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GE6075PROFESSIONALETHICS&HUMANVALUES2MARKSQUESTIONSAND

ANSWERSUNITI
1.Whatarehumanvalues?
Valuesdecidethestandardofbehavior.Someuniversallyacceptedvaluesarefreedom
justiceandequality.Otherprinciplesofvaluesarelove,care,honesty,integrity,selfrespect.
2.Whatareethicalvalues?
Trustworthiness,respect,responsibility,fairness,caringisethicalvalues
3.Distinguishvaluesfromethicsandculture.
Valuesaremainlyrelatedtoindividualsandsincetheyarerelatedtojustice,theyremain
thesomeforeveryone.E.g.truth,honesty,empathy,selfrespect.Valuesdonotchangefrom
individualtoindividual.Ethicsiscommontoagroupofindividuals;thegroupmaybereligious
orprofessional.Ethicsismostlybasedonsomecodeorlawandjudgmentofanyactionisbased
oncodeofconductorlaw.EthicschangefromindividualtoindividualCulturecommonlyrefers
toconductofagroup.E.g.systemofworship,Itmaydifferfromsocietytosociety,nationto
nationorreligiontoreligion.
4.Whatisintegrity?
Integrityistheunityofcharacterbasedonmoralvalues.Consistencyinattitudes,
emotionsandconductinrelationstomorallyjustifiedactionsandvaluesarealsothepartof
integrityofindividual.Itimplieshonesty,trustworthiness.
5.DefineworkethicsByonesworkonecannotharmothers.Anyworkercannotescape
accountability.Workerhasthemoralresponsibilitytoseethatnootherpersonsright,privateor
freedomisimpairedortransgressed.
6.Whatisservicelearning?Servicelearningtellsthatonehasmoralresponsibilitytoincrease
thedesirableeffectsandtodecreasetheharmfuleffects.Anyserviceshouldincreasethe
desirableresult.
7.Mentionsomecivicvirtues?Goodcitizendemandcivicvirtue.Itistheprincipleofnot
harmingthesurroundings.italsoincludeslivingpeacefully,respectforothers,protectingthe
environmentandbeingnormallyandethicallygood.

8.Writeshortnotesoncaringandsharing.
Caringistheessenceofmorallife.Caringinvolvesfeelings,relationship,contendswith
otherpersonsandprotectingothersandcausingleastdamagetoothers.
Sharingmeanssharingoffeelings,ideasthoughts,resourcesandprofits.Sharingisalways
mutuallybeneficial.Sharingmorallyacceptablefeelings,resourcesandmaterialsisavalue.
9.Writenotesonhonesty
Anyhumanbeingshouldimbibehonestyhonestyinacts,honestyinspeechandhonesty
inbeliefs.Honestyisthefundamentalvirtueinhumanrelationshipeventhoughinmaybe
difficulttofollowsometimes.
10.Whatiscourageasavalue?
Courageimpliesselfrespectandgovernsconfrontationswithdangerandrisk.Itisnot
excessiverashesorcowardice,butitisthemiddleground.Takingcalculatedrisksandboldness
infacingcrisesarethehallmarksofcourageasahumanvalue.Itdefinesthementalmakeupof
anindividualintakingbolddecisionsevenunderadversesituations.
11.Definecooperation.
Cooperationmeansextendinghelptoothers,foragoodcause.Cooperationmaybe
throughanidea,asuggestion,anassistanceorphysicalworkwhichextendstoothersfor
commonbenefit.
12.Defineempathy.
Empathymeansputtingselfinapositionofsomeoneelseandthinkingasthelaterand
reasoningsuitableaction.
13.Definespirituality.
Spiritualityraisesamanabovethematerialisticworldintoarealmwhereheseekspeace
andrealhappiness.
14.DefineIntegrity?
Integrityisthebridgebetweenresponsibilityinprivateandprofessionallife.
15.DefineCompromise?
Inanegativesenseitmeanstoundeterminedintegritybyviolatingonesfundamental
moralprinciples.Inapositivesense,however,itmeanstosettledifferencesbymutual
concessionsortoreconcileconflictsthroughadjustmentsinattitudeandconduct.

16.GivethetwoaspectsofHonesty?
Truthfulnessmeetingresponsibilitiesconcerningtruthtelling.Trustworthiness
Meetingresponsibilitiesconcerningtrust.
17.DifferentiateSelfrespectandSelfesteem?
Selfrespect:Itisamoralconcept;referstothevirtueproperlyvaluingoneself.Self
esteem:Itisapsychologicalconcept;meanshavingapositiveattitudetowardoneself,evenif
theattitudeisexcessiveorotherwiseunwarranted.

GE6075PROFESSIONALETHICS&HUMANVALUES
2MARKSQUESTIONSANDANSWERS
UNITII
1.DefineEthics?
*Studyofrightorwrong.
*Goodandevil.
*Obligations&rights.
*Justice.
*Social&Politicaldeals.
2.DefineEngineeringEthics?
*Studyofthemoralissuesanddecisionsconfrontingindividualsandorganizationsengagedin
engineering/profession.
*Studyofrelatedquestionsaboutthemoralideals,character,policiesandrelationshipsof
peopleandcorporationsinvolvedintechnologicalactivity.
*Moralstandards/valuesandsystemofmorals.
3.WhatistheneedtostudyEthics?
Toresponsiblyconfrontmoralissuesraisedbytechnologicalactivity.
Torecognizeandresolvemoraldilemma.
Toachievemoralautonomy.

4.DifferentiateMoralandEthics?
MORAL:
Refersonlytopersonalbehavior.
Referstoanyaspectofhumanaction
.Socialconventionsaboutrightorwrongconduct.
E
T
H
I
C

:
Involvesdefining,analyzing,evaluatingandresolvingmoralproblemsanddevelopingmoral
criteriatoguidehumanbehavior.
Criticalreflectiononwhatonedoesandwhyonedoesit.
Refersonlytoprofessionalbehavior.
5.WhatisthemethodusedtosolveanEthicalproblem?
Recognizingaproblemoritsneed.Gatheringinformationanddefiningtheproblemtobesolved
orgoaltobeachieved.Generatingalternativesolutionsormethodstoachievethegoal.
Evaluatebenefitsandcostsofalternatesolutions.Decisionmaking&optimization.
Implementingthebestsolution.
6.WhataretheSensesofEngineeringEthics?
oAnactivityandareaofinquiry.
oEthicalproblems,issuesandcontroversies.
oEthicalproblems,issuesandcontroversies.oParticularsetofbeliefs,attitudesandhabits.
oMorallycorrect.
7.DifferentiateMicroethicsandMacroethics?
Microethics:Dealsaboutsometypicalandeverydayproblemswhichplayanimportantrolein
thefieldofengineeringandintheprofessionofanengineer.Macroethics:Dealswithallthe
societalproblemswhichareunknownandsuddenlyburstoutonaregionalornationallevel.
8.WhatarethethreetypesofInquiry?
NormativeInquiryBasedonvalues.
ConceptualInquiryBasedonmeaning.
FactualInquiryBasedinfacts.
9.Whatarethesortsofcomplexityandmurkinessthatmaybeinvolvedinmoralsituations?
Vagueness
Conflictingreasons
Disagreement

10.WhatarethestepsinconfrontingMoralDilemmas?
Identifytherelevantmoralfactorsandreasons.
Gatherallavailablefactsthatarepertinenttothemoralfactorsinvolved.Rankthemoral
considerationsinorderofimportanceastheyapplytothesituation.Rankthemoral
considerationsinorderofimportanceastheyapplytothesituation.Consideralternativecourses
ofactionsaswaysofresolvingdilemma,tracingthefullimplicationsofeach.
Getsuggestionsandalternativeperspectivesonthedilemma.Byweighingalltherelevantmoral
factorsandreasonsinlightofthefacts,produceareasonedjudgment.
11.DefineMoralAutonomy?
Exercisedbasedonthemoralconcernforotherpeopleandrecognitionofgoodmoral
reasons12.GivetheimportanceofLawrenceKohlbergsandCarolGilliganstheory?
Kohlberggivesgreateremphasistorecognizingrightsandabstractuniversalrules.Gilligan
stressestheimportanceofmaintainingpersonalrelationshipsbasedonmutualcaring.
13.GivetheneedforAuthority?
Authorityprovidestheframeworkinwhichlearningcantakeplace.
14.WhatarethecriteriarequiredforaProfession?
oKnowledge
oOrganization
oPublicGood

15.GivethegeneralcriteriatobecomeaProfessionalengineer?
Attainingstandardsofachievementineducation,jobperformanceorcreativityin
engineeringthatdistinguishengineersfromengineeringtechniciansandtechnologists.
Acceptingaspartoftheirprofessionalobligationsasleastthemostbasicmoralresponsibilities
tothepublicaswellastotheiremployers,clients,colleaguesandsubordinates.
16.DefineIntegrity?
Integrityisthebridgebetweenresponsibilityinprivateandprofessionallife.

17.DefineCompromise?
Inanegativesenseitmeanstoundeterminedintegritybyviolatingonesfundamental
moralprinciples.Inapositivesense,however,itmeanstosettledifferencesbymutual
concessionsortoreconcileconflictsthroughadjustmentsinattitudeandconduct.
18.GivethetwoaspectsofHonesty?
oTruthfulnessmeetingresponsibilitiesconcerningtruthtelling.
oTrustworthinessMeetingresponsibilitiesconcerningtrust.
19.DifferentiateSelfrespectandSelfesteem?
Selfrespect:Itisamoralconcept;referstothevirtueproperlyvaluingoneself.
Selfesteem:Itisapsychologicalconcept;meanshavingapositiveattitudetowardoneself,
eveniftheattitudeisexcessiveorotherwiseunwarranted.
20.WhatarethetwoformsofSelfrespect?
a.Recognitionselfrespectb.Appraisalself
21.WhatarethesensesofResponsibility?
avirtue
a obligations
. generalmoralcapacitiesofpeople
b. liabilitiesandaccountabilityforactionse.blameworthinessorpraiseworthiness
c
.
d.

22.WhenwillyoutellanActasaninvoluntaryone?
Actdoneinignorance
Actperformedundercompulsion

23.WhatarethetypesofTheoriesaboutMorality?
oVirtueethicsVirtuesandvices
oUtilitarianismMostgoodforthemostpeople
oDutyethicsDutiestorespectpeople

oRightsethicsHumanrights

24.DifferentiateHypotheticalimperativesandMoralimperatives?
HypotheticalimperativesarebasedonsomeconditionswhereasMoralimperativeswont
basedonsomecondition.
25.StateRawlsprinciples?
(1)Eachpersonisentitledtothemostextensiveamountoflibertycompatiblewithanequal
amountforothers.
(2)Differencesinsocialpowerandeconomicbenefitsarejustifiedonlywhentheyarelikelyto
benefiteveryone,includingmembersofthemostdisadvantagedgroups.
26.GivethevarioustestsrequiredtoevaluatetheEthicalTheories?
oTheorymustbeclear,andformulatedwithconceptsthatarecoherentandapplicable.
oItmustbeinternallyconsistentinthatnoneofitstenetscontradictsanyother.
oNeitherthetheorynoritsdefensecanrelyuponfalseinformation.
oItmustbesufficientlycomprehensivetoprovideguidanceinspecificsituationsofintereststo
us.
oItmustbecompatiblewithourmostcarefullyconsideredmoralconvictionsaboutconcrete
situations.
27.GivethedrawbacksofUtilitarianism?
oSometimeswhatisbestforthecommunityasawholeisbadforcertainindividualsinthe
community.
oItisoftenimpossibletoknowinadvancewhichdecisionwillleadtothemostgood.
28.GivethedrawbackofDutyEthics?
Dutyethicsdoesnotalwaysleadtoasolutionwhichmaximizesthepublicgood.
29.GivethedrawbacksofRightsEthics?Howdoweprioritizetherightsofdifferent
individuals?
Itoftenpromotestherightsofindividualsattheexpenseoflargegroups/society.

30.DifferentiateEthicalRelativismandEthicalEgoism?
Ethicalegoismtheviewthatrightactionconsistinproducingonesowngood.Ethical
relativismtheviewthatrightactionismerelywhatthelawandcustomsofonessociety
require.
31.DefineEthicalPluralism?
Ethicalpluralismistheviewthattheremaybealternativemoralperspectivesthatare
reasonable,butnooneofwhichmustbeacceptedcompletelybyallrationalandmorally
concernedpersons.
32.DefineReligion?
Areligionisanysetofarticlesoffaithtogetherwiththeobservances,attitudes,
obligationsandfeelingstieduptherewith,which,insofarasitisinfluentialinaperson,tendsto
performtwofunctions,onesocialandtheotherpersonal.
33.GivetheusesofEthicalTheories?
oInunderstandingmoraldilemmasoJustifyingprofessionalobligationsandidealsoRelating
ordinaryandprofessionalmorality
34.Whatarepersonalethicsandbusinessethics?Personalethicsdealswithhowwetreatothers
inourdaytodayBusinessethicsdealswiththedesirednormsofbehaviorthatpertainto
transactions.
.
35.Whatdoyoumeanbynormativeethics?
Normativeethicsdealswiththeprofessionalcodesofethicsthatspecifyrolenormsor
obligationsthatprofessionsattempttoenforce.Itistherecommendationsofstandardsand
guidelinesformorallyrightorgoodbehavior.
36.Whatisdescriptiveethicsornonnormativeethics?
Descriptiveethicsdealswiththefactualinvestigationofmoralbehaviorandbeliefsie.,
thestudynotofwhatpeopleoughttodobuthowtheyreasonandhowtheyact.
37.Mentionsomeuniversallyacceptedethicalprinciples.
Honesty
Integrity

Fulfillingcommitments
Abidingbyagreementsinbothletterandspirit
Willingtoadmitmistakes
Beingcaringandcompassionate
Havingrespectforhumandignity

38.Whatdoyoumeanbyethicalsubjectivism?
Ethicalsubjectivismarguesthatwhatisethicallyrightorwrongfortheindividual
dependsontheethicalprincipleshe/shehaschosen.Inotherwords,forpeoplewhosubscribeto
ethicalsubjectivismwhatisethicallyrightorwrongisentirelyapersonnelmatter.
39.Whatarethestepsinconfrontingmoraldilemmas?
*Identifytherelevantmoralfactorsandreasons
*Gatherallavailablefactsthatarepertinenttothemoralfactorsinvolved.
*Rankthemoralconsiderationsinorderofimportanceastheyapplytothesituation.
*Consideralternativecourseofactionaswaysofresolvingthedilemma,tracingthefull
implicationsofeach.
*Talkwiththecolleaguesseekingtheirsuggestionsandalternativeperspectivesonthedilemma.
*Arriveatacarefullyreasonedjudgmentbyweighingalltherelevantfactorsandreasonsinlight
ofthefacts.
40.WhatistacitethicandMetaethics?
Tacitethicdealswiththeunsaidorunspokenruleofpractice.
Metaethicsdealswiththeoriesaboutethics.
41.Whatismoralautonomy?

Moralautonomycanbeviewedastheskillandhabitofthinkingrationallyaboutethicalissues
onthebasisofmoralconcern.

42.Whatdoyoumeanbyasociopath?
Sociopathlackasenseofmoralconcernandguilt,andcanneverbemorallyautonomous
nomatterhowindependenttheirintellectualreasoningaboutethicsmaybe.
43.Whataretheattributestoaprofession?
Theattributestoaprofessionare:
*Knowledge
*Organization
*Publicgood
44.Whatarethetwomodelsofaprofessionalsociety?
Thetwomodelsofaprofessionalsocietyare:
*Socialcontractmodel
*Businessmodel

PROFESSIONALETHICS&HUMANVALUES
2MARKSQUESTIONSANDANSWERS
UNITIII
1.Whataretheconditionsrequiredtodefineavalidconsent?
Theconsentwasgivenvoluntarily.Theconsentwasbasedontheinformationthatrational
personwouldwant,togetherwithanyotherinformationrequested,presentedtothemin
understandableform.Theconsenterwascompetenttoprocesstheinformationandmake
rationaldecisions.
2.Whatarethetwomainelementswhichareincludedtounderstandinformedconsent?
InformedConsentisunderstoodasincludingtwomainelements:
i.Knowledge[Subjectsshouldbegivennotonlytheinformationtheyrequest,butallthe
informationneededtomakeareasonabledecision].
ii.Voluntariness[Subjectsmustenterintotheexperimentwithoutbeingsubjectedtoforce,
fraud,ordeception].
3.Whatarethegeneralfeaturesofmorallyresponsibleengineers?
Conscientiousness.
a. Comprehensiveperspective.
b. c.Autonomy.
c. d.Accountability.
d.

4.Whatisthepurposeofvarioustypesofstandards?
a.Accuracyinmeasurement,interchangeability,easeofhandling.
b.Preventionofinjury,deathandlossofincomeorproperty.
c.Fairvalueofprice.
d.Competenceincarryingouttasks.e.Sounddesign,easeofcommunications.
f.Freedomfrominterference.
5.DefineCode?
Codeisasetofstandards
InspirationandGuidance
Support
DeterrenceandDiscipline

and laws. 6. Enumerate the roles of

codes?

EducationandMutualUnderstanding

ProtectingtheStatusQuo
PromotingBusinessInterests

ContributingtotheProfessionsPublicImage

7.Givethelimitationsofcodes?
Codesarerestrictedtogeneralandvaguewording.
Codescantgiveasolutionormethodforsolvingtheinternal
conflicts.
asthefinalmoralauthorityforconduct.
Codescanbereproducedinaveryrapidmanner.

Codescannotserve

8.Whataretheproblemswiththelawinengineering?
a.Minimalcompliance
b.Manylawsarewithoutenforceablesanctions.
9.Whatistheneedtoviewengineeringprojectsasexperiments?
i.
Anyprojectiscarriedoutinpartialignorance.
ii. Thefinaloutcomesofengineeringprojects,likethoseofexperiments,aregenerally
uncertain.
iii.Effectiveengineeringreliesuponknowledgegainedaboutproductsbeforeandafterthey
leavethefactoryknowledgeneededforimprovingcurrentproductsandcreatingbetter
ones.
10.Differentiatescientificexperimentsandengineeringprojects?
Scientificexperimentsareconductedtogainnewknowledge,whileengineeringprojects
areexperimentsthatarenotnecessarilydesignedtoproduceverymuchknowledge
11.Whataretheuncertaintiesoccurinthemodeldesigns?
a.Modelusedforthedesigncalculations.
b.Exactcharacteristicsofthematerialspurchased.c.Constanciesofmaterialsusedfor
processingandfabrication.
c.Natureofthepressure,thefinishedproductwillencounter.
12.Commentontheimportanceoflearningfromthepast,usingTitanicdisaster,asanexample
The Titaniclackedasufficientnumberoflifeboats.
13.Commentontheimportanceoflearningfromthepast,usingthenuclearreactoraccidentat
ThreeMileIsland,asanexample?
Valuesarenotoriousforbeingamongtheleastreliablecomponentsofhydraulic
systems.Itwasapressurereliefvalve,andlackofdefinitiveinformationregardingitsopenor
shutstate.SimilarMalfunctionshadoccurredwiththeidenticalvaluesonnuclearreactors
becauseofthesamereasonsatotherlocations,butnoattentionhadbeengiventothem
14.Giveanytwoprominentfeaturesofcontemporaryengineeringpracticethatdifferentiate
casualinfluenceandmoralaccountabilityinengineering?
#Largescaleengineeringprojectsinvolvefragmentationofwork.
#Duetothefragmentationofthework,theaccountabilitywillspreadwidelywithinan

organization.
#Thereisfrequentlypressuretomoveontoanewprojectbeforethecurrentonehasbeen
operatinglongenoughtobeobservedcarefully.
#Thecontagionofmalpracticesuitscurrentlyafflictingthemedicalprofessioniscarryingover
intoengineering.
15.AreSRBsinherentlytoodangeroustouseonmannedspacecraft?Ifso,whyaretheypartof
thedesign?
Yes,sincetheyhavethedisadvantagethatoncethefuelislit,thereisnowaytoturnthe
boosterofforeventocontroltheamountofthrustproduced.SRBswereusedinsteadofsafer
liquidfueledboostersbecausetheyrequiredamuchsmallerresearchanddevelopmenteffort.
Numerousotherdesignchangesweremadetoreducethelevelofresearchanddevelopment
required.
16.Underwhatconditionswouldyousayitissafetolaunchashuttlewithoutanescape
mechanismforthecrew?
Design
310F
specifications
Havegivenvalidconsent
Insteadofrubber,steelbilletsforOrings
LiquidfueledboostersinsteadofSolidrocketboosters
17.Inyouropinion,wastheRightforinformedconsentoftheastronautsofSpaceShuttle
Challengerrespected?
No.
18.DefineEthicalConventionalism?
Ethicalconventionalismistheviewthataparticularsetofconventions,customs,orlaws
isselfcertifyingandnottobequestionedaslongasitisthesetinforceatagiventimeorfora
givenplace.
19.StateBabylonsBuildingCode?
Ifabuilderhasbuiltahouseforamanandhasnotmadehisworksound,andthehouse
whichhehasbuilthasfallendownandsocausedthedeathofthehouseholder,thatbuildershall
beputtodeath.Ifitcausesthedeathofthehouseholdersson,theyshallputthebuildersson
todeath.Ifitcausesthedeathofthehouseholdersslave,heshallgiveslaveforslavetothe
householder.Ifitdestroyspropertyheshallreplaceanythingithasdestroyed;andbecausehehas
notmadesoundthehousewhichhehasbuiltandithasfallendown,heshallrebuildthehouse
whichhasfallendownfromhisownproperty.Ifabuilderhasbuiltahouseforamananddoes
notmakethisworkperfectandthewallbulges,thatbuildershallputthatwallintosound
conditionathisowncost.

GE6075PROFESSIONALETHICS&HUMANVALUES
2MARKSQUESTIONS
UNITIV
1.DefineRisk?
Ariskisthepotentialthatsomethingunwantedandharmfulmayoccur.Risk=
ProbabilityXConsequences.
2.DefineaDisaster?
ADISASTER=Aseriouslydisruptiveevent+Astateofunpreparedness.3.Givethe
criteriawhichhelpstoensureasafetydesign?Theminimumrequirementisthatadesignmust
complywiththeapplicablelaws.Anacceptabledesignmustmeetthestandardofaccepted
engineeringpractice.Alternativedesignsthatarepotentiallysafermustbeexplored.Engineer
mustattempttoforeseepotentialmisusesoftheproductbytheconsumerandmustdesignto
avoidtheseproblems.Oncetheproductisdesigned,boththeprototypesandfinisheddevices
mustberigorouslytested.
4.Whatarethefactorsforsafetyandrisk?
VoluntaryandInvoluntaryrisk
ShorttermandLongtermrisk
Expectedprobability
Reversibleeffects
Thresholdlevelstorisk
DelayedorImmediaterisketc
5.WhatarethedrawbacksinthedefinitionofLawrence?
Underestimationofrisks
Overestimationofrisks
Noestimationofrisks
5.GivethecategoriesofRisk?

Lowconsequence,Lowprobability(whichcanbeignored)Lowconsequence,Highprobability
Highconsequence,Lowprobability
Highconsequence,Highprobability
6.WhatarethefactorsthataffectRiskAcceptability?
Voluntarismandcontrol
Effectofinformationonriskassessment
Jobrelatedpressures
Magnitudeandproximityofthepeoplefacingrisk
7.Whatistheknowledgerequiredtoassesstherisk?
Dataindesign
Uncertaintiesindesign
Testingforsafety
Analyticaltesting
Riskbenefitanalysis
8.Whataretheanalyticalmethods?
oScenarioanalysis
oFailuremodes&effectanalysis
oFaulttreeanalysis
oEventtreeanalysisetc.
9.Whatarethethreeconditionsreferredassafeexit?
Assurewhenaproductfailsitwillfailsafely.Assurethattheproductcanbeabandoned
safely.Assurethattheusercansafelyescapetheproduct.

10.Howwillanengineerassessthesafety?
Therisksconnectedtoaprojectorproductmustbeidentified.Thepurposesofthe
projectorproductmustbeidentifiedandrankedinimportance.Costsofreducingrisksmustbe
estimated.Thecostsmustbeweighedagainstbothorganizationalgoalsanddegreesof
acceptabilityofriskstoclientsandthepublic.Theprojectorproductmustbetestedandthen
eithercarriedoutormanufactured.
11.WhatarethereasonsforRiskBenefitAnalysis?
Riskbenefitanalysisisconcernedwiththeadvisabilityofundertakingaproject.
Ithelpsindecidingwhichdesignhasgreateradvantages.
i.
ii. Itassiststheengineerstoidentifyaparticulardesignscoreshigherwiththatofthe
iii.
iv.
12.Aretheengineersresponsibletoeducatethepublicforsafeoperationoftheequipment?
How?
Yes,aspertheengineersareconcernedwiththeyshouldhavetheirdutyastoprotectforthe
safetyandwellbeingofthegeneralpublic.Analyzingtheriskandsafetyaspectsoftheirdesigns
candothis.
13.DefineSafety?
InthedefinitionstatedbyWilliamW.Lawrencesafetyisdefined,asathingissafeifits
risksareacceptable.Athingissafewithrespecttoagivenpersonorgroup,atagiventime,ifits
riskisfullyknown,ifthoseriskswouldbejudgedacceptable,inlightofsettledvalueprinciples.
Intheviewofobjective,safetyisamatterofhowpeoplewouldfindrisksacceptableor
unacceptable.
14.Whatisthedefinitionofrisks?
Ariskisthepotentialthatsomethingunwantedandharmfulmayoccur.Riskisthepossibilityof
sufferingharmorloss.Itisalsodefinedastheprobabilityofaspecifiedlevelofhazardous
consequences,beingrealized.HenceRisk(R)istheproductofProbability(P)and
consequence(C)
(i.e)
15.DefineAcceptabilityofrisks?
Ariskisacceptablewhenthoseaffectedaregenerallynolongerapprehensiveaboutit.
Doubtfulnessdependsmainlyonhowthepeopletaketheriskorhowpeopleperceiveit.16.
Whatarethesafetymeasuresanengineermustknowbeforeassessingariskofanyproduct?
Thefactorsare:
a.Doestheengineerhavetherightdata?
b.Ishesatisfiedwiththepresentdesign?

c.Howdoeshetestthesafetyofaproduct?
d.Howdoeshemeasureandweightheriskswithbenefitsforaproduct.

17.Whatistheuseofknowledgeofriskacceptancetoengineers?
Thoughpastexperienceandhistoricaldatagivebetterinformationaboutsafetyofproducts
designingtherearestillinadequate.Thereasonsare
a.Theinformationisnotfreelysharedamongindustries
b.Therealsonewapplicationsofoldtechnologiesthatprovidesavailabledata,whichare
lessuseful.
c.So,inordertoaccesstheriskofaproduct,theengineersmustsharetheirknowledgeand
informationwithothersinafreemanner.
18.WhatismeantbyDisaster?Giveanexample.
Adisasterdoesnottakeplaceuntilaseriouslydisruptiveeventcoincideswithastateof
insufficientpreparation.Example:TheTitaniccollisionwithanicebergconstitutedan
emergency,whichturnedintoadisasterbecausethereweretoofewlifeboats.
19.Whatarethepositiveuncertaintiesindeterminingrisks?
Therearethreepositiveuncertainties.Theyare:
a.Purposeofdesigning
b.Applicationoftheproduct
c.Materialsandtheskillusedforproducingtheproduct.
20.WhatistheuseofRiskAnalysis?Whatarethethreefactorsinvolvedhere?
RiskAnalysisisusedfortheassessmentofthehazardousassociatedwithanindustrialor
commercialactivity.Itinvolvesidentifyingthecausesofunwantedhazardouseventsand
estimatingtheconsequencesandlikelihoodoftheseevents.Threefactorsinvolvedinthisare:
a.HazardIdentificationb.Consequencesanalysisc.Probabilityestimation.
21.DefineRiskBenefitAnalysis?
Riskbenefitanalysisisamethodthathelpstheengineerstoanalyzetheriskinaproject
andtodeterminewhetheraprojectshouldbeimplementedornot.Inriskbenefitanalysis,the

risksandbenefitsofaproductareallottedtomoneyamounts,andthemostbenefitableratio
betweenrisksandbenefitsiscalculated.
22.ExplainthetwotypesofRisk?
PersonalRisk:Anindividual,whoisgivensufficientinformation,willbeina
positiontodecidewhethertotakepartinariskyactivityornot.Theyaremoreready
i.
totakeonvoluntaryrisksthaninvoluntaryrisks.
PublicRisks:Risksandbenefitstothepublicaremoreeasilydeterminedthanto
ii.
individuals,aslargernumberofpeopleistakenintoaccount.Involuntaryrisksare
foundhere.
23.WhatdoesStrictLiabilitymean?
Strictliabilitymeansifthesoldproductisdefective;themanufacturerconcernedisliable
foranyharmthatresultstousers.Negligibleisnotatallanissuebased.
24.GivethereasonsfortheThreeMileIslanddisaster?
Inadequatetrainingtotheoperators.
UseofB&Wreactors.
i.
ii.

25.Whatisthemainbarriertoeducationalattempts?
Animportantbarriertoeducationalattemptisthatpeoplebeliefchangeslowandare
extraordinarilyresistanttonewinformation.
26.Whathappenstotheproductsthatarenotsafe?
Productsthatarenotsafeincursecondarycoststothemanufacturerbeyondtheprimary
coststhatmustalsobetakenintoaccountcostsassociatedwithwarrantyexpenses,lossof
customerwillandevenlossofcustomersandso.
27.WhatdoesOpenmindednessreferto?
Openmindednessrefersonceagainnotallowingapreoccupationwithrulestoprevent
closeexaminationofsafetyproblemsthatmaynotbecoveredbyrules.
28.WhatwastheproblemintheChernobylreactor?
Theproblemwasthat,Theoutputwasmaintainedtosatisfyanunexpecteddemand.
Thecontroldevicewasnotproperlyreprogrammedtomaintainpowerattherequiredlevel.
Insteadofleavingfifteencontrolrodsasrequired,theoperatorsraisedalmostallcontrolrods
becauseatthelowpowerlevel,thefuelhadbecomepoisoned.

UNITIVB
1.DefineCollegiality?
Collegialityisakindofconnectednessgroundedinrespectforprofessionalandinacommitment
tothegoalsandvaluesoftheprofessionandcollegialityincludesadispositiontosupportand
cooperatewithonescolleagues.

2.Whatarethecentralelementsofcollegiality?
Respect
Commitment
i.
ii. Connectedness
iii. Cooperation
iv.
v.

3.WhatarethetwosensesofLoyalty?
AgencyLoyaltyActingtofulfillonescontractualdutiestoanemployer.Itmatter
ofactions,whateveritsmotives.
i.
IdentificationLoyaltyHasasmuchastodowithattitudes,emotions,andasenseof
ii.
personalidentityasitdoeswithactions.
4.WhenmayanIdentificationLoyaltybesaidasobligatory?
Employeesmustseesomeoftheirownimportantgoalsasmetbyandthrougha
groupinwhichtheyparticipate.
i.
Employeesmustbetreatedfairly,eachreceivinghisorhershareofbenefitsand
ii.
burdens.
5.WhatistherelationshipbetweentheLoyaltytothecompanyandProfessionalresponsibilityto
thepublic?
iii.
i.
ii.

Actingonprofessional merewillingnesstofollowcompanyorders.
commitmentstothe Loyaltytocompaniesortheircurrentownersshouldnotbeequatedwithmerely
publiccanbeamore
obeyingonesimmediatesupervisor.
effectivewayto
serveacompanythana Anengineermighthaveprofessionalobligationstobothanemployerandtothe
publicthatreinforceratherthancontradicteachother.

16..DefineInstitutionalAuthority?
InstitutionalAuthorityisacquired,exercisedanddefinedwithinorganizations.Itmaybe
definedastheinstitutionalrightgiventoapersontoexercisepowerbasedontheresourcesofthe
institution.
7.DefineExpertAuthority?
Expertauthorityisthepossessionofspecialknowledge,skillorcompetencetoperform
taskorgivesoundadvice.
8.Whatisthebasicmoraltaskofsalariedengineers?
Thebasicmoraltaskofsalariedengineersistobeawareoftheirobligationstoobey
employersononehandandtoprotectandservethepublicandclientsoftheother.
9.Whataretheguidelinestoreachanagreement?
Attackproblemandnotpeople.
Buildtrust.
i.
ii. Startwithadiscussionandanalysisofinterests,concerns,needs.Itbeginwith
iii. interests,notpositionsorsolutions.
Listen.
iv. Brainstorm;suggestinganideadoesnotmeanoneaggresswithit.Developmultiple
v. options.
Useobjectivecriteriawheneverpossible.Agreeonhowsomethingwillbemeasured.
vi.

10.Defineconfidentialinformation?
Confidentialinformationisinformationdeemeddesirabletokeepsecret.
11.Whatarethecriteriaforidentifyingthatinformationislabeledconfidentialatthe
workplace?
*Engineersshalltreatinformationcomingtotheminthecourseoftheirasconfidential.
*Identifyanyinformationwhichifitbecameknownwouldcauseharmtothecorporationor
client.
*Confidentialinformationisanyinformationthattheemployerorclientwouldliketohavekept
12.WhatarethetermsassociatedwithConfidentiality?
PrivilegedInformation
ProprietaryInformation
i.
Patents
ii.
iii. Tradesecrets
iv.

13.Howwillyoujustifytheobligationofconfidentiality?
Theobligationofconfidentialitycanbejustifiedattwolevels.
FIRSTLevel:MoralConsiderations
Respectforautonomy
Respectforpromises
Regardforpublicwellbeing
SECONDLevel:MajorEthicalTheories
RightsEthicists
DutyEthicists
Ruleutilitarians
Actutilitarians
14.DefineConflictsofInterest?
Conflictofinterestsisasituationinwhichtwoormoreinterestsarenot
simultaneouslyrealizable.Itisthedisagreementbetweenpublicobligationandselfinterestof
simultaneouslyrealizable.Itisthedisagreementbetweenpublicobligationandselfinterestofan
official.
15.Whydoesaconflictofinterestsarise?
FinancialInvestments
a InsiderTrading
. .Bribe
b .Gifts
. .Kickbacks
c
.
d
.
e
.

16.WhatisaBribe?
ABribeisasubstantialamountofmoneyorgoodsofferedbeyondastatedbusiness

contractwiththeaimofwinninganadvantageingainingorkeepingthecontract.

17.WhatisaGift?
Giftsarenotbribesaslongastheyaresmallgratuitiesofferedinthenormalconductof
business.
18.WhatiscalledKickbacks?
Prearrangedpaymentsmadebycontractorstocompaniesortheirrepresentativesin
exchangeforcontractsactuallygrantedarecalledkickbacks.
19.WhatarethetypesofConflictsofinterest?
Actualconflictofinterest
Potentialconflictofinterest
i.
ii. Apparentconflictofinterest
iii.

20.WhataretheformsofConflictsofinterest?
Interestinothercompanies
Moonlightingiii.Insiderinformation
i.
ii.

21.HowwillyousolvetheConflictproblems?
Findingthecreativemiddleway.
EmployingLowerlevelconsiderations.
i.
ii. Makingthehardchoice.
iii.

22.WhatiscalledWhitecollarcrime?
Occupationalcrimesareillegalactsmadepossiblethroughoneslawfulemployment.It
isthesecretviolationoflawsregulatingworkactivities.Whencommittedbyofficeworkersof
professionals,occupationalcrimeiscalledwhitecollarcrime.
23.WhataretheessentialelementsofIPR?
Patents
Copyrights
i.
ii. Trademarks
iii. Tradesecrets
iv.

GE6075PROFESSIONALETHICS&HUMANVALUES2...
2MARKSQUESTIONSANDANSWERS
UNITV
1.Whatismeantbymoralleadership?
Wheneverthegoalsofaleaderbecomepermissibleandalsomorallyvaluable,itis
knownasmoralleadership.Moralleadershipalsomeansthatemployingmorallyacceptable
waystomotivatethegroupstomovetowardsmorallydesirableways.Thewaysaredepending
onthesituations.
2.Whatarethequestionsthatarisewhileconsideringthevoluntaryserviceinthefieldof
Engineering?
Thefollowingquestionsarise:shouldengineeringprofessionencouragerendering
voluntaryserviceswithoutfeesoratmoderatefees?Dotheengineeringprofessionalsocieties
reallyneedthis?
3.Whatiscodeofethics?
oCodeofethicsisaframeworkforarrivingatgoodethicalchoices.
oThecodeofethicsestablishesaframeworkforethicaljudgmentforanyprofession.
oAcodeofethicsdoesnotdevelopnewmoralprinciples.
4.WhatarethecommonfeaturesinvolvedinthecodeofethicsforEngineers?
Engineersshallholdparamountthesafety,healthandwelfareofthepublicintheperformanceof
theirprofessionalduties.Engineersshallperformservicesonlyintheareasoftheircompetence.
Engineersshallissuepublicstatementsonlyinanobjectiveandtruthfulmanner.Engineersshall
actinprofessionalmattersforeachemployerorclientasfaithfulagentsortrustees.Engineers
shallavoiddeceptiveactsinthesolicitationofprofessionalemployment.
5.Differentiateeyewitnessandexpertwitness?
EyeWitnessesExpertWitnessesEyewitnessesgiveevidencesinthecourtaboutwhattheyhave
seenactually.Expertwitnessesareallowedlargerfreedomingivingevidenceonfactsinthere
areasofexpertiseonexplainingfactsincommentingontheviewsoftheexpertwitnessesofthe
oppositesideandalsoinreportingontheprofessionalinterestsmaintainingconfidentialityand
expressingconcernfortheinterestoftheclients.
6.WhatistheneedforHonesty?
Honestyisnecessarytoavoiddeceivingandtobefrankingivingalltherelevantfacts.It
isalsonecessarytobetruthfulininterpretingthefacts.Honestyintechnicaldataisessentialto
behonestinengineersroleandforthevaluesguidinghisstudies.

7.WhatismeantbyCompetence?
Competencemeansbeingwelltrainedandhavingproperexperienceintherelevantfield
andalsohavingtherequiredadditionalskillsplanningandpolicymaking.
8.WhatdoesDiligencemean?
Diligencemeanscarryingoutthegivenjobcarefullyandinapromptway.
9.DefineLoyalty?
Loyaltyreferstoservingtheinterestsoftheclients.Itincludesavoidingconflictsofinterests
maintainingconfidentialityandexpressingconcernfortheinterestoftheclients.
10.Whatisthebasicethicalandmoralresponsibilityofamanagerengineer?
Ethicalresponsibility:Thebasicethicalresponsibilitiesofmanagersaretoproduceagood
productorvaluableservice,onlyaftertakingintoconsiderationmaintainingrespectforhuman
beings,whichincludescustomers,employeesandthegeneralpublic.
Moralresponsibility:Asmanagers,engineersmoralresponsibilityistoproducesafeanduseful
productsthatarealsoprofitable.
11..Whatarethedifferentwaystocreateanethicalclimate?
Thefollowingarethewaystocreateanethicalclimate:
Ethicalvaluesmustbeacceptedandappreciatedbythemanagersandemployeeswithitsfull
complicatedfeatures.
Thesincereuseofethicallanguagehastoberecognizedasajustifiablepartofthecompany.
Themanagementhastocreateastrongconfidenceamongtheemployeesthatthemanagement
ismoreseriousaboutethicsbyestablishingmoraltoneinwords,inpoliciesandalsobypersonal
example.
Themanagementhastoestablishsomeproceduresforresolvingconflicts.
12.Whataretheimportantformsofconflictsthatmayariseforanengineeringprojectmanager?
Theimportantformsofconflictsthatmayariseforanengineeringprojectmanagerare,
Conflictsbasedonschedules.Conflictswhicharisesinevolvingtheimportanceofprojectsand
thedepartment.Conflictsbasedonavailabilityofpersonalforaproject.Conflictsovertechnical
matters.Conflictswhicharisesduetoadministrativeprocedure.Conflictsofpersonality.
Conflictsovercostorexpenditure.
13.Whataretheprinciplesforconflictresolution?

Thefollowingaretheprinciplesforconflictresolution:Peoplemustbeseparatedfromthe
problemFocusmustbeonlyoninterestandnotonpositionsVariousoptionsmustbegenerated
Anevolutioncriteriashouldbeestablished
14.Whoarereferredasconsultingengineers?
Consultingengineersarethoseinvolvedinprivatepractice.Fortheservicesrenderedbythem,
theywillbepaidsomefees.Theywontbecompensatedbysalariesfromemployers.Theyare
thesoleemployeroftheirpractice.Sotheyhavegreaterfreedomtotakedecisionsonthetasks
undertakenbythem.takedecisionsonthetasksundertakenbythem.
15.WhataretherulesframedbyNSPEincaseofprofessionaladvertisements?
TherulesframedbyNSPE(NationalSocietyofProfessionalEngineers)incaseof
professionaladvertisementsareasfollows:Theuseofstatementscontainingamaterial
misrepresentationoffactoromittingamaterialfactnecessarytokeepthestatementfrombeing
misleading.Statementsintendedorlikelytocreateanunjustifiedexpectation.Statements
containingpredictionoffuturesuccess.Statementscontaininganopinionastothequalityofthe
engineersservices.Statementsintendedorlikelytoattractclientsbytheuseofslogans,jingles
orsensationallanguageformat.
16.Whatdoyoumeanbyappropriatetechnology?
Appropriatetechnologymeansidentification,transformationandimplementationofthe
mostsuitabletechnologyforanewsetofconditions.
17.Whataretheilleffectsofacidrain?
Bacteriasthatareessentialforlifesystemstobeactivearekilled.Highacidityresultsin
reducedgrowthandkillingoffishes.Vanishingofgreeneryanddestructionofforests.
Germinationofseedsisaffectedaffectingthegrowthoftrees.
18.Whatdoyoumeanbytechnologytransfer?
Technologytransferisaprocessofchangingthetechnologytoanewsettingand
implementingit.Technologyincludeshardwaresuchasmachinesandinstallationsaswellas
techniquessuchastechnical,organizationalandmanagerialskillsandprocedures.

19.Whataretheethicalissuesorquestionsthatariseinenvironmentalprotection?
Oftenthequestionsthatariseintheethicalissuesare,
Whoisaffecting?

Whoareaffected?
Doestheenvironmentgetsdisturbed?
Whendothedisturbancestakesplaceandhowdoesithappen?
20.Quotesomeexamplesofpollutionthatspoiledtheenvironment?
SomeexamplesofpollutionthataffectedtheenvironmentareBhopalgastragedy,
Chernobylnuclearplantexplosion,Artificialrains,MeusevalleydisasteratBelgium,Oleumgas
leakinDelhi,HPCLdisasterinVizag,Donova(USA)steelandchemicalplantdisaster,Tehri
DaminU.P.state,etc.
21.Whatiscomputerethics?
Computerscontributetoavarietyofmoralproblems.Inordertoevaluateandactappropriately
withsuchproblems,anewfieldofappliedethicstermedascomputerethicshasbeen
developed.
22.Giveanytencommandmentsofcomputerethics?
Dontuseacomputertoharmotherpeople.
a Dontinterferewithotherpeoplescomputerworks.
. Dontsnooparoundinotherpeoplescomputerfiles.
b Dontuseacomputertosteal.
. Dontuseacomputertobearfalsewitness.
c
.
d
.
e
.

23.Whatishacking?
Whencomputersarethemainobjectsofanunethicalact,itwillcreatesomeethicalissues.This
kindofactiscalledhacking.
24.Whatisautonomouscomputer?
Theautonomyofcomputersmeanstheabilityofcomputertomakedecisionswithoutthe
interferenceofhumanbeings.Thisautonomousfunctionofcomputerscreatesalotof
implication.

25.WhatarethethreeversionsofRelativism?
EthicalRelativism
DescriptiveRelativism
i.
ii.

iii.

MoralRelativism

26.WhatarethemoraldimensionsofanEngineermanager?
Informationrightsandobligation
a Propertyrights
. Accountabilityandcontrol
b Systemquality
. Qualityoflife
c
.
d
.
e
.
rights
27.GiveanytenInternational
I.Therighttofreedomofphysicalmovement.
II.Therighttoownershipofproperty.
III.Therighttofreedomfromtorture.
IV.Therighttoafairtrial.
V.Therighttonondiscriminatorytreatment.
VI.Therighttophysicalsecurity.
VII.Therighttofreedomofspeechandassociation.
VIII.Therighttominimaleducation.
IX.Therighttopoliticalparticipation.
X.Therighttosubsistence.
28.WhatarethereasonsforthedisasteratBhopal?

suggested

by

Donaldson?

1.ThetanksusedtostoreMethylIsocyanatewereoverloadedtoatuneof75%.
2.Theemergencyplantwasalsofilledwithalargeamountofchemicals.
3.Theentirerefrigerationunithadbeenshutdownasameasuretoreducethecostandthisledto
increaseoftemperaturestoahigherlevel.
4.Oneofthedisappointedworkersunscrewedapressuregaugeonatankandinserteda
hosepipeintoit,knowingthatitwouldcausedamage,butnottothisextent.
5.Scrubberhasalsobeenshutdown.

6.Flaretowerwasalsonotinanoperatingcondition.
7.Unfortunatelytherewerenoemergencydrillsorevacuationplantsavailable.
29.GivesomeoftheEnvironmentalissuesofconcerntoengineers?
a.Releasingharmfulsubstanceintoairandwater.
b.Usingtoxicsubstanceinfoodprocessing.
c.Disturbinglandandwaterbalances.
30.WhataretheissuesinComputerethics?
PowerRelationship
JobElimination
CustomerRelations
BiasedSoftware
StockTrading
UnrealisticExpectations
PoliticalPower
MilitaryWeapons
Property
Embezzlement
DataandSoftware
Privacy
Cybercrimes
ComputerVirus
Technostress
CyberScamsandFrauds
InternetDefamation

SoftwarePiracy
CyberSquatting
InappropriateAccess
DataBankErrors
Hackers
LegalResponses
ProfessionalIssues
ComputerFailures
ComputerImplementation
Healthconditions
31.WhataretheproblemsofDefenseindustry?
a)Problemofwasteandhugecostinimplementingandmaintainingaweapons
system.
b)ProblemofTechnologycreep.
c)Problemsinmaintainingsecrecy.
d)Everycountryallocateslargeamountofitsresourcestodefensesector[India
e)pentitsresourcefordefense]
32.WhatarewaystopromoteanEthicalclimate?
a.Ethicalvaluesintheirfullcomplexityarewidelyacknowledgedandappreciatedbymanagers
andemployeesalike.
b.Thesincereuseofethicallanguagehastoberecognizedasalegitimatepartofcorporate
dialogue.
c.Thetoplevelmanagementmustestablishamoraltoneinwords,inpolicies,bypersonal
example
etc.
d.Themanagementhastoestablishsomeproceduresforresolvingconflicts.
33.WhataretheimportantformsofConflicts?
ConflictsbasedonschedulesConflictswhicharisesinevolvingtheimportanceofprojectsand
thedepartment.Conflictsbasedontheavailabilityofpersonalforaproject.Conflictsover
technicalmatters.Conflictsariseduetoadministrativeprocedure.Conflictsofpersonality.
Conflictsovercostorexpenditureormoney.

34.WhatarethePrinciplesofConflictsofinterest?
Separatepeoplefromtheproblem.
Focusoninterestandnotonpositions.
Generateavarietyofpossibilitiesbeforedecidingwhattodo.
Insistthattheresultbebasedonsomeobjectivestandard.
35.Whatarethenormativemodelstobeusedtoavoidconflicts?

35.Whatarethenormativemodelstobeusedtoavoidconflicts?
HiredGuns
ValueneutralAnalysts
ValueguidedAdvocates
36.Whatarethecharacteristicsofanengineerasexpertadvisersinpublicplanningandpolicy
making?
Honesty
Competence
Diligence
Loyalty
37.HowcanDeceptiveadvertisingbedone?
oByoutrightlies.
oByhalftruths.
oThroughexaggeration.
oBymakingfalseinnuendos,suggestionsorimplications.
oThroughobfuscationcreatedbyambiguity,vaguenessorincoherence.
oThroughsubliminalmanipulationoftheunconscious.

38.Givetheusageofthecodeofconduct?
Thecodeofconductwillhelptheengineerstohaveasetofstandardsofbehavior.They
actasguidelinesfortheirbehavior.Ithelpstocreateworkplaceswhereemployeesare
encouragedtomakeethicalimplications.
39.Whatareprofessionalissuesofusingcomputers?
a.Computersfailures.
b.Computerimplementation
c.Healthconditions

40.WhataretherequirementsofPatents?
Problemofinvention
a Currentreportoftheproblemstoaddress
) Solutionorproceduretotheproblem
b Extentofnoveltyorinventive
) Applicationoruses
c Detailsoftheinventor
) Resourcesoffunds
d
)
e
)
f
)
g
)

40.WhatarethetypesofPatents?
a.Utilitypatents
b..Designpatents
c..Plantpatents

41.WhatistheneedforProtectiontoIPR?
a
)
b

)
c)
d)
e)

Preventplagiarism.
. Preventothersusingit.
Preventusingitforfinancialgain.
Fulfillasanobligationtofundingagency.
Supportincomegenerationstrategy.

42.WhatistheImportanceofIPR?
a.Givetheinventorsexclusiverightsofdealing.
b. Permitavoidingpfcompetitorsandraiseentrybarriers.
c. Permitentrytoatechnicalmarket.
d. Generatesteadyincomebyissuinglicense.

43.WhatisaTradesecret?
Atradesecretisasecretformula,pattern,ordevicethatisusedinabusinessandprovidesa
commercialadvantage.
44.DefineWhistleBlowing?
Whistleblowingisalertingrelevantpersonstosomemoralorlegalcorruption,where
relevantpersonsarethoseinapositiontoactinresponse,ifonlybyregisteringprotest.i.e.the
employeedisclosureofanemployersillegalorillegitimatepracticestopersonsororganizations
thatmaybeabletotakecorrectiveactions.Theconditionstobemetforwhistleblowingare
a.Need
c.Proximity
d..Capability
e..Lastresort

45.WhatarethemainfeaturesofWhistleBlowing?
a.Actofdisclosure
b. Topic
c. Agent
d..Recipient

46.DifferentiateExternalWhistleBlowingandInternalWhistleBlowing?
ExternalWhistleBlowingInformationispassedoutsidetheorganization.Internal
WhistleBlowingInformationisconveyedtosomeonewithintheorganization.

47.DifferentiateOpenWhistleBlowingandAnonymousWhistleBlowing?
OpenWhistleBlowingIndividualsopenlyrevealtheiridentityastheyconveythe
information.
AnonymousWhistleBlowingInvolvesconcealingonesidentity.
48.WhenWhistleBlowingismorallypermittedandmorallyobligated?
Whistleblowingismorallypermittedwhen
i.Iftheharmthatwillbedonebytheproducttothepublicisseriousandconsiderable.
ii.Iftheymaketheirconcernsknowntotheirsuperiors.
iii.Ifgettingnosatisfactionfromtheirimmediatesupervisors,theyexhaustthechannels
availablewithinthecorporation,includinggoingtotheboardofdirectors.Whistleismorally
obligatedwhen
49.Whatarethetwogeneralwaystoapplyethicaltheoriestojustifythebasicrightof
professionalconscience?
i.Proceedpiecemealbyreiteratingthejustificationsgivenforthespecificprofessionalduties.
ii.Justifytherightofprofessionalconscience,whichinvolvesgroundingitmoredirectlyinthe
ethicaltheories.
50.DefineEmployeeRights?
Employeerightsarerights,moralorlegal,thatinvolvethestatusofbeinganemployee.
Theyincludesomeprofessionalrightsthatapplytotheemployeremployeerelationship.
51.DefineSexualHarassment?
SexualHarassmentmeanscontinuousannoyingandattacksonmenorwomenonthe
basisofsexualconsiderations.Italsocoverstheharassmentbyfemalesuperiorsonthemale
employeesandsexualharassmentofemployeesbysuperiorsofthesamesex.
Itincludesphysicalandpsychologicalattacks,coercion,misuseofauthorityandavarietyof
undesirableandindecentactions.
52.DefineDiscrimination?
Discriminationmeansmorallyunjustifiedtreatmentofpeopleonarbitraryorirrelevant
grounds.

53.Whatarethegeneralproceduresforimplementingtherighttodueprocess?
i.Writtenexplanationsshouldbeestablishedthatisavailabletoallemployeeswhobelievetheir
rightshavebeenviolated.
Anappealsprocedureshouldbeestablishedthatisavailabletoallemployeeswho
iii.
believetheirrightshavebeenviolated.
54.DifferentiateHumanRightsandProfessionalRights?
HumanRightsPossessedbyvirtueofbeingpeopleormoralagents.ProfessionalRights
Possessedbyvirtueofbeingprofessionalhavingspecialmoralresponsibilities.
55.

DifferentiateWeakPreferentialTreatmentandStrongPreferential

Treatment?

Weakpreferentialtreatmentinvolvesgivinganadvantagetomembersoftraditionally
discriminatedagainstgroupsoverequallyqualifiedapplicantswhoaremembersofother
groups. Strongpreferentialtreatmentinvolvesgivingpreferencetominorityapplicantsor
womenoverbetterqualifiedapplicantsfromothergroups.

Brieflydiscusshonestyasvalue.

PartB(16marks)

1.

Anyhumanbeingshouldimbibehonestyhonestyinacts,honestyinspeechandhonestyin
beliefs.Honestyisthefundamentalvirtueinhumanrelationshipeventhoughinmaybedifficult
tofollowsometimes.Lying:Deliberationdeception:Withholdingtheinformation:
Seekingthetruth:Maintainingconfidentiality:
2.Writeshortnotesoncourage,cooperation.
Courage:
Courageisthetendencytofacedangersanddifficultjobsinrationalwaysandwithselfcontrol.
Apersonwiththequalityofcouragehasthefollowingcharacteristics.
Continuestorunwithhisjoborbusinesseventherearecertaindisturbance.Getsinvolvedwith
newpopularideasDiscusswithothersevenwhenthereisaproblem.
Cooperation:
Cooperationmeansextendinghelptoothers,foragoodcause.Cooperationmaybethrough
anidea,asuggestion,anassistanceorphysicalworkwhichextendstoothersforcommon
benefit.
3.Whatisservicelearning?
Differentiateservicelearningfromcivicvirtue.Servicelearningtellsthatonehasmoral
responsibilitytoincreasethedesirableeffectsandtodecreasetheharmfuleffects.Anyservice
shouldincreasethedesirableresult.Goodcitizendemandcivicvirtue.Itistheprincipleofnot
harmingthesurroundings.Italsoincludeslivingpeacefully,respectforothers,protectingthe
environmentandbeingnormallyandethicallygood.
4.Distinguishvaluesfromethicsandculture.
Valuesaremainlyrelatedtoindividualsandsincetheyarerelatedtojustice,theyremain
thesomeforeveryone.E.g.truth,honesty,empathy,selfrespect.Valuesdonotchangefrom
individualtoindividual.Ethicsiscommontoagroupofindividuals;thegroupmaybereligious
orprofessional.Ethicsismostlybasedonsomecodeorlawandjudgmentofanyactionisbased
oncodeofconductorlaw.EthicschangefromindividualtoindividualCulturecommonlyrefers
toconductofagroup.E.gsystemofworship,marriageItmaydifferfromsocietytosociety,
nationtonationorreligiontoreligion.
5.Whatdouunderstandbythetermspirituality?Explainindetail.
Spiritualityraisesamanabovethematerialisticworldintoarealmwhereheseekspeaceandreal
happinessReferenceProfessionalethicsandhumanvaluesbyDr.K.R.Govindan
S.SenthilkumarPagenumberH.16

6.DefinethetermsValues,Morals&Ethics?
Valuesarerules.Valuesaretherulesbywhichwemakedecisionsaboutrightandwrong,should
andshouldn't,goodandbad.Theyalsotelluswhicharemoreorlessimportant,whichisuseful
whenwehavetotradeoffmeetingonevalueoveranother.Moralsarehowwejudgeothers.
Moralshaveagreatersocialelementtovaluesandtendtohaveaverybroadacceptance.Morals
arefarmoreaboutgoodandbadthanothervalues.Wethusjudgeothersmorestronglyon
moralsthanvalues.Apersoncanbedescribedasimmoral,yetthereisnowordforthemnot
followingvalues.Moralitycanbedescribedasacoresetofvaluesandbeliefsthatactasaguide
whenformulatingcoursesofactionEthicsareprofessionalstandards.Ethicsarethusinternally
definedandadopted,whilstmoralstendtobeexternallyimposedonotherpeople.Ethicsisthe
branchofphilosophyconcernedwithhumanvaluesandconduct,moralduty,andobligation.
Basically,ethicsisconcernedwithwhatpeoplemightdescribeasrightandwronghuman
conduct.
7.DefineHumanValues?
Humanvaluesarethefoundationofsocialorder,justiceandprogress.Humanvaluesare
socialandethicalnormscommontoallculturesandsocieties,aswellasreligions.They
representameldingofsocialprogressandspiritualgrowth. Timeless Human Values
ADeepCaringForLife
Responsibility
Nonviolence
Love&Compassion
Friendliness&Cooperation
Generosity&Sharing
Integrity,HonestyandSincerity
Moderation
Service
Commitment&Responsibility
Peace,Contentment,Enthusiasm

Peace,Contentment,Enthusiasm

Trust
Unity
Humor
Acceptance
Respect
1..Explainprofessionsandprofessionalism
Answer:
Professions:Knowledge,Organization,Publicgood.Membershipcriteria
ProfessionalismasindependenceProfessionalismasindependenceProfessionalismasserving
employersQualitiesofprofessionalsModelsofprofessionalroles:Savior,Bureaucraticservant,
Guardian,Socialservant,Socialenablerandcatalyst,Gameplayer.Professionalidealsand
virtues:Professionalresponsibilityselfdirectionvirtues,publicspiritedvirtues,teamwork
virtues,proficiencyvirtues.
2.Whatdouunderstandbythetermmoraldilemma?Differentiatewithmoralautonomy.
MORAL:
Refersonlytopersonalbehavior.
Referstoanyaspectofhumanaction.
SocialconventionsaboutrightorwrongconductMoraldilemmasarekindofsituationswherea
difficultchoicehastobemade.sortsofcomplexityandmurkinessthatmaybeinvolvedinmoral
situationsare,
Vagueness
Conflictingreasons
Disagreement
ThestepsinconfrontingMoralDilemmas:Identifytherelevantmoralfactorsandreasons.
Gatherallavailablefactsthatarepertinenttothemoralfactorsinvolved.Rankthemoral
considerationsinorderofimportanceastheyapplytothesituation.Consideralternativecourses
ofactionsaswaysofresolvingdilemma,tracingthefullimplicationsofeach.
Getsuggestionsandalternativeperspectivesonthedilemma.
Byweighingalltherelevantmoralfactorsandreasonsinlightofthefacts,produceareasoned
judgment.
Moralautonomy:
Selfdetermining

Independent
PersonalInvolvement
Exercisedbasedonthemoralconcernforotherpeopleandrecognitionofgoodmoralreasons3.
Brieflyexplainthethreemainlevelsofmoraldevelopment,developedbyLaurenceKohlberg.
ReferenceProfessionalethicsandhumanvaluesbyDr.K.R.GovindanS.SenthilkumarPage
number1.14
Answer:
LevelStageSocialorientationPreconventional
1)ObedienceandPunishmentIndividualism,instrumentalismandexchangeConventional
Goodboy/Goodgirl
LawandOrder
Postconventional
Socialcontract
Postconventional
Socialcontract
Principledconscience
4.HowdidGilliganrecastKohlbergslevelofmoraldevelopment?
Answer:
Kohlberggivesgreateremphasistorecognizingrightsandabstractuniversalrules.Gilligan
stressestheimportanceofmaintainingpersonalrelationshipsbasedonmutualcaring.
ReferenceProfessionalethicsandhumanvaluesbyDr.K.R.GovindanS.SenthilkumarPage
number1.16StageGoalPreconventionalGoalisindividualsurvivalConventionalSelf
sacrificeisgoodnessPostconventionalPrincipleofnonviolencedonothurtothers