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Final Year Project Interim Report

Title: Design of Redox Flow Lithium-ion Battery (RFLB)
Prepared by: Daniel A0115052X

Introduction
Source of electrical energy can be divided into two categories: Renewable and Non-renewable energy.
Renewable energy includes wind, hydro, solar and geothermal while non-renewable energy includes
fossil fuel such as crude oil, coal and natural gas, nuclear and biomass. The issue pertaining nonrenewable energy such as fossil fuel and natural gas is that they are depleting and would most likely be
not replenished in our lifetimes. Therefore, there is a shift towards the utilization of renewable energy to
meet the world energy demand. However, these sources are intermittent in nature, and storage system
needs to be put in place to ensure reliable supply of energy.

Flow Battery
Flow battery is used for storage instead of solid state processes battery because it offers long cycle life as
well as the greatest flexibility in power to energy rating. On the other hand, batteries that rely on solid
state processes often lead to mechanical breakdown of the active material and hence shorter life cycle.
This is because the active material in a flow battery is in the form of two redox couple solutions that are
stored in the tank and pumped into the electrochemical cells. These solutions are separated by an ion
exchange membrane that serves to prevent mixing between the two solutions.
The basis of flow battery involves electrochemistry concept. During charging, cation is being reduced on
the anodic side whereas cation is being oxidized on the cathodic side. When the battery is discharging, the
opposite occurs. In this manner, energy can be generated through the redox reactions that occur in the
electrochemical cell. Out of a number of redox flow design, only Vanadium Redox Battery (VRB) design
is widely used and commercialized.

Extracted from: http://large.stanford.edu/courses/2011/ph240/xie2/images/f1big.png

Figure 1. Schematic of VRB system

and there is no chemical reaction occurring in this tank. Figure below shows the graphical representation of CSTR performance equations. Since design of the tank is the main focus of this project. the electrochemical process and working principle of this system follows the general flow battery system. it is important to discuss the reactions between the redox shuttle molecules in the tank. Redox Flow Lithium-Ion Battery (RFLB) Brief Description of the System RFLB system has been proposed to utilize the high density of lithium ion battery and flexibility of redox flow system. The performance of the cell is determined by the rates of reactions in both electrode and tank. The rate equations of the reactions can be described as follows: +¿ R tank M1 =k tank M1 cM 1 .Referring to figure 1. M2 tank R M 2 =k tank M2 c¿ The current mathematical model that has been developed employ a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) model to simplify the simulation process. Given the assumption that these two reactions are irreversible and of first order with respect to the corresponding reactant shuttle molecule. First. 10 times that of VRB in terms of energy density. In my project. it is worth noting that the tank in this system acts as the storage for both electrolytes. the kinetics of the reactions and hence the selection of reactor model can be determined. I will be focusing my studies on the tank and its mathematical model. . The performance of the battery has shown a promising result.

Graphical representation of CSTR Performance Equations In the above diagram.45 0. I plan to propose the reactor design that would give the most optimum reactor performance.35 0. the value of shaded area is used to calculate the space-time of the reactor. The kinetics of fluid-particle reactions follows two simple idealized models. after the kinetics of the reactions have been determined.55 0. it showed a setup of a typical batch reactor tank without a stirrer. Space time will be used in this report to evaluate choices of reactor design. Areas of Research Using the knowledge on chemical kinetics and reactor designs taught in CN2116. Based on the models. Secondly. the progressive-conversion model and the shrinking unreacted-core model.65 0. Limitations of this model First limitation would be the assumption that the tank is well mixed and modelled using CSTR model. this mathematical model may not capture an accurate representation of the system. Furthermore. Hence.CSTR for First Order Reaction 0 0 0 -1/rA 0 0 0 0 0. Based on the experimental setup. There are three factors that control the design of a .25 0.75 0. Therefore. The smaller the space-time indicates a better performance of reactor because it shows that the time required to process one reactor volume of feed is shorter.85 XA Figure 2. The reaction happening in the tank will involve reactants that are not in homogenous phase. TiO2 exist in the reactor in the form of solid. I plan to develop the rate equations of the reactions in the tank using the information. the aim of my project is to develop the mathematical model that could provide a better representation of the system. the kinetics aspect in the model should be that of heterogeneous reaction of fluid-solid system.

From the studies. This is to ensure that I can communicate my research ideas effectively. The flow patterns of solids and fluids in the reactor. I plan to include detailed modeling of the reactive flow in the tank. I will work closely with my supervisor through series of video-taped presentations. The reaction kinetics for single particles. reactor design can be determined as well. Determining the rate of reaction in the tank is crucial because it determines the performance of the cell as well. 3.fluid-solid reactor: 1. once the kinetic models have been developed. The size of distribution of solids being treated. 2. in preparation for the oral presentation next year. As mentioned above. For the next half of the research period. I focused my studies on understanding the flow battery system in general and RFLB itself. I would be focusing my research on studying the kinetics of the redox targeting of anatase TiO 2 for RFLB. Furthermore. . Work Plan In the first half of the research period.