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Boiler Basics Workshop

November 13th, 2014


Trevor Van Eerde, P. Eng., CEM
Industrial Energy Solutions Consultant
Enbridge Gas Distribution Inc.
647-408-6743
trevor.vaneerde@enbridge.com

Todays Workshop Will Cover:

Enbridge Programs
Boiler Basics
Energy Savings Opportunities in Boilers
Limited Time Campaign

Todays Workshop Will Cover:

Enbridge Programs
Boiler Basics
Energy Savings Opportunities in Boilers
Limited Time Campaign

Industrial Program
Enbridge DSM program :

In existence for 20 years;


Gained Customer trust through
experience and involvement;
Auditing process in place to
ensure calculated savings are
realistic.
4

Knowledge
Development : Arming
our customers with
information.

Action and
Implementation
Engineering
Analysis : Analyzing
and interpreting data
to
monetize savings
opportunities.

Opportunity
Identification
: Testing and
energy use
analysis.
Measurement :
Choosing the right
metering methods
to quantify key
energy inputs.

Industrial Program
Helped our customers save :

Approx. 110,000,000 m3 of natural gas

More than 20,000,000 KWh of electricity

Over 800,000 m3 of water

In three year period ALONE

Participating in our programs helps YOU :

Reduce C02 emissions

Improve BOTTOM LINE

Approach to Energy Savings


Energy Flow

Meter

Energy
Converter

Distribution
System

End User

Need /
Requirement

Energy Savings Strategy

Todays Workshop Will Cover:

Enbridge Programs
Boiler Basics
Energy Savings Opportunities in Boilers
Limited Time Campaign

Energy in a boiler room


Energy can be defined as the ability to do work

In the boiler room energy is typically measured in


British Thermal Units or BTUs
1 BTU is the energy required to raise 1lb of water 1F
M in front of BTUs = x 1000, MM = x 1,000,000

Power, the rate at which energy is transferred, is


typically measured in BTU/hr
How many BTUs the boiler can generate in 1 hour

Specific Energy Content BTU/lb


How many BTUs are in 1lb of water, or 1lb of steam

Reference card included in your information package


9

Steam Basics

10

Steam Basics
Water as we know it can exist in 3 states
Solid Liquid Gas (Vapour)

Steam, water vapour, is generated by adding heat energy to


water to bring it to its boiling temperature (sensible heat)

Adding more energy transforms water from liquid to vapor


(latent heat)
Steam is used to carry heat energy from one location to
another
Steam is an excellent energy transporter

Heat Energy is also called Enthalpy (h):


Energy due to both Temp. and Pressure
11

Temperature

100C for Water

Steam Only

0C for Water
Ice & Water
Ice
Sensible
Heat

Latent Heat

Water Only

Water & Steam

Sensible
Heat

Latent Heat

Energy Added (BTUs)

Energy in Water vs. Temperature

Sensible
Heat

Energy Added

Energy Removed

ENERGY

12

Steam Basics Sensible vs. Latent Heat


Heat energy required to make steam has two components:
Sensible heat (Btu/lb)

Latent heat (Btu/lb)

Sensible Heat
Amount of heat required to raise the temperature of water from 32F
to its boiling point (saturated water)
Adding sensible heat raises the temperature
It can be detected with a thermometer
Sensible heat, or enthalpy of water at 32F, is taken as 0 BTU/lb

13

Steam Basics Latent Heat


Amount of heat required to change saturated water to steam

Adding Latent Heat does not raise the temperature: the boiling water and
steam has the same temperature for a given pressure
Latent heat added to the boiler is what is transferred to the load
Removing latent heat at the load creates condensate
Returning maximum amount of condensate reduces heat energy required
by the boiler

14

Steam Basics Pressure Dependency


Increasing Pressure increases Boiling Point (saturated water temp.)
Saturation Temperature vs. Pressure

0 psig

450

212F

Saturation Temp (F)

400
350
300
250

100 psig
200
150
100
0

50

100

150

200

338F

Pressure (psig)

15

Steam Basics Total Heat of Steam


Total Heat of Steam = Sensible Heat + Latent Heat
= hg

Sensible Heat

= hf

Latent Heat

= hfg

For 100 psig steam:

Total heat of Steam at 100 psig


1400
Heat (Btu/lb)

Total Heat of Steam

1200
1000

880

800

hf (saturated liq. Enthalpy)

= 309 Btu/lb

600

hfg (latent heat)

= 880 Btu/lb

400

hg (saturated vapour enthalpy) = 1189 Btu/lb

338F

Sensible Heat
338F

200
0

Latent Heat

309
32F

100 psig
Pressure (psig)

16

Steam Table Example


Properties for
100psig?

Saturation
Temperature =
338F
hf = 309
BTU/lb
hfg = 880
BTU/lb

hg = 1180
BTU/lb

17

What is a boiler?
Closed pressure vessel
Used to convert potential energy from a fuel into thermal
energy
Combustion process

Thermal energy released from the fuel is then transferred


into a medium (water, oil, etc.)
Heat transfer tubes, coil tubes

Energy in the medium is then sent to the distribution


system to be used in the load
Steam headers, pipes, etc.

18

Workshop Steam Plant


Boiler: 300BHP (10 MMBTU/hr)
Average Loading: 50%

Plant Operating Hours: 6,000 hrs.


Annual Fuel: 1,000,000m3/yr ($280,000/yr)

Stack Flue Gas

Sat. Steam @ 100 psig

Process Steam

Natural Gas
DA Steam
Boiler
Feedwater

8 psig
DEAERATOR

Blowdown

Cond.
Tank

Condensate
Return 50%
180 F

Make-Up
Water 50%

19

Energy Losses in Boilers


Qsl
Stack Loss

Improvement in Boiler Efficiency is


achieved by reducing losses

Three main boiler losses


Stack Losses
Blowdown Losses

Radiation Losses

Qng

Natural
Gas

Focus on Stack losses and Blowdown


losses

Qra
Radiation
Loss
Qst
Steam

Qfw
Feedwater

Qbd
Blowdown
Loss

20

Energy Losses in Boilers


Qsl
Stack Loss

Improvement in Boiler Efficiency is


achieved by reducing losses

Three main boiler losses


Stack Losses
Blowdown Losses

Radiation Losses

Qng

Natural
Gas

Qra
Radiation
Loss
Qst
Steam

Qfw
Feedwater

Qbd
Blowdown
Loss

21

Stack Losses
Stack losses are typically the largest boiler system loss
Result of:
Combustion process
Poor conversion of fuel into thermal energy
Water generated during combustions process

Insufficient heat transfer


Poor transfer of thermal energy from fuel into boiler feedwater

Energy that is not transferred into the feedwater leaves


through the stack

22

Perfect Combustion: Ideal Air:Fuel Ratio


CO2 + 2H2O + 7.52 N2
Heat Released =1012 Btu/ft3
= 23,000 Btu/lb

Natural Gas (CH4 )


1 ft3

16 lbs.

Air( 2O2 + 7.52 N2)


9.52 ft3
275 lbs.

O2 contributes to
combustion, while
N2 absorbs heat.

Air : Fuel Ratio (by vol.) = 9.5 : 1 or 10:1


(approx.)
23

Flue Gas Loss

Air Fuel Mixture


Maximum
Efficiency Zone

Unburned
Fuel
(CO)
rich

Excess Air
( High O2)
stoich

lean

Total Air
24

Example # 1 Reading a combustion test strip

Flue Gas Temperature


%O2
Carbon Monoxide

Combustion Efficiency
% Excess Air

25

Combustion Efficiency Chart

26

Combustion Efficiency Chart

Decreasing Efficiency

27

Combustion Efficiency Chart

Decreasing Efficiency

28

Example #2 Reading a combustion efficiency chart


Use the Combustion Efficiency Chart to determine the combustion
efficiency based on the following parameters:
Parameters
Excess O2
= 8%
Flue Gas Temp. Tfg
= 460 F
Combustion Air Temp. Tair = 80 F
Calculate Delta T = (460 80) F
= 380 F

Excess, % FG Temperature - Combustion Air


O2

340

360

380

400

420

7.00
7.50
8.00
8.50

80.6
80.4
80.0
79.7

80.1
79.8
79.4
79.1

79.5
79.2
78.9
78.5

79.0
78.6
78.3
77.9

78.4
78.0
77.7
77.2
29

Combustion test strip

30

Flue Gas Analyzers Are Used To Measure Combustion Efficiency

Enbridge Can Help!

31

Typical Readings
Flue gas temperature
Approximately 115F above saturation temperature of steam

Ex. 100psig, Saturation temperature 338F, would expect 453F stack


temperature
If there is a feedwater economizer, closer to saturation temperature, 353F

Oxygen (O2%)
4-6%
Likely higher percentages at low fire, this is normal

Carbon Monoxide (CO%)


< 200ppm

High CO levels are a safety concern

Readings outside of these ranges should be investigated further


32

Energy Losses in Boilers


Qsl
Stack Loss

Improvement in Boiler Efficiency is


achieved by reducing losses

Three main boiler losses


Stack Losses
Blowdown Losses

Radiation Losses

Qng

Natural
Gas

Qra
Radiation
Loss
Qst
Steam

Qfw
Feedwater

Qbd
Blowdown
Loss

33

Workshop Steam Plant


Boiler: 300BHP (10 MMBTU/hr)
Average Loading: 50%

Plant Operating Hours: 6,000 hrs.


Annual Fuel: 1,000,000m3/yr ($280,000/yr)

Stack Flue Gas

Sat. Steam @ 100 psig

Process Steam

Natural Gas
DA Steam
Boiler
Feedwater

8 psig
DEAERATOR

Blowdown

Cond.
Tank

Condensate
Return 50%
180 F

Make-Up
Water 50%

34

Water Treatment Issues


Oxygen pitting and corrosion in the boiler can cause boiler
tube failures

Mineral deposits and scale on boiler tubes reduce efficiency


and can ultimately cause boiler tube failures
Boiler water carryover into the steam network reduces
steam system efficiency and can cause equipment damage
Condensate network corrosion can cause piping and steam
control equipment to fail

35

Blowdown Basics
When water is boiled, steam is generated
Solids are left behind:
Suspended solids form sludge which degrades heat transfer
Dissolved solids promote foaming and water carryover

Water is discharged to keep solids within acceptable limits


Bottom blowdown from mud drum removes suspended solids
(once/twice a day)
Surface blowdown removes dissolved solids, concentrated near
liquid surface (continuous)

36

Blowdown Basics
Insufficient BD leads to carryover and deposits
Excessive BD leads to wasted energy, water and chemicals
Blowdown water temp. is same as steam
Typical range is 3% 6% of feedwater

37

Oxygen Pitting

Image courtesy of www.gewater.com

38

Mineral Scale

Image courtesy of http://theapexsolution.files.wordpress.com/2012/11/scaled-boiler.jpg

39

Boiler Water Treatment Report


Test
Hardness (ppm)
Limits

Sodium Sulphite (ppm)


Limits

pH
Limits

Conductivity (umhos)
Limits

Boiler #1

Boiler #2

Feedwater

Condensate

Softener

0-6

0-6

0-2

0-4

0-3

75

75

25

50-100

50-100

6-50

11.5

11.5

9.8-11.8

9.8-11.8

7.5-10.5

3500

3500

20

3000-4000

3000-4000

0-100

250

250

150-700

150-700

200

200

150-700

150-700

Chloride (ppm)
Total Alkalinity (ppm)
Limits

P Alkalinity (ppm)
Limits

Iron (ppm)

0
Limits

0-0.1

40

Additional information in your water report


Make-up water meter readings
How much fresh water you top up to the system

?????

41

Todays Workshop Will Cover:

Enbridge Programs
Boiler Basics
Energy Savings Opportunities in Boilers
Limited Time Campaign

42

Approach to Energy Savings


Energy Flow

Meter

Energy
Converter

Distribution
System

End User

Need /
Requirement

Energy Savings Strategy

43

Workshop Steam Plant


Boiler: 300BHP (10 MMBTU/hr)
Average Loading: 50%

Plant Operating Hours: 6,000 hrs.


Annual Fuel: 1,000,000m3/yr ($280,000/yr)

Stack Flue Gas

Sat. Steam @ 100 psig

Process Steam

Natural Gas
DA Steam
Boiler
Feedwater

8 psig
DEAERATOR

Blowdown

Cond.
Tank

Condensate
Return 50%
180 F

Make-Up
Water 50%

44

Steam Distribution and End User Savings


Not the main focus for this workshop
Minimize steam requirements at end user
Lower set points, pressure, less hot water, etc.

Efficient transportation and heat transfer


Fouled heat exchangers
Insulation, steam traps
Condensate return

Enbridge portal can be used


for insulation
See portal card in your portfolio

45

Gas Savings Opportunities in Boilers


Qsl
Stack Loss

Improvement in Boiler Efficiency is


achieved by reducing losses

Three main boiler losses


Stack Losses
Blowdown Losses

Radiation Losses

Qng

Natural
Gas

Focus on Stack losses and Blowdown


losses

Qra
Radiation
Loss
Qst
Steam

Qfw
Feedwater

Qbd
Blowdown
Loss

46

Gas Savings Opportunities in Boilers


Qsl
Stack Loss

Improvement in Boiler Efficiency is


achieved by reducing losses

Three main boiler losses


Stack Losses
Blowdown Losses

Radiation Losses

Qng

Natural
Gas

Qra
Radiation
Loss
Qst
Steam

Qfw
Feedwater

Qbd
Blowdown
Loss

47

Gas Savings Opportunity Stack Loss


Stack loss is a major source of heat loss

Qsl = 21%
Stack

Qng = 100%

Qra = 2.5%
(1% of boiler rating)

Qst
Steam flow

Natural Gas

Qfw
Feedwater

Qbd = 0.7% (4% of FW)


Blowdown

48

Gas Savings Opportunities Stack Loss


Stack loss can be reduced by:
1.

CO2 + 2H2O + X 2O2 + (1 + x) 7.52 N2

Improving combustion

Reduce excess air (O2)

Reduce/eliminate CO and CxHy

Controls

2.

Reducing flue gas temperature


Recover heat from hot flue gases

Air

(40F drop = 1% efficiency improvement)


Economizers

3.

Increasing combustion air temperature

Draw air from a high point in the boiler room

49

Reducing Excess O2
Excess air is required to achieve proper combustion

Excess air wastes heat as air enters at ambient temp. and leaves at stack temp.
o 79% of air goes for a free ride

How much excess air is required?


Depends on burner design, boiler configuration, air/fuel control, etc.:
o Older coil-tube boilers without Linkageless Controls (LLC) have high
excess O2 : (5% 12%)
o Fire-tube boilers generally have lower excess O2 :(4% 9%)
o Large water-tube boilers can achieve lower excess O2 : (2% - 6%)

50

Example # 3: Excess O2 Cost Savings


Use the Combustion Efficiency Chart to calculate the cost savings
associated with reducing excess O2 levels from 8% to 5%.
old = 78.9 %

Calculate new
new = 80.6 %
- Minimal Cost
- 300BHP, 50%
loaded
17,000m3/yr
- $4760/yr

Excess, %FG Temperature - Combustion Air


O2

340

360

380

400

420

4.00
4.50
5.00
5.50
6.00
6.50
7.00
7.50
8.00
8.50

82.0
81.8
81.6
81.4
81.2
80.9
80.6
80.4
80.0
79.7

81.5
81.3
81.1
80.9
80.6
80.4
80.1
79.8
79.4
79.1

81.1
80.8
80.6
80.4
80.1
79.8
79.5
79.2
78.9
78.5

80.6
80.4
80.1
79.9
79.6
79.3
79.0
78.6
78.3
77.9

80.1
79.9
79.6
79.3
79.0
78.7
78.4
78.0
77.7
77.2
51

Linkageless Controls

52

Purpose of Combustion Controls:


Maintain optimum air:fuel ratio at all firing rates to
run boilers safely at optimum combustion efficiency
Monitor process boiler temperature and pressure and
quickly respond to changes in load

53

Linkage Combustion Controls


Mechanical system using cams, linkages and
jackshafts to characterize the air:fuel ratio
A single actuator motor adjusts its jackshaft
arm according to master load (demand)
signal

Linkaged Combustion Control System

As the actuator motor moves the jackshaft,


the arms connected to the fuel valve and air
fan damper move with it

Natural Gas
Valve

Air:fuel ratio is set by adjusting the cam


Calibrating involves combustion tests in
which actuator is positioned to various
settings, usually at least 10, and at each
setting setscrews are adjusted to achieve
the desired O2 level in flue gas

Linkage
Primary Actuator
Motor

Valve

Microprocessor
Controller

Combustion
Air Blower

54

Issues with Linkage Controls:


Hysteresis or drift caused by wear, tear and slop in linkages
Control devices do not return to the same position during boiler ramp-up
or turn-down
Air : fuel ratio is typically set high to compensate for hysteresis
Air : fuel ratio generally drifts after tune-up
Boiler 2 Combustion
10
9
8

Oxygen %

6
5
4

Oxygen

3
2
1
0

20

40

60

80

100

120

Firing Rate %

55

Linkageless Combustion Controls


Obviously no linkages

Linkageless Combustion Control System

Individual servomotors attached to


gas valve and air damper. Position of
each motor is programmed
independently

Servo
Driven
Valve

Natural Gas

A programmable control unit provides


precise air:fuel ratio over entire range

No hysteresis for a properly tuned and


maintained LLC system
Additional controller can be added to
provide O2 trim

New
Microprocessor
Controller
Servo
Driven
Valve
Combustion
Air Blower

56

Power Flame Boiler Burner

Linkages

Linkageless with Honeywell LLC

57

Gas Savings Opportunity: Linkageless Controls


1.

No hysteresis
o Function of Base Case burner age

2.

Improved combustion efficiency due to:


o Reduced excess air
o Accurate characterization of air:fuel ratio
o Accurate control of firing rate
o Depends on how much excess O2 can be reduced

3.

Reduced cycling due to improved turn-down


o Savings are a function of Base Case burner turndown

4.

Additional savings due to O2 trim


58

Example # 4 : Linkageless Controls


Reduce O2,Maintain optimum air/fuel all the time
Improvement

Savings

Removal of hysteresis

0.50 %

Improved combustion

2.19 %

Increased turndown

0.13 %

Total

2.82 %

Annual gas savings

29,720 m3/yr

Annual savings

$8,322

Estimated installed cost

$15,000

Simple payback period

1.8 years

Enbridge incentive

$5,944

Revised simple payback period

1.1 years

59

Personal experiences with LLC


Some vendors claim 10 - 15% savings, based on unrealistic
assumptions
Typical 2.5% - 4%

Savings possible if burner is in very bad condition with very


high O2, CO, Combustibles, Cycling etc.

Need to establish base case performance


Important to estimate savings based on a real base case
Your ESC will help you establish a base line to calculate
realistic savings

60

Flue Gas Heat Recovery with


Feedwater Economizers

61

Workshop Steam Plant


Boiler: 300BHP (10 MMBTU/hr)
Average Loading: 50%

Plant Operating Hours: 6,000 hrs.


Annual Fuel: 1,000,000m3/yr ($280,000/yr)

Stack Flue Gas

Sat. Steam @ 100 psig

Process Steam

Natural Gas
DA Steam
Boiler
Feedwater

8 psig
DEAERATOR

Blowdown

Cond.
Tank

Condensate
Return 50%
180 F

Make-Up
Water 50%

62

Gas Savings Opportunity: Feedwater Economizers


Stack Flue Gas

320F

Feedwater
Economizer
267F
450F

Natural Gas

Boiler
Feedwater

230F
8 psig
DEAERATOR

63

Feedwater Economizer

Parameters
w/o econo. = 80.6 %
O2
= 5%
Tout
= 320 F
Tair
= 70 F
Delta T = 250 F

Heat recovery from flue gases


reduces stack temperature
Sensible heat recovery

Efficiency gain can be read from


combustion chart

320 F

230 F
267 F

new

= 83.9 %
FG Temperature - Combustion Air Temp, F

Excess, %

O2

200

220

240

260

280

300

320

340

360

380

4.50
5.00
5.50

85.3
85.1
85.0

84.8
84.6
84.5

84.3
84.1
84.0

83.8
83.6
83.5

83.3
83.1
82.9

82.8
82.6
82.4

82.3
82.1
81.9

81.8
81.6
81.4

81.3
81.1
80.9

80.8
80.6
80.4

450 F

64

Example 5 : Installing a Feedwater Economizer


300BHP Boiler, 50% average loading, 6000hrs/yr

Reduction of Flue Gas temperature from 450F to 320F


Parameter

Savings

Average Hourly Heat Recovery

208,259 BTU/hr

Annual gas savings

44,725 m3/yr

Annual savings

$12,523 /yr

Percentage of total load

4.2%

Estimated installed cost

$25,000

Simple payback period

2.0 years

Enbridge incentive

$8,945

Revised simple payback period

1.3 years

Typical savings of 3-6%


65

Flue Gas Heat Recovery with


Condensing Economizers

66

Basic Concept of Condensing Heat Recovery


When 1 molecule of CH4 is burned, it produces 2 molecules
of H2O
CH4 + 2O2 + 7.52 N2

CO2 + 2H2O + 7.52 N2

1 lb

2.25 lb

1 lb of CH4 produces 2.25 lb of water


1 lb of Natural Gas produces 2.14 lb of water

67

Basic Concepts of Condensing Heat Recovery


Water in products of combustion is vaporized due to
heat of combustion

CO2 + 2H2O + 7.52 N2

Water vapours absorb about 10% of fuel input


Energy is lost to atmosphere with exhaust gases
through stack

NG

Heat of vaporization can be recovered if flue gases are


cooled below water dew point
When water vapour condenses, it releases heat of
vaporization

Air

Latent heat recovery

Condensing economizer recovers both:


1. Heat of condensation (latent heat)
2. Sensible heat

68

Sensible and
latent heat

As flue gas
temperature
decreases,
efficiency increases

Condensation starts
below dew point at
about 137 F
Sensible
heat only

Excess O2 = 5%

69

Available Heat Varies with FG Temp. leaving Economizer


Heat available from one boiler
1.6

Heat Available (MMBTU/hr)

1.4

1.39
0.82

1.2

1.11

0.61

0.8

Latent Heat

0.61

Sensible Heat

0.6
0.4

0.56

0.17
0.50

0.44

0.38
0.38

0.2
0

75 F
100 F
125 F
150 F
Flue Gas Temp. Leaving Condensing Economizer (F)
70

Gas Savings Opportunity: Condensing Economizer (In-line)


Stack Flue Gas

100F
Make-Up
Water 75%

50F

Condensing
Economizer
190F

450F

Process Steam

DA Steam
Boiler
Feedwater

8 psig
DEAERATOR

Make-Up
Water 75%

Cond.
Tank

Condensate
Return 25%
180 F

71

Gas Savings Opportunity: Condensing Economizer (In-line)


Stack Flue Gas

100F
Make-Up
Water 75%

50F

Condensing
Economizer
190F

450F

Process Steam

DA Steam
Boiler
Feedwater

8 psig
DEAERATOR

Cond.
Tank

Condensate
Return 25%
180 F

72

Gas Savings Opportunity: Feedwater Economizers (Offline)


Stack Flue Gas

320F
Make-Up
Water 75%

50F

Condensing
Economizer

Feedwater
Economizer
267F

190F

450F
New Stack
Process Steam

Boiler
Feedwater

DA Steam

230F
8 psig
DEAERATOR

Condensate
Return 25%
180 F

Cond.
Tank

73

Key Considerations
Establish how much heat is available, Heat Source
o Existing FW economizer, Flue gas temp., excess O2, steam production, gas
consumption, hours of operation, etc.

Is there sufficient Heat Sink available?


o Boiler make-up water
o Domestic hot water
o Process water

Heat sink temp must be low enough to bring FG temp below dew
point (137 F) to cause condensation
Your ESC can help you evaluate your opportunity for a condensing
economizer

74

Example 6 : Installing an Inline Condensing Economizer


300BHP Boiler, 50% average loading, 6000hrs/yr, 75% Make-up

Total Available Heat in Exhaust (no feedwater economizer):


1,145,417 BTU/hr ( > 50% Latent)
Parameter

Savings

Average make-up water flow rate

7.4gpm (3,700lbs/hr)

Average Hourly Heat Recovery

554,825 BTU/hr

Annual gas savings

121,584 m3/yr

Annual savings

$34,044 /yr

Percentage of total load

11.5%

Estimated installed cost

$60,000

Simple payback period

1.8 years

Enbridge incentive

$13,579

Revised simple payback period

1.36 years
75

Typical Applications
Industries with steam boilers, requiring a large amount of hot water
such as make-up, washing, process, DHW
Best Candidates:
o Food and beverage

o Breweries
o Textile, commercial laundries
o Non-integrated paper mills
o Chemicals
o District heating
o Large hospitals
o Greenhouses

76

Gas Savings Opportunities in Boilers


Qsl
Stack Loss

Improvement in Boiler Efficiency is


achieved by reducing losses

Three main boiler losses


Stack Losses
Blowdown Losses

Radiation Losses

Qng

Natural
Gas

Qra
Radiation
Loss
Qst
Steam

Qfw
Feedwater

Qbd
Blowdown
Loss

77

Blowdown Heat Recovery

78

Workshop Steam Plant


Boiler: 300BHP (10 MMBTU/hr)
Average Loading: 50%

Plant Operating Hours: 6,000 hrs.


Annual Fuel: 1,000,000m3/yr ($280,000/yr)

Stack Flue Gas

Sat. Steam @ 100 psig

Process Steam

Natural Gas
DA Steam
Boiler
Feedwater

8 psig
DEAERATOR

Blowdown

Cond.
Tank

Condensate
Return 50%
180 F

Make-Up
Water 50%

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Gas Savings Opportunity: Blowdown (BD) Loss


Blowdown loss can be reduced by:
1.

Reducing amount of BD

2.

TDS Controller

Recovering BD heat

Flash tank

Heat exchanger

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Blowdown Heat Recovery


Utilize energy in blowdown for:
Generating flash steam for DA (or
condensate receiver)
Preheating make-up water

Typically sold as skid type package

Additional benefit eliminates the


need to use fresh water for cooling
of blowdown liquid before going to
drain

Blow Down
Flash Steam to DA or Receiver

10 psig
Flash Tank

Heat Exchanger

Make-Up
Water 50%

1.5%-3% average savings (fuel input)


To Drain

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Example 7 : Installing a blowdown heat recovery package


300 BHP boiler with 50% make-up and
8% blowdown rate
Parameter

Savings

Annual gas savings

24,532 m3/yr

Annual savings

$6,869 /yr

Percentage of total load

2.3%

Estimated installed cost

$14,000

Simple payback period

2.0 years

Enbridge incentive

$4,906

Revised simple payback


period

1.3 years

Flash Steam to DA or Receiver

Flash Tank

Heat Exchanger

Make-Up
Water 50%

To Drain

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Todays Workshop Will Cover:

Enbridge Programs
Boiler Basics
Energy Savings Opportunities in Boilers
Limited Time Campaign

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Limited Double Incentive Boiler Campaign


Enbridge is offering industrial customers
double the financial incentive towards an
energy retrofit to your boiler system!
Thats a maximum of $25,000 or 50% of the
project cost!

A
limited
time
offer!

The incentive can be used towards


linkageless controls, economizers and blow
down heat recovery system

See your ESC for details

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Example 5 : Installing a Feedwater Economizer


300BHP Boiler, 50% average loading, 6000hrs/yr

Reduction of Flue Gas temperature from 450F to 320F


Parameter

Savings

Annual gas savings

44,725 m3/yr

Annual savings

$12,523 /yr

Estimated installed cost

$25,000

Simple payback period

2.0 years

Enbridge incentive

$8,945

Revised simple payback period

1.3 years

Limited time incentive

$12,500

Revised simple payback period

1.0 years

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Summary
Energy savings starts by understanding the need, then
proceed upstream

Boiler Savings:
Target stack losses and blowdown losses
Look at combustion efficiency

Heat recovery

Your ESC can help you better understand your boiler system
and the savings opportunities
Act now to take advantage of this limited time offer!

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Knowledge
Development

Action and
Implementation

THANK YOU!

Opportunity
Identification

QUESTIONS?

Engineering
Analysis

Measurement

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