004 27 37 37

11/2003 29 31 40

... when pur chasing with bank card el sewhere in the eurozone

9/2006 27 21 53

10/ 2005 35 30 35

11/2004 38 27 35

11/2003 39 22 39

... for bank transfers within the eurozone

9/2006 25 16 59

10/ 2005 38 23 39

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 10 0

S ource:
Q10. Compared to a similar operation done in [COUNTRY ], in your opinion, do you pay supplementary fees…?
FL ASH E B 193
a) When you use your bank card to withdraw money in a nother country of the e urozone
S ept em ber 2 006 b) When you use your bank card to make a purchase in a nother country of the eurozone
GAL LUP c) When you m ake a banking transfer to a nother country of the eurozone
% EU12

Lack of knowledge remains very high with regard to these issues: whether bank card usage for either
withdrawal or purchase, or banking transfers across borders within the eurozone is analysed. From
2005 to 2006 there has in fact been a decrease in this knowledge.

The majority of citizens in the EU12 countries cannot correctly answer questions about banking fees.
More than half of the eurozone citizens do not know if they pay supplementary fees when using a bank
card to withdraw money in another eurozone country (51%), or when making a purchase with their

page 16
The Gallup Organization Flash EB N o 193 – The euro 5 y ears after

bank card in another eurozone country (53%), and 59% have no idea if there are supplementary fees
for making a bank transfer to another eurozone country.
Among those who venture to give an opinion, more or less half think (incorrectly) that there are fees
connected to using a bank card in another eurozone country or for transferring money between
eurozone countries. There is no change compared to 2005 or to earlier years in this respect. Only a
minority a citizens across the eurozone are aware that there are no fees for using a/their bank card in
another eurozone country or for transferring money between eurozone countries.

Are there extra fees
... when withdrawing money in another country of the euroz one, 2006
No (correct answer) Yes (incorrect answer) DK /NA
1 00%
90% 15
30
80% 36 38 40
44 41
51
70% 63 63 59
70 65
60%
55
50% 27 37
27
27 31
40% 38
27
30%
11 19 20 29
20
20% 37 35 33 30 30 29
10% 23 21 20 18 17 15 12
0%
NL BE LU IE AT FR EU1 2 DE IT FI PT ES EL

... wh en purcha si ng with bank ca rd el se wh e re in th e eu rozon e , 2006
No (correct answer) Yes (incorrect answer) DK /NA
1 00%
90% 16
31
80% 37 42 39
48 46
53
70% 64 64
67 69 67
60% 23 55
50% 24
24 28
40% 23 26
21
30% 10 9 13 17
47 23
20% 39 35 33 30 30 28 27
10% 23 22 21 19
14
0%
LU NL BE FR IE AT DE EU1 2 FI IT ES PT EL

Analytical Report, page 17
Flash EB No 193 – The euro fiv e y ears after The Gallup Organization

Are there extr a fees
... for bank transfers within the eurozone, 2006

No (corre ct answe r) Yes (incorr ect answer) DK /NA
1 00%

9 0% 18

8 0% 36
42
48 48 48
54
70% 59 63
72 69
77 74
6 0%
52
5 0%
36
30
4 0% 26
34 33
3 0% 25 34
20 28
2 0% 5 16 16
30 28 28 26
1 0% 19 19 18 16
12 12 11 10 9
0%
IE LU AT BE NL DE IT EU12 FR FI PT ES EL

So urce: Q10c. C ompared to a similar operation done in [COUNTRY ], in your opinion, do you pay suppleme ntary fees…?
FLASH E B 193 c) When you make a banking transfer to anothe r country of the euro zone
Septemb er 2 006 % by country
GALL UP

Respondents are more likely than not to think that it costs them more to withdraw money in another
country of the eurozone. In 2006, 27% thought there was a supplementary fee, while 23% believed
that there was no extra charge in such a case. When we asked about extra charges for purchases made
in another country using a bank card, more citizens answer correctly (27%) than incorrectly (21%);
this is similar to the results of previous years. The lowest proportion of correct answers is given in
response to the question of whether or not citizens have to pay supplementary fees when making a
bank transfer to another country in the eurozone; only 16% of citizens are aware that they do not have
to pay an extra fee for such a transaction.

It is clear that a general lack of knowledge characterizes citizens throughout the eurozone with regard
to the costs of using a bank card in another country of the eurozone or when transferring money
between eurozone countries. In certain countries, such as Italy, Finland, Portugal and Spain, more than
two thirds of the citizens cannot answer the questions on banking fees. For example, 70% of Italian
citizens do not know if they pay supplementary fees when using a bank card to withdraw money in
another eurozone country, 69% do not know if there are additional charges when making a purchase
with a bank card in another eurozone country, and 77% have no idea whether or not there are
supplementary fees for making a bank transfer to another eurozone country.

Lastly, a brief look at the differences between the percentages of correct answers to these questions in
individual eurozone countries. We find that the Netherlands has the highest percentage of respondents
who know that there are no additional charges when withdrawing money (37%); Luxembourg has the
highest proportion of respondents who know that there are no additional fees connected to bank card
purchases in another eurozone country (47%); and Ireland has the highest percentage of respondents
correctly stating that money transfers between eurozone countries do not require additional charges
(30%).

page 1 8
The Gallup Organization Flash EB N o 193 – The euro 5 y ears after

2. Future expectations

In the second chapter we discuss the perceptions of eurozone citizens toward certain policies related to
the changeover and practical use of the euro; we examine dual price displays in shops, the
denominations of euro coins, and the possible consequences of the removal of certain coins.

The summary results show that the majority of citizens in the eurozone do not consider it necessary to
continue with dual pricing, that they are satisfied with the current selection of euro coins, and that they
tend to believe that the removal of the smallest denominations would increase prices.

2.1 The usefulness of dual price displays

To make sure that Eurobarometer measures this aspect reliably, two different questions were asked
about dual price displays to random halves of the national samples. One question inquired as to
whether people would like shopkeepers to continue displaying prices in the old currency, while the
alternative question inquired as to whether or not people find it useful to have dual price displays.

Dual price displays are something people like

No Yes DK/NA

9/ 2006 58 39 3

10/2005 54 44 2

Dual price displays are useful for them

9/ 2006 60 38 2

10/2005 58 40 2

Q 3. It ’s f ive yea rs / 20 06 / si n ce all p u rc ha ses h ave b een m a de in eu r o an d n o lo n ger in [N AT IO N AL C U RR E N C Y].
a) W o uld y ou lik e shopk ee pers t o co ntinue dua l price display s?
S ource: S PLI T BA LLOT A
F LASH E B 193 b ) W o uld y ou say t hat it is useful for yo u tha t sho pk eepe rs ex tend dua l price display s?
S eptem ber 2006 S PLI T BA LLOT B
GA LLU P % E U12

Regardless of the question, a clear majority do not want to maintain dual price displays; 58% over
39% when asked with regard to preference, and 60% over 38% when the question was more directly
targeted to utility. Support for dual displays has decreased somewhat over the past year; from 44% to
39% for the first question, and from 40% to 38% for the second question.

Analytical Report, page 19
Flash EB No 193 – The euro fiv e y ears after The Gallup Organization

Dual pri ce displays are something people like, % of „ No” answers

1 0/2005 9/ 2006
100

82 84
78 77 76
80 74 74 74 73
69 71
65 65 68
64 63
56 58
60 54 53
47
43 43 44 4 1
38
40

20

0
NL FI LU IE AT DE EL BE PT EU1 2 IT ES FR
S ource:
F LASH E B 193
S eptem ber 2006 Q3 a. It ’s fi ve/20 0 6/ y ear s si nc e all p ur c ha ses h ave b een m ad e in eu r o an d n o lo nger in [N AT IO N AL C U RR E NC Y ].
GA LLU P W ou ld y ou li ke sh op keeper s t o c on t in ue d ua l pr ice d isp la ys ?
% b y c ount ry
S PLI T BA LLOT A

Dual price displays are something people consider useful for them, % of „No”
answers
100
1 0/ 2005 9/ 2006
84 82
80 77 76 76 76 75
73 73
68 69 68 65 66 64 64
58 6 0
60 53
51 50 52
47 45
41 4 1
40

20

0
NL AT LU DE FI PT BE IE EL EU1 2 IT FR ES
S ource:
F LASH E B 193
S eptem ber 2006 Q 3b. I t’s f ive y ears / 2 00 6 / si n ce all p u rc has es h ave b een m a de in eu r o an d n o lo nger in [N AT IO N AL C U RR E N C Y] .
GA LLU P W o ul d y ou say th at it is u sef u l fo r y ou th at sh op keeper s ext en d du al p ri ce d is pla ys ?
% by count ry

In all but two countries the majority of citizens are not interested in maintaining dual price displays.
This is especially true in the Netherlands (84% answered “no” to both questions) and Luxembourg
(74% answered “no” to the first and 76% answered “no” to the second question). The exceptions are
Spain and France, where more than half of the citizens are in favour of maintaining the dual price
displays. In Spain 41% answered “no” to both questions, and in France 43% answered “no” to the first
and 45% answered “no” to the second question.

page 20
The Gallup Organization Flash EB N o 193 – The euro 5 y ears after

Dual price display s are something people like, % of „No” answers, 2006

SEX OCCUPATION
Male 62 Self-em ploy ed 60
Female 54 Em ploy ee 61
AGE Manual worker 51
15 - 24 63 Not working 57
25 - 39 62 LOCALITY TYPE
40 - 54 58 Metropolitan area 64
55 + 55 Other towns 55
EDUCATION Rural zones 58
until 15 y ears of age 50 Q 3A. It's five years since all purchases have been made in euro and
16 - 20 no longer in [NATIONAL CURRENCY]. Would you like
56
shopkeepers to continue dual price displays?
20 + 64
Still in education 69

Dual price display s are something useful, % of „No” answers, 2006

SEX OCCUPATION
Male 62 Self-em ploy ed 66
Female 58 Em ploy ee 62
AGE Manual worker 56
15 - 24 62 Not working 58
25 - 39 60 LOCALITY TYPE
40 - 54 62 Metropolitan area 61
55 + 57 Other towns 59
EDUCATION Rural zones 61
until 15 y ears of age 51 Q 3B . It's f ive years since all purchases have be en made in euro and
no longer in [NATIONAL CURRENCY]. Would you say that it is
16 - 20 61 usef ul f or you that shopkeepers exte nd d ual price displays?
20 + 65
Still in education 64

Differences in support of the dual price displays are also visible within socio-demographic variables.
Men are somewhat more likely to accept the idea of ending the dual price displays than women (62%
compared to 54% for the first question, and 62% to 58% for the second question).

More respondents in the oldest age group also tend to support the continuation of dual pricing. For
example, only 55% of the oldest age category are in favour of ending the dual price system, while 63%
of the youngest are no longer interested.

Those with higher levels of education and those still in school are also more likely to accept the idea
of ending dual price displays. While 51% of the least educated respondents think it is not useful to
extend them, this opinion is held by 65% of those with the most education.

Comparing occupational groups, manual workers are the least likely to favour ending dual price
displays. For example, 10 percent more manual workers than employees would like to continue dual
price displays (51% to 61% negative answers). Manual workers are also the most likely to consider it
useful to maintain dual price displays. However, the difference in opinion between manual workers
and those not working is less significant. Self-employed respondents are the most likely to state that it
is not useful to continue with dual price displays (66%).

Analytical Report, page 21
Flash EB No 193 – The euro fiv e y ears after The Gallup Organization

Citizens of metropolitan areas are less likely to think that dual price displays should be maintained
than those in rural areas and other towns (64% compared to 55% and 58%). However, there are no
significant differences of opinion between respondents from different types of residence regarding the
usefulness of maintaining dual price displays.

2.2 The future of euro coins and banknotes

2.2.1 Current selection of euro coins

More people have difficulties with
euro coins than with the banknotes,
and a potential way of simplifying Cu rrent sel ecti on of the eu ro coi n s
citizens’ lives would be the removal 9/2 006 1 0/2 005 1 1/ 2004 11 / 2003
of the smallest denominations. 58
Eurobarometer asked citizens in the Just t he right number
58
current eurozone for their opinions on 53
56
this matter. 36
36
Too many
40
As with the 2005 results, the selection 38
of the euro coins was generally 4
considered to be adequate. 58% of Not enough
4
5
citizens from the eurozone consider 4

the variety of coins to be sufficient, 2
2
and a significant minority (36%) want (DK /NA)
2
fewer coins – both percentages the 2

same as in 2005. A negligible number S ou rce :
F LA S H E B 19 3
Q 5 . H a v in g us ed eu r o c o ins f or fi ve ye a r s, do y ou c on s ide r th a t
t he re a re to o m a n y or , o n th e co nt ra ry , n ot en o ug h co in s w i th

of respondents express the view that S ep te m be r 2 00 6
GAL LUP
d iff er en t v a l ue s or d o yo u co ns id er th a t th er e a r e j us t t he r i g ht
n u mb e r?

they would like to have the selection % E U 12

of euro coins increased (4%), one
percent less than in 2005.

Curr en t selection of the euro coi ns, % of „too many” answers, 20 06

Jus t t he righ t numb er T oo man y Not enough DK/ NA
1 00% 2 2 2 2 13 4 21 3 11 11 1 21
5 3 5 4
8 2 4 6 11
90%
9 14
80% 32 32 36 38
35 45
70% 59 61
48
64
60% 52

50%

40% 81 80

30% 64 61 58 58 57 52
20% 43 39 37 35 33
1 0%

0%
FI DE PT NL EU1 2 FR ES AT EL LU BE IE IT

So urce:
FLASH E B 193 Q5. Having use d euro coins for five years, do you conside r that there a re too many or, on the contrary, not enough
Septem ber 2 006 coins with different va lues or do you consider that there are just the right numbe r?
GA LLU P % by country

page 22
The Gallup Organization Flash EB N o 193 – The euro 5 y ears after

As in 2004 and 2005, Finland has the highest percentage of respondents who think that there is just the
right number of euro coins. In addition, Finland has the second largest percentage of respondents of
the opinion that there are not enough different euro coin denominations (8%). As already explained in
the report of 2004, this result is not directly comparable with the scores for other countries since 1-
and 2-cent coins were never introduced in public money transactions in Finland.

Excluding Finland, we find that Germans remain the most satisfied with the number of euro coin
denominations (80%, +5 percentage points as compared to 2005), and that Italians are the least
satisfied with the number of denominations (33%, -10 percentage points as compared to 2005).

Against the general trend, there are four countries in which the majority believe that there are too
many differently valued coins; this is true in Italy (64%), Belgium (61%), Luxembourg (59%) and
Ireland (52%).

2.2.2 Which coins should be removed?

Removal of the euro coins, 200 6

1 -ce nt e uro coin 87

2-ce nt e uro coin 82

5-ce nt e uro coin 29

1 0-ce nt e uro coin 5

20-ce nt e uro coin 4

50-ce nt e uro coin 2

1 -e uro coin 6

2-e uro coin 9

[DK /NA ] 1

S ource: Q6a . Please indicate whether any of the euro coin denom inations should be remove d. If yes, which one or which ones?
FLASH E B 193 Base: those who answ ered th ere are „too many" coins with different valu es
S eptem ber 2 006 % EU12
GA LLU P

The respondents who feel that there are too many euro coin denominations were also asked which
denominations they would want removed. We find that 87% would prefer to remove the 1-cent coin,
82% the 2-cent denomination, and 29% find the 5 cent coin unnecessary. We also observe that 9% are
in favour of removing the 2-euro coin. With regard to other coins, only smaller proportions favour
their removal.

Analytical report, page 23
Flash EB No 193 – The euro fiv e y ears after The Gallup Organization

2.2.3 Consequences of the suppression of small coins

The con sequen ces of the sup ressi on of sm all coi n s

9/ 2006 1 0/ 2005 1 1/ 2004

64
Would raise price s 62
65

2
Would lower price s 3
2

27
Would not h ave any e ffect
31
on prices
28

7
(DK /NA) 4
5

S ou rce :
F LA S H E B 19 3
Q8 . Do y ou b el iev e th a t th e su pp re ss io n of sm a ll eu ro c oi ns (s u ch
S ep te m be r 2 00 6
a s t he 1 a n d 2 ce nt co in s) …
GAL LUP
% E U 12

Supplementing the question of removal of any euro coins, respondents were asked about the expected
consequences of any such action.

Citizens from EU12 countries have a continued fear of price increases should small coins be removed;
almost two thirds of citizens from the eurozone are still of this opinion (64%, +2). This fear is
probably related to the expectation that changes in rounding procedures would lead to higher prices.

Only a minority believe that the removal of small euro coins would have no effect on prices (27%, -4),
and a negligible number believe that such a change could positively affect (i.e. lower) price levels
(2%, -1). At the EU12 level the results have remained fairly unchanged over the previous two years.

T he c onsequences of th e supression of small coins, % of „wou ld rise pric es” answ er s
100
10/ 2005 9/ 2006
79 79 78
80 76
73
70 69 69 68
65 65
62 64 62
59 59 58
60 54 55 54 54
49 51 52
45 44
40

20

0
BE FR LU AT ES DE EU1 2 PT IT FI IE EL NL

S ource: Q8. Do you be lieve that the suppression of small euro coins (such as the 1 and 2 ce nt coins)…
FLASH E B 193 % by country
S eptem ber 2 006
GA LLU P

Belgium (79%, +6) is the country with the highest share of respondents fearing a rise in prices as a
consequence of the removal of small euro denominations, followed by France (78%, -1) and
Luxembourg (76%, +6). This ranking corresponds to the results of the previous years, in which the
respondents in the same countries were the most sceptical.

page 24
The Gallup Organization Flash EB N o 193 – The euro 5 y ears after

Similarly to earlier results, the Dutch are the least worried about price increases caused by the possible
elimination of some small euro coins (44%, -1).

In 2005, it was reported that all countries experienced a drop in the percentage of respondents fearing
price increases since 2004. Observing the changes in percentages between 2005 and 2006, we do not
see this decreasing trend continuing in all countries. Some countries even experienced an increase in
the percentage of respondents fearing price increases since 2004. For example, the percentage of
respondents fearing a rise in prices increased 6 points in Luxembourg (76% compared to 70% in
2005).

2.2.4 New euro coin denominations

Which new denomination would you like to have besides the current ones, 200 6

25-ce nt coin 12

5-e uro coin 52

10-e uro coin 8

ot her den omin at ion 15

(DK /NA) 12
B a se: t h ose w h o a n sw er ed t h e r e a r e "n ot en ou g h " co in s w it h d i ffe r en t v a l u e s

Source: Q6b. Please indicate which denomina tion would you like to have, besides those currently in circulation.
FLASH EB 193 Base: those who answered there are "not enough" coins with dif ferent values
September 2 006 % EU 12
G ALLU P

In parallel to the questions on the removal of certain euro coins, the respondents were also asked if
they would like certain new denominations to be introduced.

We noticed earlier that only 4% of the citizens from the eurozone consider the variety of coins to be
too narrow. For this group of citizens it is interesting to note that they would be most interested in the
addition of a 5-euro coin.

Analytical report, page 25
Flash EB No 193 – The euro fiv e y ears after The Gallup Organization

3. Using the euro outside the eurozone

This chapter evaluates how citizens use of the euro when travelling outside the eurozone. We measure
to what extent respondents use the euro as a travel currency.

Around one fifth of citizens travelled to a country outside the eurozone: 19% in 2006, 22-22% in 2005
and 2004, and 20% in 2003. We found no change from previous years’ results; the euro continues to
be the most prominent currency used by respondents when travelling outside the eurozone.

Using the euro outside the eurozone
9/2006 1 0/2005 1 1/2004 1 1/2003
53
55
Euro
54
52
16
16
Dollar
15
17
29
27
Another currency
30
29
2
2
[DK/NA]
1
2

S ource:
FLASH E B 193 Q13. During your trip or trips to a country outside the euro zone , what was the main currency that y ou took with y ou?
S eptem ber 2 006 Base: those who w ent to a country outside the euro zone
GAL LUP % EU12

Respondents who indicate that they had travelled outside the eurozone in the past year are also asked
to indicate the main currency they took with them on the trip. The euro continues to be the most
commonly used currency in 2006. Today, slightly more than half of those who had travelled to a
country outside the eurozone state that they took euros with them as their main currency (53%).

The dollar is mentioned by 16% of the citizens, while other currencies (presumably those of the
destination country) are mentioned by 29%. The results show great stability over the years.

page 26
The Gallup Organization Flash EB N o 193 – The euro 5 y ears after

Using the euro outside the eurozone

Using Euro as
main currency,
by cou ntry

EL 72

IT 64

ES 58

FR 54

EU12 53

PT 52

DE 51

BE 50

LU 50

IE 48

NL 45

AT 45

FI 38

Source:
FLA SH EB 193 Q13. During your trip or t rips t o a countr y outs ide the euro zo ne, what was
September 200 6 t he main cur rency t hat you took with yo u?
GALLUP

Comparing the results between countries, we find that the Finnish (38%), the Austrians (45%) and the
Dutch (45%) are the least likely to rely on the euro when travelling outside the eurozone. Citizens of
Greece care the least to obtain foreign money when leaving the eurozone; 72% answer that they took
the euro with them. This variation in relying on the euro when going to non-eurozone countries is of
course connected to the destinations citizens are travelling to.

Usin g the euro outside the euro zon e, % of „euros” a nswers
100
10/ 2005 9/2 006

80
72
65 64 63
58 57 5 8 56
60 54 55 53 55
52 51 50 52 50
48 48 48
45 45 42
40 38
40

22
20

0
EL IT ES FR EU1 2 PT DE BE LU IE AT NL FI

So urce: Q13. During your trip or trips to a country outside the euro zone, wha t wa s the ma in curre ncy tha t you took with you?
FLASH E B 193 Base: those wh o went to a country outside the euro zone
Septem ber 2 006 % by country
GAL LU P

Analytical report, page 27
Flash EB No 193 – The euro fiv e y ears after The Gallup Organization

We found that the results at EU12 level for relying on the euro when travelling to a country outside the
eurozone show great stability over the years. Comparing the changes in answers to this question
between countries, we notice that there was about a 5 percentage point decrease in relying on the euro
when travelling to a country outside the eurozone in some countries (e.g., Italy, Portugal and the
Netherlands), while for others we find similar changes in the other direction (e.g., Germany, Belgium,
and Finland). We found that the greatest increase in the number of travellers using the euro in Ireland
(48%, + 26 points).

Using th e euro outside the euro zone, 2006

Eu ros Dollars An ot he r cu rren cy DK/ NA
1 00% 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 1
9 7 6
90% 12 18
22 22
25 29 33 33
80% 14 21 37
33 45
70% 14 24 46
20 29
60% 16 18
14 17
12
50% 15
9
11
40%
72
30% 64
58 54 53 52 51 50 50 48 45 45
20% 38

1 0%

0%
EL IT ES FR EU12 PT DE BE LU IE NL AT FI

So urce: Q13. During your trip or trips to a country outside the euro zone, wha t wa s the ma in curre ncy tha t you took with you?
FLASH E B 193 Base: those wh o went to a country outside the euro zone
Septem ber 2 006 % by country
GAL LU P

Finally, we look at differences between countries in favouring currencies other than the euro when
travelling outside the eurozone. Local currencies are favoured most by Finnish citizens (46%) and
Austrian citizens (45%). They continue to be the ones who most often mention a currency other than
the euro or the dollar. This could be partly explained by the destinations of travellers from these
countries. For example, Finnish people travel often to their neighbouring countries Sweden and
Estonia.

The dollar is most favoured as an alternative by the Irish (29%). We mentioned earlier that we notice a
large increase for the Irish in using the euro when travelling outside the eurozone. This increase came
at the expense of using other currencies, but not at the expense of using the dollar as a currency for
travelling. In 2005, 31% of Irish travellers used the dollar, and 45% used another currency when
travelling outside the eurozone. In 2006, these percentages were 29% and 22%, respectively.

As was stated in 2005, the continuing popularity of the euro as a travel currency could be explained in
part by its stable international status, but also by the ease of using the euro in several countries. In
addition, there are some new Member States where the euro is already accepted for purchases (for
example, Slovenia and Estonia.

page 28
The Gallup Organization Flash EB N o 193 – The euro 5 y ears after

4. Perceived consequences of adopting the euro

This chapter examines citizens’ perceptions of the consequences of adopting the euro. In the first
section, we look at perceived advantages and disadvantages, in the second section, we analyse
questions about the perceived effects on price stability and price convergence.

In 2006, the adoption of the euro is still perceived to be positive; however, we notice a decreasing
trend in enthusiasm for it since 2002. The main benefits stemming from the introduction of the euro
are regarded to be cheaper and easier travel, easier price comparisons, and a stronger position of
Europe in the world. On the other hand, citizens almost unanimously blame the euro for increasing
price levels and they do not believe that the euro has contributed to a price convergence between the
eurozone countries.

4.1 Advantages and disadvantages of adopting the euro

In the first section, we look at the perceived advantages and disadvantages of adopting the euro. First,
we present results for the overall evaluation of the euro’s adoption (advantageous overall,
disadvantageous overall, or no change). In addition, respondents are asked what reasons they saw for
the advantageous or disadvantageous effects of adopting the euro. We first look at the respondents
who perceive the adoption of the euro to be advantageous, and compare the advantages they see in it.
Then, we look at the respondents who perceive the adoption of the euro to be disadvantageous, and
analyse results for the different perceived disadvantages.

4.1.1 Overall evaluation of the adoption of the euro

Advantageous Disadvantageous No change DK/NA
overall overall
September 2002 59% 29% 8% 4%
November 2002 54% 32% 7% 7%
November 2003 52% 36% 5% 7%
November 2004 53% 36% 5% 6%
October 2005 51% 39% 6% 5%
September 2006 48% 38% 7% 7%

In 2006, 48% of the citizens consider the adoption of the euro to be overall advantageous, 7% perceive
no change, and 38% think it is disadvantageous.

Although the adoption of the euro is still generally perceived to be positive in 2006, we notice a
decreasing trend in enthusiasm for it since 2002. In 2006, the percentage of citizens recognising the
adoption of the euro as advantageous is the lowest since the first survey was conducted in 2002. In
2002, 59% of the citizens reported that the introduction of the euro was overall advantageous. This
percentage dropped to 53% in 2004 and to 48% in 2006.

Analytical report, page 29
Flash EB No 193 – The euro fiv e y ears after The Gallup Organization

Overall perception of the adoption of the euro, 20 06

Ad van tage ou s overall Disadv ant age ou s overall Neithe r one or t he ot he r, no change DK /NA
1 00% 2
2 9 5 6 9 7 5 9 5 7
11 11 10
9 0% 8 6 5
13 7 8
21 10 9 9 9
10 15
8 0%
16 18 24
70% 20 26 31 38 44 48
6 0% 34 43 46

5 0%

4 0%
75
65 64 62
3 0% 58 55 51 48 46
2 0% 43 41 38 38

1 0%

0%
IE FI LU AT BE ES FR EU12 DE PT IT NL EL

So u rce:
FLASH E B 193 Q14a. In your opinion, for [COUNTRY], is the adoption of the euro advantageous overall and will strengthen us for the
Sep temb er 2 006 future, or rather the opposite , disadvantag eous overall and will weaken us?
GALL UP % by country

Looking at individual country reports, the highest percentages of respondents thinking that the
adoption of the euro is overall advantageous can be found in Ireland (75%), Finland (65%), and
Luxembourg (64%). At the lower end, meaning countries with the lowest percentage of citizens
considering the adoption of the euro as overall advantageous, we find Greece (38%), the Netherlands
(38%) and Italy (41%).

Focussing on the percentages of citizens who consider the adoption of the euro disadvantageous, we
see that Italy (48%), Greece (46%), Germany (44%) and the Netherlands (43%) have the highest
percentages of respondents who consider the introduction of euro overall disadvantageous.

And finally, focussing on the percentages of citizens who perceive no change from the adoption of the
euro for their country, we find that the Portuguese have the highest percentage (15%). Although
Portugal was among the countries with a rather low percentage of citizens considering the adoption to
be advantageous, this did not mean that it also had the highest percentages of citizens finding the
adoption of the euro disadvantageous, but rather corresponded with a high number of citizens seeing
no change.

page 30
The Gallup Organization Flash EB N o 193 – The euro 5 y ears after

Overall perception of the adoption of the euro, % of „advantageous overall”
answers
100
1 0/ 2005 9/ 2006

80 77
72 75
67 65 68
64 62 61
58 57
60 54 55
51 51
48 47 46 45 43 43 4 1
39 3 8 38 3 8
40

20

0
IE FI LU AT BE ES FR EU12 DE PT IT EL NL
S ource: Q14a. In your opinion, for [COUNTRY], is the adoption of the euro advantageous overall and will strengthen us for the
FL ASH E B 193 future , or rather the opposite, disadvantageous overall and will weaken us?
S ept em ber 2 006
% by country
GAL LUP

At the EU level, we notice a decreasing trend in enthusiasm for the adoption of the euro since 2002.
However, looking at the changes in enthusiasm at the country level between 2005 and 2006, we notice
a decrease in some countries, but an increase in other countries. For example, Luxembourg and
Belgium show a significant decrease compared to last year in the percentage of the respondents who
consider the adoption of the euro overall advantageous (-13 and -10 percentage points, respectively).
Austria, on the contrary, is characterised by an increase of 8 percentage points in enthusiasm about the
adoption of the euro.

Ov erall perception of the adoption of the euro, % of „Advantageous overall” answers,
2005 and 2006

10/05 9/06 10/05 9/06
SEX OCCUPATION
Male 58 56 -2 Self-em ploy ed 54 52 -2
Female 44 40 -4 Em ploy ee 56 55 -1
AGE Manual worker 47 38 -9
15 - 24 57 60 +3 Not working 48 45 -3
25 - 39 -2 LOCALITY
53 51
TYPE
40 - 54 51 45 -6 Metropolitan area 57 54 -3
55 + 46 43 -3 Other towns 48 50 +2
EDUCATION Rural zones 48 44 -4
until 15 y ears 38 32 -5
Q14a. I n y our opinion, for [ COUNTRY ], is the adoption of
16 - 20 50 44 -4 the euro adv antageous ov erall and will strengthen us for
the future, or rather the opposite, disadv antageous
20 + 67 62 -5 ov erall and will weaken us
Still in education - 63.2 -

When looking at the socio-demographic variables, we again find a similar pattern. In comparison to
women, men more often see the adoption of the euro as overall advantageous. The same is true for the
self-employed and employees compared to manual workers and those not working, and for
respondents living in a metropolitan area compared to those living in a rural zone. The younger and
the more educated the respondents think in higher numbers that the adoption of the euro is
advantageous.

Looking at the changes in percentages between 2005 and 2006, we find that support for the euro
decreased in all socio-demographic categories, except in the age group between 15 and 24 years of age

Analytical report, page 31
Flash EB No 193 – The euro fiv e y ears after The Gallup Organization

and for respondents living in towns; in these categories support for the introduction of the euro
increased by 3 and 2 percentage points, respectively. In addition, the decrease in the percentage of
respondents seeing the adoption of the euro as overall advantageous is the largest for manual workers
(-9 percentage points).

4.1.2 Advantages of the adoption of the euro

Advantages of the euro

9 /2006 1 0/2005
46
Travels abroad less costly , eas ier to t ravel
39
30
Easier t o compare prices
27
27
Reinforce the place of Europe in the world
23
11
More stable prices 9
5
S ounder public finances 4
Improv e growth, employment 5
4
4
Lower int erests rat es , less debt s charges
4
19
Ot her
32
9
(DK/NA)
9

So urce:
FLASH E B 193 Q14b. In your opinion, what are the main advantages of the adoption of the euro for [COUNTRY]?
Septemb er 2 006 Base: those who believe that joining the eurozone was „advantegous overall” f or their country
GALL UP % EU 12

Respondents who perceive the adoption of the euro to be advantageous see three main advantages
stemming from the euro’s introduction: easier and cheaper travel (46%, +5 percentage points), easier
price comparisons (30%, +3 percentage points), and the reinforced status of Europe in the world (27%,
+4 percentage points). These three concerns were the most important also in 2005, but they all show
some increase in 2006. Every tenth citizen emphasizes more stable prices (11%, +2 percentage points).
Sounder public finances, lower interest rates, and improvements in economic growth and employment
are not really considered to be important advantages of introducing the euro.

page 32
The Gallup Organization Flash EB N o 193 – The euro 5 y ears after

4.1.3 Disadvantages of the adoption of the euro

Disadvantages of the euro

9 /2 006 10/2005
81
Prices increase
78
19
Complicates ev ery day life
12
7
More unemploy ment, less growth
7
5
Loss of sovereignty 5
5
Loss of competitiv eness 7
Gener ates too low interest rates 3
2
2
T oo rigid for pub lic spending
3
15
Other
18
7
(DK/NA )
8

S ource:
FL ASH EB 193 Q14b. In your opinion, what are the main disadvantages of the adoption of the euro for [COUNTRY]?
S ept em b er 2 006 Base: those who believe that joining the eurozone was „disadvantegous overall” f or thei r country
GA LLU P % EU12

Citizens who see disadvantages in adopting the euro almost unanimously agree that the main
disadvantage is the increase in prices (81%, +3 percentage points). A view far less prevalent but still
mentioned by nearly a fifth of citizens is that the introduction of the euro complicates everyday life
(19%, +7 percentage points). Also 7% (unchanged from 2005) think that the euro is a cause for
increased unemployment and decreased economic growth. Other disadvantages of the introduction of
the euro mentioned by the respondents are loss of sovereignty, loss of competitiveness, low interest
rates or the rigidity of public finances; however, these disadvantages are mentioned by less than 5% of
respondents.

4.2 Perceived effect on prices

In this section, we look at respondents’ opinions on how the euro’s introduction in their country has
affected price developments and price harmonization.

4.2.1 Price stability and the adoption of the euro

Respondents widely believe that the euro has had a negative effect on prices. Nearly all citizens (93%)
state that the euro has added to the increase of prices (this view has not changed compared to 2005).
Another 5% of citizens say that the euro has had no impact on prices, and only 1% says that the euro
has limited the increase of prices (both are unchanged compared to 2005).

Analytical report, page 33
Flash EB No 193 – The euro fiv e y ears after The Gallup Organization

Effec t of euro on pric e stability, 2006

Ad de d t o th e incre ase of prices Limite d the incre as e of price s No imp act on p rice s DK/ NA
1 00% 1
2 1
21 1
21 1 2 3 1 2 4 2 2
3 5 5
1 7 5 8 8 8 9
1 2 1 7
90% 1 1 1 12
3
80%
12
70%

60%

50% 97 97 96 96 93 91 91 90 90 88
88 86
40%
71
30%

20%

1 0%

0%
EL ES IT FR EU1 2 FI NL DE LU BE AT PT IE

So urce:
FLASH E B 193 Q9. Concerning the evolution of price s for the last five yea rs, would you say that the euro has…?
Septemb er 2006 % by country
G AL LUP

At the EU12 level respondents widely believe that the euro has had a negative effect on prices. This is
also the case at the country level; an overwhelming majority in each country of the eurozone consider
that the euro has had a negative effect on prices.

We find the highest percentages of citizens who think that the euro had added to the increase of prices
in Greece and Spain (97% for both countries). 96% of the citizens share this opinion in Italy and
France. At the low end, we find Ireland, where 71% of the citizens say that the euro has added to the
increase of prices in the past five years.

Price stability , % of „euro added to the increase of prices” answers, 2005
SEX OCCUPATION
Male 92 Self-em ploy ed 92
Female 95 Em ploy ee 94
AGE Manual worker 95
15 - 24 91 Not working 93
25 - 39 94 LOCALITY TYPE
40 - 54 94 Metropolitan area 91
55 + 93 Other towns 94
EDUCATION Rural zones 94
until 15 y ears of age 95 QUESTI ON: Q9. Concerning the ev olution of prices for
16 - 20 the last 5 years, would y ou say that the euro has ...?
94
20 + 93
Still in education 91

Given the wide perception that the euro’s introduction has led to an increase of prices, the socio-
demographic analysis does not add to our knowledge on this matter.

page 34
The Gallup Organization Flash EB N o 193 – The euro 5 y ears after

4.2.2 Price convergence and the adoption of the euro

Effect on the harmonisation of prices

9 /2 006 1 0/2 005 1 1/ 2004 11 / 2003

32
31
Yes
31
29

45
53
No
51
50

23
16
(DK/ NA)
19
21

So urce: Q11. After five / 2006/ ye ars of using the euro, do you be lieve
FLASH E B 193 yes or no that the euro:…
Septem ber 2 006 b) Reduce d price differe nces between countries in the Euro
GA LLU P % EU12

45% of citizens also mention that they do not believe that the euro has contributed to a price
convergence between the eurozone countries. This percentage, however, is lower than in 2005 (53%, -
8 percentage points). Whereas the proportion of respondents believing that the euro reduced price
differences is almost unchanged (32% in 2006, 31% in 2005), the percentage of those who cannot
answer the question increased (23%, up from 16% in 2005).

Effect on the harmonisati on of prices % of „No” answers , 2 005-20 06

100
1 0/ 2005 9/ 2006

80

60 59
60 53 54 53 54
51 52 5 1 50 52 52 50
48 48 47 47 47
45 45 45
40 37 36
32 31 30

20

0
DE LU EL FR PT BE NL AT EU1 2 IT ES FI IE
S ource:
FL ASH E B 193 Q11. After five / 2006/ y ears of using the euro, do you believ e yes or no that the euro:…
S ept em ber 2 006 b) Reduced price differences between countries in the Euro
GAL LUP % by country

Similarly to the 2005 research results, Germany has the highest number of respondents who doubt that
the euro reduced price differences (53%, -7 percentage points), followed by Luxembourg (51%, -3
percentage points), Greece (51%, -1 percentage point) and France (50%, -9 percentage points).
Finland (31%, -5 percentage point) and Spain (32%, -13 percentage point) continue to be the countries
with the fewest respondents who are in doubt on this matter. However, in 2006, Ireland had the lowest
level of respondents who doubt that price differences have decreased in the eurozone. We found that
only 30% of citizens in Ireland believed that the adoption of the euro has not lead to a decrease in
price differences; this is down 24 percentage points from 2005.

Analytical report, page 35
Flash EB No 193 – The euro fiv e y ears after The Gallup Organization

Price convergence, % of „yes” answers, 2006
SEX OCCUPATION
Male 37 Self-em ploy ed 40
Female 27 Em ploy ee 33
AGE Manual worker 33
15 - 24 42 Not working 29
25 - 39 32 LOCALITY TYPE
40 - 54 31 Metropolitan area 33
55 + 28 Other towns 34
EDUCATION Rural zones 30
until 15 y ears of age 23
QUESTI ON: Q11b. After fiv e years of using the euro, do
16 - 20 30 y ou believ e y es or no that the euro reduced p rice
differences between countries in the Eu rozone
20 + 37
Still in education 41

When it comes to socio-demographic categories, it can be noted that men, respondents between 15 and
24 years of age, respondents with higher educational levels, and self-employed respondents are most
likely to believe that the euro has led to a decrease in price differences between countries in the
eurozone.

page 36
The Gallup Organization Flash EB N o 193 – The euro 5 y ears after

5. The international role of the euro and European identity

In this chapter, we present citizens’ perceptions about the euro as an international currency, and their
knowledge and concerns about the euro/dollar exchange rate. In the last section the development of a
European identity is examined.

The euro has maintained its perceived status as an international currency, and we see in fact an
increasing trend in this perception since 2003. Most people do not care about the conversion rate, but
the majority are aware that the euro is worth more than the US dollar. Most citizens in the eurozone do
not think that the euro has had any effect on their sense of being European.

5.1 International status of the euro

International status of the euro

9/ 2006 10/ 2005 1 1 /2004 1 1/ 2003

74
73
Y es
72
68

18
23
No
23
25

8
4
(DK/ NA)
5
7

S ource: Q11. Af ter f ive / 2006/ year s of us ing the euro, do you believe yes or no that the eur o:…
FL ASH EB 193 a) Ha s beco me an internatio nal currency like the dollar o r the yen
S ep tember 20 06 % EU12
G AL LUP

The euro has maintained its perceived status as an international currency, and we see a slightly
increasing tendency in this perception since 2003. In 2006, three quarters of citizens in the eurozone
see their currency as an international one comparable to the US dollar or the Japanese yen (74%, +1).

Compared to 2005 (or previous years), significantly fewer respondents disagree with the statement that
the euro has become an international currency like the dollar or the yen (18%, compared to 23% in
2005).

Analytical report, page 37
Flash EB No 193 – The euro fiv e y ears after The Gallup Organization

Inter na tional status of the eu ro, % of „yes” answers, 200 5-20 06

100
90 1 0/ 2005 9 /2 006
85 83
82 84 83 83
80
83 82
79 79 78 78
80 75 76 78
73 74 74
70 71 69 71 70
66

60

40

20

0
ES LU EL NL AT IE BE PT EU1 2 FI FR DE IT

S ource:
FLASH E B 193 Q11. After five / 2006/ ye ars of using the euro, do you believ e yes or no tha t the euro:…
S eptem ber 2 006 a ) Has become an international currency like the dollar or the yen
GA LLU P % by country

The highest percentages of those who recognize the international status of the euro are found in Spain
(84%), Luxembourg (83%) and Greece (83%), while the lowest numbers are found in Italy (70%),
Germany (71%), and France (71%). In 2005, the Irish were the most convinced of the international
status of the euro, however, the percentage of Irish who feel this way dropped from 90% in 2005 to
78% in 2006 (-12 percentage points).

The euro as an international currency , % of „yes” answers, 2006

SEX OCCUPATION
Male 82 Self-em ploy ed 82
Female 67 Em ploy ee 77
AGE Manual worker 72
15 - 24 80 Not working 71
25 - 39 76 LOCALITY TYPE
40 - 54 73 Metropolitan area 78
55 + 72 Other towns 76
EDUCATION Rural zones 72
until 15 y ears of age 65 Q19. Generally speaking, does the value of the euro
against the dollar concern y ou: a lot, a l ittle or not at all?
16 - 20 73
20 + 82
Still in education 81

In the socio-demographic analysis, there is a continuation of the patterns detected in previous years.
Men are more likely to support the statement that the euro is an international currency than women
(82% compared to 67%). This is also the case for respondents who are self-employed or employees in
comparison to the other occupational groups. This is also the case comparing those who live in more
densely populated areas with those in rural zones. The younger the respondent or the higher he or she
is educated, the more likely he or she is to be in support of the statement.

page 38
The Gallup Organization Flash EB N o 193 – The euro 5 y ears after

5.2 The euro/dollar exchange rate

5.2.1 Concerns about the euro/dollar exchange rate

Concerned about euro-
dollar exchange rate A lot / a little Not at all
01/ 2002 49% 47%
03/ 2002 49% 46%
05/ 2002 46% 49%
09/ 2002 45% 49%
11/ 2002 42% 52%
11/ 2003 39% 54%
11/ 2004 44% 51%
10/ 2005 42% 55%
09/ 2006 32% 61%

In 2006, almost two thirds of the citizens in the eurozone are not concerned about the euro/dollar
conversion rate (61%); this figure is up 6 percentage points compared to 2005. The percentage of
those claiming to be not at all concerned about the exchange rate shows a trend of increase since 2002.

A third of respondents are concerned “a lot” or “a little” (32%, 10 percentage points less than in 2005).

Concerned about the euro / dol lar exchange rate

A lot A little Not at all DK/NA
1 00% 4 2 2 3 3
9 6 9 7 8 5 7
9 0% 18

80%
42
70% 45 53 61 62
53 61
6 0% 64 72 70 74
52 75
5 0%

4 0%
34
3 0% 31
25
26 28
2 0% 29 23 23
24 21 18 17
1 0% 20 14
16 16 12 9 7 9 7 4 4 7 7 4
0%
IE ES EL PT LU FR EU1 2 IT FI BE AT DE NL
S ource:
FLASH E B 193 Q19. Generally speaking, does the value of the euro against the dollar concern you: a lot, a little or not a t all?
S eptem ber 2 006 % by country
GAL LUP

Citizens are most concerned about the exchange rate in Ireland (54%), Spain (47%) and Greece (41%).
Those who seem to be the least concerned reside in the Netherlands (75%), Germany (74%) and
Belgium (72%).

Analytical report, page 39
Flash EB No 193 – The euro fiv e y ears after The Gallup Organization

Conce rn about the euro / dollar exchange rate, % of „not concer ned at all” answers

100
1 0/2005 9/ 2006

80 75 74 72
70 70
62 60 62 64 62 61 61
58
60 55 54 53 53 54
52
48 48
43 45 45
41 42
40

20

0
NL DE BE AT FI FR EU1 2 LU PT EL IT ES IE
S ource:
FL ASH E B 193 Q19. Generally spe aking, does the value of the euro a gainst the dollar concern y ou: a lot, a little or not a t all?
S ept em ber 2 006
% by country
GAL LUP

The largest changes within the country analysis in the percentage of respondents reporting that they
are not concerned at all about the euro/dollar exchange rate are found in Belgium and Ireland. In
Belgium, the overall percentage of respondents not concerned at all increases 14 points (72% in 2006,
compared to 58% in 2005), while in Ireland the percentage decreases by 12 points (42% in 2006,
compared to 54% in 2005).

Concern about the euro/dollar exchange rate, % of „not concerned at all” answers, 2006
SEX OCCUPATION
Male 59 Self-em ploy ed 53
Female 63 Em ploy ee 60
AGE Manual worker 66
15 - 24 68 Not working 63
25 - 39 61 LOCALITY TYPE
40 - 54 59 Metropolitan area 58
55 + 61 Other towns 60
EDUCATION Rural zones 64
until 15 y ears of age 58 Q19. Generally speaking, does the value of the euro
against the dollar concern y ou: a lot, a l ittle or not at all?
16 - 20 65
20 + 57
Still in education 67

Looking at socio-demographic results, it becomes clear that the youngest age category is the least
concerned about the euro/dollar exchange rate; they have the highest percentage of those “not
concerned at all about the exchange rate” (68%). This low rate of concern is also found among those
who completed full-time education between 16 and 20 years of age, manual workers and those living
in rural areas. In contrast, self-employed respondents are the most concerned about the exchange rate;
they have the lowest percentage of those “not concerned at all about the exchange rate” (53%).

page 40
The Gallup Organization Flash EB N o 193 – The euro 5 y ears after

5.2.2 Knowledge of euro/dollar exchange rate

Value of the euro against the US dollar

9/2006 1 0/2005 1 1/2004 11 /2003
48
one euro is worth more than 49
one dollar 48
35
21
one euro is worth less than one 23
dollar 21
25
17
one euro has an eq uivalent 18
value to one dollar 21
28
14
9
(DK/NA)
10
12
So urce:
FLASH EB 193
Septemb er 2006 Q18. From wha t you know, would you say tha t today one euro is worth m ore, less or is equivalent to one dollar:..?
GALL UP % EU12

The level of awareness of the euro/dollar exchange rate remains stable; we found no significant
changes compared to 2005 in any categories. Almost half of the respondents (48%, -1 percentage
point) in the 12 eurozone countries indicate correctly that one euro is worth more than one dollar. But
the share of incorrect answers is also strikingly high; 21% believe that the dollar is stronger then the
euro and 17% think that one euro is equivalent in value to one dollar (-1 percentage point). Another
14% cannot answer the question (+5 percentage points).

Value of the euro against US dollar
One euro is worth less than one dollar One euro has an equivalent value to one dollar
DK/NA One euro is wor th more than one dollar
1 00%
57 57 57 56 53 52 50 49 48 48 46 45 44
9 0%

80%

70%

6 0%

5 0% 23 23
9 14 11
14 12
5 16 16
4 0% 12 13 16
13
3 0%
16 17 21
13 14 12 14 18 22 16 18
2 0% 16

1 0%
18 16 16 22 15 17 18 16 30 21 21 16 16
0%
AT LU NL IE ES FI BE EL DE EU1 2 FR PT IT
S ource:
FL ASH EB 193 Q18. From what you know, would you say that today one euro is worth more, less or is equivalent to one dollar:. .?
S ept em b er 2 006
% EU12
GA LLU P

The countries with the highest level of knowledge about the euro/dollar exchange rate are Austria,
Luxembourg and the Netherlands; in all three countries 57% of citizens answer correctly that one euro
is worth more than one dollar. The fewest correct answers are given in Italy (44%), Portugal (45%),
and France (46%).

Analytical report, page 41
Flash EB No 193 – The euro fiv e y ears after The Gallup Organization

5.3 The euro and the development of a European identity

The euro’s reported impact on European identi ty

9/2006 1 0/2005 11 /2004 1 1/2003
78
78
Nothing has changed
78
80
19
18
A little more Eur opean
19
17
2
3
A little less European
3
2
1
1
(DK/NA)
1
1
So urce:
FLASH EB 193 Q17. Since using the euro, do you personally feel a little more Europe an than before, a little less European than before
Septemb er 2006 or would you say tha t your feeling of being European has not cha nged?
GALL UP % EU12

Most citizens (78%) in the eurozone do not consider the euro to have any effect (either positive or
negative) on their sense of being European. This figure has not changed in the past three years. Almost
one fifth of respondents (19%) feel a little more European since the introduction of the common
currency, and only a small share (2%) claim that the euro makes them feel a little less European.
The net effect of euro on European identity

% of “A lit tle more”
minus % of “A lit tle less”
by coun try

IE 56

IT 28

LU 19

PT 18

EU12 18

FR 17

ES 17

BE 16

FI 15

AT 13

DE 12

EL 11

NL 10

Source:
FLA SH EB 193 Q17. Since us ing the euro , do you per sonally feel a litt le m ore Euro pean t han before, a lit tle
September 200 6 less European than bef ore or w ould you say that your f eeling o f being European
GALLUP has not changed?

page 42
The Gallup Organization Flash EB N o 193 – The euro 5 y ears after

To study the net effect of the euro on the development of a European identity, we look at the
difference in the percentage of citizens feeling a little more European and the percentage of those
feeling a little less European at the country level. The net effect of the euro on a perceived European
identity is the largest in Ireland (56%). In all other countries a much smaller effect is observed.

Contrary to other countries, where most citizens experienced no change in their sense of being
European since the introduction of the euro, 73% of the citizens of Ireland state that this feeling has
changed. In 2006, 64% of the Irish state that they feel more European and 8% that they feel less
European since they have been using the euro.

The euro’s repor ted impact on Europea n identity, % of „Nothing has changed” answers

100 1 0/2005 9/2006
83 85 83 83 81 82 81
79 81 79 80 80 80 78 78 77 78 78 78
80 75 76
72 72
68
59
60

40
26

20

0
DE NL BE AT FI EL ES EU1 2 LU FR PT IT IE
S ource: Q17. Since using the euro, do y ou personally feel a little more European than before, a little less E uropean than before
FLASH E B 193 or would you say that your feeling of being European has not cha nged?
S eptem ber 2 006
% by country
GAL LUP

In most countries of the eurozone, not much change is observed between 2005 and 2006 in the
percentage of respondents who state that nothing has changed with regard to their sense of being
European since the adoption of the euro. However, in Ireland, the percentage of citizens stating that
nothing has changed dropped from 59% in 2005 to 26% in 2006.

European identity , % of „nothing has changed” answers, 2006
SEX OCCUPATION
Male 74 Self-em ploy ed 72
Female 82 Em ploy ee 77
AGE Manual worker 84
15 - 24 79 Not working 79
25 - 39 79 LOCALITY TYPE
40 - 54 77 Metropolitan area 74
55 + 77 Other towns 77
EDUCATION Rural zones 81
Q17. Since using the euro, do y ou personally feel a little
until 15 y ears of age 81 more Eu ropean than before, a little less European than
before or would y ou say that y our feeling of being
16 - 20 81 European has not c hanged?
20 + 72
Still in education 75
The socio-demographic analysis again reveals some differences. First of all, men are less likely to
reply that nothing has changed in their sense of being European since they began using the euro than
women (74% compared to 82%). Similarly, respondents who have studied the longest, self-employed
respondents and those who live in metropolitan areas are less likely to state that nothing has changed
in comparison to the other groups. Manual workers are the most likely to state that they feel neither
more nor less European since they have been using the euro (84%).

Analytical report, page 43
Flash EB No 193 – The euro fiv e y ears after The Gallup Organization

6. Enlargement of the eurozone with the New Member States

Respondents were asked about for their knowledge and opinions about the future enlargement of the
euro area.
The enlargement of the eurozone to include the 10 New Member States is an event expected by most
citizens in the current eurozone. Two thirds approve the inclusion of the New Member States in the
eurozone.

6.1 The extension of the eurozone to the New Member States

The extension of the euro zone to the new Member States

9/2 006 1 0/2005 11 /2 004
26
Y es, certainly 25
30
47
Yes, probably 53
49
10
No, probab ly not 10
10
2
No, certainly not 3
3
15
(DK/NA) 10
9
So urce:
FLASH EB 193 Q15 . Would you say that the e xtension of the euro to the 10 new member sta tes, which entered
Septemb er 2006
the European Union in Ma y 2004 is something that will happen:
GALL UP % EU12

The enlargement of the eurozone to include the 10 New Member States that entered the European
Union in 2004 is an event expected by most citizens of the current eurozone countries. One quarter of
the citizens in the eurozone is certain that the euro will be introduced in the New Member States, and
almost half of the citizens in the eurozone believe that the euro will probably be introduced in the New
Member States. However, these figures are overall somewhat lower than they were in 2005 (26%
compared to 25%, and 47% compared to 53%).

In addition, 12% of citizens tend not to believe that this extension will take place (-1 percentage point
compared to 2005) and 15% state that they do not know whether or not the extension will happen.

page 44
The Gallup Organization Flash EB N o 193 – The euro 5 y ears after

The extension of the euro zone to the new Member States, % of „ yes” answers

100 10/ 2005 9/ 2006
9 0 89
84 83 83
81 82 80 81 79 78 80 78
80 76 77 76 77 75
74 73 72
68 68 68
64
61
60

40

20

0
IE FI AT DE LU FR EL BE EU1 2 PT NL ES IT
S ource: Q15. Would you say that the extension of the euro to the 10 new me mber states, which entered the European Union in
FL ASH E B 193 May 2004 is something tha t will happen:
S ept em ber 2 006 % by country
GAL LUP

At the country level, Ireland continues to have the highest percentage of respondents who believe that
the extension of the euro to the New Member States will happen (89%), followed by Finland (82%)
and Austria (80%). The lowest percentage of respondents who think that the extension will happen is
found in Italy; 64% answered this question positively.

Focussing on the changes in percentage between 2005 and 2006 for each individual country, there are
11 countries that experienced a decline in the percentage of citizens who state that the extension of the
euro to the New Member States will probably happen or will happen with certainty. In Portugal, on the
contrary, there is an increase of 7 points in the percentage of respondents who think the extension will
happen (68% compared to 61% in 2005).

Ex tension of the euro, % of „DK/NA” answers, 2006
SEX OCCUPATION
Male 11 Self-em ploy ed 13
Female 19 Em ploy ee 9
AGE Manual worker 16
15 - 24 7 Not working 19
25 - 39 11 LOCALITY TYPE
40 - 54 12 Metropolitan area 12
55 + 23 Other towns 15
EDUCATION Rural zones 17
until 15 y ears of age 29 Q 15. Would you say that th e e xtension of the euro to th e 10 New
16 - 20 Member States, which e ntered the European Union in May 2004 is
13 something that will happen?
20 + 8
Still in education 8

The socio-demographic patterns in 2006 show large variation in the percentages of respondents that
did not answer to the question regarding the extension of the euro. For example, 23% of respondents
older than 55 years did not answer it, while only 7% of respondents between 15 and 24 years old gave
no answer. Similarly, 29% of the least educated group of citizens gave no answer, while only 8% in
the most educated group did not do so.

Among respondents that do answer the question; stating that they think that the extension will or will
not happen, we find only very small differences between socio-demographic groups.

Analytical report, page 45
Flash EB No 193 – The euro fiv e y ears after The Gallup Organization

6.2 Citizens’ opinions on the extension of the euro to the New Member States

The survey also asked respondents if they are in favour or opposed to introducing the euro in the New
Member States. Since we asked this question slightly differently in 2006 than in 2005, it is not
possible to directly compare the results. We still present attitudes regarding the euro extension to New
Member States from previous years on the chart, but we indicate the different wording of the question.

Citizens’ opinion on the extension of the euro to the new Member States

In favou r of int rodu cing the e uro in the othe r EU count rie s
Against introducing the e uro in the othe r EU countries
DK/ NA

9/2 006 66 21 13

Q16. Are you…
% EU12

T he eu ro zone should be en large d t o t he ne w memb er state s of the European Un ion be cause it would hav e a
p osit ive e ffect on consume rs who would be able t o compare price s be twe en cou ntries more e asily
T he eu ro zone should not be e xte nde d t o the ne w me mbe r state s be cause this could we ak en the e uro zon e

DK/ NA

10/ 2005 59 33 8

11 / 2004 62 30 9

Source:
FLASH EB 193 Q16. To which of the following sta tement do you feel the closest?
September 2 006 % EU12
G ALLU P

As in previous years, a majority of eurozone citizens hold a positive view regarding the extension of
the euro area to New Member States, and only a minority are against it. In 2006, 66% of citizens are in
favour of the extension, while only 21% are opposed.

page 46
The Gallup Organization Flash EB N o 193 – The euro 5 y ears after

Extension of the eurozone to the new
Member States
In favour of introdu cing
t he euro in t he oth er EU
cou ntries

IE 79

ES 75

PT 73

IT 71

AT 71

BE 71

EL 69

LU 67

EU12 66

NL 62

FI 61

FR 61

DE 61

Source:
FLA SH EB 193 Q16. Ar e you… in favour of intr oducing t he euro in the ot her EU count ries
September 200 6 or agains t introducing t he eur o in t he ot her EU countries?
GALLUP

Looking at data from individual countries, Irish (79%), Spanish (75%) and Portuguese (73%) citizens
are the most in favour of extending the euro area to the New Member States, while German (61%),
French (61%) and Finnish (61%) citizens are the least in favour of it.

Opinions on the extension of the euro, % of „DK/NA” answers, 2006
SEX OCCUPATION
Male 10 Self-em ploy ed 10
Female 16 Em ploy ee 10
AGE Manual worker 12
15 - 24 7 Not working 16
25 - 39 10 LOCALITY TYPE
40 - 54 13 Metropolitan area 11
55 + 18 Other towns 13
EDUCATION Rural zones 14
until 15 y ears of age 24 Q16. A re y ou in fav our of int roducing the euro in the
other EU count ries or are y ou against it?
16 - 20 12
20 + 9
Still in education 8

In the socio-demographic analysis we again look at the percentages of those with no opinion on this
issue. We detect similar socio-demographic patterns to those found concerning the question on the
likelihood of the extension of the euro to the New Member States. However, this time we also find

Analytical report, page 47
Flash EB No 193 – The euro fiv e y ears after The Gallup Organization

some notable differences in expressed opinions between socio-demographic categories. The largest
difference in opinion on the extension of the euro area to the New Member States was found between
the oldest and the youngest age groups. While 85% of the youngest age group are in favour of
introducing the euro in the New Member States, only 73% of the oldest age category share this view
(see in Annex).

page 48
The Gallup Organization Flash EB N o 193 – The euro 5 y ears after

7. Coordination of economic policies within the EU Member
States

In the seventh chapter, we analyse eurozone citizens’ knowledge of current economic events and of
the coordination of economic policies within the EU.

About half of respondents believe (correctly) that coordination of economic policies takes place within
the EU. At the same time, a fairly large percentage of citizens think that economic policy coordination
does not receive enough importance in the EU. Citizens in the 12 eurozone countries see their
countries’ economic situation in more positive terms than they did a year ago; more citizens claim that
their country’s economic situation is better in comparison with other Member States and fewer citizens
than last year state that their country had a budget deficit in the previous year.

7.1 Awareness and evaluation of economic policy coordination

Awareness of economic policiy coordination within the EU

Ye s No DK/ NA

9/ 2006 51 21 28

10/ 2005 53 28 20

11 / 2004 56 26 18

So urce:
FLASH EB 193 Q20. Is the re a coordination of the economic policies within the Member States of the European Union:
Septemb er 2006
% EU12
GALL UP

Half of eurozone citizens are aware that coordination of economic policies across the Member
States takes place (51%). The percentage of incorrect answers - respondents who state that economic
policy coordination does not exist - has decreased from 28% in 2005 to 21% in 2006. However, the
percentage of those who did not or could not answer this question increased from 20% in 2005 to 28%
in 2006.

Analytical report, page 49
Flash EB No 193 – The euro fiv e y ears after The Gallup Organization

Knowledge of the existence of the coordination of economic policies within the EU, % of
„yes” answers, 2005-2006

100
1 0/ 2005 9 /2006

80

62 63 62 61
58 58
60 54 54 53 51 54
52 52 50 51 49
46 47 48
44 45 43 43 41 43 40
40

20

0
AT DE LU BE IT EU12 FI FR NL ES IE EL PT

Source: Q20. Is there a coordina tion of the econom ic policies within the Membe r States of the European Union:
FLASH EB 193 % by country
September 2 006
G ALLU P

Similarly to results from 2005, the highest levels of awareness on economic policy coordination were
found in Austria (63%), Germany (58%), Luxembourg (54%) and Belgium (54%). At the other end,
the Portuguese (40%), the Greek (41%) and the Irish (43%) had the lowest level of awareness of EU
coordination of economic policies.

All countries, except Austria and Italy, experienced a decrease in the awareness of economic policy
coordination within the EU. In Italy, we see an increase of 6 percentage points in the number of
citizens who state correctly that economic policy coordination takes place (52% in 2006, compared to
46% in 2005).

Awareness of economic policy coordination, % of „DK/NA” answers, 2006

SEX OCCUPATION
Male 19 Self-em ploy ed 19
Female 35 Em ploy ee 19
AGE Manual worker 29
15 - 24 26 Not working 34
25 - 39 22 LOCALITY TYPE
40 - 54 25 Metropolitan area 21
55 + 34 Other towns 27
EDUCATION Rural zones 31
until 15 y ears of age 44
Q20. I s there a coordination of the economic pol icies
16 - 20 28 within the Member States of the European Union?

20 + 14
Still in education 26

Looking at the socio-demographic distribution of respondents, we found the largest differences in
percentages between categories among respondents who said that they did not know the answer. We
found that 35% of female respondents said that they did not know the answer, compared to only 19%
of male respondents. Similarly, 44% of citizens in the lowest educational level category reported that
they did not to know the answer, compared to 26% in the “still in education” category.

page 5 0
The Gallup Organization Flash EB N o 193 – The euro 5 y ears after

Evaluation of ec onomic polic y coordination

Not import an t e nough Ju st r ight Too imp or tant (DK/ NA )

9/ 2006 40 20 13 28

10/ 2005 46 23 14 18

1 1/ 2004 45 23 16 16

S ource: Q21. Today, would you say that coordination between the economic policies of the member states is:
FLASH E B 193 % EU12
S eptem ber 2 006
GA LLU P

Regarding the evaluation of the coordination of economic policies, the largest group of respondents
in the eurozone are those who feel that the coordination between the economic policies of the Member
States does not receive enough attention (40%). This is similar to previous years, although the
percentage of citizens who think that the coordination is not important enough decreased by 6
percentage points from 2005.

The percentage of citizens who think that the EU coordination of economic policies was just right
(20%, -3 percentage points) or too important (13%, -1 percentage point) did not change significantly
compared to 2005. The proportion of those who did not give a yes or no answer increased by 10
percentage points, from 18% in 2005 to 28% in 2006.

The percentage of those who did not or could not answer this question is 28%; the majority of these
respondents also did not or could not answer the previous question on awareness. Nonetheless, a large
percentage of citizens who do not have (correct) knowledge on the coordination of economic policies
within the Member States of the European Union, do express their opinion on the importance of
economic policy coordination.

Evaluation of the economic policies’ coordination, 2006
Not import ant e nou gh Just right Too important DK/ NA
1 00%

90% 20 16
22 22 24
28 28 30 30
33 37 34
80% 43
9 12
70% 27
17 13 8 6 29 21
60% 20 18
21 11
5
50% 20 22 21
10 16 37
15 24
40% 22 30
33
30%

20% 15

10%
49 45 42 40 40 40 40 36 33 30 25 19 14
0%
FR DE IT LU EU12 AT BE EL IE NL ES FI PT

Source:
FLASH EB 193 Q21. Today, would you say that coordina tion between the economic policies of the member states is:
September 2 006 % EU 12
G ALLU P

Analytical report, page 51
Flash EB No 193 – The euro fiv e y ears after The Gallup Organization

At the country level, we also notice that in most countries the largest group of respondents feel that the
coordination between the economic policies of the Member States does not receive enough attention.
The highest percentages of citizens who think that economic policy coordination is not important
enough are found in France (49%) and Germany (45%).

Exceptions to this general trend are noted in Spain, Finland, and Portugal. In Spain, the largest group
of respondents are those who think that the coordination between the Member States’ economic
policies is just right (30%); in Portugal, the largest groups think that coordination is too important
(37%). And finally in Finland, the largest group do not know the answer to the question on economic
policy coordination (37%).

Evaluation of ec onomic policy coordination, % of „not important enough” answers, 2005-
2006

100
1 0/ 2005 9/ 2006

80

60 56
53
49 50
45 46
42 40 40 40 40 40
37 37 39
40 35 36 33 33
29 30
25
22 1 9
20 14 1 4

0
FR DE IT AT BE LU EU1 2 EL IE NL ES FI PT
So urce: Q21. Toda y, would you sa y that coordination between the economic policies of the member states is:
FLASH EB 193 % by country
Septemb er 2006
GALL UP

Looking at the “not important enough” answers, the results for individual countries show differences
between countries similar to what we found in 2005. While in France (49%), Germany (45%) and Italy
(42%) more than four out of ten citizens think that there is not enough economic policy coordination
between the Member States, less than two out of ten citizens think so in Portugal (14%) and Finland
(19%).

In some countries, there was a decrease in the percentage of respondents who claimed that economic
policy coordination between the Member States is not important enough; in other countries, we saw an
increase. We found the largest decrease in this percentage for Germany and the Netherlands (-11 and -
9 percentage points respectively), and the largest increase for Greece (+7 percentage points).

page 52
The Gallup Organization Flash EB N o 193 – The euro 5 y ears after

Ev aluation of economic policy coordination, % of „DK/NA” answers, 2006

SEX OCCUPATION
Male 21 Self-em ploy ed 23
Female 35 Em ploy ee 19
AGE Manual worker 27
15 - 24 21 Not working 35
25 - 39 23 LOCALITY TYPE
40 - 54 28 Metropolitan area 22
55 + 34 Other towns 27
EDUCATION Rural zones 31
until 15 y ears of age 46
Q21. Today , would y ou say that coordination between the
16 - 20 26 economic polic ies of member states is:

20 + 17
Still in education 23

Studying the differences between respondents’ socio-demographic categories for the question, we
again found the largest differences between the categories in the percentages giving a “don’t know”
answer. The patterns are the same as for the question on awareness of economic policy coordination.

7.2 Evaluation of the domestic situation

Economic situation in country compared to eurozone average

9/2006 10/2005 11 /2 004 1 1/2003
44
49
Not as good
49
48
23
23
Identical
24
26
26
23
Better
22
18
7
5
(DK/NA)
5
8

So urce: Q22.And if you compare the econom ic situation of [COUNTRY ] with tha t of other countries of the European Union,
FLASH EB 193 would you say tha t it is … ?
Septemb er 2006 % EU12
GALL UP

We also asked respondents to evaluate their country’s economic situation by comparing the situation
of their own national economy with those of other Member States.

Many respondents from the eurozone continue to believe that their country’s economic situation is not
as good as those of other EU countries; the largest group of citizens from the eurozone are those who
say that the economic situation in their country is inferior to the economic situations in other Member
States (44%). However, this figure is lower than in 2005 (-5 percentage points).

Analytical report, page 53
Flash EB No 193 – The euro fiv e y ears after The Gallup Organization

The percentage of those who do not see any difference between their own country’s and other Member
States’ economic situations (23%) is unchanged. The percentage of those who evaluate their country’s
economy more positively increased somewhat compared to last year (26%, +3 percentage points).

Evaluating the domestic economic situation

“Better”/“Mu ch better”
by cou ntry

LU 79

IE 75

AT 67

NL 49

BE 47

FI 43

FR 27

DE 27

EU12 26

ES 24

EL 9

IT 9

PT 5

Source:
FLA SH EB 193 Q22. And if you co mpare the economic situation of [COUNTRY] w it h t hat of
September 200 6 other countr ies of the European Union, would yo u say that it is … ?
GALLUP

Looking at individual countries, we obviously see large variation among the Member States. There are
only three countries where a large majority believe that their national economic situation is better than
those of other Member States; namely Luxembourg (79%), Ireland (75%), and Austria (67%).

At the other end, and similarly to previous years’ results, Portugal (85%) and Greece (81%) top the
ranking for the highest percentage of respondents who see their national economic situation as worse
than those of other Member States.

Finally, countries with the highest rate of respondents who saw their national situation as similar to the
eurozone average were Finland, (35%), France (30%) and Belgium (29%).

page 54
The Gallup Organization Flash EB N o 193 – The euro 5 y ears after

Evaluating the domestic economic situa tion, % of „better ” a nswers

100
1 0/ 2005 9/ 2006

79 79
80 75
67
62 62
60
49 47
42 43
40 35 36
27 2 5 27 26
24 23 24 24
20
10 9 10 9
3 5
0
LU IE AT NL BE FI DE FR EU1 2 ES EL IT PT

S ource: Q22. And if you compare the economic situation of [C OUNTRY] with tha t of other countries of the E uropea n Union,
FLASH E B 193 w ould you sa y that it is … ?
S eptem ber 2 006 % EU12
GA LLU P

In almost all countries, the percentage of those who believe that their economy is doing comparatively
better than the economies of other Member States increased or stayed the same compared to last year.
In Ireland and the Netherlands we saw the largest increase in the percentage of respondents who
believe that their national economy is better than those of other Member States (+13 and +14
percentage points, respectively).

Ev aluation the dom estic economic situation, % of „better” answers, 2006
SEX OCCUPATION
Male 28 Self-em ploy ed 20
Female 24 Em ploy ee 29
AGE Manual worker 23
15 - 24 31 Not working 25
25 - 39 26 LOCALITY TYPE
40 - 54 24 Metropolitan area 28
55 + 25 Other towns 24
EDUCATION Rural zones 26
until 15 y ears of age 18 Q22. And if y ou compare the economic situation of
[COUNTRY ] with that of other count ries of the European
16 - 20 25 Union, wo uld y ou say that it is?
20 + 31
Still in education 29

Looking at the effect of socio-demographic differences on respondents’ evaluation of the domestic
economic situation, we found the largest differences by educational level. In the group that pursued
full-time education until 15 years of age, the percentage of respondents who believed that their
national economic situation was better than those of other Member States was 18%. In the group that
pursued full-time education until they were older than 20, this percentage was 31%. The other large
difference between categories was found among different occupational groups: while 29% of
employees believe that their country does better economically than other Member States, only 20% of
the self-employed share this opinion.

Analytical report, page 55
Flash EB No 193 – The euro fiv e y ears after The Gallup Organization

7.3 Evaluation of public finances

Finally, we asked respondents to evaluate public finances.

Perception of budget balance in eurozone countries

9/2006 1 0/2 005 1 1/2004 11 /2003

66
... had a budget deficit, meaning
74
that it spent more money than it
71
earned
68
10
... rev enues and spendings are 11
balanced 11
12
9
... had a budget surplus, meaning
7
that it earned more money than
8
it spent
8
15
8
(DK/NA)
9
11

Q23.Ea ch yea r, the [NATIONALITY ] State use s its revenues to finance public spending, meaning everything that is
So urce:
FLASH EB 193
paid by the State. From what you know, would you say that in 2005, the [NATIONALITY] Sta te had a budget surplus, a
Septemb er 2006 budget deficit or one way or a nother, revenues and spending balanced?
GALL UP % EU12

Similarly to previous research results, a significant majority, two thirds of respondents, thought that
their country’s budget was in deficit in the previous year (66%). Comparing the percentages from
2005 and 2006, citizens are overall less pessimistic when evaluating their country’s budget balance;
we see an 8 percentage point decrease in the percentage of respondents who think there is a deficit.

One in ten citizens from the eurozone thinks that their state revenues and spending were balanced, 9%
of say that their state had a budget surplus, meaning that it earned more money than it spent, and 15%
claim not to know if their country’s budget is balanced.

page 56
The Gallup Organization Flash EB N o 193 – The euro 5 y ears after

Evaluating public finances

Th e St ate had a
bu dget deficit,
by cou ntry

DE 87

FR 75

IT 69

AT 69

EU12 66

EL 60

PT 60

NL 56

LU 43

BE 34

ES 29

FI 27

IE 24

Source: Q23. Each year, the [NATIONALITY] State uses its r evenues to f inance public s pending, meaning
FLA SH EB 193 everything that is paid by t he S tate. From what you know, would you s ay that in 2 005,
September 200 6 the [NATIONALITY] St at e had a budget surplus, a budget deficit o r
GALLUP one w ay or anot her, revenues and spending b alanced?

Looking at country-by-country results on the issue of their national economic situation, we again see
large variation among Member States. The percentage of respondents who think that their country had
a budget deficit ranges from 24% in Ireland to 87% in Germany. In Ireland, 62% of citizens believe
that their country had a budget surplus.

Evaluating public finances, % of „The Sta te had a budget defic it, meaning that it spent
m ore money tha n it earned” answers

100 93 1 0/2 005 9/ 2006
87
81
80 75 76 74 75
73
69 69
66 66 66
60 60
60 56
51 51
43 42
38
40 34
29 27 25 24
20

0
DE FR IT AT EU1 2 EL PT NL LU BE ES FI IE

S ource: Q23. Ea ch year, the [NATIONALITY] State uses its revenues to finance public spe nding , m eaning everything that is
FLASH E B 193 paid by the Sta te. From what you know, would you say tha t in 2005 , the [NATIONALITY ] State had a budget surplus, a
S eptem ber 2 006 budge t deficit or one way or another, reve nues and spe nding balanced?
GA LLU P % by country

Analytical report, page 57
Flash EB No 193 – The euro fiv e y ears after The Gallup Organization

In 2006, Germany (87%), France (75%), Italy (69%), and Austria (69%) still rank highest in the
percentage of respondents claiming that their state had a budget deficit, while Spain (29%), Finland
(27%), and Ireland (24%) rank the lowest.

Comparing 2005 and 2006, some notable changes can be detected. The percentage of respondents
believing that there was a budget deficit in the previous year decreased in all but one country. In
Finland, the percentage decreased by an impressive 24 percentage points. In Luxembourg, we see the
opposite development; the percentage of respondents who believe that there is a deficit increased by 5
percentage points compared to results from last year.

Ev aluation of public finances, % of „budget deficit” answers, 2006
SEX OCCUPATION
Male 67 Self-em ploy ed 66
Female 66 Em ploy ee 71
AGE Manual worker 69
15 - 24 63 Not working 63
25 - 39 68 LOCALITY TYPE
40 - 54 71 Metropolitan area 68
55 + 63 Other towns 65
EDUCATION Rural zones 67
until 15 y ears of age 57 Q23. Each y ear, the [NATI ONALITY ] State uses its
rev enues to finance public spending, meaning every thing
16 - 20 70 that is paid by the State. F rom what y ou know, would y ou
say that in 2005, the [NATI ONALI TY ] State had a budget
20 + 71 surpl us, a budget deficit or o ne way or another, rev enues
Still in education and spending balanced?
61

Finally, looking at differences between socio-demographic groups in their evaluation of their
country’s public finances, we again found the largest differences by educational level. The percentage
of respondents who believe that there is a budget deficit in their countries’ public finances was 57% in
the group that pursued full-time education until they were 15 compared to 71% in the group that
finished full-time education when they were older than 20.

page 5 8
The Gallup Organization Flash EB N o 193 – The euro 5 y ears after

8. Public opinion and the Stability Pact

In the final chapter, we analyze the level of awareness of the Stability Pact’s existence, and the
perception of its functioning.

Although half of EU12 citizens have heard about the Stability Pact, only one in five citizens knows
what the Stability Pact is about. Overall, the Stability Pact is seen as a good thing, since it has made
the euro a stable and strong currency. Opinions vary on how strictly the rules of the Pact should be
applied in difficult economic periods, and as to whether sanctions are imposed in the same manner to
all Member States that do not respect the Stability Pact.

8.1 Awareness of the Stability Pact

Awareness of the Stability Pact

9/2006 1 0/2005 1 1/2004 11 /2 003
46
45
No, you have not heard about it
45
49
32
Yes, but you do not know very 36
well what it’ s ab out 36
35
18
Yes, and y ou know what it’s 19
about 19
16
4
0
(DK/NA)
0
0
So urce:
FLASH EB 193
Septemb er 2006
Q24.Personally, have you ever heard of the “Stability a nd Growth Pact”, which is often called the “Sta bility Pa ct”?
GALL UP % EU12

Half of respondents (50%) state that they have heard about the Stability Pact; 32% state that they have
heard about it but do not know very well what it’s about; and 18% have heard about it and also know
what the Stability Pact is about. Eurozone citizens’ level of awareness of the existence of the Stability
Pact has decreased by 5 percentage points from 2005.

Although half of eurozone citizens are familiar with the concept of the Stability Pact, a similarly large
percentage of citizens (46%) have not heard about it.

Analytical Report, page 59
Flash EB No 193 – The euro fiv e y ears after The Gallup Organization

Awareness of the Stabil ity Pact , 2006

No, y ou have not heard ab out it Yes, b ut you do not know v ery well what it's ab out Y es, and you know what it's about DK/NA

1 00% 2 3 1 4 4 1
8 6 6 5 5
9 7 10 33
90% 15 18 21 17 26 16
9 6 17
21 26 30 34
80% 24 17 20
32
30 32
70% 30
22 36
60% 37
36
50%

40%

30%

20%

1 0%
67 64 59 58 56 50 47 46 45 44 33 30 28
0%
EL BE ES FI FR NL IT EU12 LU IE AT DE PT

S ource: Q24. Personally, have you ever heard of the “Stability and Growth Pa ct”, which is often called the “Stability Pact”?
FLASH E B 193 % by country
S eptem ber 2 006
GA LLU P

Greece and Belgium have the highest percentages of citizens who have never heard about the Stability
Pact (67% and 64%, respectively). The countries where the percentages of those who know about the
Stability Pact are higher than the percentages of those who do not are Luxembourg (51% versus 45%),
Austria (62% versus 33%), Germany (70% versus 30%) and Portugal (56% versus 28%). The
percentage of respondents who have heard about the Stability Pact and know what it is about is the
highest in Germany (33%).

Aw ar en ess of the Stabil ity Pact, % of „yes” answers

100
1 0/ 2005 9/ 2006
80 74
69 68
62 62 61
60 56 55
50 50 52 50
48 4 7 47
44 45 43
39
40 36 35 33 35
33 31
30

20

0
DE AT PT LU EU1 2 IT NL FR IE FI ES BE EL

So urce: Q24. Personally, have you ever heard of the “Stability a nd Growth Pact”, which is often ca lle d the “Sta bility Pact”?
FLASH E B 193 % by country
Septem ber 2 006
GAL LU P

Respondents’ level of awareness of the existence of the Stability Pact has decreased in all countries
with the exception of Ireland. In Ireland, the level of awareness increased by 9 percentage points, from
30% in 2005 to 39% in 2006.

page 60
The Gallup Organization Flash EB N o 193 – The euro 5 y ears after

Awareness of the Stability Pact, 2006

% Yes, but y ou
% Yes, and y ou % No, y ou have
do n ot know
know what it 's not heard about % DK/NA
very well what
about it
it 's about
SEX
Male 26 35 37 3
Female 11 29 55 5
AGE
15 - 24 13 22 63 3
25 - 39 18 32 48 2
40 - 54 22 36 39 4
55 + 18 33 44 6
EDUCATION
until 15 y ears of age 7 27 57 9
16 - 20 18 34 46 3
20 + 28 37 33 2
Still in education 14 22 62 3
OCCUPATION
Self-em ploy ed 24 37 35 3
Em ploy ee 23 35 40 2
Manual worker 13 35 50 3
Not working 15 28 51 6
LOCALITY TYPE
Metropolitan area 23 33 41 3
Other towns 17 32 47 4
Rural zones 18 31 48 4
Q24. Personally , hav e y ou ever heard of the "Stability and Growth Pact", whic h is often called the "Stability Pact"?

When it comes to socio-demographic variables, we see the same discrepancies as in previous years.
Men are aware in significantly higher numbers that the Stability Pact exists, and are also more
knowledgeable about the Stability Pact than are women (37% of men compared to 55% of women
have “not heard about it”, and 26% of men compared to 11% of women “know what it is about”).

Younger respondents and those still in education are significantly less knowledgeable on this issue;
63% of the respondents in the youngest age category and 62% of those still in education have never
heard about the Stability Pact. The level of awareness of the existence of the Stability Pact and the
level of knowledge about what the Stability Pact increases with the level of education.

A high percentage of respondents who are not working and who are manual workers have never heard
about the Stability Pact (50% for manual workers and 51% for not working), and their level of
awareness of the existence of the Stability Pact is lower than that of self-employed respondents and
employees.

The percentages also vary according to the respondent’s place of residence, but to a lesser extent.

Analytical Report, page 61
Flash EB No 193 – The euro fiv e y ears after The Gallup Organization

8.2 Enforcement of the Stability Pact

Enforcement of the Stability Pact

9/2006 1 0/2005 11 /2 004 1 1/2003

43
47
Total "Disagree"
49
47

40
43
Total "A gree"
43
42

17
9
(DK/NA)
8
11

Q25 .During the introduction of the Euro, Member Sta te s of the European Union signed a « Stability Pact » by which everyone
So urce: committed to limiting their budget deficit. Ca n you tell me if you agree or disagre e with each of the following opinions … ?
FLASH EB 193 a) In difficult economic periods, a country should be free not to respect the limits set by the « Stability Pact » in terms of public
Septemb er 2006 deficit a nd debt
GALL UP % EU12

On the strict enforcement of the rules laid out in the Stability Pact regarding public deficit and debt,
opinions remain divided; 43% disagree with the statement that “in difficult economic periods, a
country should be free not to respect the limits set by the Stability Pact”, while 40% agree.

In 2006, 17% percent of respondents did not answer the question on enforcement; this is an increase of
8 percentage points compared to 2005.

Enforcement of the Stability Pact, 2006

% of r at he r + t ot ally disagre e (DK /NA ) % of t ot ally and rat he r agree
1 00%

90%
34 33 33 30
35
80% 43 40
49 46 46 45
52 51
70%

60%
21 25 28
50% 6 9 17 31
11 12 35
13
40%
23 27
30%
49 47 45
20% 43 42 43 42 42
38 34 31
26 22
1 0%

0%
IE FI AT NL EL DE FR EU1 2 ES PT BE LU IT
So urce: Q25 . During the introduction of the Euro, Member Sta tes of the European Union signed a « Stability Pact » by which
FLASH E B 193 everyone committed to lim iting their budge t deficit. Can you tell m e if you agree or disagre e with each of the following
Septem ber 2 006 opinions … ?
GAL LU P a ) In difficult econom ic periods, a country should be free not to respect the lim its set by the « Stability Pact » in terms
of public deficit a nd debt
% by country

There are only 5 countries out of 12 where citizens disagree with this statement in a higher number
than that they agree; these countries are Belgium (45% versus 33%), Italy (42% versus 30%),
Luxembourg (42% versus 33%), Germany (49% versus 45%) and France (47% versus 43%).

page 62
The Gallup Organization Flash EB N o 193 – The euro 5 y ears after

8.3 The Stability Pact and a strong and stable euro

Favour the Stability Pact because it guarantees strong and stable euro

9/2006 10/2005 1 1 /2004 1 1/2003

14
18
Total "Disagree"
17
18

69
72
Total "A gree"
75
71

17
9
(DK/NA)
8
11

Q25. During the introduction of the Euro, Member States of the European Union signed a « Sta bility Pa ct » by which everyone
So urce:
FLASH EB 193
committed to limiting their budget deficit. Can you tell me if you agree or disagree with ea ch of the following opinions … ?
Septemb er 2006 b) The « Stability Pact » is a good thing because, thanks to this, the Euro is a stable a nd strong currency
GALL UP % EU12

A majority of eurozone citizens (69%) assess the Stability Pact to be a good thing, because they
believe that it has made the euro a stable and strong currency. 14% of respondents disagree with this
opinion, and another 17% do not know or do not want to answer this question.

Favour the Stability Pac t bec ause it guarantees strong and stabl e euro

% of rather + totally disagree (DK/NA) % of totally and rather agree
1 00%

9 0%

80%
52 52
70% 64 62
73 69 70 70 71
75 75 75 77
6 0%

5 0%

4 0%
23
3 0% 39
6 17 27 31
2 0% 10 11 13 22 22
13 25
25 21
1 0% 16 14 14 12 11 9 9 8 8 8 4
0%
IE DE FR NL EU12 EL AT ES PT BE FI IT LU
S ource: Q25. During the introduction of the E uro, Member States of the European Union signed a « Stability Pa ct » by which
FL ASH E B 193 everyone committed to limiting their budget deficit. Can you tell me if you a gree or disag ree with each of the following
S ept em ber 2 006 opinions … ?
GAL LUP b) The « Stability Pa ct » is a good thing because, thanks to this, the Euro is a stable and strong currency
% by country

At the country level, we find that Austria (77%), France (75%), the Netherlands (75%) and Greece
(75%) have the highest percentages of respondents who rather or totally agree with the statement that
“the Stability Pact is a good thing because it has made the euro a stable and strong currency”. The
country where the highest ratio of citizens disagrees with this statement is Ireland (25%). Germany
ranks high for both the percentage of respondents who disagree with the statement and the percentage
who agree with this statement (21% and 73%, respectively). In Germany, we find the lowest
percentage of respondents who do not know or did not state their opinion on this item (6%).

Analytical Report, page 63
Flash EB No 193 – The euro fiv e y ears after The Gallup Organization

Favour the stability pact because it garantees strong and stable euro, % of
„total: disagree” answers
100

1 0/2 005 9/ 2006
80

60

40
25 26
21 21
16 18 16
20 14 14 14 13 13 14
10 12 11 11 12 10
9 9 8 8 8 9
4
0
IE DE FR NL EU1 2 EL AT ES PT BE FI IT LU

So urce: Q25 . During the introduction of the Euro, Member Sta tes of the European Union signed a « Stability Pact » by which
FLASH E B 193 everyone committed to lim iting their budge t deficit. Can you tell m e if you agree or disagre e with each of the following
Septem ber 2 006 opinions … ?
GAL LU P b) The « Stability P act » is a good thing beca use, thanks to this, the Euro is a stable and strong currency
% by country

Focussing on the difference between 2005 and 2006 in the percentage of respondents who rather or
totally disagree that the Stability Pact is a good thing, we find that the situation in Ireland is different
from that in other countries. In Ireland, we find an increase of 15 percentage points in the percentages
of respondents who rather or totally disagree with this statement (25% in 2006, compared to 10% in
2005).

8.4 Penalties for non-compliance with the Stability Pact

Penalties for non-compliance with the Stability Pact are impartial

9/2006 10/2005 1 1 /2004 1 1/2003

29
36
Total "Disagree"
38
40

44
48
Total "A gree"
48
40

28
15
(DK/NA)
14
19

Q25. During the introduction of the Euro, Member States of the European Union signed a « Sta bility Pa ct » by which everyone
So urce:
FLASH EB 193
committed to limiting their budget deficit. Can you tell me if you agree or disagree with ea ch of the following opinions … ?
Septemb er 2006 c) The measures foreseen a gainst countries that do not respect the « Stability Pa ct » are not applied in the sa me ma nner to a ll
GALL UP Member States
% EU12

Most citizens from the eurozone continue to believe that sanctions are implemented unevenly when
countries do not respect the Stability Pact; 44% agree with the statement, while 29% do not agree.

However, we also notice again a large increase compared to 2005 in the percentage of respondents
who do not know the answer to this statement (28% in 2006, compared to 15% in 2005).

page 64
The Gallup Organization Flash EB N o 193 – The euro 5 y ears after

Penalties for non-compliance with the Stability Pact are impartial, 2006

% of rat he r + t otally disagre e (DK /NA ) % of totally and rath er agre e
1 00%

90%
34 30 30
80% 39 39 38
48 44
56 53 51
70% 58 57

60%
14 28
50%
39 45
28 33 38
40% 16 22
25
30% 20 25
32
47
20% 42
31 30 29 28 28
22 23 24 25
1 0% 19
11
0%
AT FI IE DE EL FR EU12 NL LU ES PT BE IT

So urce: Q25 . During the introduction of the Euro, Member Sta tes of the European Union signed a « Stability Pact » by which
FLASH E B 193 everyone committed to lim iting their budge t deficit. Can you tell m e if you agree or disagre e with each of the following
Septem ber 2 006 opinions … ?
GAL LU P c) The measures foreseen aga inst countries that do not respect the « Sta bility Pact » a re not applied in the same
ma nner to all Member Sta te s
% by country

In all but two countries, the share of citizens who agree with these statements outnumbers the share of
those who disagree with them. This is overwhelmingly true in Finland (57% versus 11%), Ireland
(56% versus 19%) and Austria (58% versus 22%). The two countries where more citizens disagree
than agree with the statement on impartiality of the penalties for this kind of non-compliance are the
Netherlands and Belgium (47% versus 39% in the Netherlands, and 42% versus 30% in Belgium).

A ssessing the impartiality of penalties for n on-complianc e w ith the Stability Pac t, % of
„ total : disagree” answ ers

100
10/2005 9/2006

80

60
47
43 42 43
39 37
40 36 34 36
29 31 30 29 29 28 30
28 25 24 23 22 21 1 9
18
20 15
11

0
NL BE DE FR EU1 2 LU PT IT ES EL AT IE FI

S ource: Q25. During the introduction of the Euro, Member States of the Europea n Union signed a « Stability Pact » by which
FLASH E B 193 everyone comm itted to limiting their budge t deficit. Ca n you tell m e if you agree or disagree with each of the follow ing
S eptem ber 2 006 opinions … ?
GA LLU P c) The measures fore seen against countries that do not respe ct the « Stability Pa ct » are not applied in the same
manner to a ll M ember Sta tes
% by country

Focussing on the difference between 2005 and 2006 in the percentage of respondents who rather or
totally disagree with the statement that measures against countries that do not respect the Stability Pact
are not applied in the same manner to all Member States, we find that the Netherlands have a different
pattern than the other countries. In the Netherlands, we find an increase of 18 percentage points in the
percentages of respondents who rather or totally disagree with this statement (47% in 2006, compared
to 29% in 2005).

Analytical Report, page 65
Flash EB No 193 – The euro fiv e y ears after The Gallup Organization

8.5 Eurozone countries respect Stability Pact rules

The eurozone countries respect the Stability Pact rul es
In 2006, contrary to last year’s
results, respondents were more 9/2006 1 0/2005 1 1/2004 11 /2 003
likely to think that the rules of 12
11
the Stability Pact in terms of A bsolutely
12
12
public deficit and debt were 32
respected by their countries. Rather 27
32
28
25
Forty-four percent of citizens Rather not 32
28
state that they think that their 25
country respects the rules 11
18
Not at all
(compared to 38% in 2005), 16
19
while 36% state that they think 20
12
that their country does not DK/NA
12
respect the rules (compared to 16

50% in 2005). So urce:
Q26. Would you say tha t currently [COUNTRY] respects the rules of the
FLASH EB 193
Septemb er 2006 Stability Pa ct concerning the limits in terms of public deficit and debt?
GALL UP % EU12

Austria (80%) and Finland (75%) are still the countries with the largest share of respondents thinking
that the rules are respected, followed by the Netherlands (69%) and Luxembourg (68%). At the other
extreme, Germany (50%), France (47%) and Portugal (46%) have the highest percentages of
respondents who do not believe their countries respect the rules of the Stability Pact.

The eurozone countries respect the Stability Pact rules, 200 6

% of absolutely + rat her DK/ NA % of rath er not + not at all
1 00% 5
9 7
12 15 12
90% 20
11 21 34 36 35
80% 19 25
27 50 47 46
23
70%

60% 36
14
20
50% 30
5
18
40% 80 31
75
69 68
30% 62 61
52
20% 45 44 43
35 34
10% 23

0%
AT FI NL LU IE BE EL DE EU12 ES FR IT PT

So urce: Q26. Would you say that currently [COUNTRY] respects the rules of the Stability Pact concerning the limits in terms of
FLASH EB 193 public deficit and debt?
Septemb er 2006 % by country
GALL UP

page 66
The Gallup Organization Flash EB N o 193 – The euro 5 y ears after

The eurozone countries respect the Stability Pact rules, 2005-2006

% of „absolutely and rather respect” answers
100
10/ 2005 9/ 2006
84
80 76 80 75 79
72 69
68 66
62 63 61
58
60 53 52
45 44 43
38 35
40 31 32 34
23 23
18
20

0
AT FI NL LU IE BE EL DE EU12 ES FR IT PT
100
% of „rather not and not at all” answers
78
80
60
60 50 50 47 49
43 46
39 36
40 34 35
23 26
20 20
20 15
11 9 11 1 2 8 12
5 5 7
0
AT FI NL LU IE BE EL DE EU12 ES FR IT PT
So urce:
FLASH EB 193
Septemb er 2006
GALL UP Q26. Would you say tha t curre ntly [COUNTRY ] respects the rules of the Stability Pact concerning the limits in term s of
public deficit and debt?
% by country

Finally focussing on the difference between 2005 and 2006 in the percentage of respondents who say
that their country currently respects the rules of the Stability Pact, we find that Germany stands out
from the other countries. In Germany, we find an increase of 27 percentage points in the percentage of
respondents who agree with this statement (45% in 2006, compared to 18% in 2005) and a
corresponding decrease of 28 percentage points in the percentage of respondents who disagree with it
(50% in 2006, compared to 78% in 2005).

Analytical Report, page 67
Flash EB N o 193 – Euro – Fiv e Years After Study The Gallup Organization

Flash EB Series #193

The eurozone,
5 years after the
introduction of euro
coins and banknotes

Annex
Tables and
Survey
Details

THE GALLUP ORGANIZATION

page 68
The Gallup Organization Flash EB N o 193 – Euro – Fiv e Years After Study

9. Annex tables
Table 1. Difficulties of using the euro............................................................................................71
Table 2. Difficulty of distinguishing and manipulating euro coins ...................................................72
Table 3. Difficulty of distinguishing and manipulating euro bank notes ...........................................73
Table 4. The euro as a mental benchmark for exceptional purchases................................................74
Table 5. The euro as a mental benchmark for small purchases.........................................................75
Table 6. Reported change in consumer behaviour due to the introduction of the euro........................76
Table 7. Knowledge of fees for money and banking transactions across the eurozone.......................77
Table 8. Dual pricing is something people like...............................................................................78
Table 9. Dual pricing is useful ......................................................................................................79
Table 10. Current selection of euro coins .......................................................................................80
Table 11. Removal of euro coins...................................................................................................81
Table 12. The consequences of the suppression of small coins ........................................................82
Table 13. New euro coin denominations ........................................................................................83
Table 14. Travel outside the eurozone ...........................................................................................84
Table 15. Using the euro outside the eurozone ...............................................................................85
Table 16. Overall observation of the adoption of the euro ...............................................................86
Table 17. Eurozone advantages, A ................................................................................................87
Table 18. Eurozone advantages, B.................................................................................................88
Table 19. Eurozone disadvantages, A ............................................................................................89
Table 20. Eurozone disadvantages, B ............................................................................................90
Table 21. Effect on the increase of prices.......................................................................................91
Table 22. Effect on harmonisation of prices...................................................................................92
Table 23. International status of the euro .......................................................................................93
Table 24. Concern about the euro/dollar ratio.................................................................................94
Table 25. Value of the euro against the US dollar...........................................................................95
Table 26. The euro’s reported impact on European identity.............................................................96
Table 27. The extension of the euro to the New Member States.......................................................97
Table 28. Citizens’ opinion on the extension of the euro to the New Member States.........................98
Table 29. Awareness of economic policy coordination within the EU..............................................99
Table 30. Evaluation of economic policy coordination.................................................................. 100
Table 31. Economic situation in country compared to eurozone average........................................ 101
Table 32. Perception of budget balance in eurozone countries....................................................... 102

Annex Tables, page 69
Flash EB N o 193 – Euro – Fiv e Years After Study The Gallup Organization

Table 33. Awareness of the Stability Pact.................................................................................... 103
Table 34. Enforcement of the Stability Pact................................................................................. 104
Table 35. Favour the Stability Pact because it guarantees strong and stable euro ............................ 105
Table 36. Penalties for non-compliance with the Stability Pact...................................................... 106
Table 37. The eurozone countries respect the Stability Pact .......................................................... 107

page 7 0
The Gallup Organization Flash EB N o 193 – Euro – Fiv e Years After Study

Table 1. Difficulties of using the euro
QUES TION: Q1. It's five years since we have been using the euro instead of [NATIONAL CURRENCY]. Today,
would you say that the euro continues to cause you a lot of difficulty, some difficulty or no difficulty at all?

% A lot of % Som e % No
Total N % DK/NA
difficulty difficulty difficulty at all
EU12 12078 14.7 26.1 59 0.2
COUNTRY
Belgium 1000 6.3 26.6 67.1 0
Germany 1006 12.3 23.1 64.3 0.2
Greece 1010 21.2 20.3 58.5 0
Spain 1003 10.6 22.6 66.7 0
France 1001 9.3 39.8 50.8 0.1
Ireland 1023 11.2 7.3 81.2 0.2
Italy 1011 30.5 24.7 44.5 0.3
Luxembourg 1008 4 19 76.9 0.1
Netherlands 1001 13.2 19.4 67.2 0.2
Austria 1013 7.7 26.7 65.5 0.1
Portugal 1002 7.3 18.5 74.2 0
Finland 1000 2.6 29 68.2 0.1
SEX
Male 5847 13.1 21.6 65.2 0.1
Female 6231 16.3 30.4 53.2 0.2
AGE
15 - 24 1797 6.7 20.1 73 0.2
25 - 39 2711 10.9 24.2 64.8 0.1
40 - 54 3457 15.1 28.5 56.3 0.1
55 + 4043 20.5 27.9 51.5 0.2
EDUCATION
until 15 years of age 2224 28.3 25.7 45.8 0.2
16 - 20 4851 13.5 28.1 58.1 0.2
20 + 3313 9 27.1 63.8 0
Still in education 1198 6.6 18.9 74.2 0.3
OCCUPATION
Self-em ployed 1135 14.9 22.6 62.5 0
Em ployee 3900 8.9 29.1 61.9 0.1
Manual worker 955 16.9 26.6 56.3 0.2
Not working 6017 18.2 24.9 56.7 0.2
LOCALITY TY PE
Metropolitan area 2438 12.9 25.3 61.5 0.3
Other towns 4613 15.2 25.6 59.1 0
Rural zones 4965 15.2 27 57.5 0.2

Annex Tables, page 71
Flash EB N o 193 – Euro – Fiv e Years After Study The Gallup Organization

Table 2. Difficulty of distinguishing and manipulating euro coins
QUES TION: Q4a. When you pay cash, would you say that it is: very easy, rather easy, rather difficult or very
difficult to distinguish and to manipulate coins?
%
Neither
% Very % Rather % Rather % Very %
Total N easy nor
easy easy difficult difficult DK/NA
difficult,
normal
EU12 12078 38 35.5 19 5.3 1.9 0.2
COUNTRY
Belgium 1000 33.9 38.2 22.1 4.2 1.5 0.2
Germany 1006 26.5 34.3 29.2 7.3 2.3 0.4
Greece 1010 67.6 17.5 10 4.3 0.6 0
Spain 1003 50.3 38.2 5.3 2.1 4.1 0
France 1001 26 46.6 21.6 4.9 0.8 0.1
Ireland 1023 61.3 24 10.7 3.1 0.9 0.1
Italy 1011 48.7 30 15.5 5.6 0.1 0
Luxembourg 1008 34.8 40.7 19.8 2.7 2 0
Netherlands 1001 33.3 32.7 21.7 9.2 2.5 0.6
Austria 1013 31.6 36.2 22.5 6.2 3.3 0.2
Portugal 1002 54 32.6 5 2 6.3 0.1
Finland 1000 58.6 30.2 8.2 1.1 1.1 0.8
SEX
Male 5847 40.5 34.9 18.3 4.1 1.9 0.2
Female 6231 35.7 36.1 19.6 6.5 1.9 0.2
AGE
15 - 24 1797 50.9 39.2 7.6 1.5 0.7 0
25 - 39 2711 43.2 40.8 12.1 2 1.8 0
40 - 54 3457 35.3 35.9 22.1 4.8 1.9 0
55 + 4043 31.1 30.1 26.1 9.7 2.5 0.5
EDUCATION
until 15 years of
age 2224 35.4 31.9 19.6 9.5 3 0.5
16 - 20 4851 36.1 36 21.2 4.9 1.8 0.1
20 + 3313 37 37.1 20.2 3.8 1.6 0.2
Still in education 1198 53 38.9 5.8 1.4 0.8 0
OCCUPATION
Self-em ployed 1135 43.7 32.1 18.5 4.3 1.5 0
Em ployee 3900 36.8 38.1 19.7 3.2 2.2 0
Manual worker 955 38.3 39.6 15.4 4.9 1.9 0
Not working 6017 37.5 33.9 19.4 7.1 1.7 0.4
LOCALITY
TY PE
Metropolitan area 2438 41 34.8 18.4 4.1 1.6 0.2
Other towns 4613 40.2 35.8 17.1 5.2 1.7 0.1
Rural zones 4965 34.5 35.6 21.2 6.1 2.2 0.3

page 72
The Gallup Organization Flash EB N o 193 – Euro – Fiv e Years After Study

Table 3. Difficulty of distinguishing and manipulating euro bank notes
QUES TION: Q4b. When you pay cash, would you say that it is: very easy, rather easy, rather difficult or very
difficult to distinguish and to manipulate bank notes?
%
Neither
% Very % Rather % Rather % Very %
Total N easy nor
easy easy difficult difficult DK/NA
difficult,
normal
EU12 12078 61.5 32.6 3.2 1.1 1.4 0.2
COUNTRY
Belgium 1000 76.4 20 2.1 0.6 0.7 0.2
Germany 1006 55.2 39.4 3.2 0.6 1.3 0.2
Greece 1010 79.3 16 3 1.4 0.3 0
Spain 1003 52.2 37.8 3.2 2.8 3.9 0.1
France 1001 53.6 41.8 3 0.5 0.6 0.5
Ireland 1023 71.4 19 7.1 1.5 0.4 0.5
Italy 1011 74.4 20.9 3.4 1.2 0 0
Luxembourg 1008 68.6 27.5 2.6 0.2 1.1 0
Netherlands 1001 71.5 21.7 4.2 1.4 0.8 0.3
Austria 1013 65.1 27.5 3.4 1.2 2.3 0.5
Portugal 1002 56.7 32.6 2.4 2.2 6.1 0
Finland 1000 75.2 21.6 1.9 0.2 0.9 0.4
SEX
Male 5847 63 32.1 2.6 1 1.1 0.3
Female 6231 60.1 33 3.8 1.3 1.6 0.2
AGE
15 - 24 1797 70.3 26.5 1.6 0.7 0.5 0.5
25 - 39 2711 64 32.5 1.7 0.8 0.9 0
40 - 54 3457 61 33.6 3.3 1.1 1 0
55 + 4043 56.4 34.4 4.8 1.6 2.3 0.4
EDUCATION
until 15 years of
age 2224 57.3 33.3 4.3 2.2 2.7 0.2
16 - 20 4851 59.6 34.6 3.3 1.1 1.3 0.2
20 + 3313 63.6 32.7 2.6 0.5 0.6 0
Still in education 1198 73.7 23.1 1.1 0.8 0.6 0.7
OCCUPATION
Self-em ployed 1135 65.8 28 2.3 2.1 1.8 0
Em ployee 3900 60.8 35 2.6 0.5 1.1 0
Manual worker 955 59.2 37.4 1.9 0.2 1.3 0
Not working 6017 61.5 31.3 3.9 1.5 1.5 0.3
LOCALITY
TY PE
Metropolitan area 2438 62.5 32 2.9 1.2 1.4 0
Other towns 4613 62.8 31.4 3.2 1 1.2 0.4
Rural zones 4965 59.7 34 3.4 1.2 1.5 0.1

Annex Tables, page 73
Flash EB N o 193 – Euro – Fiv e Years After Study The Gallup Organization

Table 4. The euro as a mental benchmark for exceptional purchases
QUES TION: Q2a. Today, when purchasing, do you count mentally: most often in euro, most often in [NATIONAL
CURRENCY], or as often in euro as in [NATIONAL C URRENCY] when it concerns - A - Exceptional purchases
such as the purchase of a car or a house for example
% Most often % As often in
% Most often in euro as in
Total N % DK/NA
in euro [NATIONAL [NATIONAL
CURRENCY] CURRENCY]
EU12 12078 28.6 39.8 29.4 2.2
COUNTRY
Belgium 1000 18.1 64.9 16.2 0.7
Germany 1006 26.4 44.3 25.8 3.5
Greece 1010 41.1 27.6 29.9 1.3
Spain 1003 24 40.8 32.8 2.4
France 1001 20.4 42.6 35.2 1.8
Ireland 1023 88.4 6.2 4.7 0.7
Italy 1011 38.9 26.8 33.1 1.2
Luxembourg 1008 35.7 43.1 21.1 0.2
Netherlands 1001 32.6 57.1 8.6 1.7
Austria 1013 22 54.5 21.3 2.2
Portugal 1002 23.9 26.7 46.5 2.9
Finland 1000 30 28.4 39.6 2.1
SEX
Male 5847 34.9 34.5 28.7 1.9
Female 6231 22.6 44.8 30 2.5
AGE
15 - 24 1797 45 25.7 26.6 2.7
25 - 39 2711 30.4 37.3 31.5 0.8
40 - 54 3457 26.4 43.4 29.3 0.8
55 + 4043 21.8 44.6 29.4 4.1
EDUCATION
until 15 years of age 2224 21.6 42.9 30.7 4.9
16 - 20 4851 26 43.7 28.6 1.6
20 + 3313 29 38.7 31.7 0.6
Still in education 1198 49.9 21.5 25.6 3
OCCUPATION
Self-em ployed 1135 33.9 37.4 28 0.7
Em ployee 3900 25.2 41.4 32.6 0.8
Manual worker 955 24.6 42 32.4 1
Not working 6017 30.2 38.9 27.3 3.5
LOCALITY TY PE
Metropolitan area 2438 30 38.7 29.7 1.6
Other towns 4613 29.5 37.8 30.3 2.4
Rural zones 4965 26.9 42.3 28.5 2.4

page 74
The Gallup Organization Flash EB N o 193 – Euro – Fiv e Years After Study

Table 5. The euro as a mental benchmark for small purchases
QUES TION: Q2b. Today, when purchasing, do you count mentally: most often in euro, most often in [NATIONAL
CURRENCY], or as often in euro as in [NATIONAL C URRENCY] when it concerns - B - Common purchases such
as day-to-day shopping
% Most often % As often in
% Most often in euro as in
Total N % DK/NA
in euro [NATIONAL [NATIONAL
CURRENCY] CURRENCY]
EU12 12078 56.9 22.2 20.5 0.5
COUNTRY
Belgium 1000 59.6 25.9 14.5 0
Germany 1006 49.1 29.8 20.6 0.6
Greece 1010 66.7 15.7 17.4 0.1
Spain 1003 59.9 18.3 21.3 0.5
France 1001 67.3 16 16.4 0.3
Ireland 1023 90.6 6.5 2.7 0.2
Italy 1011 50.2 21.6 27.9 0.3
Luxembourg 1008 73.9 13.9 12.3 0
Netherlands 1001 58.1 31.4 8.9 1.5
Austria 1013 68.7 19.6 11 0.6
Portugal 1002 43.1 17.4 39.5 0
Finland 1000 74.8 8 16.4 0.7
SEX
Male 5847 61.9 18.9 18.7 0.5
Female 6231 52.2 25.3 22.1 0.4
AGE
15 - 24 1797 76.3 10.8 12.4 0.5
25 - 39 2711 64.2 17.1 18.4 0.3
40 - 54 3457 53.7 23.6 22.5 0.3
55 + 4043 46.3 29.3 23.7 0.7
EDUCATION
until 15 years of age 2224 39.9 32.2 27.5 0.5
16 - 20 4851 55 24.7 19.9 0.3
20 + 3313 64.5 15.7 19.6 0.3
Still in education 1198 76.8 10.3 11.9 1
OCCUPATION
Self-em ployed 1135 62.1 18.2 19.5 0.3
Em ployee 3900 61.1 18.8 19.7 0.4
Manual worker 955 55.2 23.9 20.5 0.4
Not working 6017 53.4 24.9 21.3 0.5
LOCALITY TY PE
Metropolitan area 2438 58.4 20.9 20.3 0.4
Other towns 4613 58 21.5 19.9 0.5
Rural zones 4965 55.3 23.3 20.9 0.4

Annex Tables, page 75
Flash EB N o 193 – Euro – Fiv e Years After Study The Gallup Organization

Table 6. Reported change in consumer behaviour due to the introduction of the euro
QUES TION: Q7. For five years now all payments have been made in euro, some people buy more as they don't realise
how much they are spending; on the other hand others buy less as they fear spending too much. Which of these two
attitudes is closer to yours?
% You buy m ore
% You buy
as y ou have % Neither one
less as you
Total N difficulty realising or the other: % DK/NA
fear spending
how much you no difference
too much
are spending
EU12 12078 25 32.8 41.1 1.1
COUNTRY
Belgium 1000 34 14.7 50.5 0.8
Germany 1006 19.3 39.7 40 1
Greece 1010 32 30.2 37.2 0.7
Spain 1003 27.8 25.9 45.1 1.2
France 1001 34 29.6 35.8 0.6
Ireland 1023 44.4 27 27.6 1
Italy 1011 17.5 39.7 41.6 1.2
Luxembourg 1008 33.3 15.1 51.5 0.1
Netherlands 1001 28 30 40.4 1.6
Austria 1013 31.8 23 43.6 1.7
Portugal 1002 16.4 25.2 57.2 1.2
Finland 1000 35.2 14 47.4 3.3
SEX
Male 5847 25.4 29 44.2 1.4
Female 6231 24.7 36.3 38.3 0.8
AGE
15 - 24 1797 36.5 34.2 27.9 1.4
25 - 39 2711 32.3 31.3 35.8 0.6
40 - 54 3457 23 31.9 44.2 0.9
55 + 4043 16.9 33.7 48.1 1.3
EDUCATION
until 15 years of age 2224 16.7 39.4 42.5 1.4
16 - 20 4851 24.7 33.8 40.6 0.8
20 + 3313 28.2 25.2 45.8 0.7
Still in education 1198 33.9 34.6 29.2 2.3
OCCUPATION
Self-em ployed 1135 24.1 26 49.3 0.7
Em ployee 3900 29.7 29.5 40 0.8
Manual worker 955 28.8 36.4 34 0.8
Not working 6017 21.4 35.7 41.6 1.3
LOCALITY TY PE
Metropolitan area 2438 28.8 28.9 41.4 0.9
Other towns 4613 26.3 30.1 42.6 1.1
Rural zones 4965 22.1 36.8 39.9 1.1

page 76
The Gallup Organization Flash EB N o 193 – Euro – Fiv e Years After Study

Table 7. Knowledge of fees for money and banking transactions across the eurozone
QUES TION: Q10a-c. Compared to a similar operation done in [COUNTRY], in your opinion, do you pay
supplementary fees ... ?

% “yes” shown
When y ou use
When y ou use
your bank card When y ou
your bank card
make a banking
to withdraw to make a
transfer to
Total N m oney in purchase in
another
another another country of the
country of the
country of the eurozone
eurozone
eurozone
EU12 12078 26.7 20.5 24.6
COUNTRY
Belgium 1000 26.8 23.7 25.7
Germany 1006 37.9 25.5 33
Greece 1010 29.4 22.7 28.3
Spain 1003 19.9 12.7 16
France 1001 30.7 27.7 34
Ireland 1023 55.4 54.6 51.9
Italy 1011 10.9 8.8 5.3
Luxembourg 1008 37.3 22.9 36.2
Netherlands 1001 26.8 24.1 33.5
Austria 1013 26.5 23 29.6
Portugal 1002 20.4 16.6 20.1
Finland 1000 18.6 10.1 16.1
SEX
Male 5847 27.5 21.9 25.8
Female 6231 25.9 19.1 23.5
AGE
15 - 24 1797 27.8 22.6 27.8
25 - 39 2711 30.9 25.5 29.4
40 - 54 3457 27.8 21.2 25.2
55 + 4043 22.4 15.6 19.2
EDUCATION
until 15 years of age 2224 18.2 14.4 15.5
16 - 20 4851 28.6 22.2 25.2
20 + 3313 30.5 23.3 31
Still in education 1198 25.8 18.4 22.5
OCCUPATION
Self-em ployed 1135 25.4 20 24.5
Em ployee 3900 32.3 24.9 31.4
Manual worker 955 27 26.9 25.4
Not working 6017 23.2 16.6 19.9
LOCALITY TY PE
Metropolitan area 2438 29.6 21.8 28.3
Other towns 4613 26.5 20.5 23.4
Rural zones 4965 25.5 20 24.1

Annex Tables, page 77
Flash EB N o 193 – Euro – Fiv e Years After Study The Gallup Organization

Table 8. Dual pricing is something people like
QUES TION: Q3a. It's five years since all purchases have been made in euro and no longer in [NATIONAL
CURRENCY]. Would you like shopkeepers to continue dual price displays?
Total N % Yes % No % DK/NA
EU12 6093 38.5 58.3 3.2
COUNTRY
Belgium 502 35.6 63.7 0.7
Germany 505 26 70.5 3.5
Greece 509 31.2 65.4 3.4
Spain 511 50.4 43.4 6.2
France 499 55.3 41.1 3.5
Ireland 543 22.5 73.9 3.7
Italy 509 45.7 52.5 1.8
Luxembourg 506 24.9 74.1 1
Netherlands 528 13.4 84.1 2.4
Austria 519 25 73 2
Portugal 492 35.7 63.1 1.1
Finland 507 18.9 78.3 2.8
SEX
Male 3046 34.1 62.1 3.8
Female 3047 42.9 54.4 2.7
AGE
15 - 24 895 32.8 62.7 4.6
25 - 39 1418 35.6 61.8 2.6
40 - 54 1677 39.2 57.7 3.1
55 + 2072 42.3 54.5 3.2
EDUCATION
until 15 years of age 1117 46.9 49.9 3.2
16 - 20 2434 39.8 56.4 3.8
20 + 1640 33.4 64.3 2.3
Still in education 664 28.3 68.7 3
OCCUPATION
Self-em ployed 544 37.7 60.2 2.1
Em ployee 1922 36 61.3 2.7
Manual worker 476 45 50.5 4.5
Not working 3116 39.1 57.4 3.5
LOCALITY TY PE
Metropolitan area 1201 33 64.2 2.8
Other towns 2342 42.1 55.4 2.5
Rural zones 2526 37.8 58 4.2

page 78
The Gallup Organization Flash EB N o 193 – Euro – Fiv e Years After Study

Table 9. Dual pricing is useful
QUES TION: Q3b. It's five years since all purchases have been made in euro and no longer in [NATIONAL
CURRENCY]. Would you say that it is useful for you that shopkeepers extend dual price displays?
Total N % Yes % No % DK/NA
EU12 5985 38.3 60 1.7
COUNTRY
Belgium 498 32.9 66.3 0.8
Germany 501 23.1 75.5 1.3
Greece 501 33.8 63.8 2.5
Spain 492 55.4 41.1 3.4
France 502 54.3 45.1 0.6
Ireland 480 32.7 64.2 3.2
Italy 502 46.6 51.5 1.9
Luxembourg 502 23.3 76 0.7
Netherlands 473 13.7 83.8 2.5
Austria 494 16.5 82 1.5
Portugal 510 31.5 67.7 0.8
Finland 493 22.7 74.5 2.8
SEX
Male 2801 36.6 62 1.4
Female 3184 39.9 58.1 2
AGE
15 - 24 903 36.7 62.1 1.2
25 - 39 1293 38.2 59.9 1.9
40 - 54 1780 36.6 62.4 1
55 + 1971 40.6 57 2.4
EDUCATION
until 15 years of age 1107 46.6 51.4 1.9
16 - 20 2418 37.2 61.1 1.7
20 + 1673 33.6 65.1 1.3
Still in education 534 35.1 63.6 1.3
OCCUPATION
Self-em ployed 591 33.6 65.7 0.7
Em ployee 1978 36.5 62.4 1.1
Manual worker 479 42 55.6 2.5
Not working 2900 40 57.9 2.1
LOCALITY TY PE
Metropolitan area 1237 36.7 61 2.3
Other towns 2271 39.8 59 1.3
Rural zones 2439 37.7 60.5 1.8

Annex Tables, page 79
Flash EB N o 193 – Euro – Fiv e Years After Study The Gallup Organization

Table 10. Current selection of euro coins
QUES TION: Q5. Having used euro coins for five years, do you consider that there are too many or, on the contrary,
not enough coins with different values or do you consider that there are just the right number?
% Not % Just the
Total N % Too many % DK/NA
enough right number
EU12 12078 36.3 3.6 58.2 1.9
COUNTRY
Belgium 1000 61.4 0.5 37.1 1
Germany 1006 13.5 5 79.6 1.9
Greece 1010 48.4 6.3 42.6 2.7
Spain 1003 34.7 4.4 57.4 3.5
France 1001 38.4 2.6 58 1
Ireland 1023 52.2 11.2 35.4 1.2
Italy 1011 63.5 1.8 33.3 1.4
Luxembourg 1008 59.2 1.1 38.5 1.3
Netherlands 1001 31.5 2.4 61.3 4.8
Austria 1013 44.8 1.8 52.3 1.1
Portugal 1002 31.5 2.5 64 2
Finland 1000 8.7 8.1 81.2 1.9
SEX
Male 5847 35.4 4.2 58.7 1.6
Female 6231 37.1 3 57.6 2.3
AGE
15 - 24 1797 35.3 3 60.7 1
25 - 39 2711 35.8 3.4 59.7 1.1
40 - 54 3457 38.3 4.5 55.9 1.3
55 + 4043 35.4 3.2 58 3.4
EDUCATION
until 15 years of age 2224 42 2.8 51.8 3.4
16 - 20 4851 34.8 4.2 59.4 1.6
20 + 3313 33.7 3.5 61.5 1.2
Still in education 1198 37.9 2.8 57.8 1.6
OCCUPATION
Self-em ployed 1135 41.4 2.9 55.1 0.6
Em ployee 3900 33.7 4 61.4 0.9
Manual worker 955 33 3 62.6 1.4
Not working 6017 37.6 3.6 55.9 2.9
LOCALITY TY PE
Metropolitan area 2438 34.8 4.1 59.6 1.5
Other towns 4613 38.1 3.5 56.2 2.1
Rural zones 4965 35.2 3.4 59.4 2

page 80
The Gallup Organization Flash EB N o 193 – Euro – Fiv e Years After Study

Table 11. Removal of euro coins
QUES TION: Q6a_1-8. Please indicate whether any of the following denominations should be removed. If yes, which
one or which ones?

% “yes” shown

Base: “too many”, Q5=1

1 -cent 10- 20- 50-
2 -cent 5-cent 1- 2 - cent
Total cent cent cent
euro euro euro euro euro
N euro euro euro
coin coin coin coin coin coin coin coin
EU12 4383 86.8 82.2 29.3 4.9 4.2 1.5 5.8 8.7
COUNTRY
Belgium 614 93.4 84.7 27.1 2.2 1.3 0.5 1.7 4.9
Germany 136 68.5 76.3 18.8 3.1 13.1 0.9 0 1.3
Greece 488 67.7 66.7 44.7 7.9 3.8 2.4 24.5 30.6
Spain 348 96.9 86.6 18 2.1 1.4 0.6 0.8 1.1
France 385 91.5 81.7 27.7 2 1 0.7 0.7 1.6
Ireland 534 80.8 76.3 27.2 9.3 2.4 1.4 0.2 0.2
Italy 642 88 85.6 39.1 8.4 4.3 2.5 11.9 15.9
Luxembourg 596 95.5 90.6 30.8 2.6 1.4 0.6 1.9 1.9
Netherlands 315 91.2 87.7 12.9 5.3 13.3 2.5 2.5 4.9
Austria 454 79.2 70.5 22.9 0.8 3 0.9 2.6 20.1
Portugal 315 90.5 83.6 23.8 3 1.7 0.7 2.6 4.1
Finland 87 21.4 22.6 54.2 24.4 8.4 4 3 8.9
SEX
Male 2071 86.1 79.9 29 4.7 4.2 1.8 7.3 10.7
Female 2312 87.3 84.3 29.6 5.2 4.3 1.2 4.5 7
AGE
15 - 24 634 92.1 89.9 32.6 3.5 1.3 0.2 1.8 5.5
25 - 39 971 85.7 81.7 28.3 4.5 4.2 1.8 7.1 10.7
40 - 54 1323 86.9 83.7 29.7 5.8 4.7 1.5 7.2 10.1
55 + 1431 85 77.7 28.3 5 5.1 1.8 5.5 7.6
EDUCATION
until 15 years of
age 935 91 84.6 33.8 6.1 4.1 2.3 7.4 9.5
16 - 20 1690 84.8 79.7 30.3 4.4 5 1.8 6.5 9.7
20 + 1118 84.2 82.1 23.8 5 4 0.5 5.7 8.6
Still in education 453 90.9 86.9 29.8 3.6 1.4 0.2 2 6.5
OCCUPATION
Self-em ployed 470 82.8 79.9 35.3 5.3 4.7 1.2 12 13.5
Em ployee 1315 87.3 82.4 26 4 4.6 1.5 4.1 6.5
Manual worker 315 89.1 79.4 30.6 6.5 4.6 2.2 5.5 9.5
Not working 2262 87 83.1 29.9 5.2 3.8 1.4 5.6 8.9
LOCALITY
TY PE
Metropolitan area 849 87.4 80.7 28.7 4.2 3.7 0.9 4.4 7.1
Other towns 1760 87.6 83.3 30 4.9 4.4 1.4 6.1 8.4
Rural zones 1747 85.6 81.7 29.1 5.4 4.4 1.7 5.8 9.4

Annex Tables, page 81
Flash EB N o 193 – Euro – Fiv e Years After Study The Gallup Organization

Table 12. The consequences of the suppression of small coins
QUES TION: Q8. Do you believe that the suppression of small euro coins (such as the 1 and 2 cent coins)
% Would not
% Would % Would have any
Total N % DK/NA
raise prices lower prices effect on
prices
EU12 12078 64.2 2.2 27 6.5
COUNTRY
Belgium 1000 79.1 1.2 14 5.7
Germany 1006 64.6 1.6 30.3 3.5
Greece 1010 51.7 3.1 36.6 8.6
Spain 1003 68.1 2.1 20.4 9.3
France 1001 78.3 2.4 15.5 3.8
Ireland 1023 53.5 11.1 29.5 5.9
Italy 1011 54.6 2.3 31.8 11.3
Luxembourg 1008 76.2 2.1 17.1 4.6
Netherlands 1001 44.2 1.3 50.1 4.5
Austria 1013 68.9 3 23.6 4.6
Portugal 1002 58.1 2.2 28.6 11.1
Finland 1000 53.6 4.3 34.8 7.4
SEX
Male 5847 63.7 2.2 29.5 4.6
Female 6231 64.7 2.2 24.7 8.4
AGE
15 - 24 1797 59.3 3.5 32.9 4.4
25 - 39 2711 68.8 2.3 25.3 3.7
40 - 54 3457 67.3 1.9 25.6 5.2
55 + 4043 60.7 1.8 26.9 10.6
EDUCATION
until 15 years of age 2224 58.7 2.1 25.7 13.5
16 - 20 4851 68.3 2 25.5 4.2
20 + 3313 67.2 1.9 26.7 4.2
Still in education 1198 55.5 4 36 4.5
OCCUPATION
Self-em ployed 1135 61.8 1.8 30.9 5.5
Em ployee 3900 70.1 2 24.1 3.8
Manual worker 955 70.4 2.7 22.2 4.6
Not working 6017 59.8 2.3 29.1 8.8
LOCALITY TY PE
Metropolitan area 2438 64.3 2.2 27.6 6
Other towns 4613 64.2 2.4 27.5 5.9
Rural zones 4965 64.5 2 26.2 7.3

page 82
The Gallup Organization Flash EB N o 193 – Euro – Fiv e Years After Study

Table 13. New euro coin denominations
QUES TION: Q6b. Please indicate which denomination would you like to have, besides those currently in circulation.

Base: “not enough”, Q5=2

% other
% 2 5-cent % 5-euro % 10-euro
Total N denomination, % DK/NA
coin coin coin
WRITE IN:
EU12 435 12.3 52 8.2 15.2 12.3
COUNTRY
Belgium 5 19.9 42.1 0 38 0
Germany 51 8.1 77.9 3.9 3 7.1
Greece 64 7.6 32.9 4.2 41.5 13.9
Spain 44 19.3 39.4 7.6 12.6 21.2
France 26 1.3 51.1 12.2 16.8 18.6
Ireland 115 12.8 27.4 47.6 2.7 9.5
Italy 19 23.4 25.5 15.5 33.4 2.2
Luxembourg 11 13.5 27.5 0 34.6 24.4
Netherlands 24 34.3 44 0 11.8 10
Austria 18 4.8 41.7 5.5 33.1 14.9
Portugal 25 40.5 14.6 2.4 14.2 28.3
Finland 81 5.8 9.8 1 60.4 22.9
SEX
Male 248 12.5 56.4 11.2 10.5 9.4
Female 187 12 46.2 4.2 21.4 16.1
AGE
15 - 24 54 10.3 41.4 16.1 16.9 15.2
25 - 39 93 11.5 56 4.8 23.1 4.6
40 - 54 155 14.8 55 5.4 14.3 10.5
55 + 129 10.9 49.3 10.5 10.1 19.2
EDUCATION
until 15 years of
age 62 13.3 49.1 0.9 17.8 18.8
16 - 20 201 16.7 48.4 12.4 14.4 8.1
20 + 118 7.4 61.8 2.7 15.6 12.5
Still in education 33 4.2 61.6 7.7 19.8 6.7
OCCUPATION
Self-em ployed 33 14.8 54.2 11.8 10.8 8.4
Em ployee 154 12.1 52.3 9.7 14.2 11.7
Manual worker 28 5.4 57.9 10.4 26.2 0
Not working 215 12.7 51.4 6 15 15
LOCALITY TY PE
Metropolitan area 100 6.3 70.1 1.4 9 13.2
Other towns 162 16.8 36.7 5.7 25.7 15
Rural zones 171 11.7 56.4 14.6 8.7 8.6

Annex Tables, page 83
Flash EB N o 193 – Euro – Fiv e Years After Study The Gallup Organization

Table 14. Travel outside the eurozone
QUES TION: Q12. In 2006, did you go to a country outside the eurozone?
Total N % Yes % No % DK/NA
EU12 12078 19.3 80.4 0.3
COUNTRY
Belgium 1000 22.9 77 0.1
Germany 1006 23.9 76 0.2
Greece 1010 12.6 87.2 0.2
Spain 1003 13.6 86.1 0.3
France 1001 19.9 80.1 0
Ireland 1023 30.7 60.6 8.7
Italy 1011 12.9 87 0.1
Luxembourg 1008 28.7 71.1 0.2
Netherlands 1001 27.9 71.7 0.4
Austria 1013 33.6 66.1 0.3
Portugal 1002 9.9 89.8 0.3
Finland 1000 25.4 74.6 0.1
SEX
Male 5847 22.4 77.4 0.2
Female 6231 16.4 83.3 0.3
AGE
15 - 24 1797 23.2 76.5 0.4
25 - 39 2711 22.5 77.4 0.1
40 - 54 3457 19.3 80.5 0.3
55 + 4043 15.6 84.2 0.2
EDUCATION
until 15 years of age 2224 7.4 92.3 0.2
16 - 20 4851 17.4 82.4 0.2
20 + 3313 28.4 71.3 0.2
Still in education 1198 25.6 73.9 0.5
OCCUPATION
Self-em ployed 1135 26.2 73.8 0
Em ployee 3900 23.6 76.2 0.2
Manual worker 955 13.4 86.5 0.1
Not working 6017 16.1 83.7 0.3
LOCALITY TY PE
Metropolitan area 2438 24.3 75.6 0.1
Other towns 4613 20.2 79.6 0.3
Rural zones 4965 16.1 83.6 0.3

page 84
The Gallup Organization Flash EB N o 193 – Euro – Fiv e Years After Study

Table 15. Using the euro outside the eurozone
QUES TION: Q13. During your trip or trips to a country outside the eurozone, what was the main currency that you
took with you?

Base: “yes”, Q12=1
% Another
Total N % Euros % Dollars % DK/NA
currency
EU12 2331 53.3 16.1 28.7 1.9
COUNTRY
Belgium 229 49.6 11.7 37.2 1.4
Germany 240 51.1 14.2 33.1 1.6
Greece 128 72 14 12 1.9
Spain 137 57.8 23.9 18.3 0
France 199 53.5 19.8 24.8 1.8
Ireland 315 48.4 28.5 21.6 1.5
Italy 130 64.4 13.6 21.7 0.3
Luxembourg 289 49.5 16.8 32.6 1.1
Netherlands 279 45.3 15 33.1 6.6
Austria 340 44.6 9.2 45.1 1.1
Portugal 99 51.8 17.6 21.2 9.4
Finland 254 38.3 10.5 45.8 5.5
SEX
Male 1308 55.1 18.7 24.3 1.8
Female 1023 51 12.8 34.3 1.9
AGE
15 - 24 416 48.1 13.2 37.8 1
25 - 39 610 50.5 18.1 29.2 2.2
40 - 54 666 54.6 15.6 27.6 2.2
55 + 630 57.8 16.8 23.6 1.8
EDUCATION
until 15 years of age 165 62.6 11.1 25.9 0.5
16 - 20 845 55.4 14.4 28.5 1.6
20 + 943 52.8 17.6 27.4 2.2
Still in education 307 44.5 18.8 33.9 2.7
OCCUPATION
Self-em ployed 297 54.5 19.3 25.1 1.1
Em ployee 922 53.6 14.8 29.1 2.5
Manual worker 128 65.4 16.7 17.7 0.2
Not working 966 50.6 16.3 31.3 1.8
LOCALITY TY PE
Metropolitan area 592 49 17.7 32.1 1.1
Other towns 931 51.2 16.2 30.2 2.4
Rural zones 798 58.5 15 24.7 1.8

Annex Tables, page 85
Flash EB N o 193 – Euro – Fiv e Years After Study The Gallup Organization

Table 16. Overall observation of the adoption of the euro
QUES TION: Q14a. In your opinion, for [COUNTRY], is the adoption of the euro advantageous overall and will
strengthen us for the future, or rather the opposite, disadvantageous overall and will weaken us?
% Neither
% %
one or the
Total N Advantageous Disadvantageous % DK/NA
other, no
ov erall ov erall
change
EU12 12078 48 37.5 7.3 7.2
COUNTRY
Belgium 1000 58.4 20 10.3 11.2
Germany 1006 46 44 5.5 4.5
Greece 1010 38 46.4 8.3 7.3
Spain 1003 54.6 25.9 8.6 10.8
France 1001 51 30.9 8.6 9.4
Ireland 1023 75.4 20.9 2.2 1.5
Italy 1011 41.4 48.2 5.2 5.2
Luxembourg 1008 63.8 18 13.2 5
Netherlands 1001 38.4 42.6 8.7 10.3
Austria 1013 62.3 23.7 8.3 5.7
Portugal 1002 42.7 34.1 14.6 8.7
Finland 1000 64.7 16.3 10.1 8.9
SEX
Male 5847 56 30.8 7.2 5.9
Female 6231 40.4 43.7 7.3 8.5
AGE
15 - 24 1797 60.4 29.6 6.8 3.2
25 - 39 2711 50.9 37.1 6.6 5.5
40 - 54 3457 45.4 40.2 7.4 7
55 + 4043 43.1 38.8 7.8 10.3
EDUCATION
until 15 years of age 2224 31.9 50.4 7.6 10
16 - 20 4851 43.9 41 7.9 7.2
20 + 3313 61.5 25.6 7.5 5.4
Still in education 1198 63.2 29.2 3.9 3.7
OCCUPATION
Self-em ployed 1135 51.9 34.2 8.8 5.1
Em ployee 3900 54.6 31.3 7.8 6.3
Manual worker 955 38.2 44.6 9.4 7.8
Not working 6017 44.5 41 6.4 8.1
LOCALITY TY PE
Metropolitan area 2438 54.1 31.5 8.4 6
Other towns 4613 49.7 36.1 7.4 6.9
Rural zones 4965 43.8 41.5 6.6 8.1

page 86
The Gallup Organization Flash EB N o 193 – Euro – Fiv e Years After Study

Table 17. Eurozone advantages, A
QUES TION: Q14b_1-4. In your opinion, what are the main advantages of the adoption of the euro for [COUNTRY]?

% “yes” shown

Base: “advantageous overall”, Q14a=1
Travels Lower
Easier to Sounder
abroad less interests
Total N com pare rates, less public
costly, easier prices finances
debts charges
to travel
EU12 5794 45.9 30.2 4.2 4.7
COUNTRY
Belgium 584 60.8 52.1 2.2 1.7
Germany 463 46.7 33.2 1 2.4
Greece 383 24.6 17.3 1 10.6
Spain 548 51.5 16.9 1.3 4.1
France 511 37.4 16.3 2.6 2.6
Ireland 772 63.1 47.5 27.6 18.3
Italy 419 42.8 39.4 10.9 8.5
Luxembourg 643 71.8 59.6 2.3 3.7
Netherlands 384 34 28.9 1 2.7
Austria 631 57 51.5 8.1 4.4
Portugal 428 66.1 53.3 8.1 5.1
Finland 647 57.6 38.8 8.7 16.1
SEX
Male 3276 43.4 30.1 5.5 5.4
Female 2518 49.1 30.3 2.6 3.8
AGE
15 - 24 1085 51.2 30 4.9 4.4
25 - 39 1379 42.7 28.4 2.5 3.4
40 - 54 1570 43.4 33.2 5.1 5.6
55 + 1743 47.3 29.2 4.3 5.1
EDUCATION
until 15 years of age 710 47.4 30.5 3.3 5
16 - 20 2131 44.3 29 3.5 3.4
20 + 2038 44.4 30.4 5.2 6
Still in education 757 52.6 32.6 4.9 5
OCCUPATION
Self-em ployed 589 41 30.5 4.2 5.2
Em ployee 2130 43.7 30.6 4.6 5.4
Manual worker 364 41.8 25.6 2.7 1.9
Not working 2677 49 30.4 4.1 4.5
LOCALITY TY PE
Metropolitan area 1319 49 28.1 4.5 6.1
Other towns 2291 45.8 29 5 4.7
Rural zones 2174 44.1 32.6 3.2 3.8

Annex Tables, page 87
Flash EB N o 193 – Euro – Fiv e Years After Study The Gallup Organization

Table 18. Eurozone advantages, B
QUES TION: Q14b_5-8. In your opinion, what are the main advantages of the adoption of the euro for [COUNTRY]?

% “yes” shown

Base: “advantageous overall”, Q14a=1
Reinforce the
Im prove
More stable place of Other
Total N Europe in the growth,
prices em ployment
world
EU12 5794 11.2 27.2 5.2 19
COUNTRY
Belgium 584 14.3 22.5 5.8 8.2
Germany 463 9.8 17.3 3.9 23.6
Greece 383 17.8 29.9 8.2 32.1
Spain 548 9 25 6.4 18.9
France 511 5.5 27.9 3.6 25.6
Ireland 772 22.4 16.8 11.3 3.1
Italy 419 19.1 53.1 6.4 6.5
Luxembourg 643 14.3 22.2 7.7 6.4
Netherlands 384 7.4 18.4 3.9 28.7
Austria 631 12.9 16.7 6.9 19.1
Portugal 428 17.5 25.8 9.7 11.3
Finland 647 7.4 9.7 1.9 11.7
SEX
Male 3276 13.4 29.3 5.6 20.2
Female 2518 8.3 24.5 4.8 17.5
AGE
15 - 24 1085 11.1 25.3 3 19.1
25 - 39 1379 11.3 32.8 7.4 19.7
40 - 54 1570 11.4 29.1 4.9 21.8
55 + 1743 11 22.4 5.1 15.8
EDUCATION
until 15 years of age 710 10.2 22.4 6.9 13
16 - 20 2131 10 23.7 4.1 19.3
20 + 2038 11.7 31.8 6 21.6
Still in education 757 13.3 30.7 3.9 16.7
OCCUPATION
Self-em ployed 589 12.2 32.6 5.4 19.7
Em ployee 2130 13 27.8 5.5 23
Manual worker 364 7 23.9 5.7 17.8
Not working 2677 10.2 26.1 4.9 16
LOCALITY TY PE
Metropolitan area 1319 10.3 28.9 5.2 20.6
Other towns 2291 11.6 28.7 5.5 18.3
Rural zones 2174 11.3 24.7 4.9 18.9

page 88
The Gallup Organization Flash EB N o 193 – Euro – Fiv e Years After Study

Table 19. Eurozone disadvantages, A
QUES TION: Q14c_1-4. In your opinion, what are the main disadvantages of the adoption of the euro for
[COUNTRY]?

% “yes” shown

Base: “disadvantageous overall”, Q14a=2
More
Prices Loss of Com plicate
Total N unemployment,
increase sovereignty ev eryday life
less growth
EU12 4529 81.4 5 7 18.5
COUNTRY
Belgium 200 89.2 2.6 12.6 22.4
Germany 443 75.9 6.4 4.1 9.1
Greece 469 82.2 2.9 6 14.9
Spain 260 85.9 1.2 3 15.7
France 310 64.4 6.6 5 12.6
Ireland 214 22.1 24 58.3 12.1
Italy 487 95.9 3.1 10.6 36.7
Luxembourg 182 85.4 11 11.3 22.8
Netherlands 426 85.7 2.7 4 7.2
Austria 240 92.7 7.4 11.7 15.1
Portugal 341 91.8 9 22.2 39.1
Finland 163 64.9 16.8 1.5 8.7
SEX
Male 1804 77 6.8 6.2 15.3
Female 2725 84.3 3.8 7.6 20.6
AGE
15 - 24 533 87.1 4.4 5.8 14.2
25 - 39 1005 83.1 6.9 6.4 18
40 - 54 1389 82.9 4.5 7.5 18.6
55 + 1570 77.6 4.4 7.2 20.3
EDUCATION
until 15 years of age 1120 83.8 2.5 8.2 23.1
16 - 20 1990 79.6 5.7 6.6 16.9
20 + 848 80.5 6.8 6.7 16
Still in education 350 90.7 3.4 6 14.5
OCCUPATION
Self-em ployed 388 77.1 6.7 7.4 18.1
Em ployee 1222 81.4 6.1 6.4 15.3
Manual worker 426 73.6 5.2 6.7 8.8
Not working 2466 83.5 4.1 7.1 21.8
LOCALITY TY PE
Metropolitan area 767 81.9 7.7 6.8 18.7
Other towns 1665 81.8 3.9 7.1 18.9
Rural zones 2062 80.6 4.9 7.2 18.4

Annex Tables, page 89
Flash EB N o 193 – Euro – Fiv e Years After Study The Gallup Organization

Table 20. Eurozone disadvantages, B
QUES TION: Q14c_5-8. In your opinion, what are the main disadvantages of the adoption of the euro for
[COUNTRY]?

% “yes” shown

Base: “disadvantageous overall”, Q14a=2
Generates Too rigid for
Loss of
Total N too low public Other
com petitiveness
interest rates spending
EU12 4529 3 1.9 5.2 14.5
COUNTRY
Belgium 200 4 6.6 10.2 10.4
Germany 443 0.6 1.2 4.8 21.6
Greece 469 1.6 0.9 2.5 22.2
Spain 260 0.6 0.8 1.5 12.3
France 310 0.3 0 5.1 17.3
Ireland 214 6.6 6.3 6.5 3.7
Italy 487 8.8 3.5 5.3 4.4
Luxembourg 182 2 3 16.5 8.4
Netherlands 426 2.1 1.1 5.9 16.5
Austria 240 4 4.2 8.2 10.5
Portugal 341 4.7 5.1 16.7 6.6
Finland 163 0.8 5.5 7.4 9.4
SEX
Male 1804 2.5 1.5 7.2 16.8
Female 2725 3.3 2.1 3.8 13
AGE
15 - 24 533 2.5 1.2 5.8 8.4
25 - 39 1005 1.9 1.5 4.8 15.3
40 - 54 1389 3.6 2.5 6.5 16.6
55 + 1570 3.3 1.8 4 14.2
EDUCATION
until 15 years of age 1120 3.3 2.3 3.7 11.9
16 - 20 1990 3.1 1.8 5.1 15
20 + 848 1.9 2.1 7.2 20.8
Still in education 350 2.7 0.1 6.6 3.8
OCCUPATION
Self-em ployed 388 2.9 2.9 9 17.9
Em ployee 1222 1.4 2.2 6.1 20.1
Manual worker 426 2.8 1 4.9 16.6
Not working 2466 3.8 1.7 4.2 10.9
LOCALITY TY PE
Metropolitan area 767 2.2 1.1 5 15.2
Other towns 1665 3.7 2.1 4.4 13.7
Rural zones 2062 2.8 2 5.9 15.1

page 90
The Gallup Organization Flash EB N o 193 – Euro – Fiv e Years After Study

Table 21. Effect on the increase of prices
QUES TION: Q9. Concerning the evolution of prices for the last 5 years, would you say that the euro has ...?
% Or that the
% Added to % Lim ited the
euro has had
Total N the increase increase of % DK/NA
no impact on
of prices prices
prices
EU12 12078 93.1 0.8 4.8 1.3
COUNTRY
Belgium 1000 88.3 0.6 6.8 4.3
Germany 1006 90.2 0.5 8.2 1
Greece 1010 96.6 0.4 2.3 0.7
Spain 1003 96.6 0.8 1.9 0.7
France 1001 96 0.3 2.3 1.4
Ireland 1023 70.7 11.9 12.2 5.2
Italy 1011 96.4 0.3 2.6 0.7
Luxembourg 1008 89.5 0.7 8.1 1.7
Netherlands 1001 90.5 1.8 4.9 2.8
Austria 1013 88.2 1.1 8.4 2.2
Portugal 1002 85.9 3.3 8.7 2.1
Finland 1000 91 0.7 6.5 1.9
SEX
Male 5847 91.6 1 6.2 1.3
Female 6231 94.5 0.6 3.5 1.4
AGE
15 - 24 1797 91.3 1.6 5.2 1.9
25 - 39 2711 94.1 0.5 4.4 1
40 - 54 3457 93.8 0.6 4.6 1
55 + 4043 92.7 0.8 5.1 1.5
EDUCATION
until 15 years of age 2224 94.5 0.7 3.7 1
16 - 20 4851 94 0.7 4.3 1
20 + 3313 92.5 0.7 5.6 1.1
Still in education 1198 90.8 1.5 5 2.7
OCCUPATION
Self-em ployed 1135 92.2 0.7 6.4 0.8
Em ployee 3900 94.1 0.8 4.2 0.9
Manual worker 955 94.6 0.4 4.5 0.5
Not working 6017 92.6 0.8 4.9 1.7
LOCALITY TY PE
Metropolitan area 2438 91 1 7 1
Other towns 4613 93.7 0.7 4.3 1.3
Rural zones 4965 93.5 0.8 4.3 1.4

Annex Tables, page 91
Flash EB N o 193 – Euro – Fiv e Years After Study The Gallup Organization

Table 22. Effect on harmonisation of prices
QUES TION: Q11b. After five years of using the euro, do you believe yes or no that the euro

% “yes” shown
Reduced price
differences between
Total N countries in the
Eurozone
EU12 12078 31.9
COUNTRY
Belgium 1000 29.4
Germany 1006 28.7
Greece 1010 32.4
Spain 1003 36.9
France 1001 31.3
Ireland 1023 64.7
Italy 1011 30.7
Luxembourg 1008 31.4
Netherlands 1001 34.2
Austria 1013 32
Portugal 1002 29.5
Finland 1000 43.1
SEX
Male 5847 37.2
Female 6231 26.9
AGE
15 - 24 1797 41.7
25 - 39 2711 32.3
40 - 54 3457 31.3
55 + 4043 27.8
EDUCATION
until 15 years of age 2224 23.2
16 - 20 4851 30.3
20 + 3313 37.1
Still in education 1198 40.8
OCCUPATION
Self-em ployed 1135 40.1
Em ployee 3900 33.1
Manual worker 955 32.6
Not working 6017 29.4
LOCALITY TY PE
Metropolitan area 2438 33.4
Other towns 4613 33.6
Rural zones 4965 29.7

page 92
The Gallup Organization Flash EB N o 193 – Euro – Fiv e Years After Study

Table 23. International status of the euro
QUES TION: Q11a. After five years of using the euro, do you believe yes or no that the euro

% “yes” shown

Has becom e an
international
Total N
currency like the
dollar or the yen
EU12 12078 74.2
COUNTRY
Belgium 1000 78.3
Germany 1006 71.1
Greece 1010 82.5
Spain 1003 83.8
France 1001 71.3
Ireland 1023 78.4
Italy 1011 69.5
Luxembourg 1008 82.8
Netherlands 1001 79.6
Austria 1013 78.5
Portugal 1002 78.1
Finland 1000 73.5
SEX
Male 5847 81.6
Female 6231 67.3
AGE
15 - 24 1797 80.3
25 - 39 2711 76.3
40 - 54 3457 72.9
55 + 4043 71.6
EDUCATION
until 15 years of age 2224 65.1
16 - 20 4851 72.7
20 + 3313 81.5
Still in education 1198 80.7
OCCUPATION
Self-em ployed 1135 82.2
Em ployee 3900 77.1
Manual worker 955 71.8
Not working 6017 71.2
LOCALITY TY PE
Metropolitan area 2438 77.7
Other towns 4613 75.5
Rural zones 4965 71.6

Annex Tables, page 93
Flash EB N o 193 – Euro – Fiv e Years After Study The Gallup Organization

Table 24. Concern about the euro/dollar ratio
QUES TION: Q19. Generally speaking, does the value of the euro against the dollar concern you: a lot, a little or not
at all?
Total N % A lot % A little % Not at all % DK/NA
EU12 12078 8.5 23.2 61.3 7
COUNTRY
Belgium 1000 4 21.2 72.3 2.5
Germany 1006 6.5 16.8 73.7 3
Greece 1010 15.9 25.4 52.9 5.8
Spain 1003 15.7 31.1 44.7 8.5
France 1001 7.3 28.8 62.2 1.7
Ireland 1023 19.9 34.4 41.8 3.9
Italy 1011 7 23 51.8 18.1
Luxembourg 1008 9.3 27.6 60.9 2.2
Netherlands 1001 3.9 14.1 75 7
Austria 1013 7.1 17.9 70 4.9
Portugal 1002 12.4 25.6 53 9
Finland 1000 4.4 24.1 63.5 8
SEX
Male 5847 10.2 26.4 59.1 4.3
Female 6231 6.9 20.1 63.4 9.6
AGE
15 - 24 1797 5.8 23.7 67.8 2.7
25 - 39 2711 10 25 60.8 4.2
40 - 54 3457 8.9 25.9 58.5 6.7
55 + 4043 8.1 19.5 61.4 10.9
EDUCATION
until 15 years of age 2224 7.2 17.2 57.8 17.9
16 - 20 4851 7.8 22.4 65 4.9
20 + 3313 11.5 28.7 57 2.9
Still in education 1198 6.2 24.5 66.7 2.6
OCCUPATION
Self-em ployed 1135 12.7 29.9 53 4.5
Em ployee 3900 9.9 27.2 59.7 3.2
Manual worker 955 7.5 21.4 66.3 4.8
Not working 6017 6.8 19.6 63.3 10.3
LOCALITY TY PE
Metropolitan area 2438 9.8 26.8 57.5 6
Other towns 4613 9.2 24 60.3 6.5
Rural zones 4965 7.1 20.6 64.4 7.9

page 94
The Gallup Organization Flash EB N o 193 – Euro – Fiv e Years After Study

Table 25. Value of the euro against the US dollar
QUES TION: Q18. From what you know, would you say that today one euro is worth more, less or is equivalent to one
dollar:..?
% One euro
% One euro is % One euro is
has an
worth m ore worth less
Total N equivalent % DK/NA
than one than one
value to one
dollar dollar
dollar
EU12 12078 48.1 20.9 16.6 14.3
COUNTRY
Belgium 1000 49.6 18.3 17.6 14.4
Germany 1006 47.5 30.1 13.4 9
Greece 1010 49.4 16.2 22.2 12.1
Spain 1003 52.6 15.2 16 16.2
France 1001 46 21.2 21.3 11.4
Ireland 1023 56.1 22.3 16.3 5.3
Italy 1011 43.6 16 17.7 22.6
Luxembourg 1008 57.1 15.9 13.8 13.2
Netherlands 1001 56.6 15.5 12.2 15.7
Austria 1013 57.4 17.6 13 12
Portugal 1002 45.3 15.8 15.8 23
Finland 1000 52.2 17.2 14.4 16.2
SEX
Male 5847 62.9 16.2 13.3 7.5
Female 6231 34.2 25.4 19.7 20.7
AGE
15 - 24 1797 55.2 23.8 14.1 6.8
25 - 39 2711 53 21.6 17.6 7.8
40 - 54 3457 48.5 20.9 17.5 13.1
55 + 4043 41.8 19.2 16.3 22.7
EDUCATION
until 15 years of age 2224 33.4 19.2 16.4 31
16 - 20 4851 45.8 24.5 18.2 11.5
20 + 3313 60.4 16.7 15.8 7
Still in education 1198 57.7 21.2 13.3 7.8
OCCUPATION
Self-em ployed 1135 61.2 13.5 15.7 9.6
Em ployee 3900 53.7 21.4 17 7.9
Manual worker 955 45.5 24.1 18.2 12.2
Not working 6017 42.4 21.6 16.3 19.7
LOCALITY TY PE
Metropolitan area 2438 54.7 19.4 14.4 11.5
Other towns 4613 49.2 20.8 17 13
Rural zones 4965 44.2 21.8 17.4 16.6

Annex Tables, page 95
Flash EB N o 193 – Euro – Fiv e Years After Study The Gallup Organization

Table 26. The euro’s reported impact on European identity
QUES TION: Q17. Since using the euro, do you personally feel a little more European than before, a little less
European than before or would you say that your feeling of being European has not changed?
% A little
% A little less % Nothing has
Total N m ore % DK/NA
European changed
European
EU12 12078 19.3 1.8 77.9 1
COUNTRY
Belgium 1000 16.6 0.7 81.4 1.3
Germany 1006 13.2 1.3 84.9 0.6
Greece 1010 15 4.1 80.1 0.8
Spain 1003 18.2 1.2 79.8 0.8
France 1001 19.5 2.1 77.5 0.8
Ireland 1023 64.4 8.3 26.2 1.1
Italy 1011 29.6 1.6 67.6 1.1
Luxembourg 1008 20.5 1.2 77.6 0.7
Netherlands 1001 12.4 2.2 83.3 2
Austria 1013 15.3 1.9 81.2 1.6
Portugal 1002 19.8 1.5 76 2.7
Finland 1000 16.6 1.2 80.8 1.4
SEX
Male 5847 23.4 1.9 73.9 0.8
Female 6231 15.5 1.6 81.8 1.1
AGE
15 - 24 1797 19.9 0.5 79.2 0.5
25 - 39 2711 18.6 1.5 79.4 0.5
40 - 54 3457 20 1.8 77.4 0.8
55 + 4043 19 2.4 77 1.6
EDUCATION
until 15 years of age 2224 14.2 2.8 81 1.9
16 - 20 4851 16.5 1.8 80.9 0.9
20 + 3313 26.1 1 72.3 0.5
Still in education 1198 23.6 0.9 75.3 0.3
OCCUPATION
Self-em ployed 1135 26.4 1.5 71.8 0.3
Em ployee 3900 20.4 1.4 77.4 0.8
Manual worker 955 13.8 1.7 83.5 0.9
Not working 6017 18 2 78.8 1.2
LOCALITY TY PE
Metropolitan area 2438 23.7 1.5 74 0.7
Other towns 4613 20.5 2 76.7 0.7
Rural zones 4965 16.3 1.6 80.9 1.3

page 96
The Gallup Organization Flash EB N o 193 – Euro – Fiv e Years After Study

Table 27. The extension of the euro to the New Member States
QUES TION: Q15. Would you say that the extension of the euro to the 10 new member states, which entered the
European Union in May 2004 is something that will happen:
% No, % No,
% Yes, % Yes,
Total N probably certainly % DK/NA
certainly probably
not not
EU12 12078 25.9 47 9.7 2.4 15
COUNTRY
Belgium 1000 20.4 53.9 8.5 1.6 15.7
Germany 1006 23.1 55.7 13 1.9 6.2
Greece 1010 34.3 41.2 9.3 1.7 13.5
Spain 1003 32.5 35.2 6 2 24.3
France 1001 26.5 49.4 7.7 3.5 12.9
Ireland 1023 46.4 42.4 6.7 0.6 3.9
Italy 1011 24.4 39.5 9.9 3.2 23.1
Luxembourg 1008 21.4 57 9.7 0.9 11
Netherlands 1001 26.2 41.7 13 3.1 15.9
Austria 1013 26.1 54 10.5 1.3 8.2
Portugal 1002 17.3 50.7 5 1 25.9
Finland 1000 26.1 56 8.2 1.6 8.2
SEX
Male 5847 31.1 46.6 9.6 2.1 10.5
Female 6231 21.1 47.3 9.8 2.7 19.1
AGE
15 - 24 1797 23.7 56.9 11.4 0.8 7.2
25 - 39 2711 26.3 51.4 9.1 2 11.2
40 - 54 3457 28.7 47.5 8.5 2.9 12.4
55 + 4043 24.1 39.5 10.3 3.1 22.9
EDUCATION
until 15 years of age 2224 20.2 37.3 10.7 3.3 28.5
16 - 20 4851 26.1 48.2 9.8 2.8 13
20 + 3313 30 50.8 9.1 1.8 8.3
Still in education 1198 25.4 56.5 9.4 0.6 8.1
OCCUPATION
Self-em ployed 1135 33.1 43.6 7.7 2.3 13.3
Em ployee 3900 28.9 51.6 8.8 2.1 8.6
Manual worker 955 24 48.3 9.2 2.7 15.8
Not working 6017 22.9 44.6 10.7 2.7 19.2
LOCALITY TY PE
Metropolitan area 2438 30.4 49.4 6.9 1.8 11.5
Other towns 4613 27.6 44.9 10.3 2.7 14.5
Rural zones 4965 22.4 47.7 10.6 2.5 16.7

Annex Tables, page 97
Flash EB N o 193 – Euro – Fiv e Years After Study The Gallup Organization

Table 28. Citizens’ opinion on the extension of the euro to the New Member States
QUES TION: Q16. Are you...
% In fav our of % Against
introducing introducing
Total N the euro in the the euro in the % DK/NA
other EU other EU
countries, or countries?
EU12 12078 66.2 20.6 13.2
COUNTRY
Belgium 1000 70.5 19.1 10.4
Germany 1006 60.6 27.7 11.7
Greece 1010 69.4 16.6 13.9
Spain 1003 74.8 9 16.3
France 1001 61 27.6 11.4
Ireland 1023 78.7 12.7 8.5
Italy 1011 71 14.6 14.5
Luxembourg 1008 67.2 24.9 7.9
Netherlands 1001 61.7 27.2 11.2
Austria 1013 70.7 15.2 14
Portugal 1002 72.7 6.9 20.4
Finland 1000 61 20.7 18.3
SEX
Male 5847 69.4 20.6 10.1
Female 6231 63.2 20.6 16.2
AGE
15 - 24 1797 79.2 13.7 7.1
25 - 39 2711 67.7 22.3 10
40 - 54 3457 66.3 21 12.7
55 + 4043 59.6 22 18.4
EDUCATION
until 15 years of age 2224 54.5 21.9 23.5
16 - 20 4851 65 23.5 11.5
20 + 3313 71.5 19.1 9.4
Still in education 1198 81.3 11.1 7.6
OCCUPATION
Self-em ployed 1135 68.8 21.1 10.1
Em ployee 3900 69.7 20.1 10.2
Manual worker 955 62.5 25.3 12.2
Not working 6017 64.1 20.1 15.8
LOCALITY TY PE
Metropolitan area 2438 67.8 21.2 11
Other towns 4613 67.2 19.5 13.3
Rural zones 4965 64.5 21.3 14.1

page 98
The Gallup Organization Flash EB N o 193 – Euro – Fiv e Years After Study

Table 29. Awareness of economic policy coordination within the EU
QUES TION: Q20. Is there a coordination of the economic policies within the Member S tates of the European Union:
Total N % Yes % No % DK/NA
EU12 12078 51.3 21.2 27.5
COUNTRY
Belgium 1000 53.6 14.4 32
Germany 1006 58.2 17.7 24.1
Greece 1010 40.6 39.6 19.9
Spain 1003 43.8 28.6 27.6
France 1001 49.4 24.5 26.2
Ireland 1023 42.5 30.2 27.3
Italy 1011 52.4 18.7 28.9
Luxembourg 1008 53.9 15.3 30.8
Netherlands 1001 46.5 18.9 34.6
Austria 1013 62.7 11.2 26.1
Portugal 1002 40.4 17.3 42.3
Finland 1000 50.1 13.1 36.7
SEX
Male 5847 58.1 22.7 19.2
Female 6231 44.9 19.9 35.2
AGE
15 - 24 1797 52.1 21.8 26.1
25 - 39 2711 56.7 21 22.2
40 - 54 3457 54 21.3 24.7
55 + 4043 45.2 21 33.8
EDUCATION
until 15 years of age 2224 35.4 20.4 44.1
16 - 20 4851 50 22.3 27.6
20 + 3313 65.2 20.9 13.9
Still in education 1198 53.5 21 25.5
OCCUPATION
Self-em ployed 1135 60.4 20.6 19
Em ployee 3900 59 21.6 19.4
Manual worker 955 48.9 22 29.1
Not working 6017 45.3 21 33.8
LOCALITY TY PE
Metropolitan area 2438 59 19.7 21.3
Other towns 4613 51.6 21.9 26.5
Rural zones 4965 47.5 21.4 31.1

Annex Tables, page 99
Flash EB N o 193 – Euro – Fiv e Years After Study The Gallup Organization

Table 30. Evaluation of economic policy coordination
QUES TION: Q21. Today, would you say that coordination between the economic policies of the member states is:
% Not
% Too
Total N im portant % Just right % DK/NA
im portant
enough
EU12 12078 12.7 39.5 19.9 27.9
COUNTRY
Belgium 1000 6.2 39.6 20.9 33.3
Germany 1006 11.5 45.3 21.2 22
Greece 1010 29.2 35.8 14.7 20.3
Spain 1003 20.6 25 30.1 24.2
France 1001 8.8 49.2 20.2 21.8
Ireland 1023 27.1 32.6 24.2 16.2
Italy 1011 4.6 41.8 10.2 43.4
Luxembourg 1008 16.5 39.6 15.7 28.3
Netherlands 1001 18.2 29.9 22.1 29.8
Austria 1013 8.4 39.7 22.2 29.8
Portugal 1002 37.1 14.1 14.5 34.3
Finland 1000 10.8 19 33.2 37
SEX
Male 5847 14.2 43.2 22.1 20.5
Female 6231 11.3 36 17.9 34.9
AGE
15 - 24 1797 10.4 36.6 31.6 21.4
25 - 39 2711 13.6 41.2 22.2 23.1
40 - 54 3457 13.7 42.5 16.2 27.6
55 + 4043 12.3 37.1 16.4 34.2
EDUCATION
until 15 years of age 2224 10.2 28.8 14.9 46.1
16 - 20 4851 14.1 39.8 19.8 26.3
20 + 3313 13 49 20.6 17.3
Still in education 1198 9.9 38 28.7 23.4
OCCUPATION
Self-em ployed 1135 17.6 42.5 17.3 22.7
Em ployee 3900 12.5 46.9 21.4 19.1
Manual worker 955 15 38.3 19.7 27
Not working 6017 11.4 34.5 19.4 34.8
LOCALITY TY PE
Metropolitan area 2438 14.2 43.3 20.1 22.4
Other towns 4613 13.2 40.4 19.1 27.3
Rural zones 4965 11.5 37 20.6 30.9

page 1 00
The Gallup Organization Flash EB N o 193 – Euro – Fiv e Years After Study

Table 31. Economic situation in country compared to eurozone average
QUES TION: Q22. And if you compare the economic situation of [COUNTRY] with that of other countries of the
European Union, would you say that it is?
%
% Rather
% Much % Definitely %
Total N % Better not as
better Identical not as DK/NA
good
good
EU12 12078 2.8 22.8 23 33.1 10.9 7.2
COUNTRY
Belgium 1000 4.7 42.4 28.9 12.9 2.6 8.6
Germany 1006 2.1 25.3 18.5 39.8 10.3 4
Greece 1010 1.6 7.5 6.5 37.9 43.5 2.9
Spain 1003 4.5 19.2 22.3 32.2 10.9 11
France 1001 1.7 25.7 30.1 27.8 7.7 7
Ireland 1023 31.2 44.1 14 4.4 1.8 4.5
Italy 1011 0.4 8.6 27.4 45.7 7.2 10.8
Luxembourg 1008 19.9 59.3 12.2 4.5 0.2 3.9
Netherlands 1001 5.2 43.6 28.2 10.7 4.3 8
Austria 1013 9.9 56.9 18.2 9.3 1.6 4
Portugal 1002 1.3 3.6 5.3 30.1 55 4.6
Finland 1000 2.7 39.9 34.9 11.8 2 8.7
SEX
Male 5847 3.7 23.9 23.8 33.3 10.5 4.9
Female 6231 2 21.8 22.4 33 11.4 9.4
AGE
15 - 24 1797 3.4 27.9 24.4 34.1 7.3 3
25 - 39 2711 3 22.8 24.6 32.5 12 5.2
40 - 54 3457 2.1 21.8 22.7 35.2 12 6.1
55 + 4043 3 21.5 21.9 31.4 10.9 11.3
EDUCATION
until 15 years of
age 2224 2 16.3 19.8 34.6 14.5 12.8
16 - 20 4851 2.6 21.9 23.2 35.3 11.2 5.8
20 + 3313 2.9 27.9 25.5 29.5 8.9 5.3
Still in education 1198 3.8 25.6 24.9 35.1 7.6 3.1
OCCUPATION
Self-em ployed 1135 3.3 16.7 23.7 32.8 17 6.6
Em ployee 3900 2.9 25.9 23.5 32.4 10.8 4.5
Manual worker 955 2.3 21 26.8 35.9 8.9 5.1
Not working 6017 2.6 22.2 22.1 33.4 10.2 9.4
LOCALITY
TY PE
Metropolitan area 2438 3.5 24.8 21 33.9 10.5 6.2
Other towns 4613 2.5 21.4 24.8 32.3 11.4 7.6
Rural zones 4965 2.8 23.1 22.6 33.8 10.6 7.2

Annex Tables, page 1 01
Flash EB N o 193 – Euro – Fiv e Years After Study The Gallup Organization

Table 32. Perception of budget balance in eurozone countries
QUES TION: Q23. Each year, the [NATIONALITY] S tate uses its revenues to finance public spending, meaning
everything that is paid by the S tate. From what you know, would you say that in 2005, the [NATIONALITY] S tate
had a budget surplus, a budget deficit or one way or another, revenues and spending balanced?
% The State had a % The State had
budget surplus, a budget deficit, % The States
meaning that it meaning that it revenues and
Total N % DK/NA
earned m ore spent m ore spending
m oney than it m oney than it balanced
spent earned
EU12 12078 9 66.1 10 15
COUNTRY
Belgium 1000 18.4 34 30.2 17.3
Germany 1006 4.1 87.1 3.4 5.4
Greece 1010 8.3 60.4 8.8 22.6
Spain 1003 18.9 29.1 19.3 32.6
France 1001 5.5 75.2 10.3 9
Ireland 1023 61.5 23.9 2.5 12.1
Italy 1011 2.9 69.4 8.2 19.5
Luxembourg 1008 15.2 43.4 23.7 17.7
Netherlands 1001 19.6 56.2 11.3 12.9
Austria 1013 4.2 68.8 15.9 11.1
Portugal 1002 9 60.4 9.8 20.8
Finland 1000 35.7 27.4 11.9 24.9
SEX
Male 5847 11.1 66.7 10.9 11.3
Female 6231 7 65.5 9.1 18.4
AGE
15 - 24 1797 8 63 15.1 13.8
25 - 39 2711 10 68.2 9.5 12.2
40 - 54 3457 9 70.5 8 12.5
55 + 4043 8.6 62.5 9.6 19.3
EDUCATION
until 15 years of age 2224 7.4 56.8 9.2 26.6
16 - 20 4851 8.7 70.1 9.8 11.5
20 + 3313 10.9 71 8.8 9.2
Still in education 1198 8.5 61.2 16 14.3
OCCUPATION
Self-em ployed 1135 12.6 66.2 9.5 11.7
Em ployee 3900 10.1 71.1 9.1 9.8
Manual worker 955 7.6 68.8 11.1 12.6
Not working 6017 7.7 62.8 10.5 19.1
LOCALITY TY PE
Metropolitan area 2438 9.8 68.1 9.1 13
Other towns 4613 9.6 64.8 10.8 14.8
Rural zones 4965 8 66.7 9.5 15.7

page 1 02
The Gallup Organization Flash EB N o 193 – Euro – Fiv e Years After Study

Table 33. Awareness of the Stability Pact
QUES TION: Q24. Personally, have you ever heard of the "S tability and Growth Pact", which is often called the
"S tability Pact"?
% Yes, but
% Yes, and
you do not % No, y ou
you know
Total N know very have not % DK/NA
what it's
well what it's heard about it
about
about
EU12 12078 18.2 31.7 46.1 4.1
COUNTRY
Belgium 1000 6.6 25.9 64.1 3.3
Germany 1006 32.7 36.6 29.9 0.8
Greece 1010 9.2 21.4 67.4 2
Spain 1003 8.8 23.9 59 8.2
France 1001 9.8 33.8 55.8 0.6
Ireland 1023 17.1 21.9 44.3 16.7
Italy 1011 16.5 30.4 46.7 6.4
Luxembourg 1008 20.5 29.6 45.1 4.8
Netherlands 1001 14.6 31.9 49.8 3.7
Austria 1013 26 35.9 33 5.2
Portugal 1002 19.8 36.2 27.9 16.1
Finland 1000 6 30.3 57.7 6
SEX
Male 5847 25.7 34.5 36.7 3
Female 6231 11.1 29 54.9 5
AGE
15 - 24 1797 12.9 21.6 62.7 2.8
25 - 39 2711 17.6 31.8 48.2 2.4
40 - 54 3457 21.6 35.7 39 3.7
55 + 4043 17.8 32.8 43.5 5.9
EDUCATION
until 15 years of age 2224 7.3 27.4 56.7 8.5
16 - 20 4851 17.8 33.6 45.7 2.9
20 + 3313 28.2 36.9 33.1 1.8
Still in education 1198 13.6 22.1 61.8 2.5
OCCUPATION
Self-em ployed 1135 24.4 37.1 35.3 3.2
Em ployee 3900 22.6 35.4 40.2 1.7
Manual worker 955 12.6 34.6 50.2 2.6
Not working 6017 15 27.9 51.3 5.7
LOCALITY TY PE
Metropolitan area 2438 23 32.9 40.9 3.1
Other towns 4613 16.5 32.4 46.7 4.4
Rural zones 4965 17.5 30.7 47.9 3.9

Annex Tables, page 1 03
Flash EB N o 193 – Euro – Fiv e Years After Study The Gallup Organization

Table 34. Enforcement of the Stability Pact
QUES TION: Q25a. During the introduction of the Euro, Member S tates of the European Union signed a " S tability
Pact " by which everyone committed to limiting their budget deficit. Can you tell me if you agree or disagree with
each of the following opinions?

In difficult economic periods, a country should be free not to respect the limits set by the "Stability Pact" in terms of
public deficit and debt.

% Totally % Rather % Rather % Totally
Total N % DK/NA
agree agree disagree disagree
EU12 12078 15.8 24.4 20.2 22.6 17
COUNTRY
Belgium 1000 10.5 22.8 20.9 24.5 21.3
Germany 1006 17.9 27.4 26.7 21.8 6.1
Greece 1010 27.6 18.7 14.7 26.9 12
Spain 1003 17.4 17.7 16.3 17.2 31.4
France 1001 10.2 33.1 25.4 21.9 9.4
Ireland 1023 22.2 29.3 13.4 12.7 22.5
Italy 1011 12.5 17.7 13.8 28.4 27.6
Luxembourg 1008 12.1 21 22.5 19.5 25
Netherlands 1001 21.4 24.6 11.7 31.3 11.1
Austria 1013 20.6 28 18.8 19.4 13.2
Portugal 1002 14.6 19.7 17.4 13.9 34.5
Finland 1000 26.2 25 11.2 10.7 27
SEX
Male 5847 17.2 24.8 21.2 25.7 11.2
Female 6231 14.4 24.1 19.3 19.7 22.4
AGE
15 - 24 1797 16.5 32.6 21.1 18.4 11.4
25 - 39 2711 16.2 28 23.8 20.5 11.6
40 - 54 3457 15.9 22.5 20.3 25.5 15.8
55 + 4043 15.2 20.1 17.6 23.5 23.7
EDUCATION
until 15 years of age 2224 12.2 16.3 16 20.5 35
16 - 20 4851 18.4 25.7 20.5 21.8 13.5
20 + 3313 14.8 25.8 23.8 27 8.7
Still in education 1198 16.9 32.1 20.4 20.1 10.5
OCCUPATION
Self-em ployed 1135 18.5 22.2 17.7 29.5 12.1
Em ployee 3900 15.9 27.7 23.5 23.1 9.8
Manual worker 955 16.9 27 21.6 18.5 16.1
Not working 6017 15 22.4 18.4 21.7 22.5
LOCALITY TY PE
Metropolitan area 2438 15.8 25 21.2 24.4 13.6
Other towns 4613 14.9 26.1 19.6 22.9 16.6
Rural zones 4965 16.7 22.7 20.5 21.6 18.4

page 1 04
The Gallup Organization Flash EB N o 193 – Euro – Fiv e Years After Study

Table 35. Favour the Stability Pact because it guarantees strong and stable euro
QUES TION: Q25b. During the introduction of the Euro, Member S tates of the European Union signed a " S tability
Pact " by which everyone committed to limiting their budget deficit. Can you tell me if you agree or disagree with
each of the following opinions?

The "Stability Pact" is a good thing because, thanks to this, the Euro is a stable and strong cu rrency.
% Totally % Rather % Rather % Totally
Total N % DK/NA
agree agree disagree disagree
EU12 12078 35.2 33.8 9 4.7 17.3
COUNTRY
Belgium 1000 38.4 31.7 4.4 3.6 22
Germany 1006 37.1 35.8 13.5 7.2 6.4
Greece 1010 52.4 22.5 5.5 6.3 13.4
Spain 1003 35.3 28.4 6.9 2.2 27.3
France 1001 23.9 50.9 11.2 4.6 9.5
Ireland 1023 27.3 25.1 16.2 8.3 23.1
Italy 1011 36.5 25.3 4.4 3.1 30.8
Luxembourg 1008 42.9 28.4 2.4 1.1 25.3
Netherlands 1001 48.8 26.1 7.7 6.1 11.2
Austria 1013 46.5 30.3 8 2.6 12.5
Portugal 1002 21.9 30.3 6.3 2.2 39.3
Finland 1000 46.8 23 5 2.9 22.3
SEX
Male 5847 43.5 34 7.1 4.4 11
Female 6231 27.4 33.6 10.8 5 23.2
AGE
15 - 24 1797 32.2 44.2 9.3 3.3 11
25 - 39 2711 33.1 39.4 9.7 4.9 12.9
40 - 54 3457 37.1 32.2 10.2 4.5 16
55 + 4043 36.7 27 7.3 5.2 23.8
EDUCATION
until 15 years of age 2224 26.7 23.6 9.5 5.2 35.1
16 - 20 4851 33.5 36.3 10.4 5.9 13.9
20 + 3313 44.1 35.8 7.4 3.5 9.1
Still in education 1198 37.3 41.5 7.4 2.5 11.4
OCCUPATION
Self-em ployed 1135 40.1 33.8 8.3 4 13.8
Em ployee 3900 36.7 39.2 11 3.5 9.6
Manual worker 955 31.3 36.8 8.8 7.4 15.7
Not working 6017 34.2 29.8 7.9 5.2 22.9
LOCALITY TY PE
Metropolitan area 2438 38.9 33.2 8.9 5.2 13.9
Other towns 4613 36.1 34.6 7.9 5 16.4
Rural zones 4965 33 33.5 10 4.2 19.3

Annex Tables, page 1 05
Flash EB N o 193 – Euro – Fiv e Years After Study The Gallup Organization

Table 36. Penalties for non-compliance with the Stability Pact
QUES TION: Q25c. During the introduction of the Euro, Member S tates of the European Union signed a " S tability
Pact " by which everyone committed to limiting their budget deficit. Can you tell me if you agree or disagree with
each of the following opinions?

The measures foreseen against countries that do not respect the "Stability Pact" are not applied in the same manner to all
Member States.

% Totally % Rather % Rather % Totally
Total N % DK/NA
agree agree disagree disagree
EU12 12078 22.4 21.2 14.8 14 27.5
COUNTRY
Belgium 1000 12.8 17.4 15.7 26 28.1
Germany 1006 26.5 26.9 20.1 10.8 15.8
Greece 1010 32.9 18.4 7.7 15.7 25.3
Spain 1003 22.5 15.5 12.8 11.2 38.1
France 1001 20 27.7 18.2 12.1 22
Ireland 1023 26.1 30.1 11.5 7.2 25.2
Italy 1011 15.2 14.8 8.1 16.8 45.1
Luxembourg 1008 18.6 20.1 15.1 13.1 33.1
Netherlands 1001 26 12.9 13.5 33.8 13.8
Austria 1013 38.6 19.6 12.3 9.7 19.7
Portugal 1002 15.8 18 15.6 11.9 38.6
Finland 1000 36.8 19.8 5.9 5.1 32.4
SEX
Male 5847 28.2 22.9 14.7 15 19.3
Female 6231 17 19.7 14.9 13.1 35.3
AGE
15 - 24 1797 19.6 26 22.7 14.3 17.4
25 - 39 2711 23.3 23.8 15.2 13.5 24.2
40 - 54 3457 23.8 21.8 13.6 13.2 27.6
55 + 4043 21.9 17.1 12.1 15 33.8
EDUCATION
until 15 years of age 2224 14.8 15.6 11.2 12.6 45.8
16 - 20 4851 22.2 20.9 16 15.6 25.3
20 + 3313 29.2 25.1 14.2 12.4 19.1
Still in education 1198 21.2 25.4 19.6 15 18.7
OCCUPATION
Self-em ployed 1135 26 20.2 13.1 18.2 22.6
Em ployee 3900 25.3 25.9 15.4 12.4 21
Manual worker 955 20.7 21.6 20.7 13.5 23.5
Not working 6017 20.2 18.4 13.9 14.4 33.2
LOCALITY TY PE
Metropolitan area 2438 26.8 22.2 15.4 13.1 22.6
Other towns 4613 21.8 22.2 13.6 13.8 28.6
Rural zones 4965 21.2 20 15.6 14.7 28.5

page 1 06
The Gallup Organization Flash EB N o 193 – Euro – Fiv e Years After Study

Table 37. The eurozone countries respect the Stability Pact
QUES TION: Q26. Would you say that currently [COUNTRY] respects the rules of the S tability Pact concerning the
limits in terms of public deficit and debt?
% % Rather
Total N % Rather % not at all % DK/NA
Absolutely not
EU12 12078 11.7 32.1 25 11.3 20
COUNTRY
Belgium 1000 18.3 43 9.3 2.8 26.5
Germany 1006 9.8 35.2 35.7 14 5.4
Greece 1010 15.2 36.9 23.5 10.6 13.8
Spain 1003 13.1 30.2 15.8 4.5 36.4
France 1001 5.3 29.7 29.5 17.4 18.1
Ireland 1023 30.2 31.8 10.3 4.6 23.1
Italy 1011 2.9 31.5 22.9 12.2 30.4
Luxembourg 1008 29.8 38.3 6.2 0.8 24.9
Netherlands 1001 44.8 24.4 7.8 4.4 18.7
Austria 1013 38.4 42 7.6 1.4 10.6
Portugal 1002 4.3 18.2 34.8 11.6 31.1
Finland 1000 37.9 36.9 2.9 1.6 20.7
SEX
Male 5847 14.1 34.6 25.3 12.8 13.2
Female 6231 9.4 29.9 24.6 9.8 26.4
AGE
15 - 24 1797 8.2 37.4 24.5 12.7 17.2
25 - 39 2711 11.1 30.4 28.1 12.1 18.3
40 - 54 3457 12.2 32.1 26.1 11.4 18.1
55 + 4043 13.1 31.4 22.1 10 23.4
EDUCATION
until 15 years of age 2224 9.6 24.3 20.9 12.2 33
16 - 20 4851 11.8 33.5 25.3 12.3 17.1
20 + 3313 14.6 34.7 28.2 9.5 13
Still in education 1198 8.4 37.9 25.3 10.9 17.5
OCCUPATION
Self-em ployed 1135 12.8 32.4 26.9 12.3 15.6
Em ployee 3900 13.1 32.7 27.6 11.6 14.9
Manual worker 955 11.5 32.3 20.3 17.3 18.6
Not working 6017 10.5 31.8 23.7 9.9 24
LOCALITY TY PE
Metropolitan area 2438 14 30.3 26.6 11.5 17.6
Other towns 4613 11.3 34.2 24.5 9.8 20.3
Rural zones 4965 11 31.5 24.6 12.6 20.3

Annex Tables, page 1 07
Flash EB N o 193 – Euro – Fiv e Years After Study The Gallup Organization

10. Survey details
This survey on the "Euro after 5 years , Wave 5" was conducted for the European Commission,
Directorate-General Economic and Financial Affairs.

Telephone interviews were conducted in each country between the 04/09/2006 and the 8/09/2006 by
these Institutes:

Belgium BE Gallup-Europe (Interviews : 04/09/2006 - 8/09/2006)
Germany DE IFAK (Interviews : 04/09/2006 - 8/09/2006)
Greece EL Metroanalysis (Interviews : 04/09/2006 - 8/09/2006)
Spain ES Gallup Spain (Interviews : 05/09/2006 - 8/09/2006)
France FR Efficience3 (Interviews : 04/09/2006 - 6/09/2006)
Ireland IE Gallup UK (Interviews : 04/09/2006 - 8/09/2006)
Italy IT Demoskopea (Interviews : 04/09/2006 - 7/09/2006)
Luxembourg CZ Gallup Luxembourg (Interviews : 04/09/2006 - 8/09/2006)
Netherlands NL Telder (Interviews : 04/09/2006 - 8/09/2006)
Austria AT Spectra (Interviews : 04/09/2006 - 8/09/2006)
Portugal PT Consulmark (Interviews : 04/09/2006 - 8/09/2006)
Finland FI Hermelin (Interviews : 04/09/2006 - 8/09/2006)
Sweden SE Hermelin (Interviews : 04/09/2006 - 8/09/2006)

Representativeness of the results

Each national sample is representative of the population aged 15 years and above.

Sizes of the sample

The sample sizes amount to approximately 1000 respondents in each country.

A weighting factor was applied to the national results in order to compute a marginal total where each
country contributes to the European Union result in proportion to its population.

The table below presents, for each of the 25 Member States:
(1) the number of interviews actually carried out in each country
(2) the population-weighted total number of interviews for each Member State

page 1 08
The Gallup Organization Flash EB N o 193 – Euro – Fiv e Years After Study

TOTAL INTERVIEWS

Total Interviews
1 1 2 2
% on Total
Conducted % of Total Weighted
( weighted)
Total 12078 100 12078 100
1 Belgium 1000 8.28 402 3.33
4 Germany 1006 8.33 3324 27.52
6 Greece 1010 8.36 435 3.60
7 Spain 1003 8.30 1634 13.53
8 France 1001 8.29 2249 18.62
9 Ireland 1023 8.47 149 1.23
10 Italy 1011 8.37 2325 19.25
14 Luxembourg 1008 8.35 17 0.14
17 Netherlands 1001 8.29 621 5.14
18 Austria 1013 8.39 313 2.59
20 Portugal 1002 8.30 407 3.37
23 Finland 1000 8.28 202 1.67

Questionnaires

1. The questionnaire prepared for this survey is reproduced at the end of this results volume, in
English (see hereafter).
2. The institutes listed above translated the questionnaire in their respective national
language(s).
3. One copy of each national questionnaire is annexed to the data tables results volumes.

Tables of results

VOLUME A : COUNTRY BY COUNTRY
The VOLUME A presents the European Union results country by country.

VOLUME B : RESPONDENTS’ DEMOGRAPHICS
The VOLUME B presents the European Union results with the following sociodemographic
characteristics of respondents as breakdowns:

Volume B :
Volume B :
Sex (Male, Female)
Age (15-24, 25-39, 40-54, 55 +)
Education (15&-, 16-20, 21&+, Still in full time education)
Subjective urbanisation (Metropolitan zone, Other town/urban centre, Rural zone)
Occupation (Self-employed, Employee, Manual worker, Not working)

Statistical significance of the results

The results in a survey are valid only between the limits of a statistical margin caused by the sampling
process. This margin varies with three factors:

1. The sample size (or the size of the analysed part in the sample): the greater the number of
respondents is, the smaller the statistical margin will be;
2. The result in itself: the closer the result approaches 50%, the wider the statistical margin will be;
3. The desired degree of confidence: the more "strict" we are, the wider
the statistical margin will be.

Annex Tables, page 1 09
Flash EB N o 193 – Euro – Fiv e Years After Study The Gallup Organization

As an example, examine this illustrative case:
1. One question has been answered by 500 people;
2. The analysed result is around 50%;
3. We choose a significance level of 95 % (it is the level most often used by the statisticians, and it is
the one chosen for the Table hereafter);

In this illustrative case the statistical margin is: (+/- 4.4%) around the observed 50%. And as a
conclusion: the result for the whole population lies between 45.6% and 54.4 %.
Hereafter, the statistical margins computed for various observed results are shown, on various sample
sizes, at the 95% significance level.

STATISTICAL MARGINS DUE TO THE SAMPLING PROCESS (AT THE 95 % LEVEL OF
CONFIDENCE)

Various sample sizes are in rows;
Various observed results are in columns:

5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% 50%
N=50 6,0 8,3 9,9 11,1 12,0 12,7 13,2 13,6 13,8 13,9
N=500 1,9 2,6 3,1 3,5 3,8 4,0 4,2 4,3 4,4 4,4
N=1000 1,4 1,9 2,2 2,5 2,7 2,8 3,0 3,0 3,1 3,1
N=1500 1,1 1,5 1,8 2,0 2,2 2,3 2,4 2,5 2,5 2,5
N=2000 1,0 1,3 1,6 1,8 1,9 2,0 2,1 2,1 2,2 2,2
N=3000 0,8 1,1 1,3 1,4 1,5 1,6 1,7 1,8 1,8 1,8
N=4000 0,7 0,9 1,1 1,2 1,3 1,4 1,5 1,5 1,5 1,5
N=5000 0,6 0,8 1,0 1,1 1,2 1,3 1,3 1,4 1,4 1,4
N=6000 0,6 0,8 0,9 1,0 1,1 1,2 1,2 1,2 1,3 1,3

page 110
The Gallup Organization Flash EB N o 193 – Euro – Fiv e Years After Study

11. Survey questionnaire
Flash 193 que stionnaire: Euro – Five Years After, Final

1. It’s five years since we have been using the euro instead of [NATIONAL CURRENCY]. Today, would you
say that the euro continues to cause you a lot of difficulty, some difficulty or no difficulty at all?
[READ OUT – ONE ANSWER ONLY]

- a lot of difficulty ................................................................................................1
- some difficulty...................................................................................................2
- no difficulty at all ..............................................................................................3
- (DK/NA) .............................................................................................................9

2. Today, when purchasing, do you count mentally: most often in euro, most often in [NATIONAL CURRENCY],
or as often in euro as in [NATIONAL CURRENCY] when it concerns:
[READ OUT – ONE ANSWER ONLY PER ITEM]

- most often in euro.............................................................................................1
- most often in [NATION AL CURRENCY].......................................................2
- as often in euro as in [NATIONAL CURRENCY].........................................3
- (DK/NA) ..............................................................................................................9

a) Exceptional purchases such as the purchase of a car or a house for
example............................................................................................................................1 2 3 9
b) Common purchases such as day-to-day shopping ..............................................................1 2 3 9

SPLIT BALLOT A
3a. It’s five years since all purchases have been made in euro and no longer in [NATION AL CURRENCY].
Would you like shopkeepers to continue dual price displays?
[READ OUT - ONE ANSWER ONLY ]

- yes.......................................................................................................................1
- no.........................................................................................................................2
- (DK/NA) ..............................................................................................................9

SPLIT BALLOT B
3b. It’s five years since all purchases have been made in euro and no longer in [NATION AL CURRENCY].
Would you say that it is useful for you that shopkeepers extend dual price displays?
[READ OUT - ONE ANSWER ONLY]

- yes.......................................................................................................................1
- no.........................................................................................................................2
- (DK/NA) ..............................................................................................................9

TO ALL
4a. When you pay cash, would you say that it is: very easy, rather easy, rather difficult or very difficult to
distinguish and to manipulate coins?
[READ OUT – ONE ANSWER ONLY]

- very easy..........................................................................................................1
- rather easy.......................................................................................................2
- rather difficult...................................................................................................3
- very difficult......................................................................................................4
- (neither easy nor difficult, normal)...............................................................5
- (DK/NA) ............................................................................................................9

Annex Tables, page 111
Flash EB N o 193 – Euro – Fiv e Years After Study The Gallup Organization

4b. When you pay cash, would you say that it is: very easy, rather easy, rather difficult or very difficult to
distinguish and to manipulate bank notes?
[READ OUT – ONE ANSWER]

- very easy..........................................................................................................1
- rather easy.......................................................................................................2
- rather difficult...................................................................................................3
- very difficult......................................................................................................4
- (neither easy nor difficult, normal)...............................................................5
- (DK/NA) ............................................................................................................9

5. Having used euro coins for five years, do you consider that there are too many or, on the contrary, not
enough coins with different values or do you consider that there are just the right number?
[READ OUT – ONE ANSWER ONLY]

- Too many...........................................................................................................1
- Not enough ........................................................................................................2
- Just the right number.......................................................................................3
- (DK/NA) ..............................................................................................................9

IF “TOO MANY” TO Q5 ASK Q6a
6a. Please indicate whether any of the euro coin denominations should be removed. If yes, which one or
which ones?
[DO NOT READ OUT – SEVERAL ANSW ERS POSSIBLE]

- 1-cent euro coin ................................................................................................1
- 2-cent euro coin ................................................................................................2
- 5-cent euro coin ................................................................................................3
- 10-cent euro coin..............................................................................................4
- 20-cent euro coin..............................................................................................5
- 50-cent euro coin..............................................................................................6
- 1-euro coin.........................................................................................................7
- 2-euro coin.........................................................................................................8
- [DK/NA] ..............................................................................................................9

IF “NOT ENOUGH” TO Q5 ASK Q6b
6b. Please indicate which denomination would you like to have, besides those currently in circulation.
[DO NOT READ OUT – ONE ANSWER ONLY]

- 25-cent coin .......................................................................................................1
- 5-euro coin.........................................................................................................2
- 10-euro coin.......................................................................................................3

- other denomination, WRITE IN: .....................................................................4
- (DK/NA) ..............................................................................................................9

7. For five years now all payments have been made in euro, some people buy more as they don’t realise
how much they are spending; on the other hand others buy less as they fear spending too much. Which
of these two attitudes is closer to yours?
[READ OUT – ONE ANSWER ONLY]

- you buy more as you have difficulty realising how much you are spending 1
- you buy less as you fear spending too much...............................................2
- (Neither one or the other: no difference).......................................................3
- (DK/NA) ..............................................................................................................9

page 112
The Gallup Organization Flash EB N o 193 – Euro – Fiv e Years After Study

8. Do you believe that the suppression of small euro coins (such as the 1 and 2 cent coins)…
[READ OUT – ONE ANSWER ONLY]

- would raise prices.............................................................................................1
- would lower prices ................................... ....................................................2
- would not have any effect on prices ..............................................................3
- (DK/NA) ..............................................................................................................9

9. Concerning the evolution of prices for the last five years, would you say that the euro has…?
[READ OUT – ONE ANSWER ONLY]

- added to the increase of prices ......................................................................1
- limited the increase of prices ..........................................................................2
- or that the euro has had no impact on prices...............................................3
- (DK/ NA) .............................................................................................................9

10. Compared to a similar operation done in [COUNTRY], in your opinion, do you pay supplementary
fees…?
[READ OUT – ONE ANSWER PER ITEM]

- yes.......................................................................................................................1
- no.........................................................................................................................2
- (DK/NA) ..............................................................................................................9

a) When you use your bank card to withdraw money in another country of
the euro zone...................................................................................................................... 1 2 9
b) When you use your bank card to make a purchase in another country of
the euro zone...................................................................................................................... 1 2 9
c) When you make a banking transfer to another country of the euro zone ........................... 1 2 9

11. After fi ve years of using the euro, do you believe yes or no that the euro:…
[READ OUT – ONE ANSWER PER ITEM]

- Yes .....................................................................................................................1
- No........................................................................................................................2
- (DK/NA) ..............................................................................................................9

a) Has become an international currency like the dollar or the yen ......................................... 1 2 9
b) Reduced price differences between countries in the Euro Zone ........................................ 1 2 9

12. In 2006, did you go to a country outside the euro zone?
[READ OUT – ONE ANSWER ONLY]

- Yes ......................................................................................................................1
- No........................................................................................................................2
- (DK/NA) ..............................................................................................................9

IF YES TO Q12 ASK Q13
13. During your trip or trips to a country outside the euro zone, what was the main currency that you took
with you?
[READ OUT – ONE ANSWER ONLY]

- Euros .................................................................................................................1
- Dollars.................................................................................................................2
- Another currency...............................................................................................3
- (DK/NA) ..............................................................................................................9

14. In your opinion, for [COUNTRY], is the adoption of the euro advantageous overall and will strengthen us
for the future, or rather the opposite, disadvantageous overall and will weaken us? [READ OUT – ONE
ANSW ER ONLY]

Annex Tables, page 113
Flash EB N o 193 – Euro – Fiv e Years After Study The Gallup Organization

- advantageous overall.......................................................................................1
- disadvantageous overall..................................................................................2
- (Neither one or the other, no change) ..........................................................3
- (DK/NA) .............................................................................................................9

TO THOSE WHO ANSWER «Advantageous overall» IN Q14a
14b. In your opinion, what are the main advantages of the adoption of the euro for [COUNTRY]?
[DO NOT READ OUT – CODE SPONTANEOUS ANSW ERS BELOW]

- Travels abroad less costly, easier to travel ..................................................1
- Easier to compare prices.................................................................................2
- Lower interests rates, less debts charges ....................................................3
- Sounder public finances .................................................................................4
- More stable prices ............................................................................................5
- Reinforce the place of Europe in the world ..................................................6
- Improve growth, employment .........................................................................7
- Other...................................................................................................................8
- (DK/NA) ..............................................................................................................9

TO THOSE WHO ANSWER «Disadvantageous overall» IN Q14a
14c. In your opinion, what are the main disadvantages of the adoption of the euro for [COUNTRY]?
[DO NOT READ OUT – CODE SPONTANEOUS ANSW ERS BELOW]

- Prices increase..................................................................................................1
- Loss of sovereignty...........................................................................................2
- More unemployment, less growth..................................................................3
- Complicate everyday life .................................................................................4
- Generates too low interest rates ....................................................................5
- Too rigid for public spending...........................................................................6
- Loss of competitiveness ..................................................................................7
- Other...................................................................................................................8
- (DK/NA) ..............................................................................................................9

TO ALL
15. Would you say that the extension of the euro to the 10 new member states, which entered the European
Union in May 2004 is something that will happen:
[READ OUT – ONE ANSWER ONLY]

- Yes, certainly.....................................................................................................1
- Yes, probably.....................................................................................................2
- No, probably not................................................................................................3
- No, certainly not................................................................................................4
- (DK/NA) ..............................................................................................................9

16. Are you…
[READ OUT – ONE ANSWER ONLY]

- in favour of introducing the euro in the other EU countries, or .................1
- against introducing the euro in the other EU countries?............................2
- (DK/N A)............................................................................................................9

page 114
The Gallup Organization Flash EB N o 193 – Euro – Fiv e Years After Study

17. Since using the euro, do you personally feel a little more European than before, a little less European than
before or would you say that your feeling of being European has not changed?
[READ OUT – ONE ANSWER ONLY]

- A little more European ....................................................................................1
- A little less European ......................................................................................2
- Nothing has changed .......................................................................................3
- (DK/NA) ..............................................................................................................9

18. From what you know, would you say that today one euro is worth more, less or is equivalent to one dollar:..?
[READ OUT-ONE ANSW ER ONLY]

- one euro is worth more than one dollar........................................................1
- one euro is worth less than one dollar..........................................................2
- one euro has an equivalent value to one dollar...........................................3
- (DK/NA) ..............................................................................................................9

19. Generally speaking, does the value of the euro against the dollar concern you: a lot, a little or not at all?
[READ OUT-ONE ANSW ER ONLY]

- a lot ....................................................................................................................1
- a little...................................................................................................................2
- not at all..............................................................................................................3
- (DK/NA) ..............................................................................................................9

20. Is there a coordination of the economic policies within the Member States of the European Union:
[READ OUT-ONE ANSW ER ONLY]

- Yes ......................................................................................................................1
- No........................................................................................................................2
- (DK/NA) ..............................................................................................................9

21. Today, would you say that coordination between the economic policies of the member states is:
[READ OUT-ONE ANSW ER ONLY]

- too important......................................................................................................1
- not important enough .......................................................................................2
- just right..............................................................................................................3
- (DK/ NA) .............................................................................................................9

22. And if you compare the economic situation of [COUNTRY] with that of other countries of the European
Union, would you say that it is … ? [READ OUT-ONE ANSWER ONLY]

- .......................................................................................................... Much better 1
- Better ..................................................................................................................2
- Identical..............................................................................................................3
- Rather not as good...........................................................................................4
- Definitely not as good.......................................................................................5
- (DK/NA) ..............................................................................................................9

23. Each year, the [N ATIONALITY] State uses its revenues to finance public spending, meaning everything
that is paid by the State. From what you know, would you say that in 2005, the [NATION ALITY] State
had a budget surplus, a budget deficit or one way or another, revenues and spending balanced?
[READ OUT-ONE ANSW ER ONLY]

- The State had a budget surplus, meaning that it earned more
money than it spent..........................................................................................1
- The State had a budget deficit, meaning that it spent more
money than it earned .......................................................................................2
- The States revenues and spending balanced..............................................3
- (DK/NA) ..............................................................................................................9

Annex Tables, page 115
Flash EB N o 193 – Euro – Fiv e Years After Study The Gallup Organization

24. Personally, have you ever heard of the “Stability and Growth Pact”, which is often called the “Stability
Pact”?
[READ OUT-ONE ANSW ER ONLY]
- Yes, and you know what it’s about ................................................................1
- Yes, but you do not know very well what it’s about.....................................2
- No, you have not heard about it.....................................................................3
- (DK/NA) ..............................................................................................................9

25. During the introduction of the Euro, Member States of the European Union signed a « Stability Pact » b y
which everyone committed to limiting their budget deficit. Can you tell me if you agree or disagree with
each of the following opinions … ?
[READ OUT-ONE ANSW ER PER ITEM]

- Totally agree......................................................................................................1
- Rather agree......................................................................................................2
- Rather disagree ................................................................................................3
- Totally disagree ................................................................................................4
- (DK/NA) ..............................................................................................................9

a) In difficult economic periods, a country should be free not to
respect the limits set by the « Stability Pact » in terms of public
deficit and debt. ...........................................................................................................1 2 3 4 9
b) The « Stability Pact » is a good thing because, thanks to this, the
Euro is a stable and strong currency. ......................................................................1 2 3 4 9
c) The measures foreseen against countries that do not respect the
« Stability Pact » are not applied in the same manner to all Member
States. ..........................................................................................................................1 2 3 4 9

- 2 QU -

26. Would you say that currently [COUNTR Y] respects the rules of the Stability Pact concerning the limits in
terms of public deficit and debt?
[READ OUT-ONE ANSWER ONLY]

- Absolutely..........................................................................................................1
- Rather.................................................................................................................2
- Rather not..........................................................................................................3
- Not at all .............................................................................................................4
- (DK/NA) ..............................................................................................................9

page 116
The Gallup Organization Flash EB N o 193 – Euro – Fiv e Years After Study

Socio Demographics
D1. Sex [1 ] Male
[2 ] Female
D2. Exact Age: [_][_] Years old
[9 9 ] [REFUSAL/NO ANSWER]
D3. Age when finished full time education : [EXACT AGE IN 2 DIGITS]
[_][_] years old
[9 9 ] [REFUSAL/ NO ANSWER]
[0 1 ] [NEVER BEEN IN FULL TIME EDUCATION]
[0 0 ] [STILL IN FULL TIME EDUCATION]
D4. As far as your current occupation is concerned, would you say you are self-employed, an employee, a
manual worker or would you say that you are without a professional activity ?
[READ OUT LEFT ITEMS - THEN ASK TO SPECIFY (“that is to say”) - ONLY ONE ANSWER]

- Self-employed
 i.e. : - farmer, forester, fisherman .......................................................11
- owner of a shop, craftsman ......................................................12
- professional (lawyer, medical practitioner, accountant, architect,…) 13
- manager of a company..............................................................14
- other (SPECIFY) .......................................................................15

- Employee
 i.e. : - professional (employed doctor, lawyer, accountant, architect) 21
- general management, director or top management.............22
- middle management,.................................................................23
- civil servant..................................................................................24
- office clerk ...................................................................................25
- other employee (salesman, nurse, etc…)..............................26
- other (SPECIFY).........................................................................27
- Manual worker
 i.e. : - supervisor / foreman (team manager, etc …).......................31
- manual worker .........................................................................32
- unskilled manual worker............................................................33
- other (SPECIFY).........................................................................34

- Without a professional activity
 i.e. : - looking after the home...............................................................41
- student (full time)........................................................................42
- retired ..........................................................................................43
- seeking a job...............................................................................44
- other (SPECIFY).........................................................................45
- (Refusal) .........................................................................................................99

D5. Region = "European Administrative Regional Unit" (N.U.T.S. 2) [2 DIGITS]

D6. Type of Locality?
- metropolitan zone............................................................................................... 1
- other town/urban centre .................................................................................... 2
- rural zone ........................................................................................................... 3

Annex Tables, page 117