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1. Please translate these technical terms into Chinese and then

provide their typical industries application(s):
Laser annealing
Typical applications: Laser annealing was originally applied to eliminate


destruction of substrate caused by the ion implantation in semiconductor and make

injected impurity active. Now it is used for the formation of silicide, growth of single
crystal for amorphous materials and so on.

Laser alloying
Typical applicationsWear protection on highly stressed tools is one of the applications
of laser alloying. In addition, it is also applied for modification of surface layers and
forming gradient layers of materials. The common industrial applications are shafts,
rods and seals for valve parts, sliding valves and discs, sealing joints, joint surfaces and
so on.

Laser nitriding
Typical applicationsLaser nitriding is often used to treat metal surfaces by short laser
pulses in nitrogen containing atmospheres. This may lead to a strong take-up of nitrogen
into the metal and nitride formation which can improve the metal's surface properties,
e.g. the hardness or the corrosion and wear resistance. Typical applications of laser
nitriding include gears, crankshafts, camshafts, cam followers, valve parts, extruder
screws, die-casting tools, forging dies, extrusion dies, firearm components, injectors
and plastic-mold tools.

Laser remelting

Typical applicationsThe laser remelting process melts and recasts the substrate of
suitable materials, in order to produce extremely fine grained structures with improved
wear and corrosion resistance. Also it is used to eliminate surface defects or improve
the interity (e.g. homogeneity, adhesion) of overlay coatings applied by electrochemical
techniques etc. For specific applications, laser remelting is often used for preparation
of coating for alloying materials or good quality of solder bump with smooth surface
and high shear strength, etc.

Laser cleaning
Typical applicationsLaser cleaning is the process by which contaminants or impurities
are removed from the surface of a material by using laser irradiation. There are two
types of laser cleaning process, one which is the removal of a layer on the surface of a
material, while the second is the removal of the entire upper layer of a material. Its
typical applications are paint removal and de-coating, labelling and marking, mould
cleaning and so on.

Laser surface peening & shock hardening

Chinese: /
Typical applicationsLaser peening induce the deep, high magnitude compressive
residual stresses which increase the resistance of materials to surface-related failures,
such as fatigue, fretting fatigue and stress corrosion cracking. And it is used for metal
shaping or forming, achieving property or functional benefits on metal, measuring the
bond strength of coatings on metals and so on.

Laser amorphization
Typical applicationsLaser amorphization is used for surface treatment of alloying or
metal which could harden the materials. Such as car camshaft and the outer wall of
cast steel sleeve will have obvious improvement on strength and wear resistance after
laser amorphization. In addition, it is also used on single crystal silicon films or other

Phase transformation hardening by laser

Typical applicationsLaser transformation hardening (LTH) is a process in which phase
transformations in steels are induced by irradiating the surface with a laser beam, and
the properties of the hardened layer are controlled by the energy input, which depends
on the beam power density and interaction time. It is usually applied on complex
geometrical forms, which are difficult to treat by conventional means can be handled
successfully with beam techniques, such as automobile steering gear housing, machine
tool cylinder lathe slide, press brake tools, steam turbine blades, etc.