Human development indicators

Readers guide
Note to table 1: about this year’s human development index

211
214

Indicator tables
Monitoring human development: enlarging people’s choices . . .



1
2
3
4

Human development index
Human development index trends
Human and income poverty: developing countries
Human and income poverty: OECD countries, Eastern Europe and the CIS

219
223
227
230

. . . to lead a long and healthy life . . .





5
6
7
8
9
10

Demographic trends
Commitment to health: resources, access and services
Water, sanitation and nutritional status
Inequalities in maternal and child health
Leading global health crises and risks
Survival: progress and setbacks

232
236
240
244
246
250

. . . to acquire knowledge . . .


11 Commitment to education: public spending
12 Literacy and enrolment
13 Technology: diffusion and creation

254
258
262

. . . to have access to the resources needed for a decent standard of living . . .







14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21

Economic performance
Inequality in income or consumption
The structure of trade
Rich country responsibilities: aid
Rich country responsibilities: debt relief and trade
Flows of aid, private capital and debt
Priorities in public spending
Unemployment in OECD countries

266
270
274
278
279
280
284
288

. . . while preserving it for future generations . . .

22 Energy and the environment

289

. . . protecting personal security . . .

23 Refugees and armaments
24 Victims of crime

293
297

. . . and achieving equality for all women and men





25
26
27
28
29
30

Gender-related development index
Gender empowerment measure
Gender inequality in education
Gender inequality in economic activity
Gender, work and time allocation
Women’s political participation

299
303
307
311
315
316

Human and labour rights instruments

31 Status of major international human rights instruments
32 Status of fundamental labour rights conventions

320
324

33 Basic indicators for other UN member countries

328

Note on statistics in the Human Development Report

329

Technical notes


1 Calculating the human development indices
2 Two sides of the poverty reduction coin—why growth and distribution matter
3 Assessing progress towards the Millennium Development Goals

Definitions of statistical terms
Statistical references
Classification of countries
Index to indicators
Index to Millennium Development Goal indicators in the indicator tables

340
347
352

354
361
363
367
371

Readers guide

Human development indicator tables

The human development indicator tables provide a global assessment of country achievements in different areas of human development. Many of the Millennium Development
Goal indicators are incorporated in these tables
(see Index to indicators and Index to Millennium Development Goal indicators in the indicator tables). Data for these indicators provide
a statistical reference for assessing the progress
in each country towards the Millennium Development Goals and their targets.
The main tables are organized thematically
as described by the running titles at the top of
each table. The tables include data for 175 UN
member countries along with Hong Kong,
China (SAR), and the Occupied Palestinian
Territories—all those for which the human development index (HDI) can be calculated. Because of lack of data, 16 UN member countries
are not included in the HDI this year. Basic
human development indicators for these countries are presented in table 33.
In the tables countries and areas are ranked
in descending order by their HDI value. To
locate a country in these tables, refer to Key
to countries on the back cover flap, which lists
countries alphabetically with their HDI rank.
Most of the data in the tables are for 2003
and are those available to the Human Development Report Office as of 16 May 2005, unless
otherwise specified.
Sources and definitions

The Human Development Report Office is primarily a user, not a producer, of statistics. It relies
on international data agencies with the resources
and expertise to collect and compile international
data on specific statistical indicators. Sources for
all data used in compiling the indicator tables

are given in short citations at the end of each
table. These correspond to full references in Statistical references. When an agency provides data
that it has collected from another source, both
sources are credited in the table notes. But when
an agency has built on the work of many other
contributors, only that agency is given as the
source. The source notes also show the original
data components used in any calculations by the
Human Development Report Office to ensure
that all calculations can be easily replicated.
Indicators for which short, meaningful definitions can be given are included in Definitions
of statistical terms. All other relevant information appears in the notes at the end of each
table. For more detailed technical information
about these indicators, please consult the relevant Web sites of the source agencies through
the Human Development Report Web site at
http://hdr.undp.org/statistics/understanding/
resources.cfm.
Inconsistencies between national and
international estimates

When compiling international data series, international data agencies often apply international standards and harmonization procedures
to improve comparability across countries.
When international data are based on national
statistics, as they usually are, national data may
need to be adjusted. When data for a country
are missing, an international agency may produce an estimate if other relevant information
can be used. And because of the difficulties in
coordination between national and international data agencies, international data series
may not incorporate the most recent national
data. All these factors can lead to significant
inconsistencies between national and international estimates (see Note on statistics).

hum a n de v e l opme n t re p or t 2005

211

This Report has often brought such inconsistencies to light. The Human Development Report
Office advocates for improvements in international data and plays an active role in supporting
efforts to enhance data quality. When data inconsistencies have arisen, we have helped to link
national and international data authorities to address those inconsistencies. In many cases this has
led to better statistics in the Report. The Human
Development Report Office is working with national agencies and inter­national bodies to improve data consistency through more systematic
reporting and monitoring of data quality.
Comparability over time

Because of periodic revisions of data or changes
in methodology by international agencies, statistics presented in different editions of the Report may not be comparable. For this reason the
Human Development Report Office strongly
advises against constructing trend analyses
based on data from different editions.
HDI values and ranks similarly are not comparable across editions of the Report. For trend
analysis based on consistent data and methodology, refer to table 2 (Human development index
trends). The HDI values and ranks recalculated
for 2003 based on data comparable to this year’s
Report and country coverage are available at the
Human Development Report Office Web site
(http://hdr.undp.org/statistics).

Income classifications. All countries are grouped
by income using World Bank classifications:
high income (gross national income per capita
of $9,386 or more in 2003), middle income
($766–$9,385) and low income ($765 or less).
Major world classifications. The three global
groups are developing countries, Central and
Eastern Europe and the CIS and OECD. These
groups are not mutually exclusive. (Replacing
the OECD group with the high-income OECD
group and excluding the Republic of Korea
would produce mutually exclusive groups.) Unless otherwise specified, the classification world
represents the universe of 193 countries and
areas covered—191 UN member countries plus
Hong Kong, China (SAR), and the Occupied
Palestinian Territories.
Regional classifications. Developing countries
are further classified into the following regions:
Arab States, East Asia and the Pacific, Latin
America and the Caribbean (including Mexico), South Asia, Southern Europe and SubSaharan Africa. These regional classifications
are consistent with the Regional Bureaux of
the United Nations Development Programme.
An additional classification is least developed
countries, as defined by the United Nations
(UN-OHRLLS 2005).
Aggregates and growth rates

Country classifications

Countries are classified in four ways: by human
development level, by income, by major world
aggregates and by region (see Classification of
countries). These designations do not necessarily express a judgement about the development
stage of a particular country or area. The term
country as used in the text and tables refers, as
appropriate, to territories or areas.
Human development classifications. All countries included in the HDI are classified into
three clusters by achievement in human development: high human development (with
an HDI of 0.800 or above), medium human
development (HDI of 0.500–0.799) and low
human development (HDI of less than 0.500).
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human de velopmen t repor t 2005

Aggregates. Aggregates for the classifications
described above are presented at the end of tables where it is analytically meaningful to do so
and data are sufficient. Aggregates that are the
total for the classification (such as for population) are indicated by a T. Because of rounding,
world totals may not always equal the sum of
the totals for subgroups. All other aggregates
are weighted averages.
In general, an aggregate is shown for a classification only when data are available for half
the countries and represent at least two-thirds
of the available weight in that classification. The
Human Development Report Office does not
fill in missing data for the purpose of aggregation. Therefore, unless otherwise specified, aggregates for each classification represent only

the countries for which data are available, refer
to the year or period specified and refer only to
data from the primary sources listed. Aggregates are not shown where appropriate weighting procedures were unavailable.
Aggregates for indices, growth rates and indicators covering more than one point in time
are based only on countries for which data exist
for all necessary points in time. When no aggregate is shown for one or more regions, aggregates are not always shown for the world classification, which refers only to the universe of 193
countries and areas.
Aggregates in this Report will not always
conform to those in other publications because
of differences in country classifications and
methodology. Where indicated, aggregates are
calculated by the statistical agency providing
the data for the indicator.
Growth rates. Multiyear growth rates are expressed as average annual rates of change. In
calculations of rates by the Human Development Report Office only the beginning and
end points are used. Year-to-year growth rates
are expressed as annual percentage changes.
Country notes

Unless otherwise indicated, data for China do
not include Hong Kong, China (SAR), Macau,
China (SAR), or Taiwan Province of China.

In most cases data for Eritrea before 1992 are
included in the data for Ethiopia. Data for
Germany refer to the unified Germany, unless
otherwise noted. Data for Indonesia include
Timor-Leste through 1999, unless otherwise
noted. Data for Jordan refer to the East Bank
only. Economic data for Tanzania cover the
mainland only. Data for Sudan are often based
on information collected from the northern
part of the country. And data for the Republic
of Yemen refer to that country from 1990 onward, while data for earlier years refer to aggregated data for the former People’s Democratic
Republic of Yemen and the former Yemen Arab
Republic.
Symbols

In the absence of the words annual, annual
rate or growth rate, a dash between two years,
such as in 1995–2000, indicates that the data
were collected during one of the years shown. A
slash between two years, such as in 1998/2001,
indicates an average for the years shown unless
otherwise specified. The following symbols are
used:
.. Data not available.
(.) Less than half the unit shown.
< Less than.
— Not applicable.
T Total.

hum a n de v e l opme n t re p or t 2005

213

Note to table 1: about this year’s
human development index

The human development index (HDI) is a composite index that measures the average achievements in a country in three basic dimensions
of human development: a long and healthy life,
as measured by life expectancy at birth; knowledge, as measured by the adult literacy rate and
the combined gross enrolment ratio for primary,
secondary and tertiary schools; and a decent standard of living, as measured by GDP per capita in
purchasing power parity (PPP) US dollars. The
index is constructed from indicators that are currently available globally using a methodology that
is simple and transparent (see Technical note 1).
While the concept of human development
is much broader than any single composite
index can measure, the HDI offers a powerful
alternative to income as a summary measure of
human well-being. It provides a useful entry
point into the rich information contained in
the subsequent indicator tables on different aspects of human development.
Data availability determines HDI country
coverage

The HDI in this Report refers to 2003. It covers
175 UN member countries, along with Hong
Kong, China (SAR), and the Occupied Palestinian Territories. Because of a lack of comparable data, 16 UN member countries cannot not
be included in the HDI this year. Basic human
development indicators for these countries are
presented in table 33.
To enable cross-country comparisons, the
HDI is, to the extent possible, calculated based
on data from leading international data agencies available at the time the Report was prepared (see Primary international data sources
below). But for a number of countries data are
missing from these agencies for one or more of
the four HDI components.
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human de velopmen t repor t 2005

In response to the desire of countries to be
included in the HDI table, and striving to include as many UN member countries as possible, the Human Development Report Office
has made special efforts to obtain estimates
from other international, regional or national
sources when data are lacking from the primary
international data agencies for one or two of the
HDI components for a country. In a very few
cases the Human Development Report Office
has produced an estimate. These estimates from
sources other than the primary international
agencies are clearly documented in the notes
to table 1. They are of varying quality and reliability and are not presented in other indicator
tables showing similar data.
Primary international data sources

Life expectancy at birth. The life expectancy at
birth estimates are from the 2004 Revision of
World Population Prospects (UN 2005), the official source of UN population estimates and
projections. They are prepared biannually by
the Population Division of the United Nations
Department of Economic and Social Affairs on
the basis of data from national vital registration
systems, population censuses and surveys.
In the 2004 Revision the United Nations
Population Division incorporated national data
available through the end of 2004. For assessing
the impact of HIV/AIDS, the latest HIV prevalence estimates prepared by the Joint United
Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS are combined with a series of assumptions about the
demographic trends and mortality of both the
infected and non-infected people in each of the
60 countries for which the impact of the disease
is explicitly modelled.
The volatile dynamics of major infectious
diseases like HIV/AIDS pose serious challenges

for population estimates and projections. The
availability of new empirical evidence on the
HIV/AIDS epidemic and demographic trends
often requires adjustment to earlier estimates.
For example, while the most recent HIV prevalence estimate is similar to earlier estimates for
most countries, it is notably lower for Cameroon, Côte d’Ivoire, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda,
Zambia and Zimbabwe and higher for Equatorial Guinea and Senegal. These changes are the
result mainly of reassessments of input data and
estimation methods rather than a reflection of
real changes. Similarly, a significant decrease in
life expectancy estimates for some Sub-Saharan African countries (such as Botswana, Nigeria and São Tomé and Principe) and many
transition economies (such as Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Russian Federation) are based on
more recent and accurate data that imply higher
levels of mortality than previously estimated.
The life expectancy estimates published by
the United Nations Population Division are
usually five-year averages. This year, for the first
time, the United Nations Population Division
produced annual life expectancy estimates and
projections through interpolation based on
these five-year averages. The life expectancy estimates for 2003 shown in table 1 and those underlying table 2 are from these interpolated data
(UN 2005c). For details on the 2004 Revision
of World Population Prospects (UN 2005h), see
www.un.org/esa/population/unpop.htm.
Adult literacy rate. Data on the adult literacy
rate are usually collected during national population censuses, generally conducted every 5 or
10 years, or from household surveys.
This Report uses data on adult literacy rates
from the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)
Institute for Statistics (UIS) April 2005 Assessment (UNESCO Institute for Statistics
2005a), which combines direct national estimates with UIS estimates. The national estimates, made available through targeted efforts by UIS to collect recent literacy data from
countries, are obtained from national censuses
or surveys between 2000 and 2004 (with the
exception of a few cases referring to 1995–99).

The UIS estimates, produced in July 2002, were
based mostly on national data collected before
1995. For details on these literacy estimates, see
www.uis.unesco.org.
Many high-income countries, having attained high levels of literacy, no longer collect
literacy statistics in national population censuses or household surveys and thus are not
included in the UNESCO data. In calculating
the HDI, a literacy rate of 99.0% is applied for
these countries.
In collecting literacy data, many countries
estimate the number of literate people based
on self-reported data. Some use educational attainment data as a proxy, but measures of school
attendance or grade completion may differ. Because definitions and data collection methods
vary across countries, literacy estimates should
be used with caution.
The UIS, in collaboration with other partner agencies, is actively pursuing an alternative
methodology for measuring literacy, the Literacy Assessment and Monitoring Programme
(LAMP). LAMP seeks to go beyond the current simple categories of literate and illiterate
by providing information on a continuum of
literacy skills.
Combined gross enrolment ratio for primary,
secondary and tertiary schools. Gross enrolment ratios are produced by the UIS based on
enrolment data collected from national governments (usually from administrative sources)
and population data from the United Nations
Population Division’s 2002 Revision of World
Population Prospects (UN 2003). The ratios are
calculated by dividing the number of students
enrolled in all levels of schooling by the total
population in the official age group corresponding to these levels. The tertiary age group is set
to five cohorts immediately following on the
end of upper secondary school in all countries.
Countries are asked to report numbers of
students enrolled at the beginning of the academic year in each level of education as defined by the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED). A revised version
of ISCED was introduced in 1997 that led to
some changes in the classifications of national

hum a n de v e l opme n t re p or t 2005

215

programmes of education. These changes,
however, have less impact on the estimation of
combined gross enrolment ratios for primary,
secondary and tertiary schools. For details on
enrolment data and the ISCED, see www.uis.
unesco.org.
Though intended as a proxy for educational attainment, combined gross enrolment
ratios do not reflect the quality of education
outcomes. Even when used to capture access to
education opportunities, combined gross enrolment ratios can hide important differences
among countries because of differences in the
age range corresponding to a level of education
and in the duration of education programmes.
Grade repetition and dropout rates can also distort the data. Measures such as the mean years
of schooling of a population or school life expectancy could more adequately capture education attainment and should ideally supplant
the gross enrolment ratio in the HDI. However,
such data are not yet regularly available for a
sufficient number of countries.
As currently defined, the combined gross
enrolment ratio does not take into account students enrolled in other countries. Current data
for many smaller countries where many people
pursue tertiary education abroad could significantly underrepresent access to education or
the educational attainment of a population and
thus lead to a lower HDI value.
GDP per capita (PPP US$). In comparing standards of living across countries, economic statistics must be converted into PPP terms to eliminate differences in national price levels. The
GDP per capita (PPP US$) data for the HDI
are provided for 164 countries by the World
Bank based on price data from the latest International Comparison Program (ICP) surveys
and GDP in local currency from national accounts data. The last round of ICP surveys covered 118 countries, for which PPPs have been
estimated directly by extrapolating from the
latest benchmark results. For countries not included in the benchmark surveys, estimates are
derived through econometric regression. For
countries not covered by the World Bank, PPP
estimates provided by the Penn World Tables of
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human de velopmen t repor t 2005

the University of Pennsylvania (Aten, Heston
and Summers 2001, 2002) are used.
In a limited number of cases where reliable
PPP estimates are not available from the two
international sources, the Human Development Report Office has worked with regional
and national agencies to obtain a PPP estimate
for a country. For example, in the case of Cuba,
a technical team of national and international
experts has been formed to explore different
methodologies for obtaining a better PPP estimate. The results of this effort will be reflected
in future Reports.
Though much progress has been made in
recent decades, the current PPP data set suffers from several deficiencies, including lack
of universal coverage, of timeliness of the data
and of uniformity in the quality of results from
different regions and countries. Filling gaps in
country coverage with econometric regression
requires strong assumptions, while extrapolation over time implies that the results become
weaker as the distance lengthens between the
reference survey year and the current year.
The importance of PPPs in economic analysis underlines the need for improvement in PPP
data. A new Millennium Round of the ICP has
been established and promises much improved
PPP data for economic policy analysis, including
international poverty assessment. For details on
the ICP and the PPP methodology, see the ICP
Web site at www.worldbank.org/data/icp.
Comparisons over time and across
editions of the Report

The HDI is an important tool for monitoring
long-term trends in human development. To
facilitate trend analyses across countries, the
HDI is calculated at five-year intervals for the
period 1975–2003. These estimates, presented
in table 2, are based on a consistent methodology and on comparable trend data available
when the Report is prepared.
As international data agencies continually
improve their data series, including updating
historical data periodically, the year-to-year
changes in the HDI values and rankings across
editions of the Human Development Report
often reflect revisions to data—both specific to a

country and relative to other countries—rather
than real changes in a country. In addition, occasional changes in country coverage could also
affect the HDI ranking of a country, even when
consistent methodology is used to calculate the
HDI. As a result, a country’s HDI rank could
drop considerably between two consecutive
Reports, but when comparable, revised data are
used to reconstruct the HDI for recent years,
the HDI rank and value may actually show an
improvement.
For these reasons HDI trend analyses
should not be based on data from different editions of the Report. Table 2 provides up-to-date
HDI trend data based on consistent data and
methodology. For HDI values and ranks recalculated for 2002 (the reference year of the HDI
in Human Development Report 2004) based
on data and country coverage comparable to

this year’s Report, please visit http://hdr.undp.
org/statistics.
HDI for high human development countries

The HDI in this Report is constructed to compare country achievements across all levels of
human development. The indicators currently
used in the index yield very small differences
among the top HDI countries, and thus the top
of the HDI ranking often reflects only the very
small differences in these underlying indicators.
For these high-income countries, an alternative
index—the human poverty index (shown in
table 4)—can better reflect the extent of human
deprivation that still exist among the populations and help direct the focus of public policies.
For further discussions on the use and limitations of the HDI and its component indicators, see http://hdr.undp.org/statistics.

hum a n de v e l opme n t re p or t 2005

217

table

1

HDI rank a

Monitoring human development: enlarging people’s choices . . .

Human development index

Human
development
index (HDI)
value

Life
expectancy
at birth
(years)

Adult
literacy rate
(% ages 15
and above)

Combined gross
enrolment ratio
for primary,
secondary and
tertiary schools
(%)

2003

2003

2003 b

2002/03 c

0.963
0.956
0.955
0.949
0.949
0.949
0.947
0.946
0.945
0.944
0.943
0.943
0.941
0.941
0.939
0.938
0.936
0.934
0.933
0.930
0.928
0.916
0.915
0.912
0.907
0.904
0.904
0.901
0.891
0.878
0.874
0.867
0.866
0.863
0.862
0.858
0.854
0.853
0.852
0.849
0.849
0.849
0.846
0.844
0.841
0.840
0.838
0.836
0.834
0.832
0.821

79.4
80.7
80.3
78.5
80.0
80.2
80.5
77.7
78.9
77.4
82.0
78.4
78.5
77.2
78.4
79.5
79.0
80.1
79.1
78.7
79.5
81.6
79.7
78.3
78.7
76.4
77.2
77.0
78.6
75.0
75.6
78.4
76.4
74.5
72.7
74.3
77.9
71.3
72.3
72.8
78.0
74.0
74.3
76.9
75.0
75.4
78.2
71.6
70.0 j, m, r
69.7
72.7 j, m

.. e
.. e
.. e
.. e
.. e
.. e
.. e
.. e
.. e
.. e
.. e
.. e
.. e
.. e
.. e
.. e
.. e
98.5 e, k, l
.. e
.. e
97.7 e, k, l
93.5 k, l
96.9
91.0 e
92.5
99.7 e, k
92.5 e, k, l
97.9 e, k, l
96.8
99.7 e, k
.. e
87.9 n
92.7
97.2
99.3
99.7 e, k, l
95.7
99.8
99.6
89.2 n
77.3 k
99.6
87.7
82.9 k
98.1
97.7 k
95.8 k
99.7
97.8 j, m, r
95.5 k, l
91.9

0.817
0.814

77.3
75.1

96.9 k
90.3

2003

Life
expectancy
index

Education
index

GDP index

GDP per
capita
(PPP US$)
rank minus
HDI rank d

101 f
96
116 f
88 g
94 i, j
114 f
90
93
114 f
93
84
99
108 f
102 f
123 f, i
92
89
87
106 f
89
94
74
91
92
87 m
95
94
93
78
89 j
80
79
74
95
89
90
81
92
94
82
74 i
75
81
74 i
75
88 i
68
90
89 i
77
85

37,670
31,243
29,632
62,298 h
30,677
26,750
30,552
37,738
28,335
37,562
27,967
29,371
27,619
31,465
27,147
27,677
30,094
27,119
22,582
27,756
22,391
27,179
20,033
19,954
24,481
19,150
18,126
17,971
18,776 j
15,720
16,357
17,633
19,210 j, o
12,106
14,584
11,379
10,274
13,539
11,702
19,844 j, p
22,420 j, q
13,494
17,479 j
18,047 q
11,080
8,280
9,606 q
10,270
12,404
17,159 j
10,232 j, p

0.91
0.93
0.92
0.89
0.92
0.92
0.93
0.88
0.90
0.87
0.95
0.89
0.89
0.87
0.89
0.91
0.90
0.92
0.90
0.90
0.91
0.94
0.91
0.89
0.89
0.86
0.87
0.87
0.89
0.83
0.84
0.89
0.86
0.82
0.80
0.82
0.88
0.77
0.79
0.80
0.88
0.82
0.82
0.87
0.83
0.84
0.89
0.78
0.75
0.75
0.80

0.99
0.98
0.99
0.95
0.97
0.99
0.96
0.97
0.99
0.97
0.94
0.99
0.99
0.99
0.99
0.97
0.96
0.95
0.99
0.96
0.97
0.87
0.95
0.97
0.91
0.98
0.97
0.97
0.91
0.96
0.93
0.85
0.86
0.96
0.96
0.96
0.91
0.97
0.97
0.87
0.76
0.91
0.86
0.80
0.90
0.94
0.87
0.96
0.95
0.89
0.89

0.99
0.96
0.95
1.00
0.96
0.93
0.96
0.99
0.94
0.99
0.94
0.95
0.94
0.96
0.94
0.94
0.95
0.94
0.90
0.94
0.90
0.94
0.88
0.88
0.92
0.88
0.87
0.87
0.87
0.84
0.85
0.86
0.88
0.80
0.83
0.79
0.77
0.82
0.79
0.88
0.90
0.82
0.86
0.87
0.79
0.74
0.76
0.77
0.80
0.86
0.77

2
4
7
–3
2
14
1
–6
3
–6
2
–1
3
–9
3
–1
–8
1
3
–6
3
–5
2
2
–4
4
5
6
2
9
7
3
–4
12
5
12
17
4
8
–13
–18
1
–7
–11
5
16
10
7
–4
–13
5

80
75

.. s
9,168

0.87
0.83

0.91
0.85

0.67
0.75

40
7

GDP per
capita
(PPP US$)

High human development
Norway
Iceland
Australia
Luxembourg
Canada
Sweden
Switzerland
Ireland
Belgium
United States
Japan
Netherlands
Finland
Denmark
United Kingdom
France
Austria
Italy
New Zealand
Germany
Spain
Hong Kong, China (SAR)
Israel
Greece
Singapore
Slovenia
Portugal
Korea, Rep. of
Cyprus
Barbados
Czech Republic
Malta
Brunei Darussalam
Argentina
Hungary
Poland
Chile
Estonia
Lithuania
Qatar
United Arab Emirates
Slovakia
Bahrain
Kuwait
Croatia
Uruguay
Costa Rica
Latvia
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Bahamas
Seychelles

52 Cuba
53 Mexico

hum a n de v e l opme n t re p or t 2005

Human development indicators

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51

219

Human development indicators

table

1

220

Human development index

Human
development
index (HDI)
value

Life
expectancy
at birth
(years)

Adult
literacy rate
(% ages 15
and above)

Combined gross
enrolment ratio
for primary,
secondary and
tertiary schools
(%)

HDI rank a

2003

2003

2003 b

2002/03 c

54 Tonga
55 Bulgaria
56 Panama
57 Trinidad and Tobago
Medium human development

0.810
0.808
0.804
0.801

72.2
72.2
74.8
69.9

98.9 n
98.2
91.9
98.5 k

58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104

0.799
0.797
0.797
0.796
0.795
0.792
0.792
0.791
0.787
0.786
0.786
0.785
0.783
0.781
0.780
0.778
0.776
0.772
0.772
0.772
0.766
0.762
0.761
0.759
0.759
0.759
0.758
0.755
0.755
0.755
0.755
0.753
0.753
0.753
0.752
0.751
0.750
0.749
0.745
0.738
0.738
0.736
0.732
0.729
0.729
0.722
0.722

73.6
73.8
73.9 j, m, r
73.2
65.3
70.5
71.3
72.2
65.3 j, u
68.1
74.2
72.4
75.6 j, u
74.1
73.8
70.0
70.2
72.9
72.4
71.8
66.1
70.0
63.2
72.0
74.3
71.5
70.4
71.6
69.1
71.1
71.0
73.3
71.3
71.9
67.8
74.0
68.7
67.2
66.6
62.4
70.8
70.4
70.5
66.9
72.5
71.1
70.9

0.721
0.721

70.4
73.3

Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
Macedonia, TFYR
Antigua and Barbuda
Malaysia
Russian Federation
Brazil
Romania
Mauritius
Grenada
Belarus
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Colombia
Dominica
Oman
Albania
Thailand
Samoa (Western)
Venezuela
Saint Lucia
Saudi Arabia
Ukraine
Peru
Kazakhstan
Lebanon
Ecuador
Armenia
Philippines
China
Suriname
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Paraguay
Tunisia
Jordan
Belize
Fiji
Sri Lanka
Turkey
Dominican Republic
Maldives
Turkmenistan
Jamaica
Iran, Islamic Rep. of
Georgia
Azerbaijan
Occupied Palestinian Territories
Algeria
El Salvador

105 Cape Verde
106 Syrian Arab Republic

human de velopmen t repor t 2005

81.7 k
96.1
85.8 j, u
88.7
99.4
88.4
97.3
84.3
96.0 j, u
99.6 e, n
94.6
94.2
88.0 j, u
74.4 k
98.7
92.6
98.7 k
93.0
90.1
79.4
99.4
87.7
99.5 e, n
86.5 k, l
91.0
99.4
92.6
90.9
88.0
88.1 j, u
91.6
74.3
89.9
76.9
92.9 n
90.4 z
88.3
87.7
97.2 k
98.8 n
87.6 k
77.0
100.0 e, z, aa
98.8 n
91.9
69.8
79.7 k
75.7 k
82.9

2003

Life
expectancy
index

Education
index

GDP index

GDP per
capita
(PPP US$)
rank minus
HDI rank d

83 i
78
79
66 i

6,992 q
7,731
6,854
10,766

0.79
0.79
0.83
0.75

0.93
0.91
0.88
0.88

0.71
0.73
0.71
0.78

17
10
17
–6

96 i
70
69 j, m, r
71
90
91
72
71 i
96
88
67 v
71
75
63 i
69
73 i
71 i
75 i
75 i
57 i
86
87 i
85
79 i
.. w
72
82
69
73 i
67
73 i
74
78
77 i
73 i, j
69 i
68 i
76 i
75 i
.. w
74 i
69 i
71
69
80 i
74 i
68

.. j, t
6,794
10,294
9,512
9,230
7,790
7,277
11,287
7,959
6,052
5,967
6,702 q
5,448
13,584 j
4,584
7,595
5,854 q
4,919
5,709
13,226 q
5,491
5,260
6,671
5,074
3,641
3,671
4,321
5,003 x
.. y
6,123
4,684 q
7,161
4,320
6,950
5,880
3,778
6,772
6,823 q
.. j, y
5,938
4,104
6,995
2,588
3,617
.. ab
6,107 q
4,781 q

0.81
0.81
0.82
0.80
0.67
0.76
0.77
0.79
0.67
0.72
0.82
0.79
0.84
0.82
0.81
0.75
0.75
0.80
0.79
0.78
0.69
0.75
0.64
0.78
0.82
0.77
0.76
0.78
0.74
0.77
0.77
0.80
0.77
0.78
0.71
0.82
0.73
0.70
0.69
0.62
0.76
0.76
0.76
0.70
0.79
0.77
0.76

0.86
0.87
0.80
0.83
0.96
0.89
0.89
0.80
0.96
0.95
0.86
0.86
0.84
0.71
0.89
0.86
0.89
0.87
0.85
0.72
0.95
0.88
0.94
0.84
0.86
0.90
0.89
0.84
0.83
0.81
0.86
0.74
0.86
0.77
0.86
0.83
0.82
0.84
0.90
0.91
0.83
0.74
0.90
0.89
0.88
0.71
0.76

0.72
0.70
0.77
0.76
0.76
0.73
0.72
0.79
0.73
0.68
0.68
0.70
0.67
0.82
0.64
0.72
0.68
0.65
0.68
0.82
0.67
0.66
0.70
0.66
0.60
0.60
0.63
0.65
0.70
0.69
0.64
0.71
0.63
0.71
0.68
0.61
0.70
0.70
0.65
0.68
0.62
0.71
0.54
0.60
0.52
0.69
0.65

9
16
–7
–3
–3
1
4
–16
–3
17
17
8
21
–30
30
–7
14
22
13
–33
12
14
–2
14
30
28
19
11
–7
–5
13
–20
14
–19
–5
17
–18
–21
2
–11
9
–29
21
12
26
–20
–5

5,214 q
3,576

0.76
0.81

0.75
0.76

0.66
0.60

–11
8

73
62 i

GDP per
capita
(PPP US$)

table

1

Life
expectancy
at birth
(years)

Adult
literacy rate
(% ages 15
and above)

HDI rank a

2003

2003

2003 b

2002/03 c

107 Guyana
108 Viet Nam
109 Kyrgyzstan
110 Indonesia
111 Uzbekistan
112 Nicaragua
113 Bolivia
114 Mongolia
115 Moldova, Rep. of
116 Honduras
117 Guatemala
118 Vanuatu
119 Egypt
120 South Africa
121 Equatorial Guinea
122 Tajikistan
123 Gabon
124 Morocco
125 Namibia
126 São Tomé and Principe
127 India
128 Solomon Islands
129 Myanmar
130 Cambodia
131 Botswana
132 Comoros
133 Lao People’s Dem. Rep.
134 Bhutan
135 Pakistan
136 Nepal
137 Papua New Guinea
138 Ghana
139 Bangladesh
140 Timor-Leste
141 Sudan
142 Congo
143 Togo
144 Uganda
145 Zimbabwe
Low human development

0.720
0.704
0.702
0.697
0.694
0.690
0.687
0.679
0.671
0.667
0.663
0.659
0.659
0.658
0.655
0.652
0.635
0.631
0.627
0.604
0.602
0.594
0.578
0.571
0.565
0.547
0.545
0.536
0.527
0.526
0.523
0.520
0.520
0.513
0.512
0.512
0.512
0.508
0.505

63.1
70.5
66.8
66.8
66.5
69.7
64.1
64.0
67.7
67.8
67.3
68.6
69.8
48.4
43.3
63.6
54.5
69.7
48.3
63.0
63.3
62.3
60.2
56.2
36.3
63.2
54.7
62.9
63.0
61.6
55.3
56.8
62.8
55.5
56.4
52.0
54.3
47.3
36.9

96.5 j, u
90.3 n
98.7 n
87.9 k
99.3 e, k
76.7
86.5
97.8
96.2
80.0
69.1
74.0 n
55.6 n
82.4 n
84.2
99.5
71.0 aa
50.7 k
85.0
83.1 j, m
61.0 z
76.6 j, m
89.7
73.6
78.9 k
56.2 k
68.7
47.0 aa
48.7
48.6
57.3
54.1
41.1 k
58.6 m
59.0 z
82.8 k
53.0
68.9 k
90.0 k

77 i
64 i
82
66
76
69
87 i
74
62
62 j
61
58
74 i
78 i
65 i
76
74 i, j
58
71 i
62 i, j
60
52
48 i
59
70 i
47 i
61
.. w
35
61
41 i
46 i
53
75 j, m
38 i
47
66
74 i
55 i

146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157

0.499
0.498
0.497
0.497
0.495
0.489
0.477
0.475
0.474
0.470
0.466
0.458

55.4
32.5
45.8
36.3
52.8
60.6
52.7
51.6
47.2
55.7
53.7
55.7

70.6
79.2
67.9
81.4
65.5 k, l
49.0 k
51.2
51.9 k
73.6
37.8 k, l
41.0 aa
39.3

0.453
0.450

43.4
43.9

66.8 k
64.0

Madagascar
Swaziland
Cameroon
Lesotho
Djibouti
Yemen
Mauritania
Haiti
Kenya
Gambia
Guinea
Senegal

158 Nigeria
159 Rwanda

Life
expectancy
index

Education
index

GDP index

GDP per
capita
(PPP US$)
rank minus
HDI rank d

4,230 q
2,490
1,751
3,361
1,744
3,262 q
2,587
1,850
1,510
2,665 q
4,148 q
2,944 q
3,950
10,346 q
19,780 j, q
1,106
6,397
4,004
6,180 q
1,231 j, p
2,892 q
1,753 q
.. j, t
2,078 q
8,714
1,714 q
1,759
1,969 j, p
2,097
1,420
2,619 q
2,238 q
1,770
.. ac
1,910 q
965
1,696 q
1,457 q
2,443 j

0.63
0.76
0.70
0.70
0.69
0.75
0.65
0.65
0.71
0.71
0.70
0.73
0.75
0.39
0.30
0.64
0.49
0.75
0.39
0.63
0.64
0.62
0.59
0.52
0.19
0.64
0.49
0.63
0.63
0.61
0.50
0.53
0.63
0.51
0.52
0.45
0.49
0.37
0.20

0.90
0.82
0.93
0.81
0.91
0.74
0.87
0.90
0.85
0.74
0.66
0.69
0.62
0.81
0.78
0.91
0.72
0.53
0.80
0.76
0.61
0.68
0.76
0.69
0.76
0.53
0.66
0.48
0.44
0.53
0.52
0.51
0.45
0.64
0.52
0.71
0.57
0.71
0.78

0.63
0.54
0.48
0.59
0.48
0.58
0.54
0.49
0.45
0.55
0.62
0.56
0.61
0.77
0.88
0.40
0.69
0.62
0.69
0.42
0.56
0.48
0.39
0.51
0.75
0.47
0.48
0.50
0.51
0.44
0.55
0.52
0.48
0.39
0.49
0.38
0.47
0.45
0.53

–2
16
33
5
32
4
9
23
33
3
–11
–1
–10
–68
–93
36
–43
–16
–44
27
–9
13
34
3
–70
13
7
0
–5
15
–17
–11
–1
22
–6
23
3
6
–20

51
60 i
55 i
66 i
24 i
55 i
45 i
.. w
52 i
48 i
41 i
40 i

809
4,726
2,118
2,561 q
2,086 q
889
1,766 q
1,742 q
1,037
1,859 q
2,097
1,648

0.51
0.12
0.35
0.19
0.46
0.59
0.46
0.44
0.37
0.51
0.48
0.51

0.64
0.73
0.64
0.76
0.52
0.51
0.49
0.50
0.66
0.41
0.41
0.39

0.35
0.64
0.51
0.54
0.51
0.36
0.48
0.48
0.39
0.49
0.51
0.47

24
–47
–19
–26
–18
15
–13
–9
7
–19
–26
–10

64 i
55

1,050
1,268 q

0.31
0.31

0.66
0.61

0.39
0.42

2
–7

GDP per
capita
(PPP US$)
2003

hum a n de v e l opme n t re p or t 2005

Human development indicators

Human
development
index (HDI)
value

Combined gross
enrolment ratio
for primary,
secondary and
tertiary schools
(%)

221

table

1

Human
development
index (HDI)
value

Life
expectancy
at birth
(years)

Adult
literacy rate
(% ages 15
and above)

Combined gross
enrolment ratio
for primary,
secondary and
tertiary schools
(%)

HDI rank a

2003

2003

2003 b

2002/03 c

160 Angola
161 Eritrea
162 Benin
163 Côte d’Ivoire
164 Tanzania, U. Rep. of
165 Malawi
166 Zambia
167 Congo, Dem. Rep. of the
168 Mozambique
169 Burundi
170 Ethiopia
171 Central African Republic
172 Guinea-Bissau
173 Chad
174 Mali
175 Burkina Faso
176 Sierra Leone
177 Niger
Developing countries
Least developed countries
Arab States
East Asia and the Pacific
Latin America and the Caribbean
South Asia
Sub-Saharan Africa
Central and Eastern Europe and the CIS
OECD
High-income OECD
High human development
Medium human development
Low human development
High income
Middle income
Low income
World

0.445
0.444
0.431
0.420
0.418
0.404
0.394
0.385
0.379
0.378
0.367
0.355
0.348
0.341
0.333
0.317
0.298
0.281
0.694
0.518
0.679
0.768
0.797
0.628
0.515
0.802
0.892
0.911
0.895
0.718
0.486
0.910
0.774
0.593
0.741

40.8
53.8
54.0
45.9
46.0
39.7
37.5
43.1
41.9
43.6
47.6
39.3
44.7
43.6
47.9
47.5
40.8
44.4
65.0
52.2
67.0
70.5
71.9
63.4
46.1
68.1
77.7
78.9
78.0
67.2
46.0
78.8
70.3
58.4
67.1

66.8
56.7 k, l
33.6
48.1
69.4
64.1 n
67.9 n
65.3
46.5 k
58.9
41.5 k
48.6
39.6 k, l
25.5
19.0 n
12.8 n
29.6
14.4
76.6
54.2
64.1
90.4
89.6
58.9
61.3
99.2
..
..
..
79.4
57.5
..
89.6
60.8
..

a

Human development indicators

b

222

Human development index

c

d

e

Notes
Aggregates in column 7 are based on aggregates
of gross enrolment data calculated by the United
Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural
Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics and
literacy data as used to calculate the HDI.
The HDI rank is detemined using HDI values to the
fifth decimal point.
Data refer to national literacy estimates from
censuses or surveys conducted between 2000 and
2004, unless otherwise noted. Due to differences
in methodology and timeliness of underlying data,
comparisons across countries and over time
should be made with caution. For more details,
see www.uis.unesco.org/ev.php?ID=4930_
201&ID2=DO_TOPIC.
Data refer to the school year 2002/03, unless
otherwise noted. Data for some countries may
refer to national or UNESCO Institute for Statistics
estimates.
A positive figure indicates that the HDI rank is
higher than the GDP per capita (PPP US$) rank, a
negative the opposite.
For purposes of calculating the HDI, a value of
99.0% was applied.

f For purposes of calculating the HDI, a value of
100% was applied.
g Statec 2005. Data refer to nationals enrolled both
in the country and abroad and thus differ from the
standard definition.
h For purposes of calculating the HDI, a value of
$40,000 (PPP US$) was applied.
i Preliminary UNESCO Institute for Statistics
estimate, subject to further revision.
j Data refer to year other than that specified.
k Estimate produced by UNESCO Institute for
Statistics in July 2002.
l UNESCO Institute for Statistics 2003a. Estimates
are based on outdated census or household
survey information and should be interpreted with
caution.
m Data are from national sources.
n Data refer to a year between 1995 and 1999.
o World Bank 2003c.
p Aten, Heston and Summers 2002. Data differ from
the standard definition.
q Estimate based on regression.
r Data are from the Secretariat of the Organization
of Eastern Caribbean States, based on national
sources.

human de velopmen t repor t 2005

30 i, j
35 i
55 i
42 i, j
41 i
72 i
48 i
28 i, j
43 i
35 i
36 i
31
37 i, j
38 i
32 i
24 i
45 j
21 i
63
45
62
69
81
56
50
83
89
95
91
66
46
94
73
54
67

2003

Life
expectancy
index

Education
index

GDP index

GDP per
capita
(PPP US$)
rank minus
HDI rank d

2,344 q
849 q
1,115
1,476
621
605
877
697
1,117 q
648 q
711 q
1,089 q
711 q
1,210 q
994
1,174 q
548
835 q
4,359
1,328
5,685
5,100
7,404
2,897
1,856
7,939
25,915
30,181
25,665
4,474
1,046
29,898
6,104
2,168
8,229

0.26
0.48
0.48
0.35
0.35
0.24
0.21
0.30
0.28
0.31
0.38
0.24
0.33
0.31
0.38
0.38
0.26
0.32
0.67
0.45
0.70
0.76
0.78
0.64
0.35
0.72
0.88
0.90
0.88
0.70
0.35
0.90
0.75
0.56
0.70

0.54
0.49
0.41
0.46
0.60
0.67
0.61
0.53
0.45
0.51
0.40
0.43
0.39
0.30
0.23
0.16
0.35
0.17
0.72
0.50
0.61
0.83
0.87
0.58
0.56
0.94
0.95
0.98
0.96
0.75
0.53
0.97
0.84
0.58
0.77

0.53
0.36
0.40
0.45
0.30
0.30
0.36
0.32
0.40
0.31
0.33
0.40
0.33
0.42
0.38
0.41
0.28
0.35
0.70
0.60
0.72
0.71
0.74
0.67
0.63
0.75
0.85
0.86
0.85
0.70
0.58
0.86
0.73
0.64
0.75

–34
7
–5
–14
11
11
1
6
–12
5
1
–12
–1
–19
–10
–20
1
–8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

GDP per
capita
(PPP US$)

s Efforts to produce a more accurate and recent
estimate are ongoing (see Note to table 1: About
this year’s human development index). A preliminary
estimate of $5,400 (PPP US$) was used.
t Aten, Heston and Summers 2001. Data differ from
the standard definition.
u Data are from the Secretariat of the Caribbean
Community, based on national sources.
v UNDP 2003.
w Because the combined gross enrolment ratio was
unavailable, the following Human Development
Report Office estimates were used: Bhutan 49%,
Ecuador 75%, Haiti 48%, and Turkmenistan 75%.
x Estimate based on a bilateral comparison between
China and the United States (Ren and Kai 1995).
y In the absence of an official estimate of GDP
per capita (PPP US$), preliminary World Bank
estimates, subject to further revision, were used as
follows: Maldives $4,798; and Suriname $6,552.
z Data refer to a year or period other than that
specified, differ from the standard definition or
refer to only part of a country.
aa UNICEF 2004.
ab In the absence of an estimate of GDP per capita
(PPP US$), the Human Development Report Office

estimate of $2,302, derived using the value of
GDP in US dollars and the weighted average ratio
of PPP US dollars to US dollars in the Arab States,
was used.
ac A national estimate of $1,033 (PPP US$) was used.
ad Estimates are based primarily on information for
Northern Sudan.
Sources
Column 1: calculated on the basis of data in columns
6–8; see Technical note 1 for details.
Column 2: UN 2005c, unless otherwise noted.
Columns 3 and 4: UNESCO Institute for Statistics
2005c, unless otherwise noted.
Column 5: World Bank 2005c, unless otherwise
noted; aggregates calculated for the Human
Development Report Office by the World Bank.
Column 6: calculated on the basis of data in column 2.
Column 7: calculated on the basis of data in columns
3 and 4.
Column 8: calculated on the basis of data in column 5.
Column 9: calculated on the basis of data in columns
1 and 5.

table

2

HDI rank

Monitoring human development: enlarging people’s choices . . .

Human development index trends

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2003

0.868
0.863
0.848
0.840
0.869
0.864
0.879
0.811
0.846
0.867
0.857
0.867
0.841
0.874
0.845
0.853
0.843
0.842
0.848
..
0.837
0.761
0.795
0.835
0.725
..
0.787
0.707
..
0.805
..
0.727
..
0.784
0.779
..
0.704
..
..
..
0.734
..
..
0.763
..
0.759
0.746
..
..
..
..

0.888
0.886
0.866
0.851
0.886
0.874
0.890
0.826
0.863
0.887
0.882
0.879
0.861
0.882
0.854
0.869
0.858
0.858
0.854
0.861
0.854
0.800
0.819
0.850
0.761
..
0.802
0.741
0.793
0.828
..
0.764
..
0.799
0.795
..
0.739
..
..
..
0.769
..
0.747
0.777
..
0.780
0.772
0.792
..
0.809
..

0.898
0.896
0.879
0.858
0.909
0.886
0.896
0.845
0.878
0.901
0.895
0.893
0.879
0.890
0.863
0.881
0.871
0.866
0.868
0.869
0.868
0.827
0.840
0.864
0.784
..
0.826
0.780
0.813
0.839
..
0.791
..
0.808
0.808
..
0.763
..
..
..
0.787
..
0.780
0.780
..
0.787
0.776
0.805
..
0.819
..

0.912
0.915
0.893
0.884
0.929
0.897
0.910
0.870
0.899
0.916
0.911
0.908
0.901
0.898
0.883
0.903
0.894
0.889
0.875
0.888
0.886
0.862
0.858
0.872
0.822
..
0.849
0.818
0.836
0.850
..
0.825
..
0.810
0.807
0.803
0.785
0.814
0.823
..
0.812
..
0.809
..
0.806
0.804
0.792
0.799
..
0.821
..

0.936
0.919
0.933
0.911
0.934
0.929
0.921
0.894
0.929
0.929
0.925
0.928
0.914
0.913
0.921
0.921
0.914
0.907
0.905
0.913
0.904
0.882
0.880
0.876
0.861
0.853
0.878
0.855
0.858
0.852
0.843
0.852
..
0.833
0.812
0.816
0.816
0.795
0.787
..
0.814
..
0.826
0.813
0.799
0.817
0.811
0.765
..
0.810
..

0.956
0.943
0.960
0.929
..
0.958
0.940
0.929
0.949
0.938
0.936
0.939
0.940
0.932
0.948
0.932
0.933
0.921
0.924
0.927
0.918
..
0.909
0.895
..
0.884
0.898
0.884
0.883
0.877
0.857
0.874
..
0.856
0.843
0.845
0.843
0.833
0.828
..
..
..
0.838
0.837
0.826
..
0.832
0.812
..
..
..

0.963
0.956
0.955
0.949
0.949
0.949
0.947
0.946
0.945
0.944
0.943
0.943
0.941
0.941
0.939
0.938
0.936
0.934
0.933
0.930
0.928
0.916
0.915
0.912
0.907
0.904
0.904
0.901
0.891
0.878
0.874
0.867
0.866
0.863
0.862
0.858
0.854
0.853
0.852
0.849
0.849
0.849
0.846
0.844
0.841
0.840
0.838
0.836
0.834
0.832
0.821

..
0.689

..
0.735

..
0.755

..
0.764

..
0.782

..
0.809

0.817
0.814

High human development
Norway
Iceland
Australia
Luxembourg
Canada
Sweden
Switzerland
Ireland
Belgium
United States
Japan
Netherlands
Finland
Denmark
United Kingdom
France
Austria
Italy
New Zealand
Germany
Spain
Hong Kong, China (SAR)
Israel
Greece
Singapore
Slovenia
Portugal
Korea, Rep. of
Cyprus
Barbados
Czech Republic
Malta
Brunei Darussalam
Argentina
Hungary
Poland
Chile
Estonia
Lithuania
Qatar
United Arab Emirates
Slovakia
Bahrain
Kuwait
Croatia
Uruguay
Costa Rica
Latvia
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Bahamas
Seychelles

52 Cuba
53 Mexico

hum a n de v e l opme n t re p or t 2005

Human development indicators

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51

223

table
Human development indicators

224

2

Human development index trends

HDI rank

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2003

54 Tonga
55 Bulgaria
56 Panama
57 Trinidad and Tobago
Medium human development

..
..
0.710
0.749

..
0.769
0.737
0.781

..
0.789
0.747
0.788

..
0.795
0.749
0.792

..
0.784
0.772
0.789

..
0.795
0.794
0.800

0.810
0.808
0.804
0.801

58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104

..
..
..
0.615
..
0.645
..
..
..
..
..
0.662
..
0.494
..
0.614
..
0.718
..
0.603
..
0.643
..
..
0.630
..
0.654
0.525
..
..
0.668
0.514
..
..
0.663
0.607
0.587
0.619
..
..
0.688
0.566
..
..
..
0.506
0.592

..
..
..
0.659
..
0.682
..
0.659
..
..
..
0.691
..
0.547
..
0.652
..
0.732
..
0.659
..
0.674
..
..
0.674
..
0.687
0.558
..
..
0.702
0.570
0.641
0.707
0.686
0.649
0.610
0.650
..
..
0.696
0.570
..
..
..
0.558
0.588

..
..
..
0.695
..
0.698
..
0.690
..
..
..
0.708
..
0.641
0.693
0.678
0.723
0.740
..
0.673
..
0.698
..
..
0.698
..
0.693
0.594
..
..
0.709
0.622
0.664
0.717
0.702
0.681
0.646
0.672
..
..
0.699
0.610
..
..
..
0.610
0.609

..
..
..
0.721
0.817
0.719
0.772
0.724
..
0.787
..
0.727
..
0.699
0.703
0.714
0.732
0.759
..
0.708
0.799
0.707
0.767
0.677
0.715
0.737
0.720
0.627
..
..
0.720
0.657
0.683
0.747
0.724
0.705
0.678
0.679
..
..
0.719
0.650
..
..
..
0.649
0.650

..
..
..
0.760
0.770
0.747
0.768
0.747
..
0.751
..
0.752
..
0.738
0.702
0.749
0.742
0.767
..
0.741
0.747
0.734
0.721
0.727
0.730
0.698
0.736
0.683
..
..
0.739
0.698
0.708
0.768
0.741
0.727
0.709
0.700
..
..
0.723
0.694
..
..
..
0.671
0.689

..
..
..
0.790
..
0.783
0.773
0.776
..
0.774
..
0.773
..
0.769
0.736
..
0.763
0.772
..
0.762
0.754
..
0.731
0.742
..
0.735
..
..
..
..
0.753
0.738
0.742
0.779
..
..
..
0.732
..
..
0.730
0.721
..
..
..
..
0.715

0.799
0.797
0.797
0.796
0.795
0.792
0.792
0.791
0.787
0.786
0.786
0.785
0.783
0.781
0.780
0.778
0.776
0.772
0.772
0.772
0.766
0.762
0.761
0.759
0.759
0.759
0.758
0.755
0.755
0.755
0.755
0.753
0.753
0.753
0.752
0.751
0.750
0.749
0.745
0.738
0.738
0.736
0.732
0.729
0.729
0.722
0.722

..
0.540

..
0.587

..
0.623

0.625
0.646

0.677
0.672

..
0.692

0.721
0.721

Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
Macedonia, TFYR
Antigua and Barbuda
Malaysia
Russian Federation
Brazil
Romania
Mauritius
Grenada
Belarus
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Colombia
Dominica
Oman
Albania
Thailand
Samoa (Western)
Venezuela
Saint Lucia
Saudi Arabia
Ukraine
Peru
Kazakhstan
Lebanon
Ecuador
Armenia
Philippines
China
Suriname
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Paraguay
Tunisia
Jordan
Belize
Fiji
Sri Lanka
Turkey
Dominican Republic
Maldives
Turkmenistan
Jamaica
Iran, Islamic Rep. of
Georgia
Azerbaijan
Occupied Palestinian Territories
Algeria
El Salvador

105 Cape Verde
106 Syrian Arab Republic

human de velopmen t repor t 2005

table

2

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2003

107 Guyana
108 Viet Nam
109 Kyrgyzstan
110 Indonesia
111 Uzbekistan
112 Nicaragua
113 Bolivia
114 Mongolia
115 Moldova, Rep. of
116 Honduras
117 Guatemala
118 Vanuatu
119 Egypt
120 South Africa
121 Equatorial Guinea
122 Tajikistan
123 Gabon
124 Morocco
125 Namibia
126 São Tomé and Principe
127 India
128 Solomon Islands
129 Myanmar
130 Cambodia
131 Botswana
132 Comoros
133 Lao People’s Dem. Rep.
134 Bhutan
135 Pakistan
136 Nepal
137 Papua New Guinea
138 Ghana
139 Bangladesh
140 Timor-Leste
141 Sudan
142 Congo
143 Togo
144 Uganda
145 Zimbabwe
Low human development

0.678
..
..
0.468
..
0.587
0.512
..
..
0.518
0.512
..
0.439
0.655
..
..
..
0.429
..
..
0.412
..
..
..
0.503
..
..
..
0.363
0.296
0.425
0.439
0.345
..
0.349
0.452
0.423
..
0.546

0.684
..
..
0.530
..
0.596
0.549
..
..
0.569
0.546
..
0.487
0.674
..
..
..
0.478
..
..
0.438
..
..
..
0.577
0.480
..
..
0.386
0.333
0.445
0.468
0.364
..
0.376
0.499
0.475
..
0.574

0.677
..
..
0.583
..
0.604
0.580
0.668
..
0.601
0.562
..
0.540
0.702
0.483
0.699
..
0.515
..
..
0.476
..
..
..
0.638
0.498
0.423
..
0.419
0.376
0.467
0.482
0.389
..
0.396
0.540
0.474
0.412
0.640

0.683
0.617
..
0.625
..
0.610
0.604
0.673
0.739
0.623
0.586
..
0.579
0.735
0.500
0.696
..
0.548
..
..
0.513
..
..
..
0.681
0.504
0.450
..
0.462
0.423
0.481
0.511
0.419
..
0.428
0.526
0.500
0.409
0.637

0.685
0.660
..
0.663
0.679
0.641
0.636
0.633
0.682
0.640
0.617
..
0.611
0.742
0.518
0.629
..
0.579
0.693
..
0.546
..
..
0.533
0.659
0.517
0.487
..
0.492
0.466
0.515
0.531
0.452
..
0.465
0.531
0.510
0.412
0.589

0.714
0.695
..
0.680
..
0.659
0.672
0.657
0.665
..
0.650
..
..
0.696
0.641
0.630
..
0.610
0.649
..
0.577
..
..
0.541
0.596
0.533
0.522
..
..
0.499
0.529
0.556
0.506
..
0.500
..
0.519
0.474
0.527

0.720
0.704
0.702
0.697
0.694
0.690
0.687
0.679
0.671
0.667
0.663
0.659
0.659
0.658
0.655
0.652
0.635
0.631
0.627
0.604
0.602
0.594
0.578
0.571
0.565
0.547
0.545
0.536
0.527
0.526
0.523
0.520
0.520
0.513
0.512
0.512
0.512
0.508
0.505

146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157

0.400
0.530
0.416
0.461
..
..
0.340
..
0.461
0.284
..
0.311

0.437
0.562
0.463
0.510
..
..
0.363
0.449
0.509
..
..
0.339

0.436
0.584
0.505
0.534
..
..
0.384
0.458
0.530
..
..
0.375

0.446
0.624
0.514
0.571
..
0.393
0.388
0.446
0.546
..
..
0.403

0.458
0.603
0.494
0.573
0.477
0.436
0.424
0.450
0.524
0.424
..
0.421

..
0.534
0.500
0.520
0.487
0.470
0.444
..
0.499
0.457
..
0.444

0.499
0.498
0.497
0.497
0.495
0.489
0.477
0.475
0.474
0.470
0.466
0.458

0.318
0.342

0.376
0.388

0.386
0.401

0.406
0.340

0.418
0.335

..
0.435

0.453
0.450

Madagascar
Swaziland
Cameroon
Lesotho
Djibouti
Yemen
Mauritania
Haiti
Kenya
Gambia
Guinea
Senegal

158 Nigeria
159 Rwanda

hum a n de v e l opme n t re p or t 2005

Human development indicators

HDI rank

225

table

2

Human development index trends

HDI rank

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2003

160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177

..
..
0.304
0.409
..
0.320
0.468
0.414
..
0.285
..
0.343
0.255
0.269
0.230
0.253
..
0.236

..
..
0.336
0.441
..
0.351
0.475
0.423
0.299
0.311
..
0.364
0.262
0.271
0.256
0.273
..
0.252

..
..
0.362
0.448
..
0.362
0.484
0.431
0.287
0.345
0.291
0.386
0.283
0.311
0.263
0.297
..
0.242

..
..
0.368
0.442
0.435
0.371
0.462
0.422
0.311
0.353
0.311
0.383
0.313
0.335
0.283
0.305
..
0.249

..
0.409
0.395
0.427
0.422
0.412
0.424
0.393
0.328
0.324
0.323
0.367
0.341
0.344
0.307
0.311
..
0.256

..
0.428
0.422
0.428
0.416
0.402
0.409
..
0.360
..
0.352
..
0.353
0.359
0.330
0.328
..
0.271

0.445
0.444
0.431
0.420
0.418
0.404
0.394
0.385
0.379
0.378
0.367
0.355
0.348
0.341
0.333
0.317
0.298
0.281

Angola
Eritrea
Benin
Côte d’Ivoire
Tanzania, U. Rep. of
Malawi
Zambia
Congo, Dem. Rep. of the
Mozambique
Burundi
Ethiopia
Central African Republic
Guinea-Bissau
Chad
Mali
Burkina Faso
Sierra Leone
Niger

Sources
Columns 1–6: calculated on the basis of data on life
expectancy from UN 2005c, data on adult literacy
rates from UNESCO Institute for Statistics 2003a,
2005a, data on combined gross enrolment ratios from
UNESCO Institute for Statistics 1999, 2005c, and
data on GDP per capita (2000 PPP US$) and GDP per
capita (PPP US$) from World Bank 2005c.
Column 7: column 1 of indicator table 1.

Human development indicators

Notes
The human development index values in this table
were calculated using a consistent methodology
and data series. They are not strictly comparable
with those in earlier Human Development Reports.
For detailed discussion, see Note to table 1: About
this year’s human development index.

226

human de velopmen t repor t 2005

table

3

Monitoring human development: enlarging people’s choices . . .

Human and income poverty: developing countries

Rank

Value
(%)

..
6
..
..
4
..
..
2
10
..
..
..
1
3
..
..
..
5
13
..
9
15

..
6.3
..
..
4.5
..
..
3.7
7.8
..
..
..
3.6
4.0
..
..
..
4.8
8.4
..
7.7
8.8

1.5
1.8
2.7
2.8
6.3
2.8
5.0
3.5
4.7
2.2
3.8
2.5
4.4
3.7
..
13.4
..
3.2
6.0
5.0
6.8
11.6

6.5 e, f
7.5
2.1 e, f
3.2
0.3 e
7.3
2.8
4.3
10.8
22.7 e
12.3
17.1 e
2.3 e
4.2 e
..
4.5 e, f
8.1
3.1 e
9.7
1.1 i
8.1
1.5 e

..
0g
8
0
0
..
..
5
0
..
..
..
2
3
1
3
13
9
9
0
9
9

..
14 h
..
..
6h
..
5
1
6
14
9
10
5
5
..
..
6h
4
8
..
7
7h

..
..
<2
..
..
..
3.3
<2
..
..
..
..
<2
2.0
..
..
..
..
9.9
..
7.2
12.4

..
..
<2
..
..
..
14.3
9.6
..
..
..
..
3.9
9.5
..
..
..
..
26.3
..
17.6
39.0

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
17.0
..
..
..
..
..
22.0
..
..
..
..
10.1 j
..
37.3
21.0

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
1
..
..
..
..
0
–10
..
..
..
..
–13
..
–10
–14

33
..
16
20
24
..
8
..
46
28
..
14
12
32
26
18
22
35
27
23
..
17
43
11
38
49
42
19

15.3
..
8.9
10.3
11.4
..
7.4
..
21.1
12.8
..
8.8
8.3
14.9
12.0
9.6
10.6
16.3
12.3
10.9
..
9.4
18.3
8.1
16.7
21.3
18.0
9.7

4.2
..
4.3
10.3
5.0
..
8.3
..
3.9
9.9
6.5
8.2
5.9
5.8
10.3
5.7
8.6
7.2
6.9
10.1
6.6
8.1
4.7
6.4
10.6
7.0
4.3
8.9

18.3 e
..
11.3
11.6
15.7
..
5.8
..
25.6 e
7.4
1.3 e
7.0
9.9
20.6
12.3
13.5 e, f
9.0
7.4
9.1
12.0
..
8.4
25.7
10.1
23.1
7.1 i
9.6 h
11.7

28
9
5
11
0
5
8
3
21
15
12
17
2
5g
19
0
14
15
23
8
..
17
18
9
9
53 g
22
7

5
10 h
12
6
15
..
7
5h
24
19 h
..
4
14 h
14
7
3
12
31
10
13
..
5
4
4
6h
8h
29
8

..
..
<2
8.2
..
..
8.2
..
..
<2
..
15.0
..
..
18.1
..
17.7
14.6
16.6
..
..
16.4
<2
<2
..
..
7.6
<2

..
..
9.3
22.4
..
..
22.6
..
..
32.5
..
32.0
..
..
37.7
..
40.8
46.4
46.7
..
..
33.2
6.6
7.4
..
..
50.7
10.3

..
..
15.5 j
17.4
10.6
..
64.0
..
..
13.1
..
31.3 j
..
..
49.0
..
35.0
36.8
4.6
..
..
21.8
7.6
11.7
..
..
25.0
..

..
..
9
–5
..
..
–15
..
..
18
..
–19
..
..
–17
..
–18
–4
–13
..
..
–19
27
5
..
..
10
11

25
37

11.8
16.6

14.1
11.4

12.3
2.8 e

7
16

5
30

<2
..

<2
..

28.6
..

15
..

Human poverty
index (HPI-1)
HDI rank

MDG
Population
without
Children
MDG
Adult
sustainable
under
Population below income poverty line
illiteracy
access to
weight
(%)
rate b, †
an improved
for age †
(% ages 15 water source † (% under
National
and above)
(%)
age 5)
$1 a day
$2 a day
poverty line
2003
2002
1995–2003 c 1990–2003 c 1990–2003 c 1990–2002 c

Probability
at birth
of not
surviving to
age 40 a, †
(% of cohort)
2000–05

HPI-1 rank
minus
income
poverty
rank d

High human development
22 Hong Kong, China (SAR)
25 Singapore
28 Korea, Rep. of
29 Cyprus
30 Barbados
33 Brunei Darussalam
34 Argentina
37 Chile
40 Qatar
41 United Arab Emirates
43 Bahrain
44 Kuwait
46 Uruguay
47 Costa Rica
49 Saint Kitts and Nevis
50 Bahamas
51 Seychelles
52 Cuba
53 Mexico
54 Tonga
56 Panama
57 Trinidad and Tobago
Medium human development
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
Antigua and Barbuda
Malaysia
Brazil
Mauritius
Grenada
Colombia
Dominica
Oman
Thailand
Samoa (Western)
Venezuela
Saint Lucia
Saudi Arabia
Peru
Lebanon
Ecuador
Philippines
China
Suriname
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Paraguay
Tunisia
Jordan
Belize
Fiji
Sri Lanka
Turkey

95 Dominican Republic
96 Maldives

hum a n de v e l opme n t re p or t 2005

Human development indicators

58
60
61
63
65
66
69
70
71
73
74
75
76
77
79
81
82
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94

227

table

3

Human and income poverty: developing countries

Rank

Value
(%)

98 Jamaica
99 Iran, Islamic Rep. of
102 Occupied Palestinian Territories
103 Algeria
104 El Salvador
105 Cape Verde
106 Syrian Arab Republic
107 Guyana
108 Viet Nam
110 Indonesia
112 Nicaragua
113 Bolivia
114 Mongolia
116 Honduras
117 Guatemala
118 Vanuatu
119 Egypt
120 South Africa
121 Equatorial Guinea
123 Gabon
124 Morocco
125 Namibia
126 São Tomé and Principe
127 India
128 Solomon Islands
129 Myanmar
130 Cambodia
131 Botswana
132 Comoros
133 Lao People’s Dem. Rep.
134 Bhutan
135 Pakistan
136 Nepal
137 Papua New Guinea
138 Ghana
139 Bangladesh
140 Timor-Leste
141 Sudan
142 Congo
143 Togo
144 Uganda
145 Zimbabwe
Low human development

21
36
7
48
34
45
29
31
47
41
40
30
44
39
51
52
55
56
71
..
61
60
..
58
..
50
81
94
57
72
..
68
74
78
62
86
..
59
54
76
66
89

10.5
16.4
6.5
21.3
15.9
18.7
13.8
14.8
21.2
17.8
17.7
13.9
18.5
16.9
22.9
24.7
30.9
30.9
38.1
..
34.5
33.0
..
31.3
..
21.9
41.3
48.4
31.2
38.2
..
37.1
38.7
40.5
35.1
44.1
..
32.4
30.1
39.5
36.0
45.9

11.3
7.2
5.3
7.8
9.9
7.6
4.6
18.2
9.4
11.2
10.1
16.0
13.3
15.8
15.9
8.9
7.8
43.3
47.7
32.6
8.6
45.4
17.1
16.6
14.1
21.2
28.3
69.1
15.5
28.0
18.0
16.1
17.6
22.4
27.7
15.9
25.5
27.0
33.6
31.0
41.6
65.9

12.4 e
23.0
8.1
30.2
20.3 e
24.3 e
17.1
1.4 k, l
9.7 i
12.1 e
23.3
13.5
2.2
20.0
30.9
26.0 i
44.4 i
17.6 i
15.8
..
49.3 e
15.0
..
39.0
..
10.3
26.4
21.1 e
43.8 e
31.3
..
51.3
51.4
42.7
45.9
58.9 e
..
41.0 h
17.2 e
47.0
31.1 e
10.0 e

7
7
6
13
18
20
21
17
27
22
19
15
38
10
5
40
2
13
56
13
20
20
21
14
30
20
66
5
6
57
38
10
16
61
21
25
48
31
54
49
44
17

4
11
4
6
10
14 h
7
14
33
26
10
8
13
17
23
20 h
9
12
19
12
9
24
13
47
21 h
35
45
13
25
40
19
38
48
35 h
25
48
43
17
14
25
23
13

<2
<2
..
<2
31.1
..
..
..
..
7.5
45.1
14.4
27.0
20.7
16.0
..
3.1
10.7
..
..
<2
34.9
..
34.7
..
..
34.1
23.5
..
26.3
..
13.4
37.7
..
44.8
36.0
..
..
..
..
..
56.1

13.3
7.3
..
15.1
58.0
..
..
..
..
52.4
79.9
34.3
74.9
44.0
37.4
..
43.9
34.1
..
..
14.3
55.8
..
79.9
..
..
77.7
50.1
..
73.2
..
65.6
82.5
..
78.5
82.8
..
..
..
..
..
83.0

18.7
..
..
12.2
48.3
..
..
35.0
50.9
27.1
47.9
62.7
36.3
53.0
56.2
..
16.7
..
..
..
19.0
..
..
28.6
..
..
36.1
..
..
38.6
..
32.6
42.0
37.5
39.5
49.8
..
..
..
32.3 j
55.0
34.9

13
22
..
29
–23
..
..
..
..
10
–30
–5
–14
–12
2
..
18
12
..
..
35
–12
..
–12
..
..
5
22
..
2
..
18
–5
..
–16
5
..
..
..
..
..
–1

146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154

63
97
67
91
53
77
79
70
64

35.3
52.9
36.2
47.6
29.5
40.3
40.5
38.0
35.4

27.8
74.3
43.9
67.6
30.6
18.8
30.5
34.4
44.8

29.4
20.8
32.1
18.6
34.5 e, f
51.0 e
48.8
48.1 e
26.4

55
48
37
24
20
31
44
29
38

33
10
21
18
18
46
32
17
20

61.0
..
17.1
36.4
..
15.7
25.9
..
22.8

85.1
..
50.6
56.1
..
45.2
63.1
..
58.3

71.3
40.0
40.2
49.2
45.1
41.8
46.3
65.0 j
42.0

–23
..
9
9
..
19
9
..
2

88
..

44.7
..

27.8
30.0

62.2 e, f
..

18
49

17
23

59.3
..

82.9
..

64.0
40.0

–5
..

Human poverty
index (HPI-1)

Human development indicators

HDI rank

228

MDG
Population
without
Children
MDG
Adult
sustainable
under
Population below income poverty line
illiteracy
access to
weight
(%)
rate b, †
an improved
for age †
(% ages 15 water source † (% under
National
and above)
(%)
age 5)
$1 a day
$2 a day
poverty line
2003
2002
1995–2003 c 1990–2003 c 1990–2003 c 1990–2002 c

Probability
at birth
of not
surviving to
age 40 a, †
(% of cohort)
2000–05

Madagascar
Swaziland
Cameroon
Lesotho
Djibouti
Yemen
Mauritania
Haiti
Kenya

155 Gambia
156 Guinea

human de velopmen t repor t 2005

HPI-1 rank
minus
income
poverty
rank d

table
HDI rank

Rank

Value
(%)

Probability
at birth
of not
surviving to
age 40 a, †
(% of cohort)
2000–05

157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177

87
75
69
83
73
95
84
65
85
90
82
96
80
99
92
93
100
101
102
98
103

44.2
38.8
37.7
41.5
38.7
48.4
41.9
35.8
43.4
46.4
41.4
49.1
40.9
55.3
47.8
48.2
58.8
60.3
64.2
54.9
64.4

26.6
46.0
45.5
48.1
27.6
30.0
42.3
44.4
56.3
60.1
45.4
50.9
46.3
39.5
56.2
42.9
45.2
37.3
38.9
47.0
41.4

Human poverty
index (HPI-1)

Senegal
Nigeria
Rwanda
Angola
Eritrea
Benin
Côte d’Ivoire
Tanzania, U. Rep. of
Malawi
Zambia
Congo, Dem. Rep. of the
Mozambique
Burundi
Ethiopia
Central African Republic
Guinea-Bissau
Chad
Mali
Burkina Faso
Sierra Leone
Niger

notes
† Denotes indicators used to calculate the human
poverty index (HPI-1). For further details, see
Technical note 1.
a Data refer to the probability at birth of not surviving
to age 40, multiplied by 100.
b Data refer to national literacy estimates from
censuses or surveys conducted between 2000 and
2004, unless otherwise noted. Due to differences
in methodology and timeliness of underlying data,
comparisons across countries and over time should
be made with caution. For more details, see www.
uis.unesco.org/ev.php?ID=4930_201&ID2=DO_
TOPIC.

MDG
Population
without
Children
MDG
Adult
sustainable
under
Population below income poverty line
illiteracy
access to
weight
(%)
rate b, †
an improved
for age †
(% ages 15 water source † (% under
National
and above)
(%)
age 5)
$1 a day
$2 a day
poverty line
2003
2002
1995–2003 c 1990–2003 c 1990–2003 c 1990–2002 c
60.7
33.2 e
36.0
33.2
43.3 e, f
66.4
51.9
30.6
35.9 i
32.1 i
34.7
53.5 e
41.1
58.5 e
51.4
60.4 e, f
74.5
81.0 i
87.2 i
70.4
85.6

c Data refer to the most recent year available during
the period specified.
d Income poverty refers to the share of the population
living on less than $1 a day. All countries with an
income poverty rate of less than 2% were given
equal rank. The rankings are based on countries
for which data are available for both indicators. A
positive figure indicates that the country performs
better in income poverty than in human poverty, a
negative the opposite.
e Estimate produced by the United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
Institute for Statistics in July 2002.

28
40
27
50
43
32
16
27
33
45
54
58
21
78
25
41
66
52
49
43
54

23
29
27
31
40
23
21
29
22
28
31
24
45
47
24
25
28
33
34
27
40

26.3
70.2
51.7
..
..
..
10.8
19.9
41.7
63.7
..
37.9
58.4
26.3
66.6
..
..
72.3
44.9
57.0
61.4

f UNESCO Institute for Statistics 2003a. Estimates
are based on outdated census or household survey
information and should be interpreted with caution.
g UNICEF 2004. Data refer to 2000.
h UNICEF 2004. Data refer to a year or period
other than that specified, differ from the standard
definition or refer to only part of a country.
i Data refer to a year between 1995 and 1999.
j Data refer to a period other than that specified.
k Data refer to year other than that specified.
l Data are from the Secretariat of the Caribbean
Community, based on national sources.

67.8
90.8
83.7
..
..
..
38.4
59.7
76.1
87.4
..
78.4
89.2
80.7
84.0
..
..
90.6
81.0
74.5
85.3

3

HPI-1 rank
minus
income
poverty
rank d

33.4
34.1
51.2
..
53.0
33.0
36.8
35.7
65.3
72.9
..
69.4
..
44.2
..
48.7
64.0
63.8
45.3
68.0
63.0 j

14
–19
–13
..
..
..
29
5
0
–6
..
10
–10
23
–5
..
..
–2
11
4
4

Sources
Column 1: determined on the basis of the HPI-1
values in column 2.
Column 2: calculated on the basis of data in columns
3–6; see Technical note 1 for details.
Column 3: UN 2005h.
Column 4: calculated on the basis of data on adult
literacy from UNESCO Institute for Statistics 2005a.
Columns 5 and 6: UN 2005f.
Columns 7–9: World Bank 2005c.
Column 10: calculated on the basis of data in
columns 1 and 7.

HPI-1 ranks for 103 developing countries and areas






1
2
3
4
5
6
7

21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41

Jamaica
Ecuador
Suriname
Mauritius
Dominican Republic
Peru
China
Thailand
Syrian Arab Republic
Bolivia
Guyana
Saudi Arabia
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
El Salvador
Philippines
Iran, Islamic Rep. of
Maldives
Belize
Honduras
Nicaragua
Indonesia

42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62

Sri Lanka
Tunisia
Mongolia
Cape Verde
Oman
Viet Nam
Algeria
Fiji
Myanmar
Guatemala
Vanuatu
Djibouti
Congo
Egypt
South Africa
Comoros
India
Sudan
Namibia
Morocco
Ghana

63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83

Madagascar
Kenya
Tanzania, U. Rep. of
Uganda
Cameroon
Pakistan
Rwanda
Haiti
Equatorial Guinea
Lao People’s Dem. Rep.
Eritrea
Nepal
Nigeria
Togo
Yemen
Papua New Guinea
Mauritania
Burundi
Cambodia
Congo, Dem. Rep. of the
Angola

84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103

Côte d’Ivoire
Malawi
Bangladesh
Senegal
Gambia
Zimbabwe
Zambia
Lesotho 
Central African
Republic
Guinea-Bissau
Botswana
Benin
Mozambique
Swaziland
Sierra Leone
Ethiopia
Chad
Mali
Burkina Faso
Niger

hum a n de v e l opme n t re p or t 2005

Human development indicators

8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

Uruguay
Chile
Costa Rica
Barbados
Cuba
Singapore 
Occupied Palestinian
Territories
Colombia
Panama
Qatar
Jordan
Saint Lucia
Mexico
Venezuela
Trinidad and Tobago
Malaysia
Paraguay
Lebanon
Turkey
Brazil

229

table

4

HDI rank

Monitoring human development: enlarging people’s choices . . .

Human and income poverty: OECD countries,
Eastern Europe and the CIS

Human poverty index
(HPI-2) a
Value
Rank
(%)

Probability
at birth of
not surviving
to age 60 b, †
(% of cohort)
2000–05

Population
lacking
functional
literacy
Long-term
skills c, † unemployment †
(% ages
(% of labour
16–65)
force)
1994–2003
2003

Population below income poverty line
(%)
50% of
median
income †
1999–2000 e

$11 a day
1994–95 e

$4 a day
1996–99 e

HPI-2 rank
minus
income
poverty
rank d

6.4
..
14.3
6.0
12.8
6.5
9.3
12.3
8.0
17.0
11.8 k
7.3
5.4
9.2
12.5
8.0
8.0
12.7
..
8.3
10.1
13.5
..
8.2
..
4.9
..
6.7
8.6
12.4
..
7.0
..
..
..

4.3
..
17.6
0.3
7.4
6.3
..
..
..
13.6
..
7.1
4.8
..
15.7
9.9
..
..
..
7.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
<1
..
<1
..
<1
10
18
17
8
..
28
22

–1
..
–3
6
–7
–3
–3
3
7
–1
0
–2
3
–4
1
4
..
3
..
–2
0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

High human development
Norway
Iceland
Australia
Luxembourg
Canada
Sweden
Switzerland
Ireland
Belgium
United States
Japan
Netherlands
Finland
Denmark
United Kingdom
France
Austria
Italy
New Zealand
Germany
Spain
Israel
Greece
Slovenia
Portugal
Czech Republic
Malta
Hungary
Poland
Estonia
Lithuania
Slovakia
Croatia
Latvia
Bulgaria

2
..
14
8
9
1
7
16
13
17
12
3
4
5
15
10
..
18
..
6
11
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

Human development indicators

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
23
24
26
27
31
32
35
36
38
39
42
45
48
55

230

human de velopmen t repor t 2005

7.0
..
12.8
11.1
11.3
6.5
11.0
15.2
12.4
15.4
11.7
8.2
8.2
8.9
14.8
11.4
..
29.9
..
10.3
11.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

8.4
6.8
7.7
9.7
8.1
7.2
7.8
8.7
9.4
11.8
7.1
8.7
9.7
10.4
8.7
9.8
9.1
7.8
8.9
8.8
8.7
7.7
9.2
11.8
10.3
12.1
7.7
18.3
15.1
21.7
20.6
14.9
13.1
21.5
16.6

7.9
..
17.0 g
.. h
14.6
7.5 g
15.9
22.6 g
18.4 g, j
20.0
.. h
10.5 i
10.4 i
9.6 i
21.8 i
.. h
..
47.0
18.4 i
14.4 i
.. h
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

0.3
0.4 f
1.4
1.0 f, g
0.8
0.9
1.1
1.6
3.7
0.7
1.8
1.2
2.2
1.1
1.2
4.2
1.4
5.1
0.6
4.6
4.5
..
5.4
..
2.0
3.9
..
2.5
9.8
..
..
10.7
..
..
..

table
Human poverty index
(HPI-2) a
Value
Rank
(%)

HDI rank

Probability
at birth of
not surviving
to age 60 b, †
(% of cohort)
2000–05

Population
lacking
functional
literacy
Long-term
skills c, † unemployment †
(% ages
(% of labour
16–65)
force)
1994–2003
2003

Population below income poverty line
(%)
50% of
median
income †
1999–2000 e

4

$11 a day
1994–95 e

$4 a day
1996–99 e

HPI-2 rank
minus
income
poverty
rank d

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
53
23
..
..
..
25
62
..
..
..
..
88
..
82
..

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

Medium human development
59
62
64
67
68
72
78
80
83
97
100
101
109
111
115
122

Macedonia, TFYR
Russian Federation
Romania
Belarus
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Albania
Ukraine
Kazakhstan
Armenia
Turkmenistan
Georgia
Azerbaijan
Kyrgyzstan
Uzbekistan
Moldova, Rep. of
Tajikistan

Notes
This table includes Israel and Malta, which are
not Organisation for Economic Co-operation and
Development (OECD) member countries, but
excludes the Republic of Korea, Mexico and Turkey,
which are. For the human poverty index and related
indicators for these countries, see table 3.
† Denotes indicators used to calculate the human
poverty index (HPI-2). For further details, see
Technical note 1.
a The human poverty index (HPI-2) is calculated for
selected high-income OECD countries only.
b Data refer to the probability at birth of not surviving
to age 60, multiplied by 100.
c Based on scoring at level 1 on the prose literacy
scale of the International Adult Literacy Survey.
Data refer to the most recent year available during
the period specified.
d Income poverty refers to the share of the population
living on less than 50% of the median adjusted
disposible household income. A positive figure
indicates that the country performs better in

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

13.3
31.6
19.0
26.7
13.6
11.4
31.0
32.0
18.0
32.0
18.9
24.9
26.0
26.3
25.5
29.0

income poverty than in human poverty, a negative
the opposite.
e Data refer to the most recent year available during
the period specified.
f Data refer to 2002.
g Based on OECD and Statistics Canada 2000.
h For purposes of calculating the HPI-2 an estimate
of 16.4%, the unweighted average of countries with
available data, was applied.
i Data are based on small sample sizes and should
be treated with caution.
j Data refer to Flanders.
k Smeeding 1997.

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
18.8
8.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

Sources
Column 1: determined on the basis of HPI-2 values
in column 2.
Column 2: calculated on the basis of data in columns
3–6; see Technical note 1 for details.
Column 3: calculated on the basis of survival data
from UN 2005h.
Column 4: OECD and Statistics Canada 2005, unless
otherwise noted.
Column 5: calculated on the basis of data on youth
long-term unemployment and labour force from OECD
2005d.
Column 6: LIS 2005.
Column 7: Smeeding, Rainwater and Burtless 2000.
Column 8: Milanovic 2002.
Column 9: calculated on the basis of data in columns
1 and 6.

HPI-2 ranks for 18 selected OECD countries
Sweden
Norway
Netherlands
Finland
Denmark
Germany

7
8
9
10
11
12

Switzerland
Luxembourg
Canada
France
Spain
Japan

13
14
15
16
17
18

Belgium
Australia
United Kingdom
Ireland
United States
Italy

hum a n de v e l opme n t re p or t 2005

Human development indicators

1
2
3
4
5
6

231

table

5

. . . to lead a long and healthy life . . .

Demographic trends

Annual
population
growth rate
(%)

Total population
(millions)
HDI rank

1975

2003

2015 b

1975–
2003

4.0
0.2
13.6
0.4
23.1
8.2
6.3
3.2
9.8
220.2
111.5
13.7
4.7
5.1
55.4
52.7
7.6
55.4
3.1
78.7
35.6
4.4
3.4
9.0
2.3
1.7
9.1
35.3
0.6
0.2
10.0
0.3
0.2
26.0
10.5
34.0
10.4
1.4
3.3
0.2
0.5
4.7
0.3
1.0
4.3
2.8
2.1
2.5
(.)
0.2
0.1

4.6
0.3
19.7
0.5
31.6
9.0
7.2
4.0
10.4
292.6
127.7
16.1
5.2
5.4
59.3
60.0
8.1
58.0
3.9
82.6
42.1
6.9
6.5
11.1
4.2
2.0
10.4
47.5
0.8
0.3
10.2
0.4
0.4
38.0
10.2
38.6
16.0
1.3
3.5
0.7
4.0
5.4
0.7
2.5
4.5
3.4
4.2
2.3
(.)
0.3
0.1

4.8
0.3
22.2
0.5
35.1
9.3
7.3
4.7
10.5
325.7
128.0
16.8
5.4
5.6
61.4
62.3
8.3
57.8
4.3
82.5
44.4
7.8
7.8
11.2
4.8
1.9
10.8
49.1
0.9
0.3
10.1
0.4
0.5
42.7
9.8
38.1
17.9
1.3
3.3
1.0
5.6
5.4
0.9
3.4
4.5
3.7
5.0
2.2
(.)
0.4
0.1

0.5
1.0
1.3
0.8
1.1
0.3
0.5
0.8
0.2
1.0
0.5
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.2
0.5
0.3
0.2
0.9
0.2
0.6
1.6
2.3
0.7
2.2
0.4
0.5
1.1
1.0
0.3
0.1
1.0
2.9
1.3
–0.1
0.5
1.5
–0.2
0.2
5.2
7.2
0.5
3.4
3.3
0.2
0.7
2.5
–0.2
–0.2
1.8
1.0

0.5
0.8
1.0
1.2
0.9
0.3
0.1
1.3
0.1
0.9
(.)
0.3
0.2
0.2
0.3
0.3
0.1
(.)
0.7
(.)
0.4
1.0
1.6
0.1
1.1
–0.1
0.3
0.3
1.1
0.2
–0.1
0.4
2.0
1.0
–0.3
–0.1
1.0
–0.3
–0.4
2.3
2.7
(.)
1.6
2.4
–0.1
0.6
1.5
–0.5
1.1
1.3
0.9

9.3
59.3

11.2
104.3

11.4
119.1

0.7
2.0

0.2
1.1

Urban population
(% of total) a

2003–
15 b

1975

Population
under age 15
(% of total)

Population ages
65 and above
(% of total)

Total fertility
rate
(births per woman)

2003 b

2015 b

2003

2015 b

2003

2015 b

1970–
75 c

2000–
05 c

68.2
86.6
85.9
73.7
75.6
82.7
55.7
53.6
94.5
73.7
56.8
56.9
58.3
82.1
82.7
72.9
65.3
65.6
82.8
81.2
69.6
89.7
86.6
55.3
100.0
42.4
27.7
48.0
45.2
40.8
63.7
80.4
62.0
81.0
52.8
55.4
78.4
67.6
55.7
84.8
83.6
46.3
85.8
83.8
45.1
83.4
42.5
65.4
35.0
73.4
33.3

78.6
92.8
91.9
91.8
80.4
83.4
67.6
59.9
97.2
80.1
65.5
65.8
61.0
85.4
89.1
76.3
65.8
67.4
85.9
88.1
76.5
100.0
91.6
60.9
100.0
50.8
54.6
80.3
69.2
51.7
74.3
91.6
76.1
90.1
65.2
61.9
87.0
69.5
66.8
92.0
85.1
57.5
90.0
96.2
59.0
92.5
60.6
66.3
32.2
89.4
50.0

86.4
94.1
94.9
94.1
84.0
84.3
68.7
63.6
97.5
83.6
67.7
71.4
62.1
86.8
90.2
79.0
67.2
69.2
87.0
90.0
78.1
100.0
92.4
65.2
100.0
52.6
60.9
83.0
71.6
59.1
75.7
93.7
82.8
92.2
70.0
64.0
90.2
71.4
67.5
93.6
87.2
60.8
91.4
96.9
64.6
94.4
66.8
66.3
32.5
91.6
53.3

19.9
22.5
20.3
19.0
18.2
17.9
17.0
20.6
17.1
21.1
14.2
18.4
17.7
18.8
18.4
18.3
16.0
14.1
22.0
14.8
14.3
15.2
28.0
14.6
20.7
14.5
16.0
19.5
20.9
19.6
15.3
18.5
30.3
27.1
16.2
17.3
26.1
16.2
18.0
23.1
22.8
17.8
27.7
24.8
16.1
24.5
29.7
15.9
..
28.9
..

17.5
19.4
17.7
17.6
15.3
16.4
14.1
20.2
15.5
19.7
13.3
16.4
15.8
17.0
16.4
17.6
13.4
13.2
18.9
12.9
15.3
12.7
25.8
13.5
13.2
13.0
15.1
13.9
17.2
16.7
13.4
15.2
25.8
23.9
14.0
14.3
20.9
15.7
13.8
21.8
19.8
14.0
21.7
23.2
13.9
22.4
23.8
14.1
..
24.7
..

13.3
10.1
10.7
11.9
11.1
15.0
13.5
9.3
15.1
10.7
16.0
11.9
13.4
12.8
13.8
14.5
14.0
16.7
10.4
15.0
14.5
9.8
8.7
15.2
6.5
12.9
14.4
7.0
10.0
9.0
12.2
11.1
2.4
8.7
13.1
10.9
6.6
13.9
13.0
0.9
0.8
10.1
2.3
1.1
14.2
11.5
4.7
14.2
..
4.9
..

17.5
14.0
15.5
14.3
16.2
20.4
19.8
12.6
19.4
14.1
26.0
17.5
20.3
18.4
18.1
19.0
19.6
23.0
15.0
20.7
18.0
14.4
11.5
19.3
13.3
18.1
18.9
13.2
14.2
11.5
18.4
18.3
4.3
11.1
17.5
14.9
10.5
17.4
16.7
2.0
1.4
14.1
4.4
3.1
18.7
13.8
7.4
18.3
..
8.2
..

2.2
2.8
2.5
2.0
2.0
1.9
1.8
3.8
1.9
2.0
2.1
2.1
1.6
2.0
2.0
2.3
2.0
2.3
2.8
1.6
2.9
2.9
3.8
2.3
2.6
2.2
2.7
4.3
2.5
2.7
2.2
2.1
5.4
3.1
2.1
2.3
3.6
2.2
2.3
6.8
6.4
2.5
5.9
6.9
2.0
3.0
4.3
2.0
..
3.4
..

1.8
2.0
1.7
1.7
1.5
1.6
1.4
1.9
1.7
2.0
1.3
1.7
1.7
1.8
1.7
1.9
1.4
1.3
2.0
1.3
1.3
0.9
2.9
1.3
1.4
1.2
1.5
1.2
1.6
1.5
1.2
1.5
2.5
2.4
1.3
1.3
2.0
1.4
1.3
3.0
2.5
1.2
2.5
2.4
1.3
2.3
2.3
1.3
..
2.3
..

64.2
62.8

75.7
75.5

78.1
78.8

19.9
32.1

16.6
25.5

8.6
4.2

14.4
7.1

3.5
6.6

1.6
2.4

Human development indicators

High human development

232

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51

Norway
Iceland
Australia
Luxembourg
Canada
Sweden
Switzerland
Ireland
Belgium
United States
Japan
Netherlands
Finland
Denmark
United Kingdom
France
Austria
Italy
New Zealand
Germany
Spain
Hong Kong, China (SAR)
Israel
Greece
Singapore
Slovenia
Portugal
Korea, Rep. of
Cyprus
Barbados
Czech Republic
Malta
Brunei Darussalam
Argentina
Hungary
Poland
Chile
Estonia
Lithuania
Qatar
United Arab Emirates
Slovakia
Bahrain
Kuwait
Croatia
Uruguay
Costa Rica
Latvia
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Bahamas
Seychelles

52 Cuba
53 Mexico

human de velopmen t repor t 2005

table
Annual
population
growth rate
(%)

Total population
(millions)
HDI rank
54 Tonga
55 Bulgaria
56 Panama
57 Trinidad and Tobago
Medium human development
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
Macedonia, TFYR
Antigua and Barbuda
Malaysia
Russian Federation
Brazil
Romania
Mauritius
Grenada
Belarus
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Colombia
Dominica
Oman
Albania
Thailand
Samoa (Western)
Venezuela
Saint Lucia
Saudi Arabia
Ukraine
Peru
Kazakhstan
Lebanon
Ecuador
Armenia
Philippines
China
Suriname
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Paraguay
Tunisia
Jordan
Belize
Fiji
Sri Lanka
Turkey
Dominican Republic
Maldives
Turkmenistan
Jamaica
Iran, Islamic Rep. of
Georgia
Azerbaijan
Occupied Palestinian Territories
Algeria
El Salvador

105 Cape Verde
106 Syrian Arab Republic

2003

2015 b

0.1
8.7
1.7
1.0

0.1
7.8
3.1
1.3

0.1
7.2
3.8
1.3

2.4
1.7
0.1
12.3
134.2
108.1
21.2
0.9
0.1
9.4
3.7
25.4
0.1
0.9
2.4
41.3
0.2
12.7
0.1
7.3
49.0
15.2
14.1
2.7
6.9
2.8
42.0
927.8 d
0.4
0.1
2.7
5.7
1.9
0.1
0.6
14.0
41.2
5.1
0.1
2.5
2.0
33.3
4.9
5.7
1.3
16.0
4.1
0.3
7.5

5.6
2.0
0.1
24.4
144.6
181.4
21.9
1.2
0.1
9.9
3.9
44.2
0.1
2.5
3.1
63.1
0.2
25.8
0.2
23.3
47.5
27.2
14.9
3.5
12.9
3.0
80.2
1,300.0 d
0.4
0.1
5.9
9.9
5.4
0.3
0.8
20.4
71.3
8.6
0.3
4.7
2.6
68.2
4.6
8.3
3.5
31.9
6.6
0.5
18.1

7.0
2.1
0.1
29.6
136.7
209.4
20.9
1.3
0.1
9.2
3.9
52.1
0.1
3.2
3.3
69.1
0.2
31.3
0.2
30.8
41.8
32.2
14.9
4.0
15.1
3.0
96.8
1,393.0 d
0.5
0.1
7.6
11.1
7.0
0.3
0.9
22.3
82.6
10.1
0.4
5.5
2.7
79.9
4.2
9.1
5.0
38.1
8.0
0.6
23.8

Urban population
(% of total) a

Population ages
65 and above
(% of total)

Total fertility
rate
(births per woman)

1975–
2003

2003–
15 b

1975

2003 b

2015 b

2003

2015 b

2003

2015 b

1970–
75 c

2000–
05 c

0.4
–0.4
2.1
0.9

0.2
–0.8
1.6
0.3

24.4
57.5
49.0
63.0

33.5
69.8
57.2
75.4

38.2
74.0
61.7
79.7

36.5
14.4
30.9
22.7

30.7
13.1
27.2
20.2

4.6
14.3
4.8
5.9

6.9
18.6
7.5
9.9

5.5
2.2
4.9
3.5

3.5
1.2
2.7
1.6

3.0
0.7
0.9
2.5
0.3
1.8
0.1
1.1
0.4
0.2
0.2
2.0
0.3
3.6
0.9
1.5
0.7
2.5
1.3
4.2
–0.1
2.1
0.2
1.0
2.2
0.3
2.3
1.2 d
0.7
0.7
2.8
2.0
3.7
2.4
1.3
1.3
2.0
1.9
2.9
2.2
1.0
2.6
–0.3
1.3
3.6
2.5
1.7

1.8
0.1
1.2
1.6
–0.5
1.2
–0.4
0.8
1.3
–0.6
–0.1
1.4
0.9
1.9
0.6
0.7
0.3
1.6
0.8
2.3
–1.1
1.4
(.)
1.0
1.4
–0.2
1.6
0.6 d
0.5
0.4
2.2
1.0
2.1
1.8
0.7
0.7
1.2
1.3
2.4
1.3
0.4
1.3
–0.7
0.7
3.0
1.5
1.6

60.9
50.6
34.2
37.7
66.4
61.2
42.8
43.4
32.6
50.3
31.3
60.0
55.3
19.6
32.7
23.8
21.1
75.8
23.6
58.3
58.3
61.5
52.2
67.0
42.4
63.0
35.6
17.4
49.5
27.0
39.0
49.9
57.8
50.2
36.7
22.0
41.6
45.7
18.1
47.6
44.1
45.8
49.5
51.5
59.6
40.3
41.5

86.2
59.6
37.8
63.8
73.3
83.0
54.6
43.3
40.7
70.9
44.4
76.4
72.0
77.6
43.8
32.0
22.3
87.6
30.5
87.6
67.3
73.9
55.9
87.5
61.8
64.5
61.0
38.6
76.0
58.2
57.2
63.7
79.1
48.4
51.7
21.1
66.3
59.3
28.8
45.4
52.2
66.6
52.0
50.1
71.1
58.8
59.4

89.0
62.0
43.4
71.0
74.3
88.4
56.4
47.3
49.5
75.2
51.1
81.3
76.2
82.6
51.2
36.7
24.7
90.0
36.8
91.1
68.9
78.0
58.2
90.1
67.6
64.2
69.2
49.5
81.6
68.6
64.3
68.1
81.1
51.8
60.1
22.5
71.9
64.6
35.2
50.0
54.2
73.9
51.6
51.3
75.6
65.3
64.2

30.8
20.6
..
33.0
16.2
28.4
16.5
25.1
..
16.4
17.4
31.8
..
35.2
28.3
24.5
41.0
32.1
29.9
38.2
16.0
33.2
24.8
29.5
33.2
22.8
36.1
22.7
30.9
30.5
38.4
27.5
38.0
37.9
32.3
24.8
29.7
33.6
42.0
33.5
32.1
31.0
20.0
27.9
46.0
31.2
34.7

28.9
16.6
..
27.2
16.4
25.4
14.4
21.3
..
14.5
14.0
26.8
..
30.6
23.1
21.2
34.2
27.8
25.4
32.3
13.5
27.9
21.3
24.4
28.1
17.4
30.0
18.5
26.7
26.5
33.9
21.9
31.7
31.2
27.6
21.4
25.8
29.5
35.7
27.0
26.7
25.6
15.8
21.2
41.6
26.7
29.8

2.9
8.8
..
3.5
11.5
4.9
12.1
5.4
..
12.5
10.3
4.2
..
1.8
6.3
5.4
3.7
4.0
6.1
2.1
13.1
4.1
6.6
5.9
4.6
9.6
3.0
5.9
5.1
5.5
3.0
5.0
2.3
3.5
2.9
5.8
4.3
3.2
2.7
3.8
6.6
3.7
11.5
5.5
2.7
3.6
4.4

5.6
12.9
..
6.1
13.3
7.8
15.5
8.3
..
13.5
16.7
6.5
..
3.4
9.9
9.3
5.0
6.8
7.3
3.5
16.4
6.5
8.0
7.7
7.3
11.0
4.9
9.6
7.2
7.1
4.3
6.8
4.0
4.7
5.4
9.3
6.2
5.3
3.3
4.4
8.2
4.9
14.4
6.7
3.0
5.0
6.2

7.6
3.0
..
5.2
2.0
4.7
2.6
3.2
..
2.3
2.6
5.0
..
7.2
4.7
5.0
5.7
4.9
5.7
7.3
2.2
6.0
3.5
4.8
6.0
3.0
6.0
4.9
5.3
5.5
5.7
6.2
7.8
6.3
4.2
4.1
5.3
5.6
7.0
6.2
5.0
6.4
2.6
4.3
7.7
7.4
6.1

3.0
1.5
..
2.9
1.3
2.3
1.3
2.0
..
1.2
1.3
2.6
..
3.8
2.3
1.9
4.4
2.7
2.2
4.1
1.1
2.9
2.0
2.3
2.8
1.3
3.2
1.7
2.6
2.3
3.9
2.0
3.5
3.2
2.9
2.0
2.5
2.7
4.3
2.8
2.4
2.1
1.5
1.9
5.6
2.5
2.9

2.0
3.1

2.2
2.3

21.4
45.1

55.9
50.2

64.8
52.4

40.7
38.0

35.6
33.2

3.7
2.5

3.3
3.6

7.0
7.5

3.8
3.5

hum a n de v e l opme n t re p or t 2005

Human development indicators

58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104

1975

Population
under age 15
(% of total)

5

233

table

5

Demographic trends

Annual
population
growth rate
(%)

Human development indicators

Total population
(millions)

234

Urban population
(% of total) a

Population
under age 15
(% of total)

Population ages
65 and above
(% of total)

Total fertility
rate
(births per woman)

1975–
2003

2003–
15 b

1975

2003 b

2015 b

2003

2015 b

2003

2015 b

1970–
75 c

2000–
05 c

HDI rank

1975

2003

2015 b

107 Guyana
108 Viet Nam
109 Kyrgyzstan
110 Indonesia
111 Uzbekistan
112 Nicaragua
113 Bolivia
114 Mongolia
115 Moldova, Rep. of
116 Honduras
117 Guatemala
118 Vanuatu
119 Egypt
120 South Africa
121 Equatorial Guinea
122 Tajikistan
123 Gabon
124 Morocco
125 Namibia
126 São Tomé and Principe
127 India
128 Solomon Islands
129 Myanmar
130 Cambodia
131 Botswana
132 Comoros
133 Lao People’s Dem. Rep.
134 Bhutan
135 Pakistan
136 Nepal
137 Papua New Guinea
138 Ghana
139 Bangladesh
140 Timor-Leste
141 Sudan
142 Congo
143 Togo
144 Uganda
145 Zimbabwe
Low human development

0.7
48.0
3.3
134.4
14.0
2.6
4.8
1.4
3.8
3.0
6.2
0.1
39.3
25.9
0.2
3.4
0.6
17.3
0.9
0.1
620.7
0.2
30.1
7.1
0.9
0.3
3.0
1.2
68.3
13.5
2.9
10.2
73.2
0.7
17.1
1.5
2.4
10.8
6.2

0.7
82.0
5.1
217.4
25.8
5.3
8.8
2.6
4.2
6.9
12.0
0.2
71.3
46.9
0.5
6.4
1.3
30.6
2.0
0.1
1,070.8
0.5
49.5
13.5
1.8
0.8
5.7
2.1
151.8
26.1
5.7
21.2
136.6
0.8
34.9
3.8
5.8
26.9
12.9

0.7
95.0
5.9
246.8
30.7
6.6
10.9
3.0
4.1
8.8
15.9
0.3
88.2
47.9
0.6
7.6
1.6
36.2
2.2
0.2
1,260.4
0.6
55.0
17.1
1.7
1.0
7.3
2.7
193.4
32.7
7.0
26.6
168.2
1.5
44.0
5.4
7.8
41.9
13.8

0.1
1.9
1.6
1.7
2.2
2.5
2.2
2.1
0.3
3.0
2.4
2.5
2.1
2.1
2.7
2.2
2.9
2.0
2.9
2.1
1.9
3.1
1.8
2.3
2.5
3.1
2.2
2.1
2.9
2.3
2.4
2.6
2.2
0.7
2.6
3.2
3.1
3.3
2.6

–0.1
1.2
1.1
1.1
1.4
1.9
1.7
1.2
–0.2
2.0
2.3
1.8
1.8
0.2
2.2
1.5
1.5
1.4
1.0
2.1
1.4
2.3
0.9
1.9
–0.4
2.5
2.1
2.2
2.0
1.9
1.8
1.9
1.7
4.9
1.9
3.1
2.5
3.7
0.6

30.0
18.9
37.9
19.3
39.1
48.9
41.3
48.7
35.8
32.1
36.7
15.7
43.5
48.0
27.1
35.5
40.0
37.8
20.6
27.3
21.3
9.1
23.9
10.3
12.8
21.2
11.1
3.5
26.4
5.0
11.9
30.1
9.9
8.9
18.9
34.8
16.3
8.3
19.6

37.6
25.8
34.0
45.5
36.7
57.3
63.4
56.8
46.1
45.6
46.3
22.9
42.2
56.9
48.0
24.8
83.7
57.4
32.4
37.8
28.3
16.5
29.5
18.6
51.6
35.0
20.7
8.5
34.1
15.0
13.2
45.4
24.3
7.7
38.9
53.5
35.2
12.3
35.0

44.2
32.4
35.4
57.8
37.0
62.8
69.0
59.5
50.0
51.3
51.9
28.6
44.9
62.7
58.2
24.4
89.1
64.8
39.8
40.3
32.2
20.9
37.6
26.1
57.5
43.0
27.4
12.6
39.5
20.5
14.5
51.1
29.6
9.5
49.3
59.3
43.3
14.2
41.4

29.8
31.1
32.8
29.0
34.8
40.2
38.8
32.2
20.0
40.3
43.6
40.8
34.3
32.9
44.2
40.4
40.9
31.9
42.6
40.1
32.9
41.3
30.8
38.3
38.2
42.4
41.7
39.5
39.5
39.9
41.0
39.9
36.3
42.5
39.7
46.9
43.9
50.4
41.0

24.8
25.0
27.5
25.2
28.3
33.4
33.5
26.3
15.2
33.8
39.7
35.5
31.4
30.2
45.6
33.0
35.5
28.4
34.7
36.4
28.0
36.4
23.6
34.1
34.7
38.5
37.1
34.7
34.1
33.9
34.0
35.2
31.4
46.7
35.6
47.4
40.2
50.8
36.6

4.4
4.6
5.0
4.2
3.8
2.7
3.6
3.1
8.4
3.1
3.5
2.6
3.8
3.2
3.2
3.0
3.8
3.9
2.8
3.5
4.1
1.8
4.0
2.8
2.6
2.1
2.9
3.6
3.0
2.9
1.8
2.8
2.8
2.2
2.8
2.4
2.5
2.1
2.9

6.6
5.6
5.5
6.4
4.4
3.9
5.2
4.1
10.9
4.5
4.7
4.0
5.5
6.1
3.8
3.5
4.4
5.2
4.2
3.4
6.2
2.8
6.4
4.4
4.8
3.1
3.7
5.1
4.2
4.2
2.7
4.3
4.2
3.0
4.3
2.7
3.4
2.2
4.1

4.9
6.7
4.7
5.2
6.3
6.8
6.5
7.3
2.6
7.1
6.2
6.1
5.7
5.5
5.7
6.8
5.3
6.9
6.6
6.5
5.4
7.2
5.8
5.5
6.8
7.1
6.2
5.9
6.6
5.8
6.1
6.7
6.2
6.2
6.7
6.3
7.1
7.1
7.7

2.3
2.3
2.7
2.4
2.7
3.3
4.0
2.4
1.2
3.7
4.6
4.2
3.3
2.8
5.9
3.8
4.0
2.8
4.0
4.1
3.1
4.3
2.5
4.1
3.2
4.9
4.8
4.4
4.3
3.7
4.1
4.4
3.2
7.8
4.4
6.3
5.4
7.1
3.6

7.9
0.5
7.6
1.1
0.2
7.0
1.4
4.9
13.5
0.6
4.2
5.3

17.6
1.0
15.7
1.8
0.8
19.7
2.9
8.3
32.7
1.4
9.0
11.1

23.8
1.0
19.0
1.7
0.9
28.5
4.0
9.8
44.2
1.9
11.9
14.5

2.9
2.4
2.6
1.6
4.4
3.7
2.5
1.9
3.2
3.4
2.7
2.7

2.5
–0.3
1.6
–0.3
1.6
3.1
2.7
1.4
2.5
2.3
2.3
2.2

16.4
14.0
26.9
10.8
61.6
14.8
20.3
21.7
12.9
17.0
16.3
34.2

26.6
23.6
51.4
18.0
83.6
25.7
61.7
37.5
39.3
26.2
34.9
49.6

30.7
27.0
59.9
21.0
87.6
31.3
73.9
45.5
51.8
27.8
44.2
57.9

44.4
42.1
41.9
39.3
42.1
47.1
43.1
38.6
43.1
40.6
43.9
43.4

40.7
37.2
37.2
36.6
37.3
43.4
41.7
34.9
42.6
36.8
42.0
38.8

2.5
2.7
2.9
4.2
2.2
1.8
2.7
3.2
2.3
2.9
2.8
2.5

3.3
4.6
3.9
5.8
3.4
2.4
3.4
4.5
2.8
4.4
3.9
3.4

6.7
6.9
6.3
5.7
7.2
8.5
6.5
5.8
8.0
6.5
6.9
7.0

5.4
4.0
4.6
3.6
5.1
6.2
5.8
4.0
5.0
4.7
5.9
5.0

58.9
4.4

125.9
8.8

160.9
11.3

2.7
2.5

2.0
2.1

23.4
4.0

46.6
18.5

55.5
40.5

44.7
44.9

41.3
41.6

2.4
1.9

3.2
2.6

6.9
8.3

5.8
5.7

146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157

Madagascar
Swaziland
Cameroon
Lesotho
Djibouti
Yemen
Mauritania
Haiti
Kenya
Gambia
Guinea
Senegal

158 Nigeria
159 Rwanda

human de velopmen t repor t 2005

table
Total population
(millions)
1975

2003

2015 b

1975–
2003

6.8
2.1
3.2
6.6
16.0
5.2
5.2
23.9
10.6
3.7
34.1
2.1
0.7
4.2
6.2
5.9
2.9
5.3
2,967.1 T
355.2 T
144.6 T
1,310.4 T
318.4 T
838.7 T
313.1 T
366.6 T
925.7 T
765.9 T
972.2 T
2,678.2 T
359.5 T
781.8 T
1,849.6 T
1,440.9 T
4,073.7 T e

15.0
4.1
7.9
17.6
36.9
12.3
11.3
54.2
19.1
7.0
73.8
3.9
1.5
9.1
12.7
12.4
5.1
13.1
5,022.4 T
723.2 T
303.9 T
1,928.1 T
540.7 T
1,503.4 T
674.2 T
406.3 T
1,157.3 T
917.4 T
1,211.5 T
4,205.8 T
788.7 T
948.3 T
2,748.6 T
2,614.5 T
6,313.8 T e

20.9
5.8
11.2
21.6
45.6
16.0
13.8
78.0
23.5
10.6
97.2
4.6
2.1
12.8
18.1
17.7
6.9
19.3
5,885.6 T
950.1 T
386.0 T
2,108.9 T
628.3 T
1,801.4 T
877.4 T
396.8 T
1,233.6 T
968.5 T
1,289.2 T
4,753.6 T
1,038.5 T
1,005.6 T
3,028.6 T
3,182.5 T
7,219.4 T e

2.8
2.4
3.2
3.5
3.0
3.1
2.8
2.9
2.1
2.3
2.8
2.3
3.0
2.8
2.6
2.6
2.0
3.2
1.9
2.5
2.7
1.4
1.9
2.1
2.7
0.4
0.8
0.6
0.8
1.6
2.8
0.7
1.4
2.1
1.6

HDI rank
160 Angola
161 Eritrea
162 Benin
163 Côte d’Ivoire
164 Tanzania, U. Rep. of
165 Malawi
166 Zambia
167 Congo, Dem. Rep. of the
168 Mozambique
169 Burundi
170 Ethiopia
171 Central African Republic
172 Guinea-Bissau
173 Chad
174 Mali
175 Burkina Faso
176 Sierra Leone
177 Niger
Developing countries
Least developed countries
Arab States
East Asia and the Pacific
Latin America and the Caribbean
South Asia
Sub-Saharan Africa
Central and Eastern Europe and the CIS
OECD
High-income OECD
High human development
Medium human development
Low human development
High income
Middle income
Low income
World

Annual
population
growth rate
(%)

Urban population
(% of total) a

Population ages
65 and above
(% of total)

Total fertility
rate
(births per woman)

2003–
15 b

1975

2003 b

2015 b

2003

2015 b

2003

2015 b

1970–
75 c

2000–
05 c

2.8
3.0
2.9
1.7
1.8
2.2
1.7
3.0
1.8
3.4
2.3
1.4
3.0
2.8
2.9
2.9
2.5
3.3
1.3
2.3
2.0
0.7
1.3
1.5
2.2
–0.2
0.5
0.5
0.5
1.0
2.3
0.5
0.8
1.6
1.1

17.4
12.7
21.9
32.1
10.1
7.7
34.8
29.5
8.7
3.2
9.5
33.7
16.0
15.6
16.2
6.3
21.4
10.6
26.4
14.8
41.7
20.4
61.1
21.3
21.0
56.8
67.2
69.9
68.7
27.9
18.2
70.1
34.8
20.7
37.2

35.7
20.0
44.6
44.9
35.4
16.3
35.9
31.8
35.6
10.0
15.7
42.7
34.0
25.0
32.3
17.8
38.8
22.2
42.0
26.7
54.7
41.0
76.7
29.8
35.6
62.9
75.9
77.5
77.2
42.2
34.0
78.0
52.9
30.2
48.3

44.9
26.5
53.5
51.0
46.8
22.2
40.8
39.7
48.5
14.6
19.8
50.3
43.5
31.1
40.9
23.2
47.6
29.7
48.6
33.5
59.1
51.0
80.9
34.2
42.4
63.8
78.9
80.4
80.1
48.6
41.7
80.8
60.7
35.7
53.5

46.7
44.9
44.8
42.4
43.2
47.1
46.1
47.1
44.1
46.2
45.0
43.2
47.2
47.1
48.3
47.7
42.8
49.0
31.6
42.2
36.3
24.9
30.8
34.1
44.0
19.1
19.8
17.9
19.6
29.2
44.9
18.0
25.9
37.2
28.9

45.5
42.6
42.0
38.2
38.9
44.9
43.7
48.0
41.6
46.4
41.7
40.6
48.0
47.7
46.7
45.7
42.8
47.9
28.0
39.5
32.5
20.7
26.5
29.3
42.0
17.3
17.8
16.4
17.6
25.3
42.6
16.5
22.3
33.3
25.9

2.0
1.9
2.2
2.4
2.5
2.4
2.4
2.2
2.7
2.3
2.3
3.3
2.5
2.5
2.2
2.3
2.6
1.6
4.3
2.6
3.1
5.4
4.9
3.8
2.5
10.6
11.6
13.0
11.7
4.9
2.4
12.8
5.8
3.4
6.0

2.4
2.6
3.0
3.7
3.7
3.2
3.2
2.6
3.6
2.5
3.2
4.0
2.8
2.7
2.4
2.6
3.3
2.0
6.5
3.5
4.4
8.7
7.5
5.7
3.3
12.9
16.1
18.0
16.2
7.2
3.1
17.7
8.6
4.9
8.4

7.2
6.5
7.1
7.4
6.8
7.4
7.8
6.5
6.6
6.8
6.8
5.7
7.1
6.7
7.6
7.8
6.5
8.1
5.5
6.6
6.7
5.0
5.1
5.6
6.8
2.5
2.6
2.2
2.5
5.0
7.0
2.2
4.5
6.0
4.5

6.8
5.5
5.9
5.1
5.0
6.1
5.7
6.7
5.5
6.8
5.9
5.0
7.1
6.7
6.9
6.7
6.5
7.9
2.9
5.0
3.7
1.9
2.5
3.2
5.5
1.5
1.8
1.6
1.7
2.5
5.8
1.7
2.1
3.9
2.6

Sources
Columns 1-3, 13 and 14: UN 2005h.
Columns 4 and 5: calculated on the basis of columns
1 and 2.
Columns 6-8: UN 2004.
Columns 9 and 10: calculated on the basis of data
on population under age 15 and total population from
UN 2005h.
Columns 11 and 12: calculated on the basis of data
on population ages 65 and above and total population
from UN 2005h.

Human development indicators

NOTES
a Because data are based on national definitions of
what constitutes a city or metropolitan area, crosscountry comparisons should be made with caution.
b Data refer to medium-variant projections.
c Data refer to estimates for the period specified.
d Population estimates include Taiwan, province of
China.
e Data refer to the total world population according
to UN 2005h. The total population of the 177
countries included in the main indicator tables
was estimated to be 4,068.1 million in 1975,
6,305.6 million in 2003 and projected to be
7,210.3 in 2015.

Population
under age 15
(% of total)

5

hum a n de v e l opme n t re p or t 2005

235

table

6

. . . to lead a long and healthy life . . .

Commitment to health: resources, access and services

MDG
One-year-olds fully immunized

Health expenditure

HDI rank

Public
(% of GDP)

Private
(% of GDP)

Per capita
(PPP US$)

Against
tuberculosis
(%)

Against
measles
(%)

2002

2002

2002

2003

2003

8.0
8.3
6.5
5.3
6.7
7.8
6.5
5.5
6.5
6.6
6.5
5.8
5.5
7.3
6.4
7.4
5.4
6.4
6.6
8.6
5.4
..
6.0
5.0
1.3
6.2
6.6
2.6
2.9
4.7
6.4
7.0
2.7
4.5
5.5
4.4
2.6
3.9
4.3
2.4
2.3
5.3
3.2
2.9
5.9
2.9
6.1
3.3
3.4
3.4
3.9

1.6
1.6
3.0
0.9
2.9
1.4
4.7
1.8
2.6
8.0
1.4
3.0
1.8
1.5
1.3
2.3
2.3
2.1
1.9
2.3
2.2
..
3.1
4.5
3.0
2.1
2.7
2.4
4.1
2.2
0.6
2.7
0.8
4.4
2.3
1.7
3.2
1.2
1.6
0.7
0.8
0.6
1.2
0.9
1.4
7.1
3.2
1.8
2.1
3.5
1.3

3,409
2,802
2,699
3,066
2,931
2,512
3,446
2,367
2,515
5,274
2,133
2,564
1,943
2,583
2,160
2,736
2,220
2,166
1,857
2,817
1,640
..
1,890
1,814
1,105
1,547
1,702
982
883
1,018
1,118
965
653
956
1,078
657
642
604
549
894
750
723
792
552
630
805
743
477
667
1,074
557

6.5
2.7

1.0
3.4

236
550

Children with
MDG
diarrhoea
receiving oral
Births
rehydration Contraceptive attended by
and continued prevalence skilled health
feeding
rate a
personnel
(% under age 5)
(%)
(%)

Physicians
(per 100,000
people)

1994–2003 b

1995–2003 b

1990–2004 b

1995–2003 b

Human development indicators

High human development

236

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51

Norway
Iceland
Australia
Luxembourg
Canada
Sweden
Switzerland
Ireland
Belgium
United States
Japan
Netherlands
Finland
Denmark
United Kingdom
France
Austria
Italy
New Zealand
Germany
Spain
Hong Kong, China (SAR)
Israel
Greece
Singapore
Slovenia
Portugal
Korea, Rep. of
Cyprus
Barbados
Czech Republic
Malta
Brunei Darussalam
Argentina
Hungary
Poland
Chile
Estonia
Lithuania
Qatar
United Arab Emirates
Slovakia
Bahrain
Kuwait
Croatia
Uruguay
Costa Rica
Latvia
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Bahamas
Seychelles

52 Cuba
53 Mexico

human de velopmen t repor t 2005

..
..
..
..
..
16 d
..
90
..
..
..
..
98
..
..
85
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
88
97
98
81
87
..
..
98
..
99
99
99
94
94
99
99
99
98
98
..
..
98
99
87
99
99
..
99

84
93
93
91
95
94
82
78
75
93
99
96
97
96
80
86
79
83
85
92
97
..
95
88
88
94
96
96
86
90
99
90
99
97
99
97
99
95
98
93
94
99
100
97
95
95
89
99
98
90
99

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

74
..
76
..
75
78
82
..
78
76
56
79
77
78
84 e
75
51
60
75
75
81
86
68
..
62
74
66
81
..
55
72
..
..
..
77
49
..
70
47
43
28
74
62
50
..
..
80
48
41
62
..

100 c
..
100
100 c
98
100 c
..
100
100 c
99
100
100
100 c
100 c
99
99 c
100 c
..
100
100 c
..
..
99 c
..
100
100 c
100
100
100 c
91
99
98 c
99
99
..
99 c
100
..
..
98
96
..
98
98
100
100
98
100
99
99 c
..

356
347
249
255
209
305
352
237
418
549
201
329
311
366
166
329
324
606
223
362
320
..
391
440
140
219
324
181
298
121
343
293
101
301
316
220
109
316
403
221
202
325
160
153
237
365
173
291
118
106
132

99
99

99
96

..
..

73
68

100
86

591
171

table
MDG
One-year-olds fully immunized

Health expenditure

6

Children with
MDG
diarrhoea
receiving oral
Births
rehydration Contraceptive attended by
and continued prevalence skilled health
feeding
rate a
personnel
(% under age 5)
(%)
(%)

Physicians
(per 100,000
people)

Private
(% of GDP)

Per capita
(PPP US$)

Against
tuberculosis
(%)

Against
measles
(%)

HDI rank

2002

2002

2002

2003

2003

1994–2003 b

1995–2003 b

1995–2003 b

1990–2004 b

54 Tonga
55 Bulgaria
56 Panama
57 Trinidad and Tobago
Medium human development

5.1
4.0
6.4
1.4

1.8
3.4
2.5
2.3

292
499
576
428

99
98
87
..

99
96
83
88

..
..
..
31

..
42
58
38

92
..
90
96

34
338
168
79

58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104

1.6
..
3.3
2.0
3.5
3.6
4.2
2.2
4.0
4.7
4.6
6.7
4.6
2.8
2.4
3.1
4.7
2.3
3.4
3.3
3.3
2.2
1.9
3.5
1.7
1.3
1.1
2.0
3.6
3.9
3.2
2.9
4.3
2.5
2.7
1.8
4.3
2.2
5.1
3.0
3.4
2.9
1.0
0.8
..
3.2
3.6

1.7
..
1.5
1.8
2.7
4.3
2.1
0.7
1.7
1.7
4.6
1.4
1.8
0.6
3.7
1.3
1.5
2.6
1.6
1.0
1.4
2.2
1.6
8.0
3.1
4.5
1.8
3.8
5.0
2.0
5.2
2.9
5.0
2.7
1.5
1.9
2.2
3.9
0.7
1.3
2.6
3.1
2.8
2.9
..
1.1
4.4

222
..
527
349
535
611
469
317
465
583
322
536
310
379
302
321
238
272
306
534
210
226
261
697
197
232
153
261
385
340
343
415
418
300
240
131
420
295
307
182
234
432
123
120
..
182
372

99
..
..
99
97
99
99
92
..
99
94
96
99
98
95
99
73
91
95
94
98
94
99
..
99
92
91
93
..
87
70
93
67
99
99
99
89
90
98
99
88
99
87
99
99
98
90

91
96
99
92
96
99
97
94
99
99
84
92
99
98
93
94
99
82
90
96
99
95
99
96
99
94
80
84
71
94
91
90
96
96
91
99
75
79
96
97
78
99
73
98
..
84
99

..
..
..
..
..
28
..
..
..
..
23
44
42
..
51
..
..
51
..
..
..
46
22
..
..
48
37
..
43
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
19
53
..
..
21
..
..
40
..
..
..

45
..
53
55
73
77
64
75
54
50
48
77
50
24
75
72
..
49
47
32
68
69
66
61
66
61
49
84
42
58
73
63
56
47
41
70
64
70
42
62
66
73
41
55
..
64
67

94
..
100
97
99
88
98
99
99
100
100
86
100
95
94
99
100
94
100
91
100
59
99
89
69
97
60
97
85
100
71
90
100
83
100
97
81
99
70
97
95
90
96
84
97
92
69

129
..
17
70
417
206
189
85
50
450
134
135
49
126
139
30
70
194
518
140
297
117
330
325
148
353
116
164
45
88
117
70
205
105
34
43
124
188
78
317
85
105
391
354
84
85
124

3.8
2.3

1.2
2.8

193
109

78
99

68
98

..
..

53
40

Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
Macedonia, TFYR
Antigua and Barbuda
Malaysia
Russian Federation
Brazil
Romania
Mauritius
Grenada
Belarus
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Colombia
Dominica
Oman
Albania
Thailand
Samoa (Western)
Venezuela
Saint Lucia
Saudi Arabia
Ukraine
Peru
Kazakhstan
Lebanon
Ecuador
Armenia
Philippines
China
Suriname
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Paraguay
Tunisia
Jordan
Belize
Fiji
Sri Lanka
Turkey
Dominican Republic
Maldives
Turkmenistan
Jamaica
Iran, Islamic Rep. of
Georgia
Azerbaijan
Occupied Palestinian Territories
Algeria
El Salvador

105 Cape Verde
106 Syrian Arab Republic

89
76 c

17
140

hum a n de v e l opme n t re p or t 2005

Human development indicators

Public
(% of GDP)

237

table

6

Commitment to health: resources, access and services

MDG
One-year-olds fully immunized

Human development indicators

Health expenditure

238

Children with
MDG
diarrhoea
receiving oral
Births
rehydration Contraceptive attended by
and continued prevalence skilled health
feeding
rate a
personnel
(% under age 5)
(%)
(%)

Physicians
(per 100,000
people)

1994–2003 b

1990–2004 b

Public
(% of GDP)

Private
(% of GDP)

Per capita
(PPP US$)

Against
tuberculosis
(%)

Against
measles
(%)

HDI rank

2002

2002

2002

2003

2003

107 Guyana
108 Viet Nam
109 Kyrgyzstan
110 Indonesia
111 Uzbekistan
112 Nicaragua
113 Bolivia
114 Mongolia
115 Moldova, Rep. of
116 Honduras
117 Guatemala
118 Vanuatu
119 Egypt
120 South Africa
121 Equatorial Guinea
122 Tajikistan
123 Gabon
124 Morocco
125 Namibia
126 São Tomé and Principe
127 India
128 Solomon Islands
129 Myanmar
130 Cambodia
131 Botswana
132 Comoros
133 Lao People’s Dem. Rep.
134 Bhutan
135 Pakistan
136 Nepal
137 Papua New Guinea
138 Ghana
139 Bangladesh
140 Timor-Leste
141 Sudan
142 Congo
143 Togo
144 Uganda
145 Zimbabwe
Low human development

4.3
1.5
2.2
1.2
2.5
3.9
4.2
4.6
4.1
3.2
2.3
2.8
1.8
3.5
1.3
0.9
1.8
1.5
4.7
9.7
1.3
4.5
0.4
2.1
3.7
1.7
1.5
4.1
1.1
1.4
3.8
2.3
0.8
6.2
1.0
1.5
1.1
2.1
4.4

1.3
3.7
2.1
2.0
3.0
4.0
2.8
2.0
2.9
3.0
2.5
1.0
3.1
5.2
0.5
2.4
2.5
3.1
2.0
1.4
4.8
0.3
1.8
9.9
2.3
1.2
1.4
0.4
2.1
3.8
0.5
3.3
2.3
3.5
3.9
0.7
9.4
5.3
4.1

227
148
117
110
143
206
179
128
151
156
199
121
192
689
139
47
248
186
331
108
96
83
30
192
387
27
49
76
62
64
136
73
54
195
58
25
163
77
152

95
98
99
82
98
94
94
98
98
91
97
63
98
97
73
99
89
92
92
99
81
76
79
76
99
75
65
93
82
91
60
92
95
80
53
60
84
96
92

89
93
99
72
99
93
64
98
96
95
75
48
98
83
51
89
55
90
70
87
67
78
75
65
90
63
42
88
61
75
49
80
77
60
57
50
58
82
80

40
24
16
61
33
49
59
66
52
..
22
..
29
37
36
29
44
..
39
44
22
..
48
..
7
31
37
..
33 c
43
..
24
35
..
38
..
25
29
80

37
79
60
60
68
69
53
67
62
62
43
..
60
56
..
34
33
50
29
29
48 f
..
37
24
40
26
32
19
28
39
26
25
58
10
10
..
26
23
54

86
85
98
68
96
67
65
99
99
56
41
89
69
84
65
71
86
40
78
79
43
85
56
32
94
62
19
24
23
11
53
44
14
24
86 c
..
49
39
73

48
53
268
16
289
164
73
267
269
83
90
11
212
69
25
218
29
48
30
47
51
13
30
16
29
7
59
5
66
5
5
9
23
..
16
25
6
5
6

146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157

1.2
3.6
1.2
5.3
3.3
1.0
2.9
3.0
2.2
3.3
0.9
2.3

0.9
2.4
3.4
0.9
3.0
2.7
1.0
4.6
2.7
4.0
4.9
2.8

18
309
68
119
78
58
54
83
70
83
105
62

72
97
82
83
63
67
84
71
87
99
78
77

55
94
61
70
66
66
71
53
72
90
52
60

47
24
33
29
..
23 c
..
41
15
38
29
33

27
28
19
30
..
21
8
27
39
10
6
11

46
70
60
60
61
22
57
24
41
55
35
58

9
18
7
5
13
22
14
25
13
4
9
8

1.2
3.1

3.5
2.4

43
48

48
88

35
90

28
16

13
13

35
31

27
2

Madagascar
Swaziland
Cameroon
Lesotho
Djibouti
Yemen
Mauritania
Haiti
Kenya
Gambia
Guinea
Senegal

158 Nigeria
159 Rwanda

human de velopmen t repor t 2005

1995–2003 b

1995–2003 b

table
MDG
One-year-olds fully immunized

Health expenditure

Children with
MDG
diarrhoea
receiving oral
Births
rehydration Contraceptive attended by
and continued prevalence skilled health
feeding
rate a
personnel
(% under age 5)
(%)
(%)

Physicians
(per 100,000
people)
1990–2004 b

Public
(% of GDP)

Private
(% of GDP)

Per capita
(PPP US$)

Against
tuberculosis
(%)

Against
measles
(%)

HDI rank

2002

2002

2002

2003

2003

1994–2003 b

1995–2003 b

160 Angola
161 Eritrea
162 Benin
163 Côte d’Ivoire
164 Tanzania, U. Rep. of
165 Malawi
166 Zambia
167 Congo, Dem. Rep. of the
168 Mozambique
169 Burundi
170 Ethiopia
171 Central African Republic
172 Guinea-Bissau
173 Chad
174 Mali
175 Burkina Faso
176 Sierra Leone
177 Niger
Developing countries
Least developed countries
Arab States
East Asia and the Pacific
Latin America and the Caribbean
South Asia
Sub-Saharan Africa
Central and Eastern Europe and the CIS
OECD
High-income OECD
High human development
Medium human development
Low human development
High income
Middle income
Low income
World

2.1
3.2
2.1
1.4
2.7
4.0
3.1
1.2
4.1
0.6
2.6
1.6
3.0
2.7
2.3
2.0
1.7
2.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

2.9
1.9
2.6
4.8
2.2
5.8
2.7
2.9
1.7
2.4
3.1
2.3
3.3
3.8
2.2
2.3
1.2
2.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

62
84
83
56
97
77
84
54
77
75
52
35
61
61
68
76
73
64
75
67
84
82
93
68
62
97
91
92
93
79
61
92
89
66
77 g

32
..
42
34
38
51
24
17
33
16
38
47
23
50
45
..
39
43
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

6
8
19
15
25
31
34
31
6
16
8
28
8
8
8
14
4
14
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

62
91
99
66
91
91
94
68
87
84
76
70
84
72
63
83
87
64
85
79
86
91
96
83
75
97
..
..
..
89
75
..
95
79
85 g

1995–2003 b
45
28
66
63
36
61
43
61
48
25
6
44
35
16
41
31
42
16
59
34
70
86
82
38
41
97
95
99
97
68
35
99
88
42
62 g

8
3
6
9
2
1
7
7
2
5
3
4
17
3
4
4
7
3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

Sources
Columns 1–3: WHO 2005a.
Columns 4 and 6: UNICEF 2004.
Columns 5 and 8: UN 2005f, based on a joint effort
by the United Nations Children’s Fund and the World
Health Organization.
Column 7: UN 2005e.
Column 9: WHO 2005b.

Human development indicators

notes
a Data usually refer to married women ages 15–49;
the actual age range covered may vary across
countries.
b Data refer to the most recent year available during
the period specified.
c Data refer to a year or period other than that
specified, differ from the standard definition or
refer to only part of a country.
d Only high-risk children.
e Excluding Northern Ireland.
f Excluding the state of Tripura.
g Data refer to the world aggregate from UNICEF
2004.

92
36
44
107
31
48
51
15
50
16
21
50
38
47
33
38
27
27
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

6

hum a n de v e l opme n t re p or t 2005

239

table

7

. . . to lead a long and healthy life . . .

Water, sanitation and nutritional status

MDG
Population with
sustainable access to
improved sanitation
(%)
HDI rank

MDG
Population with
sustainable access to an
improved water source
(%)

MDG
Population undernourished
(% of total)

MDG
Children
under weight
for age
(% under
age 5)

Children
under height
for age
(% under
age 5)

Infants
with low
birthweight
(%)

1990

2002

1990

2002

1990/92 a

2000/02 a

1995–2003 b

1995–2003 b

1998–2003 b

..
..
100
..
100
100
100
..
..
100
100
100
100
..
..
..
100
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
100
100
..
..
..
82
..
..
85
..
..
100
100
100
..
..
..
..
..
..
96
100
..

..
..
100
..
100
100
100
..
..
100
100
100
100
..
..
..
100
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
100
99
..
..
..
95
..
92
..
..
100
100
100
..
..
..
94
92
..
96
100
..

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
..
..
100
100
100
100
100
..
..
100
..
97
100
..
..
100
..
..
..
..
..
100
100
..
100
..
94
99
..
90
..
..
100
..
100
..
..
..
..
..
..
99
..
..

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
..
..
100
100
100
100
100
..
..
100
..
..
100
..
..
100
..
..
..
..
92
100
100
..
100
..
..
99
..
95
..
..
100
..
100
..
..
..
98
97
..
99
97
87

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
2
..
..
..
..
..
2
..
..
8
..
..
..
4
..
..
23
..
6
6
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
3
..
2
..
..
2
..
..
2
1
1
4
5
1
..
2
5
..
5
7
4
4
4
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
1d
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
14 d
..
..
..
..
6d
1d
..
..
5
2d
..
1
..
..
6
14
..
9
10
1
5
5
..
..
..
6d

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
2c
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
11 c
..
..
..
..
7c
2c
..
..
12
3c
..
2
..
..
8
17
..
10
24
1
8
6
..
..
..
5c

5
4
7
8
6
4
6
6
8c
8
8
..
4
5
8
7
7
6
6
7
6c
..
8
8
8
6
8
4
..
10 c
7
6
10
7
9
6
5
4
4
10
15 c
7
8
7
6
8
7
5
9
7
..

98
66

98
77

..
80

91
91

8
5

3
5

4
8

5
18

6
9

Human development indicators

High human development

240

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51

Norway
Iceland
Australia
Luxembourg
Canada
Sweden
Switzerland
Ireland
Belgium
United States
Japan
Netherlands
Finland
Denmark
United Kingdom
France
Austria
Italy
New Zealand
Germany
Spain
Hong Kong, China (SAR)
Israel
Greece
Singapore
Slovenia
Portugal
Korea, Rep. of
Cyprus
Barbados
Czech Republic
Malta
Brunei Darussalam
Argentina
Hungary
Poland
Chile
Estonia
Lithuania
Qatar
United Arab Emirates
Slovakia
Bahrain
Kuwait
Croatia
Uruguay
Costa Rica
Latvia
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Bahamas
Seychelles

52 Cuba
53 Mexico

human de velopmen t repor t 2005

table
MDG
Population with
sustainable access to
improved sanitation
(%)
HDI rank
54 Tonga
55 Bulgaria
56 Panama
57 Trinidad and Tobago
Medium human development
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
Macedonia, TFYR
Antigua and Barbuda
Malaysia
Russian Federation
Brazil
Romania
Mauritius
Grenada
Belarus
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Colombia
Dominica
Oman
Albania
Thailand
Samoa (Western)
Venezuela
Saint Lucia
Saudi Arabia
Ukraine
Peru
Kazakhstan
Lebanon
Ecuador
Armenia
Philippines
China
Suriname
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Paraguay
Tunisia
Jordan
Belize
Fiji
Sri Lanka
Turkey
Dominican Republic
Maldives
Turkmenistan
Jamaica
Iran, Islamic Rep. of
Georgia
Azerbaijan
Occupied Palestinian Territories
Algeria
El Salvador
Cape Verde
Syrian Arab Republic

MDG
Population undernourished
(% of total)

MDG
Children
under weight
for age
(% under
age 5)

Children
under height
for age
(% under
age 5)

Infants
with low
birthweight
(%)

1990

2002

1990

2002

1990/92 a

2000/02 a

1995–2003 b

1995–2003 b

1998–2003 b

97
100
..
100

97
100
72
100

100
100
..
92

100
100
91
91

..
..
21
13

..
11
26
12

..
..
7
7d

..
..
14
5c

0
10
10 c
23

97
..
..
96
87
70
..
99
97
..
..
82
..
83
..
80
98
..
..
..
99
52
72
..
56
..
54
23
..
..
58
75
..
..
98
70
84
48
..
..
75
83
..
..
..
88
51
..
76

97
..
95

71
..
..
..
94
83
..
100
..
100
98
92
..
77
97
81
91
..
98
90
..
74
86
100
69
..
87
70
..
..
62
77
98
..
..
68
81
86
99
..
92
91
..
66
..
95
67
..
79

72
..
91
95
96
89
57
100
95
100
98
92
97
79
97
85
88
83
98
..
98
81
86
100
86
92
85
77
92
..
83
82
91
91
..
78
93
93
84
71
93
93
76
77
94
87
82
80
79

1
..
..
3
..
12
..
6
..
..
..
17
..
..
..
28
..
11
..
4
..
42
..
3
8
..
26
16
13
..
18
1
4
..
..
28
2
27
..
..
14
4
..
..
..
5
12
..
5

1
11
..
2
4
9
1
6
..
2
8
13
..
..
6
20
..
17
..
3
3
13
13
3
4
34
22
11
11
..
14
1
7
..
..
22
3
25
..
9
10
4
27
15
..
5
11
..
4

5
6
10 d
12
3
6
6d
15
..
..
4
7
5d
24
14
19 d
..
4
14 d
14
3
7
4
3
12
3
31
10
13
..
5
4
4
6d
8d
29
8
5
30
12
4
11
3
7
4
6
10
14 d
7

15
7
7c
..
13
11
8c
10
..
..
10
14
6c
23
32
16 c
..
13 c
11 c
20
15
25
10
12
26
13
31
14
10
..
..
12
9
..
3c
14
16
9
25
22
5
15
12
13
9
18
19
16 c
18

7c
5
8
10
6
10 c
9
13
9
5
4
9
10
8
3
9
4c
7
8
11 c
5
11 c
8
6
16
7
20
6
13
10
9c
7
10 c
6
10
22
16
11
22
6
9
7c
6
11
9
7
13
13
6

87
75
51
99
97
..
93
86
83
89
89
99
100
68
89
..
99
62
72
98
72
84
73
44
93
..
78
80
93
47
98
91
83
57
58
62
80
84
83
55
76
92
63
42
77

hum a n de v e l opme n t re p or t 2005

Human development indicators

58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106

MDG
Population with
sustainable access to an
improved water source
(%)

7

241

table

7

Water, sanitation and nutritional status

MDG
Population with
sustainable access to
improved sanitation
(%)

Human development indicators

MDG
Population undernourished
(% of total)

MDG
Children
under weight
for age
(% under
age 5)

Children
under height
for age
(% under
age 5)

Infants
with low
birthweight
(%)

1990

2002

1990

2002

1990/92 a

2000/02 a

1995–2003 b

1995–2003 b

1998–2003 b

107 Guyana
108 Viet Nam
109 Kyrgyzstan
110 Indonesia
111 Uzbekistan
112 Nicaragua
113 Bolivia
114 Mongolia
115 Moldova, Rep. of
116 Honduras
117 Guatemala
118 Vanuatu
119 Egypt
120 South Africa
121 Equatorial Guinea
122 Tajikistan
123 Gabon
124 Morocco
125 Namibia
126 São Tomé and Principe
127 India
128 Solomon Islands
129 Myanmar
130 Cambodia
131 Botswana
132 Comoros
133 Lao People’s Dem. Rep.
134 Bhutan
135 Pakistan
136 Nepal
137 Papua New Guinea
138 Ghana
139 Bangladesh
140 Timor-Leste
141 Sudan
142 Congo
143 Togo
144 Uganda
145 Zimbabwe
Low human development

..
22
..
46
58
47
33
..
..
49
50
..
54
63
..
..
..
57
24
..
12
..
21
..
38
23
..
..
38
12
45
43
23
..
33
..
37
43
49

70
41
60
52
57
66
45
59
68
68
61
..
68
67
53
53
36
61
30
24
30
31
73
16
41
23
24
70
54
27
45
58
48
33
34
9
34
41
57

..
72
..
71
89
69
72
62
..
83
77
60
94
83
..
..
..
75
58
..
68
..
48
..
93
89
..
..
83
69
39
54
71
..
64
..
49
44
77

83
73
76
78
89
81
85
62
92
90
95
60
98
87
44
58
87
80
80
79
86
70
80
34
95
94
43
62
90
84
39
79
75
52
69
46
51
56
83

21
31
..
9
..
30
28
34
..
23
16
..
4
..
..
..
10
6
35
..
25
..
10
43
23
..
29
..
24
20
..
37
35
..
32
54
33
24
45

9
19
6
6
26
27
21
28
11
22
24
..
3
..
..
61
6
7
22
..
21
..
6
33
32
..
22
..
20
17
..
13
30
..
27
37
26
19
44

14
33
11
26
8
10
8
13
3
17
23
20 d
9
12
19
..
12
9
24
13
47
21 d
35
45
13
25
40
19
38
48
35 d
25
48
43
17
14
25
23
13

11
36
25
..
21
20
27
25
10
29
49
19 c
16
25
39
36
21
24
24
29
46
27 c
34
45
23
42
41
40
37
51
..
26
45
47
..
19
22
39
27

12
9
7c
9
7
12
9
8
5
14
13
6
12
15
13
15
14
11 c
14
..
30
13 c
15
11
10
25
14
15
19 c
21
11 c
11
30
10
31
..
15
12
11

146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157

12
..
21
37
48
21
28
15
42
..
17
35

33
52
48
37
50
30
42
34
48
53
13
52

40
..
50
..
78
69
41
53
45
..
42
66

45
52
63
76
80
69
56
71
62
82
51
72

35
14
33
17
..
34
15
65
44
22
39
23

37
19
25
12
..
36
10
47
33
27
26
24

33
10
21
18
18
46
32
17
20
17
23
23

49
30
35
46
26
53
35
23
31
19
26
25

14
9
11
14
..
32 c
..
21
11
17
12
18

39
37

38
41

49
58

60
73

13
44

9
37

29
27

38 c
41

14
9

HDI rank

242

MDG
Population with
sustainable access to an
improved water source
(%)

Madagascar
Swaziland
Cameroon
Lesotho
Djibouti
Yemen
Mauritania
Haiti
Kenya
Gambia
Guinea
Senegal

158 Nigeria
159 Rwanda

human de velopmen t repor t 2005

table
MDG
Population with
sustainable access to
improved sanitation
(%)
HDI rank
160 Angola
161 Eritrea
162 Benin
163 Côte d’Ivoire
164 Tanzania, U. Rep. of
165 Malawi
166 Zambia
167 Congo, Dem. Rep. of the
168 Mozambique
169 Burundi
170 Ethiopia
171 Central African Republic
172 Guinea-Bissau
173 Chad
174 Mali
175 Burkina Faso
176 Sierra Leone
177 Niger
Developing countries
Least developed countries
Arab States
East Asia and the Pacific
Latin America and the Caribbean
South Asia
Sub-Saharan Africa
Central and Eastern Europe and the CIS
OECD
High-income OECD
High human development
Medium human development
Low human development
High income
Middle income
Low income
World

1990

2002

1990

2002

30
8
11
31
47
36
41
18
..
44
4
23
..
6
36
13
..
7
33
23
61
30
68
20
32
..
..
..
..
36
27
..
48
20
43

30
9
32
40
46
46
45
29
27
36
6
27
34
8
45
12
39
12
48
35
66
49
75
37
36
82
..
..
..
51
32
..
61
35
58 e

32
40
60
69
38
41
50
43
..
69
25
48
..
20
34
39
..
40
70
51
83
71
81
71
48
..
96
..
..
74
44
..
77
64
75

50
57
68
84
73
67
55
46
42
79
22
75
59
34
48
51
57
46
79
61
84
78
89
86
58
..
98
100
..
83
55
..
83
77
83 e

MDG
Population undernourished
(% of total)

MDG
Children
under weight
for age
(% under
age 5)

Children
under height
for age
(% under
age 5)

Infants
with low
birthweight
(%)

1990/92 a

2000/02 a

1995–2003 b

1995–2003 b

1998–2003 b

58
..
20
18
37
50
48
32
66
48
..
50
..
58
29
21
46
41
19
34
10
..
13
25
32
..
..
..
..
19
32
..
..
27
..

40
73
15
14
44
33
49
71
47
68
46
43
..
34
29
19
50
34
16
33
9
..
10
21
30
..
..
..
..
15
32
..
..
24
..

31
40
23
21
29
22
28
31
24
45
47
24
25
28
33
34
27
40
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

45
38
31
25
44
45
47
38
41
57
52
39
30
29
38
37
34
40
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

12
21 c
16
17
13
16
12
12
14 c
16
15
14
22
17 c
23
19
..
17
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

Sources
Columns 1–4 and 7: UN 2005f, based on a joint
effort by the United Nation’s Children’s Fund (UNICEF)
and the World Health Organization (WHO).
Columns 5 and 6: UN 2005f, based on estimates
from FAO 2005.
Columns 8 and 9: UNICEF 2004, based on a joint
effort by UNICEF and the WHO.

Human development indicators

notes
a Data refer to the average for the years specified.
b Data refer to the most recent year available during
the period specified.
c Data refer to a year or period other than that
specified, differ from the standard definition or
refer to only part of a country.
d Data from UNICEF 2004. Data refer to a year or
period other than that specified, differ from the
standard definition or refer to only part of a country.
e Data refer to the world aggregate from UNICEF
2004.

MDG
Population with
sustainable access to an
improved water source
(%)

7

hum a n de v e l opme n t re p or t 2005

243

table

8

. . . to lead a long and healthy life . . .

Inequalities in maternal and child health

Births attended
by skilled health
personnel
(%)
HDI rank

One-year-olds fully
immunized a
(%)

Children under
height for age
(% under age 5)

Infant mortality rate b
(per 1,000 live births)

Under-five
mortality rate b
(per 1,000 live births)

Survey
year

Poorest
20%

Richest
20%

Poorest
20%

Richest
20%

Poorest
20%

Richest
20%

Poorest
20%

Richest
20%

Poorest
20%

Richest
20%

1996
1995
2000
2000
1999
1998
1990
1997
1998
1996
2000
2000
1997
1997
1996
2001
1998
1998
2000
1998
2000
1992
2000
1998
2000
1996
1990
2001
1998
1999
1998
2000
1999

71.6
60.6
93.3
13.0
99.2
21.2
41.2
91.2
53.4
88.9
96.8
58.1
96.0
21.3
91.7
77.5
19.8
8.8
31.4
67.8
67.2
5.1
55.4
16.4
14.7
26.2
4.6
3.6
17.9
3.5
25.1
19.7
56.7

98.6
98.1
100.0
87.5
98.5
91.9
98.1
99.3
98.2
97.8
98.3
99.7
100.0
89.2
100.0
99.3
97.9
91.9
94.2
98.1
97.1
77.9
97.1
84.4
81.2
84.8
55.2
45.1
86.1
42.1
91.2
77.3
93.5

56.6
57.7
66.2
57.9
68.7
59.8
20.2
21.3
27.7
34.4
85.0
44.3
69.3
42.9
80.9
63.6
21.8
66.3
91.2
51.3
5.5
53.7
59.5
21.3
28.6
39.8
22.5
54.2
49.6
50.3
22.2
26.5
63.9

73.8
77.3
68.0
81.1
62.3 c
86.5
53.0
17.1
69.7
46.5
77.5
92.3
73.1
72.1
77.5
71.0
30.6
56.0
92.0
70.2
23.5
95.2
68.2
63.8
67.7
82.0
54.7
81.6
79.3
74.9
52.0
42.6
64.1

16.8
16.7
15.7
29.4
13.2
..
16.7
10.5
14.8
14.2
16.9
..
27.9
..
19.5
22.4
25.4
30.0
16.4
..
20.7
23.3
18.4
25.0
26.9
23.4
25.2
32.7
20.3
..
19.0
25.1
19.2

2.0
4.5
7.9
4.2
3.7
..
3.0
4.5
3.2
1.7
11.4
..
11.6
..
16.0
4.1
3.9
7.2
7.9
..
8.8
6.6
9.1
17.4
13.5
17.8
16.8
24.6
9.1
..
10.1
18.0
13.1

83.2
40.8
52.3
63.5
67.6
48.8
42.9
35.4
68.3
66.7
89.3
39.3
83.3
78.1
54.4
49.6
106.5
58.0
75.6
61.6
57.0
79.7
35.8
96.5
109.7
87.2
88.7
85.5
72.7
92.9
84.1
105.7
59.1

28.6
16.2
27.3
13.9
42.3
20.9
15.7
23.4
29.8
23.4
58.4
13.8
45.8
23.3
45.9
16.3
25.5
39.2
29.6
17.0
35.9
35.1
22.7
38.1
50.3
64.6
62.5
53.2
26.0
57.9
65.8
60.2
44.3

98.9
52.1
60.9
92.6
81.9
79.8
57.2
42.1
85.0
89.9
105.5
52.9
96.4
109.0
70.3
64.3
146.5
77.6
97.9
87.4
93.1
111.6
55.4
141.3
154.8
128.9
124.5
129.9
138.8
139.7
167.7
191.8
99.5

33.3
23.6
29.6
17.6
44.8
29.2
20.1
25.2
32.6
26.6
69.8
15.8
49.3
29.2
50.4
19.2
32.0
39.3
33.7
21.9
55.4
39.2
31.4
45.5
63.6
86.6 c
73.8
67.7
52.2
72.4
97.0
106.4
62.2

Medium human development
Brazil
Colombia
Albania
Peru
Kazakhstan
Philippines
Paraguay
Jordan
Turkey
Dominican Republic
Turkmenistan
Viet Nam
Kyrgyzstan
Indonesia
Uzbekistan
Nicaragua
Bolivia
Guatemala
Egypt
South Africa
Gabon
Morocco
Namibia
India
Cambodia
Comoros
Pakistan
Nepal
Ghana
Bangladesh
Togo
Uganda
Zimbabwe

Human development indicators

63
69
72
79
80
84
88
90
94
95
97
108
109
110
111
112
113
117
119
120
123
124
125
127
130
132
135
136
138
139
143
144
145

244

human de velopmen t repor t 2005

table
Births attended
by skilled health
personnel
(%)
HDI rank

One-year-olds fully
immunized a
(%)

Children under
height for age
(% under age 5)

Infant mortality rate b
(per 1,000 live births)

8

Under-five
mortality rate b
(per 1,000 live births)

Survey
year

Poorest
20%

Richest
20%

Poorest
20%

Richest
20%

Poorest
20%

Richest
20%

Poorest
20%

Richest
20%

Poorest
20%

Richest
20%

1997
1991
1997
2000
2000
1998
1999
1997
1990
2000
1995
1996
1999
2000
2001
1997
2000
1996
2001
1998
1998

29.6
32.0
6.8
14.7
4.1
23.2
12.1
20.3
12.2
17.3
5.0
34.4
28.9
43.0
19.7
18.1
0.9
2.6
8.1
17.9
4.2

88.5
94.7
49.7
92.8
70.0
79.6
81.5
86.2
70.0
59.6
74.3
97.5
82.8
83.0
91.1
82.1
25.3
47.4
81.9
75.0
62.8

22.0
27.4
7.8
15.6
25.4
48.1
17.2
..
13.9
71.3
25.0
37.8
53.1
65.4
63.9
19.7
7.0
4.0
19.5
21.4
4.6

66.0
63.5
55.7
45.3
42.3
59.9
51.8
..
58.1
78.8
83.8
73.6
78.4
81.4
80.0
85.3
33.5
23.0
56.0
52.1
50.9

24.7
18.9
26.4
18.1
18.2
26.7
18.8
..
22.2
27.0
22.7
17.0
28.5
25.8
26.9
22.4
25.7
23.0
19.7
20.9
21.2

25.2
7.9
22.0
14.7
5.1
10.5
11.6
..
19.2
15.7
14.6
12.1
16.3
22.6
19.5
14.4
23.3
18.4
12.2
15.0
20.9

119.1
103.9
108.5
60.8
99.5
95.8
118.9
84.5
102.2
138.7
74.0
119.4
114.8
131.5
115.2
187.7
92.8
79.8
137.2
106.2
131.1

57.5
51.2
60.0
62.3
97.2
40.2
70.2
44.9
68.6
87.9
67.5
63.3
91.9
86.4
56.7
94.7
95.1
89.3
89.9
76.7
85.8

195.0
200.7
163.1
98.1
163.9
136.2
229.9
181.0
239.6
246.4
152.2
208.3
160.0
230.8
191.7
277.5
159.2
170.6
247.8
239.2
281.8

101.4
81.7
73.0
78.5
108.7
60.7
133.0
69.6
119.8
154.1
103.5
110.1
135.2
149.0
92.4
144.6
147.1
172.0
148.1
154.5
183.7

Low human development
146
148
151
152
153
154
156
157
158
159
161
162
164
165
166
168
170
173
174
175
177

Madagascar
Cameroon
Yemen
Mauritania
Haiti
Kenya
Guinea
Senegal
Nigeria
Rwanda
Eritrea
Benin
Tanzania, U. Rep. of
Malawi
Zambia
Mozambique
Ethiopia
Chad
Mali
Burkina Faso
Niger

Notes
This table presents data for developing countries
based on the Demographic and Health Surveys
conducted since 1995. Quintiles are defined by
socio-economic status in terms of assets or wealth,
rather than in terms of income or consumption. For
details, see Gwatkin and others forthcoming.
a Includes tuberculosis (BCG), measles, and
diphteria, pertussis and tetanus (DPT) vaccination.
b Based on births in the 10 years preceding the
survey.
c Large sampling error due to small number of cases.

Source
All columns: Gwatkin and others forthcoming.

Human development indicators

hum a n de v e l opme n t re p or t 2005

245

table

9

HDI rank

. . . to lead a long and healthy life . . .

Leading global health crises and risks

HIV
prevalence a
(% ages 15–49)
2003

MDG
Condom use at last
high-risk sex b
(% ages 15–24)
Women
Men
1998–
1998–
2003 h
2003 h

MDG
Malaria
cases c
(per
100,000
people)
2000

MDG
Children under age 5
With
insecticidetreated
bednets
(%)
1999–2003 h

With fever
treated with
anti-malarial
drugs
(%)
1999–2003 h

MDG MDG
Tuberculosis cases
Per
100,000
people d
2003

Detected
under
DOTS e
(%)
2003

Cured
under
DOTS f
(%)
2003

Prevalence of
smoking g
(% of adults)
Women
Men
2000–02 h 2000–02 h

Human development indicators

High human development

246

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51

Norway
Iceland
Australia
Luxembourg
Canada
Sweden
Switzerland
Ireland
Belgium
United States
Japan
Netherlands
Finland
Denmark
United Kingdom
France
Austria
Italy
New Zealand
Germany
Spain
Hong Kong, China (SAR)
Israel
Greece
Singapore
Slovenia
Portugal
Korea, Rep. of
Cyprus
Barbados
Czech Republic
Malta
Brunei Darussalam
Argentina
Hungary
Poland
Chile
Estonia
Lithuania
Qatar
United Arab Emirates
Slovakia
Bahrain
Kuwait
Croatia
Uruguay
Costa Rica
Latvia
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Bahamas
Seychelles

52 Cuba
53 Mexico

0.1 [0.0–0.2]
0.2 [0.1–0.3]
0.1 [0.1–0.2]
0.2 [0.1–0.4]
0.3 [0.2–0.5]
0.1 [0.0–0.2]
0.4 [0.2–0.6]
0.1 [0.0–0.3]
0.2 [0.1–0.3]
0.6 [0.3–1.1]
<0.1 [<0.2]
0.2 [0.1–0.4]
<0.1 [<0.2]
0.2 [0.1–0.3]
0.1 [0.1–0.2]
0.4 [0.2–0.7]
0.3 [0.1–0.4]
0.5 [0.2–0.8]
<0.1 [<0.2]
0.1 [0.1–0.2]
0.7 [0.3–1.1]
0.1 [<0.2]
0.1 [0.1–0.2]
0.2 [0.1–0.3]
0.2 [0.1–0.5]
<0.1 [<0.2]
0.4 [0.2–0.7]
<0.1 [<0.2]
..
1.5 [0.4–5.4]
0.1 [<0.2]
0.2 [0.1–0.3]
<0.1 [<0.2]
0.7 [0.3–1.1]
0.1 [0.0–0.2]
0.1 [0.0–0.2]
0.3 [0.2–0.5]
1.1 [0.4–2.1]
0.1 [<0.2]
..
..
<0.1 [<0.2]
0.2 [0.1–0.3]
..
<0.1 [<0.2]
0.3 [0.2–0.5]
0.6 [0.3–1.0]
0.6 [0.3–1.0]
..
3.0 [1.8–4.9]
..

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
9
..
..
..
..
..
1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
42
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

5
3
6
10
4
4
7
12
12
3
42
6
10
6
12
12
12
6
11
7
27
79
8
22
42
22
37
118
4
14
12
6
61
55
33
34
17
53
73
72
26
29
52
31
68
33
18
78
16
52
65

46
28
9
126
76
62
0
0
57
89
40
50
0
75
..
0
..
79
57
55
0
58
55
0
44
70
87
23
91
..
63
19
138
65
41
56
115
69
85
57
32
34
49
67
0
80
117
83
..
52
40

80
100
78
..
81
73
..
..
69
70
76
68
..
77
..
..
..
79
60
69
..
79
81
..
87
85
82
83
75
..
73
60
84
58
55
86
86
67
72
75
79
85
88
55
..
82
85
76
0
59
45

32
23
18
..
20
20
24
..
20
21
12
25
20
29
26
21
..
22
25
31
25
4
22
29
4
20
..
..
..
..
22
..
..
..
..
..
34
20
16
..
..
..
3
..
27
..
10
..
..
..
..

31
25
21
..
24
17
27
..
28
26
47
32
27
32
28
33
..
31
25
39
39
25
39
47
24
28
..
..
..
..
36
..
..
..
..
..
44
44
51
..
..
..
17
..
34
..
29
..
..
..
..

0.1 [<0.2]
0.3 [0.1–0.4]

..
..

..
..

..
8

..
..

..
..

13
45

93
81

92
84

..
..

..
..

human de velopmen t repor t 2005

table
HDI rank

HIV
prevalence a
(% ages 15–49)
2003

MDG
Condom use at last
high-risk sex b
(% ages 15–24)
Women
Men
1998–
1998–
2003 h
2003 h

..
<0.1 [<0.2]
0.9 [0.5–1.5]
3.2 [1.2–8.3]

..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..

58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104

0.3 [0.1–0.6]
<0.1 [<0.2]
..
0.4 [0.2–0.7]
1.1 [0.6–1.9]
0.7 [0.3–1.1]
<0.1 [<0.2]
..
..
0.5 [0.2–0.8]
<0.1 [<0.2]
0.7 [0.4–1.2]
..
0.1 [0.0–0.2]
..
1.5 [0.8–2.8]
..
0.7 [0.4–1.2]
..
..
1.4 [0.7–2.3]
0.5 [0.3–0.9]
0.2 [0.1–0.3]
0.1 [0.0–0.2]
0.3 [0.1–0.5]
0.1 [0.1–0.2]
<0.1 [<0.2]
0.1 [0.1–0.2]
1.7 [0.5–5.8]
..
0.5 [0.2–0.8]
<0.1 [<0.2]
..
2.4 [0.8–6.9]
0.1 [0.0–0.2]
<0.1 [<0.2]
<0.1 [<0.2]
1.7 [0.9–3.0]
..
<0.1 [<0.2]
1.2 [0.6–2.2]
0.1 [0.0–0.2]
0.2 [0.1–0.4]
<0.1 [<0.2]
..
0.1 [<0.2]
0.7 [0.3–1.1]

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
29
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
19
32
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
29
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
65
..
..
44
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
52
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
<0.1 [<0.2]

..
..

..
..

Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
Macedonia, TFYR
Antigua and Barbuda
Malaysia
Russian Federation
Brazil
Romania
Mauritius
Grenada
Belarus
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Colombia
Dominica
Oman
Albania
Thailand
Samoa (Western)
Venezuela
Saint Lucia
Saudi Arabia
Ukraine
Peru
Kazakhstan
Lebanon
Ecuador
Armenia
Philippines
China
Suriname
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Paraguay
Tunisia
Jordan
Belize
Fiji
Sri Lanka
Turkey
Dominican Republic
Maldives
Turkmenistan
Jamaica
Iran, Islamic Rep. of
Georgia
Azerbaijan
Occupied Palestinian Territories
Algeria
El Salvador

105 Cape Verde
106 Syrian Arab Republic

..
..
36
1
2
..
..
57
1
344
..
1
..
..
..
250
..
27
..
130
..
94
..
32
..
258
(.)
..
728
4
15
1
2,954
..
124
1
3
657
..
1,110
17
6
..
1
..
27
5
19
..
2i
11
..
(.)

MDG
Children under age 5

MDG MDG
Tuberculosis cases

With
insecticidetreated
bednets
(%)
1999–2003 h

With fever
treated with
anti-malarial
drugs
(%)
1999–2003 h

..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..

44
47
52
13

80
81
92
..

83
86
73
..

..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
1
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
1
..
..
..

21
37
10
135
157
91
194
136
8
59
63
80
23
12
33
203
44
52
22
57
133
231
152
13
209
89
458
245
102
40
105
24
5
56
38
89
40
123
39
83
9
36
95
109
37
53
78

147
49
45
69
9
18
38
28
..
44
48
7
..
81
29
72
51
80
71
38
..
81
86
67
37
43
68
43
..
38
18
91
89
98
63
70
..
65
106
49
90
59
52
28
4
113
53

61
79
100
76
67
75
76
92
..
..
95
84
..
92
90
74
84
82
25
76
..
92
78
91
84
79
88
93
..
..
92
92
89
85
85
81
..
78
95
77
49
85
65
84
100
89
88

..
..
..
..
..
27
..
..
..
9
..
..
..
..
18
2
..
..
..
8
10
..
..
..
..
3
8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
2
..
..
15
..
..
2
..
..
..
..
15

..
..
..
..
..
35
..
..
..
53
..
..
..
..
60
39
..
..
..
19
57
..
..
..
..
68
51
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
26
..
..
37
..
..
22
..
..
..
..
42

..
..

..
..

328
52

..
45

..
87

..
..

..
..

Per
100,000
people d
2003

Detected
under
DOTS e
(%)
2003

Cured
under
DOTS f
(%)
2003

Prevalence of
smoking g
(% of adults)
Women
Men
2000–02 h 2000–02 h

hum a n de v e l opme n t re p or t 2005

Human development indicators

54 Tonga
55 Bulgaria
56 Panama
57 Trinidad and Tobago
Medium human development

MDG
Malaria
cases c
(per
100,000
people)
2000

9

247

table

9

Human development indicators

HDI rank

248

Leading global health crises and risks

HIV
prevalence a
(% ages 15–49)
2003

MDG
Condom use at last
high-risk sex b
(% ages 15–24)
Women
Men
1998–
1998–
2003 h
2003 h

MDG
Children under age 5

MDG
Malaria
cases c
(per
100,000
people)
2000

With
insecticidetreated
bednets
(%)
1999–2003 h

With fever
treated with
anti-malarial
drugs
(%)
1999–2003 h

MDG MDG
Tuberculosis cases
Per
100,000
people d
2003

Detected
under
DOTS e
(%)
2003

Cured
under
DOTS f
(%)
2003

Prevalence of
smoking g
(% of adults)
Women
Men
2000–02 h 2000–02 h

107 Guyana
108 Viet Nam
109 Kyrgyzstan
110 Indonesia
111 Uzbekistan
112 Nicaragua
113 Bolivia
114 Mongolia
115 Moldova, Rep. of
116 Honduras
117 Guatemala
118 Vanuatu
119 Egypt
120 South Africa
121 Equatorial Guinea
122 Tajikistan
123 Gabon
124 Morocco
125 Namibia
126 São Tomé and Principe
127 India
128 Solomon Islands
129 Myanmar
130 Cambodia
131 Botswana
132 Comoros
133 Lao People’s Dem. Rep.
134 Bhutan
135 Pakistan
136 Nepal
137 Papua New Guinea
138 Ghana
139 Bangladesh
140 Timor-Leste
141 Sudan
142 Congo
143 Togo
144 Uganda
145 Zimbabwe
Low human development

2.5 [0.8–7.7]
0.4 [0.2–0.8]
0.1 [<0.2]
0.1 [0.0–0.2]
0.1 [0.0–0.2]
0.2 [0.1–0.3]
0.1 [0.0–0.2]
<0.1 [<0.2]
0.2 [0.1–0.3]
1.8 [1.0–3.2]
1.1 [0.6–1.8]
..
<0.1 [<0.2]
21.5 [18.5–24.9]
..
<0.1 [<0.2]
8.1 [4.1–15.3]
0.1 [0.0–0.2]
21.3 [18.2–24.7]
..
[0.4–1.3]
..
1.2 [0.6–2.2]
2.6 [1.5–4.4]
37.3 [35.5–39.1]
..
0.1 [<0.2]
..
0.1 [0.0–0.2]
0.3 [0.2–0.5]
0.6 [0.3–1.0]
3.1 [1.9–5.0]
[<0.2]
..
2.3 [0.7–7.2]
4.9 [2.1–11.0]
4.1 [2.7–6.4]
4.1 [2.8–6.6]
24.6 [21.7–27.8]

..
..
..
..
..
17
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
20
..
..
33
..
48
..
51
..
..
..
75
..
..
..
..
..
..
33
..
..
..
..
22
44
42

..
..
..
..
50
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
48
..
69
..
59
..
..
..
88
..
..
..
..
..
..
52
..
..
..
..
41
62
69

3,074
95
(.)
920
1
402
378
..
..
541
386
..
(.)
143
..
303
2,148 j
(.)
1,502
..
7
15,172
224
476
48,704
1,930
759
285
58
33
1,688
15,344
40
..
13,934
5,880
7,701 j
46
5,410

6
16
..
0
..
..
..
..
..
..
1
..
..
..
1
2
..
..
3
23
..
..
..
..
..
9
..
..
..
..
..
5
..
8
0
..
2
0
..

3
7
..
1
..
2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
49
69
..
..
..
61
..
..
..
..
..
63
..
..
..
..
..
61
..
47
50
..
60
..
..

178
238
140
674
156
78
301
237
177
102
104
71
36
341
351
267
242
105
477
256
287
60
183
742
342
103
327
194
358
316
527
369
490
753
355
489
673
621
500

31
86
57
33
20
91
71
68
39
78
44
70
56
118
..
..
93
83
86
..
47
107
73
60
68
37
47
32
17
60
15
40
33
53
34
57
17
44
42

85
92
82
86
80
82
84
87
61
87
84
79
88
68
..
79
47
89
62
..
87
90
81
92
71
96
78
86
77
86
53
60
84
81
78
71
68
60
67

..
..
..
3
..
..
..
26
..
..
..
..
18
12
..
..
..
2
..
..
..
..
22
..
..
..
..
..
..
24
..
..
21
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
69
..
..
..
68
..
..
..
..
40
44
..
..
..
35
..
..
..
..
43
..
..
..
..
..
..
40
..
..
48
..
..
..
..
..
..

146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157

1.7 [0.8–2.7]
38.8 [37.2–40.4]
6.9 [4.8–9.8]
28.9 [26.3–31.7]
..
0.1 [0.0–0.2]
0.6 [0.3–1.1]
5.6 [2.5–11.9]
6.7 [4.7–9.6]
1.2 [0.3–4.2]
3.2 [1.2–8.2]
0.8 [0.4–1.7]

..
..
16
..
..
..
..
19
25
..
17
..

..
..
31
..
..
..
..
30
47
..
32
..

..
2,835
2,900 j
0i
715 i
15,160 i
11,150 i
15 i
545
17,340 j
75,386
11,925

0
0
1
..
..
..
..
..
5
15
..
2

61
26
66
..
..
..
..
12
27
55
..
36

325
683
221
390
988
151
664
386
821
337
394
429

77
35
86
70
53
43
..
46
46
70
51
59

74
47
70
52
82
82
..
78
79
74
72
66

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
32
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
67
..
..
..

5.4 [3.6–8.0]
5.1 [3.4–7.6]

24
23

46
55

30
6,510

1
5

34
13

518
628

18
27

79
58

..
..

..
..

Madagascar
Swaziland
Cameroon
Lesotho
Djibouti
Yemen
Mauritania
Haiti
Kenya
Gambia
Guinea
Senegal

158 Nigeria
159 Rwanda

human de velopmen t repor t 2005

table
HDI rank
160 Angola
161 Eritrea
162 Benin
163 Côte d’Ivoire
164 Tanzania, U. Rep. of
165 Malawi
166 Zambia
167 Congo, Dem. Rep. of the
168 Mozambique
169 Burundi
170 Ethiopia
171 Central African Republic
172 Guinea-Bissau
173 Chad
174 Mali
175 Burkina Faso
176 Sierra Leone
177 Niger
Developing countries
Least developed countries
Arab States
East Asia and the Pacific
Latin America and the Caribbean
South Asia
Sub-Saharan Africa
Central and Eastern Europe and the CIS
OECD
High-income OECD
High human development
Medium human development
Low human development
High income
Middle income
Low income
World

HIV
prevalence a
(% ages 15–49)
2003
3.9 [1.6–9.4]
2.7 [0.9–7.3]
1.9 [1.1–3.3]
7.0 [4.9–10.0]
8.8 [6.4–11.9]
14.2 [11.3–17.7]
16.5 [13.5–20.0]
4.2 [1.7–9.9]
12.2 [9.4–15.7]
6.0 [4.1–8.8]
4.4 [2.8–6.7]
13.5 [8.3–21.2]
..
4.8 [3.1–7.2]
1.9 [0.6–5.9]
4.2 [2.7–6.5]
..
1.2 [0.7–2.3]
1.3[1.1–1.4]
3.2[2.9–3.8]
0.3[0.2–0.9]
0.2[0.2–0.3]
0.7[0.6–0.9]
0.7[0.3–1.1]
7.3[6.8–8.2]
0.7[0.4–1.0]
0.3[0.2–0.4]
0.4[0.2–0.5]
0.3[0.2–0.4]
0.8[0.7–1.0]
5.6[5.1–6.6]
0.3[0.2–0.5]
0.7[0.6–0.7]
2.0[1.8–2.4]
1.1[1.0–1.3]

..
..
19
25
21
32
33
..
29
..
17
..
..
..
14
41
..
7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
34
56
31
38
42
..
33
..
30
..
..
..
30
55
..
30
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

MDG
Children under age 5

MDG
Malaria
cases c
(per
100,000
people)
2000

With
insecticidetreated
bednets
(%)
1999–2003 h

8,773
3,479
10,697 k
12,152
1,207 i
25,948
34,204
2,960 i
18,115
48,098
..
..
2,421 i
197 i
4,008 j
619
..
1,693 j
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

2
4
7
1
2
3
7
1
..
1
..
2
7
1
8
7
2
6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

chronic cases, overreporting (for example, double
counting), overdiagnosis or underestimation of
incidence.
f Data refer to the share of new smear-positive cases
registered for treatment under the DOTS case
detection and treatment strategy in 2001 that were
successfully treated.
g The age range varies among countries but in most
is 18 and older or 15 and older.
h Data refer to the most recent year available during
the period specified.
i Data refer to 1999.
j Data refer to 1998.
k Data refer to 1997.

With fever
treated with
anti-malarial
drugs
(%)
1999–2003 h
63
4
60
58
53
27
52
45
..
31
3
69
58
32
38
50
61
48
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

MDG MDG
Tuberculosis cases
Per
100,000
people d
2003

Detected
under
DOTS e
(%)
2003

256
431
141
618
476
469
508
537
557
519
507
493
300
439
582
303
794
272
289
452
128
298
90
306
487
122
23
18
24
264
485
19
215
362
240

118
18
94
39
43
35
65
63
45
30
36
6
55
11
18
18
33
54
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

Cured
under
DOTS f
(%)
2003
74
82
80
67
80
72
83
78
78
79
76
..
48
72
50
64
81
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

Prevalence of
smoking g
(% of adults)
Women
Men
2000–02 h 2000–02 h
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

Sources
Column 1: UNAIDS 2005; aggregates were
calculated for the Human Development Report Office
by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS
(UNAIDS).
Columns 2 and 3: UN 2005f, based on a data from
a joint effort by the United Nation’s Children’s Fund
(UNICEF), UNAIDS and the World Health Organization
(WHO).
Columns 4–9: UN 2005f, based on data from
UNICEF and the WHO.
Columns 10 and 11: World Bank 2005c, based
on data from the WHO and the National Tobacco
Information Online System.

hum a n de v e l opme n t re p or t 2005

Human development indicators

Notes
a Data refer to point and range estimates based on
new estimation models developed by the Joint
United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS).
Range estimates are presented in square brackets.
Regional aggregates refer to 2004.
b Because of data limitations, comparisons across
countries should be made with caution. Data for
some countries may refer to only part of the country
or differ from the standard definition.
c Data refer to malaria cases reported to the World
Health Organization (WHO) and may represent only
a fraction of the true number in a country.
d Data refer to the prevalence of all forms of
tuberculosis.
e WHO 2003. Calculated by dividing the new smearpositive cases of tuberculosis detected under the
directly observed treatment, short course (DOTS)
case detection and treatment strategy by the
estimated annual incidence of new smear-positive
cases. Values can exceed 100% because of
intense case detection in an area with a backlog or

MDG
Condom use at last
high-risk sex b
(% ages 15–24)
Women
Men
1998–
1998–
2003 h
2003 h

9

249

table

10

. . . to lead a long and healthy life . . .

Survival: progress and setbacks

Life expectancy at birth
(years)
HDI rank

1970–75 d

2000–05 d

74.4
74.3
71.7
70.7
73.2
74.7
73.8
71.3
71.4
71.5
73.3
74.0
70.7
73.6
72.0
72.4
70.6
72.1
71.7
71.0
72.9
72.0
71.6
72.3
69.5
69.8
68.0
62.6
71.4
69.4
70.1
70.7
68.3
67.1
69.3
70.5
63.4
70.5
71.3
62.1
62.2
70.0
63.3
67.0
69.6
68.7
67.9
70.1
..
66.5
..
70.7
62.4

MDG
Infant mortality rate
(per 1,000 live births)

MDG
Under-five mortality rate
(per 1,000 live births)

Probability at birth of
survinging to age 65 a
(% of cohort)

MDG
Maternal mortality ratio
(per 100,000 live births)

Female
2000–05 d

Male
2000–05 d

Reported b
1985–2003 e

4
4
6
5
6
3
5
6
5
8
4
5
5
4
6
5
5
4
6
5
4
..
6
5
3
4
5
5
5
13
4
6
6
20
8
7
9
9
11
15
8
8
15
9
7
14
10
12
22
14
15

90.6
91.4
91.5
89.9
90.7
91.5
91.9
89.7
90.4
86.7
93.3
89.7
91.2
87.0
89.4
91.2
91.0
92.2
89.1
90.5
92.8
93.7
91.5
91.5
90.7
88.9
90.2
90.2
91.6
86.7
88.2
90.3
87.9
84.9
83.7
87.0
88.5
83.9
85.2
81.2
90.2
86.8
84.6
87.9
88.1
85.9
88.4
81.9
..
73.6
..

84.7
87.4
85.7
82.6
85.0
86.4
85.4
83.1
82.5
79.1
85.7
83.5
80.9
81.0
83.6
80.9
82.4
84.6
84.1
82.3
82.1
86.4
85.5
82.0
84.5
76.1
79.8
76.9
84.3
74.8
75.2
85.4
84.7
72.1
64.7
69.7
79.1
57.2
60.5
74.0
85.0
69.3
78.9
82.7
73.2
73.3
81.2
60.1
..
61.4
..

6
..
..
0
..
5
5
6
..
8
8
7
6
10
7
10
..
7
15
8
6
..
5
1
6
17
8
20
0
0
3
..
0
46
5
4
17
46
13
10
3
16
46
5
2
26
29
25
250
..
..

16
0
8
28
6
2
7
5
10
17
10
16
6
5
13
17
4
5
7
8
4
..
17
9
30
17
5
20
47
95
9
21
37
82
16
13
31
63
13
7
54
3
28
5
8
27
43
42
..
60
..

8
28

86.2
84.0

80.0
75.2

34
63

33
83

1970

2003

1970

2003

79.3
80.6
80.2
78.4
79.9
80.1
80.5
77.7
78.8
77.3
81.9
78.3
78.4
77.1
78.3
79.4
78.9
80.0
79.0
78.7
79.5
81.5
79.7
78.2
78.6
76.3
77.2
76.9
78.5
74.9
75.5
78.3
76.3
74.3
72.6
74.3
77.9
71.2
72.2
72.7
77.9
74.0
74.2
76.8
74.9
75.3
78.1
71.4
..
69.5
..

13
13
17
19
19
11
15
20
21
20
14
13
13
14
18
18
26
30
17
22
27
..
24
38
22
25
53
43
29
40
21
25
58
59
36
32
78
21
23
45
61
25
55
49
34
48
62
21
..
38
..

3
3
6
5
5
3
4
6
4
7
3
5
4
3
5
4
4
4
5
4
4
..
5
4
3
4
4
5
4
11
4
5
5
17
7
6
8
8
8
11
7
7
12
8
6
12
8
10
19
11
11

15
14
20
26
23
15
18
27
29
26
21
15
16
19
23
24
33
33
20
26
34
..
27
54
27
29
62
54
33
54
24
32
78
71
39
36
98
26
28
65
83
29
75
59
42
57
83
26
..
49
..

77.2
74.9

34
79

6
23

43
110

Adjusted c
2000

Human development indicators

High human development

250

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51

Norway
Iceland
Australia
Luxembourg
Canada
Sweden
Switzerland
Ireland
Belgium
United States
Japan
Netherlands
Finland
Denmark
United Kingdom
France
Austria
Italy
New Zealand
Germany
Spain
Hong Kong, China (SAR)
Israel
Greece
Singapore
Slovenia
Portugal
Korea, Rep. of
Cyprus
Barbados
Czech Republic
Malta
Brunei Darussalam
Argentina
Hungary
Poland
Chile
Estonia
Lithuania
Qatar
United Arab Emirates
Slovakia
Bahrain
Kuwait
Croatia
Uruguay
Costa Rica
Latvia
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Bahamas
Seychelles

52 Cuba
53 Mexico

human de velopmen t repor t 2005

table

10

Life expectancy at birth
(years)
2000–05 d

54 Tonga
55 Bulgaria
56 Panama
57 Trinidad and Tobago
Medium human development

65.6
71.0
66.2
65.9

58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104

Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
Macedonia, TFYR
Antigua and Barbuda
Malaysia
Russian Federation
Brazil
Romania
Mauritius
Grenada
Belarus
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Colombia
Dominica
Oman
Albania
Thailand
Samoa (Western)
Venezuela
Saint Lucia
Saudi Arabia
Ukraine
Peru
Kazakhstan
Lebanon
Ecuador
Armenia
Philippines
China
Suriname
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Paraguay
Tunisia
Jordan
Belize
Fiji
Sri Lanka
Turkey
Dominican Republic
Maldives
Turkmenistan
Jamaica
Iran, Islamic Rep. of
Georgia
Azerbaijan
Occupied Palestinian Territories
Algeria
El Salvador

105 Cape Verde
106 Syrian Arab Republic

MDG
Under-five mortality rate
(per 1,000 live births)

Probability at birth of
survinging to age 65 a
(% of cohort)

MDG
Maternal mortality ratio
(per 100,000 live births)
Reported b
1985–2003 e

Adjusted c
2000

Female
2000–05 d

Male
2000–05 d

19
15
24
20

78.2
84.5
85.1
76.1

73.4
68.2
76.3
64.5

..
15
70
45

..
32
160
160

160
120
..
63
36
135
57
86
..
27
82
108
..
200
82
102
160
61
..
185
27
178
..
54
140
..
90
120
..
..
76
201
107
77
61
100
201
128
255
..
64
191
46
..
..
234
162

16
11
12
7
21
35
20
18
23
17
17
21
14
12
21
26
24
21
18
26
20
34
73
31
27
33
36
37
39
27
29
24
28
39
20
15
39
35
72
102
20
39
45
91
24
41
36

82.5
84.6
..
83.5
76.3
77.7
82.9
80.9
..
79.3
85.2
81.0
..
84.2
87.6
80.3
78.4
82.8
77.0
81.2
76.4
77.1
71.9
81.7
82.6
81.7
78.6
81.3
77.3
81.3
79.8
84.9
77.7
80.9
72.2
85.6
77.9
75.1
67.5
69.8
73.4
79.2
83.0
76.0
81.4
78.4
77.7

74.6
75.4
..
73.4
44.7
62.7
65.3
66.9
..
50.6
74.2
71.0
..
78.8
80.0
64.5
65.5
71.7
71.3
73.4
46.6
68.1
48.0
73.0
72.7
66.4
70.1
74.2
63.1
70.3
71.3
75.7
71.6
71.7
62.0
76.1
67.3
60.8
67.8
52.1
67.9
71.7
66.3
60.3
75.0
75.2
67.3

77
11
65
50
37
75
34
21
1
18
10
78
67
23
20
36
..
60
35
..
22
190
50
100
80
22
170
50
150
93
180
69
41
140
38
92
130
180
140
9
110
37
67
25
..
140
170

97
23
..
41
67
260
49
24
..
35
31
130
..
87
55
44
130
96
..
23
35
410
210
150
130
55
200
56
110
..
170
120
41
140
75
92
70
150
110
31
87
76
32
94
100
140
150

..
129

35
18

79.8
83.2

67.7
76.3

76
65

150
160

1970

2003

1970

2003

72.1
72.1
74.7
69.9

..
28
46
49

15
14
18
17

..
32
68
57

52.8
67.5
..
63.0
69.7
59.5
69.2
62.9
..
71.5
67.5
61.6
..
52.1
67.7
61.0
56.1
65.7
65.3
53.9
70.1
55.5
63.2
66.4
58.8
70.8
58.1
63.2
64.0
61.6
65.9
55.6
56.5
67.6
60.6
63.1
57.0
59.7
51.4
59.2
69.0
55.2
68.2
65.6
56.6
54.5
58.2

73.4
73.7
..
73.0
65.4
70.3
71.3
72.1
..
68.1
74.1
72.2
..
74.0
73.7
69.7
70.0
72.8
72.3
71.6
66.1
69.8
63.2
71.9
74.2
71.4
70.2
71.5
69.0
71.0
70.9
73.1
71.2
71.9
67.8
73.9
68.6
67.1
66.3
62.4
70.7
70.2
70.5
66.9
72.4
71.0
70.7

105
85
..
46
29
95
46
64
..
22
60
69
..
126
68
74
106
47
..
118
22
115
..
45
87
..
60
85
..
..
57
135
77
56
50
65
150
91
157
..
49
122
36
..
..
143
111

13
10
11
7
16
33
18
16
18
13
14
18
12
10
18
23
19
18
16
22
15
26
63
27
24
30
27
30
30
23
25
19
23
33
16
13
33
29
55
79
17
33
41
75
22
35
32

57.5
57.4

70.2
73.2

..
90

26
16

hum a n de v e l opme n t re p or t 2005

Human development indicators

1970–75 d

HDI rank

MDG
Infant mortality rate
(per 1,000 live births)

251

table

10

Survival: progress and setbacks

Life expectancy at birth
(years)

Human development indicators

MDG
Under-five mortality rate
(per 1,000 live births)

Probability at birth of
survinging to age 65 a
(% of cohort)

MDG
Maternal mortality ratio
(per 100,000 live births)

1970–75 d

2000–05 d

1970

2003

1970

2003

Female
2000–05 d

Male
2000–05 d

Reported b
1985–2003 e

Adjusted c
2000

107 Guyana
108 Viet Nam
109 Kyrgyzstan
110 Indonesia
111 Uzbekistan
112 Nicaragua
113 Bolivia
114 Mongolia
115 Moldova, Rep. of
116 Honduras
117 Guatemala
118 Vanuatu
119 Egypt
120 South Africa
121 Equatorial Guinea
122 Tajikistan
123 Gabon
124 Morocco
125 Namibia
126 São Tomé and Principe
127 India
128 Solomon Islands
129 Myanmar
130 Cambodia
131 Botswana
132 Comoros
133 Lao People’s Dem.Rep.
134 Bhutan
135 Pakistan
136 Nepal
137 Papua New Guinea
138 Ghana
139 Bangladesh
140 Timor-Leste
141 Sudan
142 Congo
143 Togo
144 Uganda
145 Zimbabwe
Low human development

60.0
50.3
61.2
49.2
63.6
55.2
46.7
53.8
64.8
53.9
53.7
54.0
52.1
53.7
40.5
60.9
48.7
52.9
53.9
56.5
50.3
55.6
49.2
40.3
56.1
48.9
40.4
41.5
51.9
44.0
44.7
49.9
45.2
40.0
45.1
54.9
49.8
51.1
55.6

62.9
70.4
66.8
66.5
66.5
69.5
63.9
63.9
67.5
67.6
67.1
68.4
69.6
49.0
43.5
63.5
54.6
69.5
48.6
62.9
63.1
62.2
60.1
56.0
36.6
63.0
54.5
62.7
62.9
61.4
55.1
56.7
62.6
55.2
56.3
51.9
54.2
46.8
37.2

81
55
111
104
..
113
147
..
46
116
115
107
157
..
165
78
..
119
104
..
127
71
122
..
99
159
145
156
120
165
106
111
145
..
104
100
128
100
86

52
19
59
31
57
30
53
56
26
32
35
31
33
53
97
92
60
36
48
75
63
19
76
97
82
54
82
70
81
61
69
59
46
87
63
81
78
81
78

101
87
146
172
..
165
243
..
61
170
168
160
235
..
281
111
..
184
155
..
202
99
179
..
142
215
218
267
181
250
147
186
239
..
172
160
216
170
138

69
23
68
41
69
38
66
68
32
41
47
38
39
66
146
118
91
39
65
118
87
22
107
140
112
73
91
85
103
82
93
95
69
124
93
108
140
140
126

65.7
78.4
76.0
72.1
72.9
74.9
68.0
67.6
74.3
70.1
73.5
75.2
79.3
38.1
33.0
69.4
48.9
78.9
36.7
68.6
67.4
62.0
63.5
61.5
16.5
66.5
53.1
65.3
65.6
61.0
46.6
52.9
63.7
52.7
55.4
43.5
53.8
34.4
15.5

54.2
71.0
58.6
63.8
59.9
66.1
60.0
57.9
56.5
63.5
59.7
67.6
69.3
28.9
30.6
59.3
45.6
70.3
31.6
63.1
59.2
59.0
52.7
45.0
13.1
57.8
47.8
60.2
62.7
57.9
41.5
50.4
59.3
47.3
49.6
38.6
45.2
32.9
15.7

190
95
44
310
34
97
390
110
44
110
150
68
84
150
..
45
520
230
270
100
540
550
230
440
330
520
530
260
530
540
370
210
380
..
550
..
480
510
700

170
130
110
230
24
230
420
110
36
110
240
130
84
230
880
100
420
220
300
..
540
130
360
450
100
480
650
420
500
740
300
540
380
660
590
510
570
880
1,100

146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157

44.9
49.6
45.7
49.8
44.4
39.9
43.4
48.5
53.6
38.0
39.3
40.1

55.3
33.0
45.8
36.7
52.7
60.3
52.5
51.5
47.0
55.5
53.6
55.6

109
132
127
128
160
202
150
148
96
183
197
164

78
105
95
63
97
82
120
76
79
90
104
78

180
196
215
190
241
303
250
221
156
319
345
279

126
153
166
84
138
113
183
118
123
123
160
137

54.1
12.0
36.1
18.6
48.1
61.0
50.7
41.3
31.8
54.3
52.6
54.6

48.7
9.3
33.1
11.6
42.9
54.9
44.5
38.2
35.0
48.7
49.1
49.4

490
230
430
..
74
350
750
520
590
730
530
560

550
370
730
550
730
570
1,000
680
1,000
540
740
690

42.8
44.6

43.3
43.6

140
124

98
118

265
209

198
203

33.2
35.5

31.6
29.6

..
1,100

800
1,400

HDI rank

252

MDG
Infant mortality rate
(per 1,000 live births)

Madagascar
Swaziland
Cameroon
Lesotho
Djibouti
Yemen
Mauritania
Haiti
Kenya
Gambia
Guinea
Senegal

158 Nigeria
159 Rwanda

human de velopmen t repor t 2005

table

10

Life expectancy at birth
(years)
HDI rank
160 Angola
161 Eritrea
162 Benin
163 Côte d’Ivoire
164 Tanzania, U. Rep. of
165 Malawi
166 Zambia
167 Congo, Dem. Rep. of the
168 Mozambique
169 Burundi
170 Ethiopia
171 Central African Republic
172 Guinea-Bissau
173 Chad
174 Mali
175 Burkina Faso
176 Sierra Leone
177 Niger
Developing countries
Least developed countries
Arab States
East Asia and the Pacific
Latin America and the Caribbean
South Asia
Sub-Saharan Africa
Central and Eastern Europe and the CIS
OECD
High-income OECD
High human development
Medium human development
Low human development
High income
Middle income
Low income
World

MDG
Under-five mortality rate
(per 1,000 live births)

Probability at birth of
survinging to age 65 a
(% of cohort)

MDG
Maternal mortality ratio
(per 100,000 live births)

1970–75 d

2000–05 d

1970

2003

1970

2003

Female
2000–05 d

Male
2000–05 d

Reported b
1985–2003 e

37.9
44.3
47.0
49.8
49.5
41.8
50.2
46.0
40.7
44.1
43.5
43.5
36.5
40.6
38.0
43.8
35.4
38.4
55.6
44.5
52.1
60.5
61.1
50.1
45.8
69.0
70.3
71.6
70.7
57.6
44.1
71.6
62.0
48.8
59.9

40.7
53.5
53.8
46.0
46.0
39.6
37.4
43.1
41.9
43.5
47.6
39.4
44.6
43.6
47.8
47.4
40.6
44.3
64.9
52.0
66.9
70.4
71.7
63.2
46.1
68.1
77.6
78.8
77.9
67.0
46.0
78.8
70.1
58.2
67.0

180
..
149
158
129
189
109
148
163
138
160
149
..
..
225
163
206
197
109
151
129
84
86
130
143
34
40
22
32
102
150
22
86
130
96

154
45
91
117
104
112
102
129
109
114
112
115
126
117
122
107
166
154
60
99
48
31
27
66
105
20
11
5
9
46
108
5
29
80
54

300
..
252
239
218
330
181
245
278
233
239
248
..
..
400
290
363
330
167
244
197
122
123
206
243
42
53
28
42
155
254
28
125
209
147

260
85
154
192
165
178
182
205
158
190
169
180
204
200
220
207
284
262
88
156
61
39
32
91
179
24
13
6
10
61
183
6
36
124
80

33.0
45.5
52.9
38.5
35.8
24.5
18.5
34.4
30.5
33.1
40.7
24.5
38.8
35.1
44.8
41.7
36.2
40.2
69.6
47.9
73.3
79.2
79.7
67.1
37.0
78.8
88.4
89.9
88.9
73.7
37.5
89.9
79.0
58.3
73.1

27.8
35.9
48.4
34.8
33.4
23.2
20.0
30.8
26.7
29.7
36.6
21.9
33.2
31.2
40.8
37.9
30.7
37.8
62.3
43.5
66.3
71.3
68.2
60.0
33.8
55.4
79.6
81.8
80.0
64.6
34.6
81.8
68.7
52.4
64.5

..
1,000
500
600
530
1,100
730
950
1,100
..
870
1,100
910
830
580
480
1,800
590
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

Adjusted c
2000
1,700
630
850
690
1,500
1,800
750
990
1,000
1,000
850
1,100
1,100
1,100
1,200
1,000
2,000
1,600
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

Sources
Columns 1, 2, 7 and 8: UN 2005h.
Columns 3–6 and 10: UN 2005f, based on data
from a joint effort by UNICEF and the WHO.
Column 9: UNICEF 2004.

Human development indicators

notes
a Data refer to the probability at birth of surviving to
age 65, multiplied by 100.
b Data reported by national authorities.
c Data adjusted based on reviews by the United
Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), World Health
Organization (WHO) and United Nations Population
Fund to account for well documented problems of
underreporting and misclassifications.
d Data refer to estimates for the period specified.
e Data refer to the most recent year available during
the period specified.

MDG
Infant mortality rate
(per 1,000 live births)

hum a n de v e l opme n t re p or t 2005

253

table

11

. . . to acquire knowledge . . .

Commitment to education: public spending

Public expenditure on education by level a
(% of all levels)

Public expenditure on education
As % of GDP
HDI rank

As % of total government
expenditure

Pre-primary
and primary

Secondary

Tertiary

1990

2000–02 b

1990

2000–02 b

1990

2000–02 b

1990

2000–02 b

1990

2000–02 b

7.0
5.4
4.9
3.1
6.5
7.1
4.9
4.8
5.0
5.1
..
5.7
5.5
..
4.8
5.3
5.3
3.1
6.1
..
4.2
2.8
6.3
2.4
3.1
..
4.0
3.3
3.5
7.8
..
4.3
3.9
..
5.8
..
2.5
..
4.6
3.5
1.8
5.1
4.1
4.8
7.2
2.7
4.4
3.8
2.6
4.0
7.8

7.6
6.0 c
4.9
..
5.2
7.7
5.8 c
5.5
6.3
5.7
3.6
5.1
6.4
8.5
5.3
5.6
5.7
4.7
6.7
4.6
4.5
4.4
7.5
4.0
..
6.1
5.8
4.2
6.3
7.6
4.4
..
9.1
4.0
5.5
5.6
4.2
5.7
5.9
..
1.6 c
4.4
..
..
4.5
2.6
5.1
5.8
7.6
..
5.2

14.6
..
14.8
10.4
14.2
13.8
18.7
10.2
..
12.3
..
14.8
11.9
..
..
..
7.6
..
..
..
9.4
17.4
11.3
..
18.2
..
..
22.4
11.3
22.2
..
8.3
..
..
7.8
..
10.4
..
13.8
..
14.6
..
14.6
3.4
..
15.9
20.8
10.8
..
17.8
14.8

16.2
..
13.3
..
12.7
12.8
15.1
13.5
..
17.1
10.5
10.7
12.7
15.4
11.5
11.4
11.1
10.3
15.1
9.5
11.3
23.3
..
..
..
..
12.7
15.5
..
17.3
9.6
..
9.1 c
13.8
14.1
12.8
18.7
..
..
..
22.5 c
7.5
..
..
10.0
9.6
22.4
..
19.0
..
..

39.5
59.5
2.2
..
..
47.7
49.9
37.8
23.3
..
..
21.5
27.9
..
29.7
27.3
23.7
33.0
30.5
..
29.3
26.6
43.0
34.1
29.6
..
44.6
44.4
38.5
37.5
..
25.1
24.1
3.4
55.4
42.8
60.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
53.4
..
37.5
..
11.2
..
..
28.2

36.5
38.4 d
35.0
..
..
34.8
34.7
32.6
31.6
39.5
38.2
35.5
27.0
31.1
32.2
31.3
27.6
34.4
28.6
22.8
35.8
25.1
46.3
27.5
..
..
36.9
35.2
35.3
33.7
25.8
..
..
43.3
30.9
41.6
50.7
33.2
..
..
45.6
24.4
..
..
32.3
44.1
49.3
30.2
28.5
..
42.5

24.7
25.6
57.4
..
62.2
19.6
25.1
40.1
42.9
..
..
37.7
39.4
..
43.8
40.7
46.6
63.2
25.3
..
45.0
38.8
31.3
45.1
36.5
..
32.5
34.1
50.3
37.6
..
44.7
26.1
44.9
23.9
17.5
17.3
..
..
..
..
..
45.8
13.6
..
30.3
..
56.3
..
..
40.7

33.0 c
39.1 c
38.8
..
..
36.4
38.2 c
34.4
44.5
35.3
39.8
39.2
40.6
34.3
47.1
49.7
45.7
46.1
40.5
49.0
41.4
32.8
29.8
34.1
..
..
42.2
43.4
50.0
35.0
50.8
..
..
39.2
38.6
37.9
35.3
40.9
..
..
50.4 c
53.2
..
..
46.7 c
34.4
31.9
52.9
31.5
..
26.1 c

15.2
14.9
32.0
..
28.6
13.2
19.7
20.4
16.5
..
..
32.1
23.9
..
19.6
13.8
19.1
..
37.4
..
15.4
30.8
16.2
19.5
29.3
..
16.3
7.4
3.8
19.2
..
14.6
9.5
46.7
15.2
22.0
20.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
16.0
..
22.6
..
11.6
..
..
9.5

27.5
17.8 c
24.2
..
36.2
28.3
24.2 c
27.6
21.7
25.2
14.9
25.2
32.5
32.0
20.6
17.7
22.6
18.5
24.9
24.5
22.8
32.6
16.7
32.4
..
..
17.2
8.1
14.4
28.6
20.0
..
..
17.5
22.8
19.5
14.0
19.7
..
..
2.4 c
20.2
..
..
19.1
21.5
18.8
15.4
21.2
..
17.4

12.3
12.8

18.7
24.3

25.7
32.3

43.0
49.1

39.0
29.6

36.8
28.7

14.4
16.5

17.5
19.6

Human development indicators

High human development

254

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51

Norway
Iceland
Australia
Luxembourg
Canada
Sweden
Switzerland
Ireland
Belgium
United States
Japan
Netherlands
Finland
Denmark
United Kingdom
France
Austria
Italy
New Zealand
Germany
Spain
Hong Kong, China (SAR)
Israel
Greece
Singapore
Slovenia
Portugal
Korea, Rep. of
Cyprus
Barbados
Czech Republic
Malta
Brunei Darussalam
Argentina
Hungary
Poland
Chile
Estonia
Lithuania
Qatar
United Arab Emirates
Slovakia
Bahrain
Kuwait
Croatia
Uruguay
Costa Rica
Latvia
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Bahamas
Seychelles

52 Cuba
53 Mexico

8.9
3.6

human de velopmen t repor t 2005

18.7
5.3

table

11

Public expenditure on education by level a
(% of all levels)

Public expenditure on education
As % of GDP

As % of total government
expenditure

Pre-primary
and primary

Secondary

Tertiary

2000–02 b

1990

2000–02 b

1990

2000–02 b

1990

2000–02 b

1990

2000–02 b

54 Tonga
55 Bulgaria
56 Panama
57 Trinidad and Tobago
Medium human development

..
5.2
4.7
3.7

4.9 c
3.5
4.5
4.3 c

..
..
20.9
11.6

13.2 c
..
7.7
13.4

..
70.7
37.0
42.5

49.2 d
37.2
34.2
..

..
..
23.3
36.8

28.9 c
46.7
29.2
..

..
13.9
21.3
11.9

..
15.8
28.1
..

58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104

..
..
..
5.1
3.5
..
2.8
3.8
5.1
4.8
..
2.4
..
3.1
5.9
3.5
3.2
3.0
..
5.8
5.1
2.8
3.2
..
4.3
7.0
2.9
2.3
6.4
..
1.1
6.0
8.1
4.6
4.7
2.7
2.2
..
3.8
4.3
4.5
4.1
..
7.7
..
5.3
1.9

..
3.5
3.8
8.1
3.8
4.2
3.5
4.7
5.1
6.0 c
..
5.2
..
4.6 c
..
5.2
4.8 c
..
7.7 c
..
5.4
3.0
3.0
2.7
1.0 c
3.2 c
3.1
..
..
10.0
4.4
6.4
..
5.2
5.6 c
..
3.7
2.3
..
..
6.1
4.9
2.2
3.2
..
..
2.9

..
..
..
18.3
..
..
7.3
11.8
13.2
..
..
15.4
..
11.1
..
20.0
10.7
12.0
..
17.8
19.7
..
17.6
..
17.2
20.5
10.1
12.8
..
..
9.1
13.5
17.1
18.5
..
8.1
..
..
10.0
21.0
12.8
22.4
..
23.5
..
21.1
16.6

..
..
..
20.3
11.5
12.0
..
13.3
12.9
..
..
15.6
..
..
..
28.3
14.6 c
..
..
..
20.3
17.1
..
12.3
8.0 c
..
17.8
..
..
20.3
11.4
18.2
..
18.1
19.4 c
..
..
12.4
..
..
12.3
17.7
11.8
20.7
..
..
20.0

..
..
..
34.3
..
..
52.1
37.7
64.1
57.7
..
39.3
..
54.1
..
56.2
52.6
23.5
48.2
78.8
54.9
..
..
..
34.4
..
..
..
60.5
..
..
39.8
..
61.0
..
..
58.1
..
..
..
37.4
33.2
..
..
..
..
..

..
61.0
30.7
32.0
..
38.3
..
32.0
42.1
..
..
42.1
..
35.9
..
42.3
43.0
..
59.5 d
..
20.0
42.6
22.9
..
41.1
21.7
57.6
..
..
..
55.1
32.9
..
50.9
35.0 d
..
37.7
46.3
..
..
36.8
25.1
..
25.9
..
..
61.0

..
..
..
34.4
..
..
22.1
36.4
31.7
16.2
..
30.9
..
37.0
..
21.6
25.2
4.5
23.3
..
15.0
..
..
..
34.2
..
..
..
14.5
..
22.6
36.4
62.4
20.2
..
84.3
29.4
..
..
..
33.2
39.2
..
..
..
..
..

..
24.0
35.2
33.5
..
40.1
..
38.3
35.8
..
..
29.4
..
47.4 c
..
20.5
23.8 c
..
..
..
31.4 c
27.7
56.0 c
..
36.1 c
43.4 c
22.2
..
..
..
28.3
44.4 c
..
26.3
48.9 c
..
30.1 c
18.9 c
..
..
33.8
36.0
..
53.7 c
..
..
23.6 c

..
..
..
19.9
..
..
9.6
16.6
0.0
14.4
..
20.7
..
7.4
..
14.6
0.0
40.7
12.8
21.2
15.1
..
..
..
18.3
..
..
..
8.8
..
25.8
18.5
35.1
8.1
..
13.4
..
..
..
..
21.1
13.6
..
..
..
..
..

..
15.0
6.7
33.3
..
21.6
..
15.6
9.8
..
..
13.3
..
9.2 c
..
21.7
33.2 c
..
..
..
34.0
14.6
13.1
28.5
5.2
29.8 c
14.0
..
..
..
16.5
22.8
..
19.6
16.0 c
..
32.2
10.9
..
..
19.2
17.1
..
5.8
..
..
6.6

..
4.0

7.9
..

..
17.3

17.0
..

..
38.5

43.8 d
..

..
28.2

29.8
..

..
21.3

17.5
..

Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
Macedonia, TFYR
Antigua and Barbuda
Malaysia
Russian Federation
Brazil
Romania
Mauritius
Grenada
Belarus
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Colombia
Dominica
Oman
Albania
Thailand
Samoa (Western)
Venezuela
Saint Lucia
Saudi Arabia
Ukraine
Peru
Kazakhstan
Lebanon
Ecuador
Armenia
Philippines
China
Suriname
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Paraguay
Tunisia
Jordan
Belize
Fiji
Sri Lanka
Turkey
Dominican Republic
Maldives
Turkmenistan
Jamaica
Iran, Islamic Rep. of
Georgia
Azerbaijan
Occupied Palestinian Territories
Algeria
El Salvador

105 Cape Verde
106 Syrian Arab Republic

hum a n de v e l opme n t re p or t 2005

Human development indicators

1990

HDI rank

255

table

11

Commitment to education: public spending

Public expenditure on education by level a
(% of all levels)

Public expenditure on education

Human development indicators

As % of GDP

256

As % of total government
expenditure

Pre-primary
and primary

Secondary

Tertiary

HDI rank

1990

2000–02 b

1990

2000–02 b

1990

2000–02 b

1990

2000–02 b

1990

2000–02 b

107 Guyana
108 Viet Nam
109 Kyrgyzstan
110 Indonesia
111 Uzbekistan
112 Nicaragua
113 Bolivia
114 Mongolia
115 Moldova, Rep. of
116 Honduras
117 Guatemala
118 Vanuatu
119 Egypt
120 South Africa
121 Equatorial Guinea
122 Tajikistan
123 Gabon
124 Morocco
125 Namibia
126 São Tomé and Principe
127 India
128 Solomon Islands
129 Myanmar
130 Cambodia
131 Botswana
132 Comoros
133 Lao People’s Dem. Rep.
134 Bhutan
135 Pakistan
136 Nepal
137 Papua New Guinea
138 Ghana
139 Bangladesh
140 Timor-Leste
141 Sudan
142 Congo
143 Togo
144 Uganda
145 Zimbabwe
Low human development

3.4
2.0
8.4
1.0
9.5
3.4
2.3
12.3
5.6
..
1.4
4.7
3.9
5.9
..
..
..
5.3
7.9
..
3.7
..
..
..
6.2
..
..
..
2.6
2.0
..
3.2
1.5
..
6.0
5.0
5.5
1.5
7.7

8.4
..
3.1 c
1.2
..
3.1
6.3
9.0
4.9
..
..
11.0 c
..
5.3 c
0.6
2.8
3.9 c
6.5
7.2
..
4.1
3.4 c
..
1.8
2.2
3.9
2.8 c
5.2
1.8 c
3.4
2.3 c
..
2.4
..
..
3.2 c
2.6
..
4.7 c

4.4
7.5
22.5
..
20.4
9.7
..
17.6
17.2
..
11.8
19.2
..
..
..
24.7
..
26.1
..
..
12.2
..
..
..
17.0
..
..
..
7.4
8.5
..
24.3
10.3
..
2.8
14.4
26.4
11.5
..

18.4
..
18.6
9.0 c
..
15.0
19.7
..
21.4
..
..
28.1 c
..
18.5
1.6
17.8
..
26.4
..
..
12.7
..
..
15.3
25.6
24.1
11.0 c
12.9
7.8 c
14.9
17.5 c
..
15.5
..
..
12.6
13.6
..
..

..
..
8.5
..
..
..
..
13.9
..
..
31.1
59.8
..
75.6
..
6.9
..
34.8
..
..
38.9
..
..
..
..
42.4
..
..
..
48.2
..
29.2
45.6
..
..
..
30.4
..
54.1

54.7
..
23.0
37.1
..
50.3
46.9
53.8
37.3
..
..
27.9
..
47.8
34.4
30.8
..
39.8
65.4
..
38.4
..
..
65.6
53.2 d
45.7
47.0
..
..
61.5
71.4
..
45.4 d
..
..
36.1
44.8
..
54.9

..
..
57.9
..
..
..
..
48.8
..
..
12.9
26.6
..
..
..
57.0
..
48.9
..
..
27.0
..
..
..
..
28.2
..
..
..
15.7
..
34.3
42.2
..
..
..
25.8
..
28.6

23.5
..
48.0 c
39.3
..
12.0
23.4
26.4
52.0 c
..
..
57.5 c
..
31.3 c
18.1 c
47.7 c
..
43.5
24.5
..
40.1
..
..
..
23.8
40.1 c
19.0
..
..
22.1
24.3 c
..
45.5
..
..
30.2 c
27.1 c
..
28.6 c

..
..
10.0
..
..
..
..
14.5
..
..
21.2
3.4
..
21.5
..
9.1
..
16.2
..
..
14.9
..
..
..
..
17.3
..
..
..
23.3
..
11.0
8.7
..
..
..
29.0
..
12.3

4.9
..
18.0 c
23.6
..
37.7
25.1
15.5
10.7
..
..
10.5 c
..
14.6 c
34.9
12.1
..
16.3
8.7
..
20.3
..
..
..
18.6
7.7 c
12.6
..
..
10.3
4.3 c
..
9.1
..
..
25.5 c
19.4
..
16.6 c

2.1
5.8
3.2
6.2
3.5
..
..
1.5
6.7
3.8
..
3.9

2.9 c
7.1
3.8
10.4 c
..
9.5 c
..
..
7.0
2.8
1.8 c
3.6

..
19.5
19.6
12.2
10.5
..
..
20.0
17.0
14.6
..
26.9

..
..
17.3
18.4
..
32.8
..
..
22.1
8.9
25.6 c
..

49.1
31.2
70.5
..
58.0
..
33.3
53.1
50.3
41.6
..
43.9

42.1
31.8
..
53.2 d
..
..
..
..
..
54.7 d
52.1 d
..

35.6
24.5
..
..
21.7
..
37.7
19.0
18.8
21.2
..
25.7

29.0 c
41.1 c
..
23.8 c
..
..
..
..
..
21.1 c
..
..

..
26.0
29.5
..
11.5
..
24.9
9.1
21.6
17.8
..
24.0

12.2 c
25.5
..
18.6 c
..
..
..
..
..
14.0 c
..
..

0.9
..

..
2.8 c

..
..

..
..

..
48.2 d

..
..

..
16.7 c

..
..

..
34.7 c

146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157

Madagascar
Swaziland
Cameroon
Lesotho
Djibouti
Yemen
Mauritania
Haiti
Kenya
Gambia
Guinea
Senegal

158 Nigeria
159 Rwanda

human de velopmen t repor t 2005

..
..

table

11

Public expenditure on education by level a
(% of all levels)

Public expenditure on education
As % of GDP
HDI rank
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177

Angola
Eritrea
Benin
Côte d’Ivoire
Tanzania, U. Rep. of
Malawi
Zambia
Congo, Dem. Rep. of the
Mozambique
Burundi
Ethiopia
Central African Republic
Guinea-Bissau
Chad
Mali
Burkina Faso
Sierra Leone
Niger

Notes
As a result of limitations in the data and
metholodogical changes, comparisons of education
expenditure data across countries and over time
must be made with caution. For detailed notes on
the data see www.uis.unesco.org.
a Expenditures by level may not sum to 100 as a
result of rounding or the omission of the categories
expenditures in post-secondary education and
expenditures not allocated by level.
b Data refer to the most recent year available during
the period specified.
c Data refer to a United Nations Educational,
Scientific and Cultural Organization Institute for
Statistics estimate where no national estimate is
available.
d Data refer to primary school expenditure only.

As % of total government
expenditure

Pre-primary
and primary

Secondary

Tertiary

1990

2000–02 b

1990

2000–02 b

1990

2000–02 b

1990

2000–02 b

1990

2000–02 b

3.9
..
..
..
2.8
3.2
2.4
..
3.1
3.4
3.4
2.2
..
..
..
2.4
..
3.2

2.8 c
4.1
3.3 c
4.6 c
..
6.0
2.0 c
..
..
3.9
4.6 c
..
..
..
..
..
3.7
2.3 c

10.7
..
..
..
11.4
11.1
8.7
..
12.0
16.7
9.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
18.6

..
..
..
21.5
..
..
..
..
..
21.8
13.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

96.3
..
..
..
..
44.7
..
..
49.8
46.8
53.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
26.0
57.4
42.2
..
54.9 d
54.8 d
..
..
43.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
51.5

..
..
..
..
..
13.1
..
..
15.7
29.1
28.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
35.4
25.5 c
32.5 c
..
21.1
25.8
..
..
32.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
24.4 c

3.7
..
..
..
..
20.2
..
..
9.9
22.0
12.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
14.9
16.4 c
25.1 c
..
18.3
19.4
..
..
24.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
16.2 c

Sources
Columns 1–5 and 7–10: UNESCO Institute for
Statistics 2005b.
Column 6: calculated on the basis of data on public
expenditure on education by pre-primary and primary
levels from UNESCO Institute for Statistics 2005b.

Human development indicators

hum a n de v e l opme n t re p or t 2005

257

table

12

. . . to acquire knowledge . . .

Literacy and enrolment

Adult literacy rate a
(% ages 15 and above)
HDI rank

1990/91

2002/03 d

1990/91

2002/03 d

1990/91

2001/02 d

Tertiary
students
in science,
math and
engineering
(% of all
tertiary
students)
1998–2003 e

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
99.6
99.5
99.5
99.8 k
..
..
99.8
99.8 k
..
96.0 m
98.9
98.9
99.5
..
99.0
99.8
99.7
98.6 m
91.4 k
99.6
99.3
93.1 k
99.6
99.1 k
98.4 k
99.7
..
..
99.1

100
100
99
81
98
100
84
90
96
97
100
95
98
98
98
100
88
100
100
84
100
..
92
95
96
100
100
100
87
80
87
97
90
94
91
97
88
99
..
89
99
..
99
49
74
92
87
92
..
90
..

100
100
97
90
100 f, g
100
99
96
100
92
100
99
100
100
100
99
90
100
100 f
83
100
98 j
99
99
..
93
100
100 l
96
100
87
96
..
..
91
98
85 l
95
91
95
83
86
90
83
89
90
90
86
100
86 f
100

88
..
79
..
89
85
80
80
87
85
97
84
93
87
81
..
..
..
85
..
..
..
..
83
..
..
..
86
69
..
..
78
..
..
75
76
55
..
..
70
58
..
85
..
57
..
37
..
..
..
..

96
86
88 f
80
98 f, g
100
87
83
97
88
101 f
89
95
96
95
94
89
91
93
88
96
74 f
89
86
..
93
85
88 l
93
90
91
87
..
81
94
83
81 l
88
94
82 f
71
88
87
77 f, o
87
73
53
88
95
76 f
100

100
..
..
..
..
100
80
100
..
..
100
..
100
94
..
96
..
..
92
..
..
100
..
100
..
..
..
99
100
..
..
99
..
..
98
98
..
..
..
64
80
..
89
..
..
94
82
..
..
..
..

100
100
..
99 g
..
..
..
99
..
..
..
100
100
100 i
..
98 i
..
96 g
..
..
..
100
85
..
..
..
..
100
99
99
98
99
93 g
92
..
99
99 n
98
..
..
93
..
99
..
..
93
92
..
..
75
99

18
17
24
18
20 h
27
25
25 h
19
..
20
16
38
20
21 h
..
25
24
19
29
31
30 h
31
30
..
22
29
41
17
..
31
13
8
15 h
21
20
31
22
26
16
..
27
21
..
24
..
26
17
..
..
..

99.8 k
97.6

92
99

94
99

69
45

86
63

92
80

98
93

..
31

MDG
Youth literacy rate a
(% ages 15–24)

1990

2003

1990

2003

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
97.7
..
..
96.3
..
91.4
94.9
88.8
99.6
87.2
..
94.3
99.4
..
88.4
85.5
95.7
99.1
99.6
94.0
99.8
99.3
77.0
71.0
..
82.1
76.7
96.9
96.5
93.9
99.8
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
96.9
91.0
92.5
99.7 k
..
..
96.8
99.7 k
..
87.9 m
92.7
97.2
99.3
..
95.7
99.8
99.6
89.2 m
77.3 k
99.6
87.7
82.9 k
98.1
97.7 k
95.8 k
99.7
..
..
91.9

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
99.8
..
..
99.6
98.2
98.7
99.5
99.0
99.8
99.5
99.8
99.7
99.8
..
97.5
97.9
98.2
99.7
99.8
98.1
99.8
99.8
90.3
84.7
..
95.6
87.5
99.6
98.7
97.4
99.8
..
96.5
..

95.1
87.3

96.9 k
90.3

99.3
95.2

MDG
Net primary
enrolment ratio b
(%)

Net secondary
enrolment ratio b, c
(%)

MDG
Children reaching
grade 5
(% of grade 1 students)

Human development indicators

High human development

258

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51

Norway
Iceland
Australia
Luxembourg
Canada
Sweden
Switzerland
Ireland
Belgium
United States
Japan
Netherlands
Finland
Denmark
United Kingdom
France
Austria
Italy
New Zealand
Germany
Spain
Hong Kong, China (SAR)
Israel
Greece
Singapore
Slovenia
Portugal
Korea, Rep. of
Cyprus
Barbados
Czech Republic
Malta
Brunei Darussalam
Argentina
Hungary
Poland
Chile
Estonia
Lithuania
Qatar
United Arab Emirates
Slovakia
Bahrain
Kuwait
Croatia
Uruguay
Costa Rica
Latvia
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Bahamas
Seychelles

52 Cuba
53 Mexico

human de velopmen t repor t 2005

table

12

1990

2003

1990

2003

1990/91

2002/03 d

1990/91

1990/91

2001/02 d

54 Tonga
55 Bulgaria
56 Panama
57 Trinidad and Tobago
Medium human development

..
97.2
89.0
96.8

98.9 m
98.2
91.9
98.5 k

..
99.4
95.3
99.6

99.3 m
98.2
96.1
99.8 k

92
86
92
91

100 o
90
100
91

83
63
50
..

72 f, o
88
63 f
72 f

90
91
..
..

..
..
90
71 g

..
27
22
35

58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104

68.1
..
..
80.7
99.2
82.0
97.1
79.8
..
99.5
..
88.4
..
54.7
77.0
92.4
98.0
88.9
..
66.2
99.4
85.5
98.8
..
87.6
97.5
91.7
78.3
..
..
90.3
59.1
81.5
89.1
88.6
88.7
77.9
79.4
94.8
..
82.2
63.2
..
..
..
52.9
72.4

81.7 k
96.1
..
88.7
99.4
88.4
97.3
84.3
..
99.6 m
94.6
94.2
..
74.4 k
98.7
92.6
98.7 k
93.0
90.1
79.4
99.4
87.7
99.5 m
..
91.0
99.4
92.6
90.9
88.0
..
91.6
74.3
89.9
76.9
92.9 m
90.4 q
88.3
87.7
97.2 k
98.8 m
87.6 k
77.0
..
98.8 m
91.9
69.8
79.7 k

91.0
..
..
94.8
99.8
91.8
99.3
91.1
..
99.8
..
94.9
..
85.6
94.8
98.1
99.0
96.0
..
85.4
99.8
94.5
99.8
92.1
95.5
99.5
97.3
95.3
..
..
95.6
84.1
96.7
96.0
97.8
95.1
92.7
87.5
98.1
..
91.2
86.3
..
..
..
77.3
83.8

97.0 k
98.7
..
97.2
99.7
96.6
97.8
94.5
..
99.8 m
99.6
97.6
..
98.5 k
99.4
98.0
99.5 k
97.2
95.4
95.9
99.8
96.8
99.8 m
..
96.4
99.8
95.1
98.9
93.5
..
96.3
94.3
99.1
84.2
99.3 m
95.6 q
96.6
94.0
99.2 k
99.8 m
94.5 k
..
..
99.9 m
98.7
90.1
88.9 k

96
94
..
94
99
86
81
95
..
86
..
68
..
69
95
76
..
88
95
59
80
88
88
78
98
..
96
97
78
..
93
94
94
94
100
90
89
58
87
..
96
92
97
100
..
93
73

..
91
..
93
90 f
97
89
97
84 f, g
94
..
87
81
72
95
85 l
98 f
91
99
54
84
100
92
91
100
94
94
..
97 f
90
89
97
92
99
100 f, o
..
86
96
92
..
95
86
89
80
91
95
90

..
..
..
..
..
15
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
19
..
31
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
26
..
..
31
..
..
42
..
..
..
64
..
..
..
..
54
..

..
81 f, o
..
70
..
75
81
74 f
104 f
85
..
55 f
92 f
69
77
..
62 f
59
76 f
53 f
85
69
87
..
50
83
59
..
64 f
58
51
65
80
69 f
76 f, o
..
..
36 f
51 f
..
75 f
..
61
76
84
67 f
49 f

..
..
..
98
..
..
..
98
..
..
..
62
..
97
..
..
..
86
..
83
98
..
..
..
..
..
..
86
..
..
70
87
..
67
..
94
98
..
..
..
..
90
..
..
..
95
..

..
..
..
87
..
..
..
99
79
..
..
69
84
98
..
94 i
94 g
84
97 g
91
..
84
..
92
74
..
76
99
..
88
70
96
97
81 p
88 g
98 n
..
69
..
..
90
95
..
..
..
97
69

31
27
..
40
..
..
27
25
..
..
..
32
..
..
11
..
14
..
..
17
27
..
..
28
..
7h
25
..
19
..
..
31 h
30
..
..
..
21 h
..
..
..
..
..
28
..
19
..
22

63.8
64.8

75.7 k
82.9

81.5
79.9

89.1 k
95.2

94
92

99
98

..
43

58
43

..
96

88
91

..
..

Adult literacy rate a
(% ages 15 and above)

Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
Macedonia, TFYR
Antigua and Barbuda
Malaysia
Russian Federation
Brazil
Romania
Mauritius
Grenada
Belarus
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Colombia
Dominica
Oman
Albania
Thailand
Samoa (Western)
Venezuela
Saint Lucia
Saudi Arabia
Ukraine
Peru
Kazakhstan
Lebanon
Ecuador
Armenia
Philippines
China
Suriname
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Paraguay
Tunisia
Jordan
Belize
Fiji
Sri Lanka
Turkey
Dominican Republic
Maldives
Turkmenistan
Jamaica
Iran, Islamic Rep. of
Georgia
Azerbaijan
Occupied Palestinian Territories
Algeria
El Salvador

105 Cape Verde
106 Syrian Arab Republic

MDG
Youth literacy rate a
(% ages 15–24)

MDG
Net primary
enrolment ratio b
(%)

Net secondary
enrolment ratio b, c
(%)

2002/03 d

MDG
Children reaching
grade 5
(% of grade 1 students)

hum a n de v e l opme n t re p or t 2005

Human development indicators

HDI rank

Tertiary
students
in science,
math and
engineering
(% of all
tertiary
students)
1998–2003 e

259

table

12

Literacy and enrolment

Human development indicators

Adult literacy rate a
(% ages 15 and above)

260

MDG
Youth literacy rate a
(% ages 15–24)

1990/91

2001/02 d

Tertiary
students
in science,
math and
engineering
(% of all
tertiary
students)
1998–2003 e

67
..
..
39
..
..
29
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
29
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
19
..
..
..
18
..
..

76 f, g
65 f, o
..
54
..
39
71 f
77
69
..
30
28 o
81 f, o
66 f
26 f, p
83 f
..
36 f
44
29 f, o
..
..
35
24 f
54 f
..
35
..
..
..
24 f, o
36 f, l
45
20 f, g
..
..
27 f, p
17 f
34 l

93
..
..
84
..
46
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
75
..
..
..
75
..
..
..
85
..
..
97
..
..
..
..
..
59
80
..
..
94
63
51
..
..

77 p
87
..
89
..
65
84
..
..
..
65
72 p
98
65 p
29 g
..
69
81
95
61 g
84
..
65
61
88
72 p
64
91 g
..
65
51 g
63
54
..
84
66
69
64
..

..
20
16
..
..
..
..
26
..
..
19 h
..
..
17
..
18
..
19
8
..
20 h
..
42
17
19
11
8h
..
..
..
..
26
13
..
..
11 h
8
8
..

79
75
..
86
36 l
72
68
..
67
79 f
66
58 f

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

12 f, i
32 f
..
23 f
21 f, l
35 f, p
16 f
..
25 f
33 f
21 f
..

22
76
..
71
87
..
75
..
..
..
59
85

53
73
64
73
80
76
61
..
59
..
..
80

20
11
..
6h
22
..
10
..
29
..
..
..

67 f
87

..
7

29
..

..
60

..
47

..
..

MDG
Net primary
enrolment ratio b
(%)

1990

2003

1990

2003

107 Guyana
108 Viet Nam
109 Kyrgyzstan
110 Indonesia
111 Uzbekistan
112 Nicaragua
113 Bolivia
114 Mongolia
115 Moldova, Rep. of
116 Honduras
117 Guatemala
118 Vanuatu
119 Egypt
120 South Africa
121 Equatorial Guinea
122 Tajikistan
123 Gabon
124 Morocco
125 Namibia
126 São Tomé and Principe
127 India
128 Solomon Islands
129 Myanmar
130 Cambodia
131 Botswana
132 Comoros
133 Lao People’s Dem. Rep.
134 Bhutan
135 Pakistan
136 Nepal
137 Papua New Guinea
138 Ghana
139 Bangladesh
140 Timor-Leste
141 Sudan
142 Congo
143 Togo
144 Uganda
145 Zimbabwe
Low human development

97.2
90.4
..
79.5
98.7
62.7
78.1
97.8
97.5
68.1
61.0
..
47.1
81.2
73.3
98.2
..
38.7
74.9
..
49.3
..
80.7
62.0
68.1
53.8
56.5
..
35.4
30.4
56.6
58.5
34.2
..
45.8
67.1
44.2
56.1
80.7

..
90.3 m
98.7 m
87.9 k
99.3 k
76.7
86.5
97.8
96.2
80.0
69.1
74.0 m
55.6 m
82.4 m
84.2
99.5
..
50.7 k
85.0
..
61.0 q
..
89.7
73.6
78.9 k
56.2 k
68.7
..
48.7
48.6
57.3
54.1
41.1 k
..
59.0 q
82.8 k
53.0
68.9 k
90.0 k

99.8
94.1
..
95.0
99.6
68.2
92.6
98.9
99.8
79.7
73.4
..
61.3
88.5
92.7
99.8
..
55.3
87.4
..
64.3
..
88.2
73.5
83.3
56.7
70.1
..
47.4
46.6
68.6
81.8
42.0
..
65.0
92.5
63.5
70.1
93.9

..
..
99.7 m
98.0 k
99.7 k
86.2
97.3
97.7
98.7
88.9
82.2
..
73.2 m
93.9 m
93.8
99.8
..
69.5 k
92.3
..
76.4 l
..
94.4
83.4
89.1 k
59.0 k
78.5
..
64.5
70.1
66.7
..
49.7 k
..
74.6 q
97.8 k
74.0
80.2 k
97.6 k

89
90
92
97
78
72
91
90
89
90
64
71
84
88
91
77
86
57
83
..
..
83
98
67
85
57
63
..
35
81
66
52
71
..
43
79
75
53
86

99 f
94 f, o
89
92
..
86
95
79
79
87 f, o
87
94 f
91 f
89
85 o
94 i
78 f, g
90
78
97 f, o
87
..
84
93
81 f
55 f, p
85
..
59 f, g
71 f, g
73 f, o
59 l
84
..
46 f, p
54
91
..
79 l

146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157

58.0
71.6
57.9
78.0
..
32.7
34.8
39.7
70.8
..
..
28.4

70.6
79.2
67.9
81.4
..
49.0 k
51.2
51.9 k
73.6
..
..
39.3

72.2
85.1
81.1
87.2
73.2
50.0
45.8
54.8
89.8
42.2
..
40.1

70.1
88.1
..
..
..
67.9 k
61.3
66.2 k
80.3
..
..
49.1

65
77
74
73
31
52
35
22
74
48
25
47

48.7
53.3

66.8 k
64.0

73.6
72.7

88.6 k
76.5

60
67

Madagascar
Swaziland
Cameroon
Lesotho
Djibouti
Yemen
Mauritania
Haiti
Kenya
Gambia
Guinea
Senegal

158 Nigeria
159 Rwanda

human de velopmen t repor t 2005

1990/91

2002/03 d

HDI rank

Net secondary
enrolment ratio b, c
(%)
1990/91

2002/03 d

MDG
Children reaching
grade 5
(% of grade 1 students)

table

12

Adult literacy rate a
(% ages 15 and above)

MDG
Youth literacy rate a
(% ages 15–24)

HDI rank

1990

2003

1990

2003

160 Angola
161 Eritrea
162 Benin
163 Côte d’Ivoire
164 Tanzania, U. Rep. of
165 Malawi
166 Zambia
167 Congo, Dem. Rep. of the
168 Mozambique
169 Burundi
170 Ethiopia
171 Central African Republic
172 Guinea-Bissau
173 Chad
174 Mali
175 Burkina Faso
176 Sierra Leone
177 Niger
Developing countries
Least developed countries
Arab States
East Asia and the Pacific
Latin America and the Caribbean
South Asia
Sub-Saharan Africa
Central and Eastern Europe and the CIS
OECD
High-income OECD
High human development
Medium human development
Low human development
High income
Middle income
Low income
World

..
..
26.4
38.5
62.9
51.8
68.2
47.5
33.5
37.0
28.6
33.2
..
27.7
18.8
..
..
11.4
67.0
44.2
50.8
79.7
85.1
47.7
51.1
98.7
..
..
..
70.6
45.1
..
81.2
50.2
..

66.8
..
33.6
48.1
69.4
64.1 m
67.9 m
65.3
46.5 k
58.9
41.5 k
48.6
..
25.5
19.0 m
12.8 m
29.6
14.4
76.6
54.2
64.1
90.4
89.6
58.9
61.3
99.2
..
..
..
79.4
57.5
..
89.6
60.8
..

..
60.9
40.4
52.6
83.1
63.2
81.2
68.9
48.8
51.6
43.0
52.1
44.1
48.0
27.6
..
..
17.0
81.1
57.2
68.4
95.0
92.7
61.7
68.5
99.7
..
..
..
83.2
63.7
..
93.6
64.4
..

71.4
..
44.4
59.8
78.4
76.3 m
69.4 m
68.7
62.8 k
72.3
57.4 k
58.5
..
37.3
24.2 m
19.4 m
38.2
19.8
85.2
64.2
81.3
98.0
95.9
72.2
73.7
99.5
..
..
..
87.5
70.1
..
96.8
73.0
..

d Data on net enrolment ratios refer to the 2002/03
school year, and data on children reaching grade
5 to the 2001/02 school year, unless otherwise
specified. Data for some countries may refer to
national or UNESCO Institute for Statistics estimates.
For details, see www.uis.unesco.org. Because data
are from different sources, comparisons across
countries should be made with caution.
e Data refer to the most recent year available during
the period specified.
f Preliminary UNESCO Institute for Statistics
estimate, subject to further revision.
g Data refer to the 2000/01 school year.
h Figure should be treated with caution due to the
fact that the reported number of enrolled pupils in
“Not known or unspecified” category represents
more than 10% of the total enrolment.
i Data refer to the 1998/99 school year.
j National estimates.
k Estimate produced by UNESCO Institute for
Statistics in July 2002.
l Data refer to the 2003/04 school year.

1990/91
58
16
45
46
50
50
79
54
45
53
23
53
38
36
20
26
41
24
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

2002/03 d

1990/91

61 f, i
45
58 f, p
61 j
82 r
..
68
..
55
57
51 l
..
45 p
63 f
45
36
..
38
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

2002/03 d

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
5
..
..
6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
22
20 f, g
21 f, o
..
29 f
23 f
..
12
9f
18 f, l
..
9 f, p
10 f
..
9
..
6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

m Data refer to a year between 1995 and 1999.
n Data refer to the 2002/03 school year.
o Data refer to the 2001/02 school year.
p Data refer to the 1999/2000 school year.
q Data refer to a year or period other than that
specified, differ from the standard definition or
refer to only part of a country.
r Data refer to the 2004/05 school year.

1990/91

2001/02 d

..
..
55
73
79
64
..
55
33
62
..
24
..
53
73
70
..
62
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
86
68
69 i
88
44
81 p
..
49
68
62
..
38 i
60 g
75
66
..
69
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

18
17
25
..
22
33
30
..
..
10 h
19
15
..
..
..
..
8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

MDG
Children reaching
grade 5
(% of grade 1 students)

Net secondary
enrolment ratio b, c
(%)

Sources
Columns 1 and 3: UNESCO Institute for Statistics
2003a.
Columns 2 and 4: UNESCO Institute for Statistics
2005a.
Columns 5–10: UNESCO Institute for Statistics 2005c.
Column 11: UNESCO Institute for Statistics 2005d.

Human development indicators

notes
a Data for 1990 refer to estimates produced by
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural
Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics
based on data prior to 1990; data for 2003 refer
to national literacy estimates from censuses or
surveys conducted between 2000 and 2004,
unless otherwise noted. Due to differences in
methodology and timeliness of underlying data,
comparisons across countries and over time should
be made with caution. For more details, see www.
uis.unesco.org/ev.php?ID=4930_201&ID2=DO_
TOPIC.
b The net enrolment ratio is the ratio of enrolled
children of the official age for the education level
indicated to the total population of that age.
Net enrolment ratios exceeding 100% reflect
discrepancies between these two data sets.
c Enrolment ratios are based on the new International
Standard Classification of Education, adopted in
1997 (UNESCO 1997), and so may not be strictly
comparable with those for earlier years.

MDG
Net primary
enrolment ratio b
(%)

Tertiary
students
in science,
math and
engineering
(% of all
tertiary
students)
1998–2003 e

hum a n de v e l opme n t re p or t 2005

261

table

13

. . . to acquire knowledge . . .

Technology: diffusion and creation

MDG
Telephone mainlines a
(per 1,000 people)
HDI rank

MDG
Cellular subscribers a
(per 1,000 people)

MDG
Internet users
(per 1,000 people)

Patents
granted to
residents
(per million
people)

Receipts
Research
of royalties
and
and licence development Researchers
fees
(R&D)
in R&D
expenditures
(US$ per
(per million
person)
(% of GDP)
people)

1990

2003

2002

2003

1997–2002 b

1990–2003 b

909
966
719
1,194
419
980
843
880
793
546
679
768
910
883
912
696
879
1,018
648
785
916
1,079
961
902
852
871
898
701
744
519
965
725
..
..
769
451
511
777
630
533
736
684
638
572
584
..
181
526
..
367
595

7
0
6
0
4
6
6
0
(.)
8
(.)
3
4
1
1
1
1
(.)
0
1
(.)
0
1
0
0
0
0
(.)
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

346
675
567
377
..
..
398
317
386
556
483
522
534
541
..
366
462
337
526
473
239
472
..
150
509
401
..
610
337
371
308
..
..
..
232
232
272
444
202
199
275
256
216
228
232
..
288
404
..
265
..

0
7
85
234
40
317
279
110
72
302
852
186
35
90
88
183
196
22
70
274
29
3
35
30
58
123
3
633
1
0
24
45
..
..
21
22
..
8
15
..
0
13
..
..
20
1
0
0
..
..
0

42.9
0.0
20.1
267.3
81.5
261.8
..
52.4
..
167.2
96.3
116.8
96.5
..
173.0
66.3
19.2
9.1
30.0
51.7
13.2
..
64.7
1.7
47.3
5.4
3.5
27.8
19.9
3.2
4.9
(.)
..
0.9
30.8
0.7
2.9
3.5
0.1
..
..
9.2
..
0.0 c
7.8
0.0 c
0.1
1.9
0.0 c
0.0
..

1.7
3.1
1.5
1.7
1.9
4.3
2.6
1.1
2.2
2.7
3.1
1.9
3.5
2.5
1.9
2.3
2.2
1.1
1.2
2.5
1.0
0.6
5.1
0.6
2.2
1.5
0.9
2.5
0.3
..
1.2
..
..
0.4
1.0
0.6
0.5
0.7
0.7
..
..
0.6
..
0.2
1.1
0.2
0.4
0.4
..
..
0.1

4,442
6,592
3,446
3,757
3,487
5,171
3,594
2,315
3,180
4,526
5,085
2,826
7,431
4,822
2,691
3,134
2,346
1,156
2,593
3,222
2,036
1,568
1,570
1,357
4,352
2,364
1,745
2,979
569
..
1,467
..
282
715
1,473
1,469
419
2,253
1,824
..
..
1,707
..
73
1,920
370
533
1,476
..
..
452

3
295

0
0

9
120

0
1

..
0.8

0.5
0.4

538
259

1990

2003

1990

2003

502
510
456
481
565
681
574
281
393
547
441
464
534
567
441
495
418
388
434
441
316
450
343
389
346
211
243
306
419
281
158
360
136
93
96
86
66
204
212
220
224
135
191
188
172
134
101
234
237
274
124

713
660
542
797
651
..
727
491
489
624
472
614
492
669
..
566
481
484
448
657
429
559
458
454
450
407
411
538
572
497
360
521
..
..
349
307
221
341
239
261
281
241
268
196
..
..
278
285
..
415
256

46
39
11
2
22
54
18
7
4
21
7
5
52
29
19
5
10
5
16
4
1
24
3
0
17
0
1
2
5
0
0
0
7
(.)
(.)
0
1
0
0
9
19
0
10
12
(.)
0
0
0
0
8
0

31
65

64
160

0
1

Human development indicators

High human development

262

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51

Norway
Iceland
Australia
Luxembourg
Canada
Sweden
Switzerland
Ireland
Belgium
United States
Japan
Netherlands
Finland
Denmark
United Kingdom
France
Austria
Italy
New Zealand
Germany
Spain
Hong Kong, China (SAR)
Israel
Greece
Singapore
Slovenia
Portugal
Korea, Rep. of
Cyprus
Barbados
Czech Republic
Malta
Brunei Darussalam
Argentina
Hungary
Poland
Chile
Estonia
Lithuania
Qatar
United Arab Emirates
Slovakia
Bahrain
Kuwait
Croatia
Uruguay
Costa Rica
Latvia
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Bahamas
Seychelles

52 Cuba
53 Mexico

human de velopmen t repor t 2005

table

13

MDG
Telephone mainlines a
(per 1,000 people)

MDG
Cellular subscribers a
(per 1,000 people)

Patents
granted to
residents
(per million
people)

MDG
Internet users
(per 1,000 people)

Receipts
Research
of royalties
and
and licence development Researchers
fees
(R&D)
in R&D
expenditures
(US$ per
(per million
person)
(% of GDP)
people)

1990

2003

1990

2003

1990

2003

2002

2003

1997–2002 b

1990–2003 b

54 Tonga
55 Bulgaria
56 Panama
57 Trinidad and Tobago
Medium human development

46
242
93
141

..
380
122
..

0
0
0
0

..
466
268
399

0
0
0
0

..
206
62
..

..
16
..
0

..
0.6
0.0 c
..

..
0.5
0.4
0.1

..
1,158
95
347

58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104

48
148
253
89
140
65
102
52
177
154
..
69
164
60
13
24
26
76
129
77
136
26
80
155
48
157
10
6
92
124
27
37
72
92
58
7
121
48
29
60
45
40
99
86
..
32
24

136
252
..
182
253
223
199
285
290
311
245
179
..
88
83
105
73
111
..
155
233
67
141
200
122
148
41
209
152
273
46
118
114
113
124
49
268
115
..
77
..
220
134
114
87
69
113

0
0
0
5
0
(.)
0
2
2
0
0
0
0
2
0
1
0
(.)
0
1
0
(.)
0
0
0
0
0
(.)
0
0
0
(.)
(.)
0
0
(.)
1
(.)
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
(.)
0

23
372
..
442
249
264
324
267
376
113
274
141
..
228
358
394
58
273
..
321
136
106
..
234
189
30
270
215
320
529
299
197
242
205
133
73
394
272
..
..
680
51
145
128
133
45
173

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

29
60
..
344
..
..
184
123
169
141
..
53
..
..
10
111
..
60
..
67
..
104
..
143
46
37
..
63
44
..
20
64
81
..
67
13
85
102
..
..
..
72
24
..
40
..
83

..
13
0
..
105
4
26
..
0
54
0
(.)
0
0
0
..
..
..
0
(.)
0
..
0
..
(.)
42
0
5
..
0
..
0
..
0
..
0
1
..
..
0
1
..
27
0
..
(.)
..

..
1.1
0.0 c
0.8
1.2
0.6
0.1 c
0.0 c
0.0 c
0.1
..
0.1
0.0 c
..
1.7
0.1
..
0.0 c
..
0.0 c
0.3
0.1
(.)
..
0.0 c
..
(.)
0.1
..
0.0 c
35.1
1.8
..
0.0 c
..
..
0.0 c
0.0 c
20.7
..
4.6
..
1.2
..
..
..
(.)

..
0.3
..
0.7
1.2
1.0
0.4
0.3
..
0.6
..
0.1
..
..
..
0.2
..
0.4
..
..
1.2
0.1
0.3
..
0.1
0.3
..
1.2
..
0.2
0.1
0.6
..
..
..
..
0.7
..
..
..
..
..
0.3
0.3
..
..
(.)

361
500
..
294
3,415
324
910
..
..
1,870
..
81
..
..
..
289
..
222
481
..
1,749
225
744
..
84
1,606
..
633
..
179
83
1,013
1,977
..
..
197
345
..
..
..
..
484
2,317
1,248
..
..
47

24
41

156
..

0
0

116
68

0
0

44
35

..
0

0.2
..

(.)
0.2

131
29

Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
Macedonia, TFYR
Antigua and Barbuda
Malaysia
Russian Federation
Brazil
Romania
Mauritius
Grenada
Belarus
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Colombia
Dominica
Oman
Albania
Thailand
Samoa (Western)
Venezuela
Saint Lucia
Saudi Arabia
Ukraine
Peru
Kazakhstan
Lebanon
Ecuador
Armenia
Philippines
China
Suriname
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Paraguay
Tunisia
Jordan
Belize
Fiji
Sri Lanka
Turkey
Dominican Republic
Maldives
Turkmenistan
Jamaica
Iran, Islamic Rep. of
Georgia
Azerbaijan
Occupied Palestinian Territories
Algeria
El Salvador

105 Cape Verde
106 Syrian Arab Republic

hum a n de v e l opme n t re p or t 2005

Human development indicators

HDI rank

263

table

13

Technology: diffusion and creation

Human development indicators

MDG
Telephone mainlines a
(per 1,000 people)

264

MDG
Cellular subscribers a
(per 1,000 people)

MDG
Internet users
(per 1,000 people)

Patents
granted to
residents
(per million
people)

Receipts
Research
of royalties
and
and licence development Researchers
fees
(R&D)
in R&D
expenditures
(US$ per
(per million
person)
(% of GDP)
people)

HDI rank

1990

2003

1990

2003

1990

2003

2002

2003

1997–2002 b

1990–2003 b

107 Guyana
108 Viet Nam
109 Kyrgyzstan
110 Indonesia
111 Uzbekistan
112 Nicaragua
113 Bolivia
114 Mongolia
115 Moldova, Rep. of
116 Honduras
117 Guatemala
118 Vanuatu
119 Egypt
120 South Africa
121 Equatorial Guinea
122 Tajikistan
123 Gabon
124 Morocco
125 Namibia
126 São Tomé and Principe
127 India
128 Solomon Islands
129 Myanmar
130 Cambodia
131 Botswana
132 Comoros
133 Lao People’s Dem. Rep.
134 Bhutan
135 Pakistan
136 Nepal
137 Papua New Guinea
138 Ghana
139 Bangladesh
140 Timor-Leste
141 Sudan
142 Congo
143 Togo
144 Uganda
145 Zimbabwe
Low human development

20
1
72
6
69
13
28
32
106
17
21
18
30
93
4
45
22
16
39
19
6
15
2
(.)
21
8
2
4
8
3
8
3
2
..
3
7
3
2
13

..
54
76
39
67
37
72
56
219
49
77
31
127
..
18
37
29
40
66
46
46
13
7
3
75
17
12
34
27
16
..
13
5
..
27
2
12
2
..

0
0
0
(.)
0
0
0
0
0
0
(.)
0
(.)
(.)
0
0
0
(.)
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
(.)
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

..
34
27
87
13
85
152
130
132
55
165
38
84
364
76
7
224
244
116
32
25
3
1
35
297
3
20
11
18
2
..
36
10
..
20
94
44
30
..

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

..
43
38
38
19
..
..
58
80
40
..
36
44
..
..
1
26
33
34
99
17
5
1
2
..
6
3
20
..
..
..
..
2
..
9
4
42
5
..

..
0
10
0
17
0
..
31
48
1
..
..
2
0
..
3
..
0
..
..
0
..
..
..
0
..
..
..
..
..
0
0
..
..
0
..
..
0
0

41.9
..
0.4
..
..
0.0 c
0.2
..
0.3
0.0 c
0.0 c
..
1.8
1.1
..
0.1
..
0.9
0.0
..
(.) c
..
0.0 c
..
0.3 c
..
..
..
0.1
..
..
0.0 c
(.)
..
..
..
0.0 c
0.2
..

..
..
0.2
..
..
0.1
0.3
0.3
..
0.1
..
..
0.2
0.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.8
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.2
0.7
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.8
..

..
..
413
..
..
73
118
710
171
74
..
..
..
192
..
..
..
..
..
..
120
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
88
62
..
..
..
..
..
29
..
25
..

3
17
3
7
11
11
3
7
8
7
2
6

4
44
..
16
15
..
14
17
10
..
3
22

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

17
84
66
47
34
35
127
38
50
..
14
56

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

4
26
..
14
10
..
4
18
..
..
5
22

(.)
0
..
0
..
..
..
..
0
0
..
..

0.1
0.1 c
..
5.9 c
..
..
..
0.0 c
0.4
..
(.)
(.) c

0.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

15
..
..
42
..
..
..
..
..
..
286
..

3
2

7
..

0
0

26
16

0
0

6
..

..
..

..
0.0 c

..
..

..
..

146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157

Madagascar
Swaziland
Cameroon
Lesotho
Djibouti
Yemen
Mauritania
Haiti
Kenya
Gambia
Guinea
Senegal

158 Nigeria
159 Rwanda

human de velopmen t repor t 2005

table

13

MDG
Telephone mainlines a
(per 1,000 people)

MDG
Cellular subscribers a
(per 1,000 people)

Patents
granted to
residents
(per million
people)

MDG
Internet users
(per 1,000 people)

Receipts
Research
of royalties
and
and licence development Researchers
fees
(R&D)
in R&D
expenditures
(US$ per
(per million
person)
(% of GDP)
people)

HDI rank

1990

2003

1990

2003

1990

2003

2002

2003

1997–2002 b

1990–2003 b

160 Angola
161 Eritrea
162 Benin
163 Côte d’Ivoire
164 Tanzania, U. Rep. of
165 Malawi
166 Zambia
167 Congo, Dem. Rep. of the
168 Mozambique
169 Burundi
170 Ethiopia
171 Central African Republic
172 Guinea-Bissau
173 Chad
174 Mali
175 Burkina Faso
176 Sierra Leone
177 Niger
Developing countries
Least developed countries
Arab States
East Asia and the Pacific
Latin America and the Caribbean
South Asia
Sub-Saharan Africa
Central and Eastern Europe and the CIS
OECD
High-income OECD
High human development
Medium human development
Low human development
High income
Middle income
Low income
World

8
..
3
6
3
3
8
1
3
1
3
2
6
1
1
2
3
1
29
3
79
18
89
7
5
120
365
439
289
22
3
420
46
6
81

7
9
9
14
4
8
8
..
..
3
6
..
8
..
..
5
..
..
113
8
94
172
165
47
9
232
494
567
495
123
8
562
180
32
184

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
(.)
0
4
(.)
(.)
(.)
(.)
(.)
7
9
6
(.)
0
9
(.)
(.)
1

..
0
34
77
25
13
22
19
23
9
1
10
1
8
23
19
..
6
134
16
118
212
239
24
54
287
644
705
652
138
25
710
224
24
226

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
(.)
0
0
(.)
0
0
0
0
3
3
2
0
0
3
0
0
1

..
7
10
14
7
3
6
..
..
2
1
1
15
..
..
4
..
..
53
4
49
80
..
18
..
..
403
480
414
46
..
477
77
14
120

..
..
..
..
0
0
0
..
0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
0
..
..
..
..
..
2
..
..
48
248
310
250
7
..
302
10
..
62

..
..
..
0.0 c
0.0 c
0.0 c
..
..
0.8
0.0 c
0.0 c
..
..
..
(.) c
..
(.)
..
0.6
..
..
..
1.0
..
..
2.0
80.6
101.3
79.2
0.3
..
100.1
0.6
..
17.9

..
..
..
..
..
..
(.)
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.2
..
..
0.9
..
..
1.5
0.6
0.7
..
1.0
2.5
2.6
2.5
0.8
..
2.5
0.7
..
2.4

..
..
..
..
..
..
47
..
..
..
..
47
..
..
..
17
..
..
400
..
..
706
293
135
..
2,213
3,046
3,676
3,004
521
..
3,630
760
..
1,146

notes
a Telephone mainlines and cellular subscribers
combined form an indicator for Millennium
Development Goal 8; see Index to Millennium
Development Goal Indicators in the indicator tables.
b Data refer to the most recent year available during
the period specified.
c Data refer to 2002.

Human development indicators

Sources
Columns 1–6: ITU 2005.
Column 7: calculated on the basis of data on patents
granted to residents from WIPO 2004 and data on
population from UN 2005h.
Column 8: calculated on the basis of data on receipts
of royalties and licence fees from World Bank 2005c,
based on data from the International Monetary Fund,
and data on population from UN 2005h.
Columns 9 and 10: World Bank 2005c, based on
data from the United Nations Educational, Scientific
and Cultural Organization; aggregates calculated
for the Human Development Report Office by the
World Bank.

hum a n de v e l opme n t re p or t 2005

265

table

14

. . . to have access to the resources needed for a decent standard of living . . .

Economic performance

GDP per capita
GDP

HDI rank

US$ billions
2003

PPP US$
billions
2003

GDP per capita

Annual growth rate
(%)

US$
2003

PPP US$
2003

1975–2003

1990–2003

48,412
36,377
26,275
59,143
27,079
33,676
43,553
38,487
29,096
37,648
33,713
31,532
31,058
39,332
30,253
29,410
31,289
25,471
19,847
29,115
20,404
22,987
16,481
15,608
21,492
13,909
14,161
12,634
14,786
9,708
8,794
12,157
..
3,524
8,169
5,487
4,591
6,713
5,274
.. d
.. d
6,033
.. d
17,421
6,479
3,308
4,352
4,771
7,397
16,571
8,610

37,670
31,243
29,632
62,298
30,677
26,750
30,552
37,738
28,335
37,562
27,967
29,371
27,619
31,465
27,147
27,677
30,094
27,119
22,582
27,756
22,391
27,179
20,033
19,954
24,481
19,150
18,126
17,971
18,776 c
15,720
16,357
17,633
..
12,106
14,584
11,379
10,274
13,539
11,702
..
..
13,494
17,479 d
18,047 e
11,080
8,280
9,606 e
10,270
12,404
17,159 d
..

2.8
1.7
1.9
3.9
1.6
1.6
1.0
4.5
1.9
2.0
2.4
1.8
2.0
1.6
2.1
1.7
2.1
2.0
1.0
2.0
2.2
4.3
1.9
1.0
4.9
..
2.8
6.1
4.6
1.2
..
4.3
..
0.4
1.1
..
4.0
0.4 b
..
..
–3.3 b
0.5 b
1.1 b
–1.2 b
..
1.2
1.3
(.)
5.1 b
1.3 b
2.9

2.9
2.1
2.6
3.6
2.3
2.0
0.5
6.7
1.8
2.1
1.0
2.1
2.5
1.9
2.5
1.6
1.8
1.5
2.1
1.3
2.4
2.1
1.6
2.1
3.5
3.1
2.2
4.6
3.2
1.4
1.5
3.3
..
1.3
2.6
4.2
4.1
3.3
0.5
..
–2.1 b
2.4
1.5 b
–2.3 b
2.1
0.9
2.6
2.2
3.1
0.3 b
2.2

..
6,121

..
9,168

..
0.9

3.5 b
1.4

Highest
value
during
1975–2003
(PPP US$)

Average annual change
in consumer price index
(%)

Year of
highest
value

1990–2003

2002–03

2001
2003
2003
2003
2003
2003
2001
2003
2003
2003
2003
2002
2003
2002
2003
2003
2003
2003
2003
2001
2003
2000
2000
2003
2000
2003
2001
2003
2001
2000
2003
2000
..
1998
2003
2003
2003
2003
1990
..
1975
2003
2002
1975
2003
1998
1999
1989
2002
1989
..

2.3
3.2
2.4
2.0
1.8
1.7
1.3
2.7
1.9
2.6
0.4
2.6
1.6
2.2
2.7
1.6
2.1
3.3
1.9
1.8
3.5
3.5
7.7
7.2
1.3
10.3
4.0
4.5
3.4
2.3
6.1
2.8
..
7.2
16.9
19.1
7.2
14.8
19.3
2.5
..
8.1
0.7
1.9
52.8
25.5
14.1
19.0
3.2
2.0
2.4

2.5
2.1
2.8
2.0
2.8
1.9
0.6
3.5
1.6
2.3
–0.3
2.1
0.9
2.1
2.9
2.1
1.4
2.7
1.8
1.0
3.0
–2.6
0.7
3.5
0.5
5.6
3.3
3.6
4.1
1.6
0.1
0.5
..
13.4
4.6
0.7
2.8
1.3
–1.2
2.3
..
8.6
..
1.0
0.1
19.4
9.4
2.9
2.2
3.0
3.3

..
2000

..
16.7

..
4.5

Human development indicators

High human development

266

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51

Norway
Iceland
Australia
Luxembourg
Canada
Sweden
Switzerland
Ireland
Belgium
United States
Japan
Netherlands
Finland
Denmark
United Kingdom
France
Austria
Italy
New Zealand
Germany
Spain
Hong Kong, China (SAR)
Israel
Greece
Singapore
Slovenia
Portugal
Korea, Rep. of
Cyprus
Barbados
Czech Republic
Malta
Brunei Darussalam
Argentina
Hungary
Poland
Chile
Estonia
Lithuania
Qatar
United Arab Emirates
Slovakia
Bahrain
Kuwait
Croatia
Uruguay
Costa Rica
Latvia
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Bahamas
Seychelles

52 Cuba
53 Mexico

220.9
10.5
522.4
26.5
856.5
301.6
320.1
153.7
301.9
10,948.5
4,300.9
511.5
161.9
211.9
1,794.9
1,757.6
253.1
1,468.3
79.6
2,403.2
838.7
156.7
110.2
172.2
91.3
27.7
147.9
605.3
11.4
2.6
89.7
4.9
..
129.6
82.7
209.6
72.4
9.1
18.2
.. d
.. d
32.5
.. d
41.7
28.8
11.2
17.4
11.1
0.3
5.3
0.7
..
626.1

human de velopmen t repor t 2005

171.9
9.0
589.1
27.9
970.3
239.6
224.6
150.7
294.0
10,923.4 a
3,567.8
476.5
144.0
169.5
1,610.6
1,654.0
243.5
1,563.3
90.5
2,291.0
920.3
185.3
134.0
220.2
104.0
38.2
189.3
861.0
14.3 c
4.3
166.9
7.0
..
445.2
147.7
434.6
162.1
18.3
40.4
..
..
72.7
12.2 d
43.2 e
49.2
28.0
38.5 e
23.8
0.6
5.4 d
..
..
937.8

37,911
31,243
29,632
62,298
30,677
26,750
31,098
37,738
28,335
37,562
27,967
29,568
27,619
31,471
27,147
27,677
30,094
27,119
22,582
27,769
22,391
27,294
21,822
19,954
24,870
19,150 b
18,597
17,971
18,776 b
16,220
16,357 b
18,908
..
13,757
14,584
11,379 b
10,274
13,539 b
12,075 b
..
49,432 b, e
13,494 b
17,479 b
29,760 b, e
11,080 b
9,858
9,836 e
10,482 b
12,413 b
18,260 b
..
..
9,442

table

14

GDP per capita
GDP

HDI rank
54 Tonga
55 Bulgaria
56 Panama
57 Trinidad and Tobago
Medium human development
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
Macedonia, TFYR
Antigua and Barbuda
Malaysia
Russian Federation
Brazil
Romania
Mauritius
Grenada
Belarus
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Colombia
Dominica
Oman
Albania
Thailand
Samoa (Western)
Venezuela
Saint Lucia
Saudi Arabia
Ukraine
Peru
Kazakhstan
Lebanon
Ecuador
Armenia
Philippines
China
Suriname
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Paraguay
Tunisia
Jordan
Belize
Fiji
Sri Lanka
Turkey
Dominican Republic
Maldives
Turkmenistan
Jamaica
Iran, Islamic Rep. of
Georgia
Azerbaijan
Occupied Palestinian Territories
Algeria
El Salvador

105 Cape Verde
106 Syrian Arab Republic

0.2
19.9
12.9
10.5
.. d
4.7
0.8
103.7
432.9
492.3
57.0
5.2
0.4
17.5
7.0
78.7
0.3
.. d
6.1
143.0
0.3
85.4
0.7
214.7
49.5
60.6
29.7
19.0
27.2
2.8
80.6
1,417.0
1.2
0.4
6.0
25.0
9.9
1.0
2.0
18.2
240.4
16.5
0.7
6.2
8.1
137.1
4.0
7.1
3.5
66.5
14.9
0.8
21.5

Annual growth rate
(%)

US$
2003

PPP US$
2003

0.7 e
60.5
20.5
14.1

1,603
2,539
4,319
8,007

6,992 e
7,731
6,854
10,766

1.8 b
0.3 b
1.0
(.)

2.0
0.6
2.4
3.2

.. d
2,277
9,629
4,187
3,018
2,788
2,619
4,274
4,199
1,770
1,684
1,764
3,639
.. d
1,933
2,305
1,505
3,326
4,314
9,532
1,024
2,231
2,000
4,224
2,091
918
989
1,100
2,635
3,403
1,069
2,530
1,858
3,612
2,438
948
3,399
1,893
2,441
1,275
3,083
2,066
778
867
1,026
2,090
2,277

..
6,794
10,294
9,512
9,230
7,790
7,277
11,287
7,959
6,052
5,967
6,702 e
5,448
13,584 d
4,584
7,595
5,854 e
4,919
5,709
13,226 e
5,491
5,260
6,671
5,074
3,641
3,671
4,321
5,003 f
..
6,123
4,684 e
7,161
4,320
6,950
5,880
3,778
6,772
6,823 e
..
5,938
4,104
6,995
2,588
3,617
..
6,107 e
4,781 e

..
..
3.8 b
3.9
–2.1 b
0.8
–0.8 b
4.6 b
3.2 b
..
..
1.4
3.2 b
2.2 b
0.3 b
5.1
0.8 b
–1.1
3.6 b
–2.4
–5.7 b
–0.5
..
3.4 b
0.1
..
0.3
8.2
–0.6
3.4
0.6
2.1
0.3
3.1
0.7
3.4
1.8
2.0
..
–3.0 b
0.4
–0.3
–4.9
..
..
–0.1
0.2

1,698
1,237

5,214 e
3,576

3.0 b
0.9

..
13.9
0.8
235.7
1,323.8
1,375.7
158.2
13.8
0.8
59.8
24.7
298.8 e
0.4
34.5 d
14.5
471.0
1.0 e
126.3
0.9
298.0 e
265.5
142.8
99.3
22.8
47.4
11.2
352.2
6,445.9 f
..
0.7
26.4 e
70.9
22.9
1.9
4.9
72.7
478.9
59.6 e
..
28.9
10.8
464.4
13.3
29.8
..
194.4 e
31.2 e
2.4 e
62.2

1975–2003

Average annual change
in consumer price index
(%)

Year of
highest
value

1990–2003

2002–03

6,992 b, e
7,968 b
6,854
10,766

2003
1988
2003
2003

4.3
83.8
1.1
5.2

11.6
2.2
1.4
3.8

..
–0.7
1.6
3.4
–1.5
1.2
0.6
4.0
2.4
0.9
11.9 b
0.4
1.2
0.9 b
5.1
2.8
2.4
–1.5
0.3
–0.6
–4.7
2.1
0.4
2.9
0.1
2.8
1.2
8.5
0.9
1.8
–0.6
3.1
0.9
2.2
1.8
3.3
1.3
4.0
4.7 b
–1.3
(.)
2.1
–2.7
–2.6
–6.0 b
0.6
2.1

..
8,115 b
10,469 b
9,512
11,269 b
7,918
7,277 b
11,287 b
7,977 b
6,052 b
.. b
6,852 e
6,278 b
13,965 b
4,584 b
7,595
5,978 b, e
8,038
5,996 b
24,461 e
9,755 b
5,845
6,671 b
5,074 b
3,763
3,671 b
4,539
5,003 f
..
6,123
5,380 e
7,161
5,195
6,950
5,880
3,778
6,772
6,823 e
..
6,589 b
4,125
8,443
7,065 b
3,617 b
..
6,319 e
5,456 e

..
1990
1999
2003
1989
2002
2003
2003
2000
2003
..
1997
2000
2001
2003
2003
1986
1977
1999
1977
1989
1981
2003
2003
1988
2003
1982
2003
..
2003
1981
2003
1987
2003
2003
2003
2003
2003
..
1988
1991
1976
1985
2003
..
1985
1978

3.5
7.1
..
3.1
66.6
114.0
78.7
6.5
2.0
185.8
..
17.0
1.6
0.2
19.2
4.1
3.6
41.1
2.5
0.5
85.8
18.5
38.8
..
37.7
36.9
7.3
6.0
67.7
1.9
11.8
3.9
3.0
1.7
3.1
9.7
72.4
8.7
5.0
..
18.3
22.8
17.7
109.1
..
12.7
6.6

..
1.1
..
1.1
13.7
14.7
15.3
3.9
..
28.4
..
7.1
1.6
–0.4
0.5
1.8
0.1
31.1
0.9
0.6
5.2
2.3
6.4
..
7.9
4.8
3.0
1.2
23.0
0.3
14.2
2.7
2.3
2.6
4.2
6.3
25.3
27.4
–2.9
..
10.3
16.5
..
..
..
2.6
2.1

3.3
1.4

5,214 b, e
3,696

2003
1998

4.8
4.9

..
..

1990–2003

hum a n de v e l opme n t re p or t 2005

Human development indicators

58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104

US$ billions
2003

GDP per capita

PPP US$
billions
2003

Highest
value
during
1975–2003
(PPP US$)

267

table

14

Economic performance

GDP per capita
GDP

HDI rank

Human development indicators

107 Guyana
108 Viet Nam
109 Kyrgyzstan
110 Indonesia
111 Uzbekistan
112 Nicaragua
113 Bolivia
114 Mongolia
115 Moldova, Rep. of
116 Honduras
117 Guatemala
118 Vanuatu
119 Egypt
120 South Africa
121 Equatorial Guinea
122 Tajikistan
123 Gabon
124 Morocco
125 Namibia
126 São Tomé and Principe
127 India
128 Solomon Islands
129 Myanmar
130 Cambodia
131 Botswana
132 Comoros
133 Lao People’s Dem. Rep.
134 Bhutan
135 Pakistan
136 Nepal
137 Papua New Guinea
138 Ghana
139 Bangladesh
140 Timor-Leste
141 Sudan
142 Congo
143 Togo
144 Uganda
145 Zimbabwe
Low human development

268

146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157

Madagascar
Swaziland
Cameroon
Lesotho
Djibouti
Yemen
Mauritania
Haiti
Kenya
Gambia
Guinea
Senegal

158 Nigeria
159 Rwanda

GDP per capita

Annual growth rate
(%)

US$ billions
2003

PPP US$
billions
2003

US$
2003

PPP US$
2003

1975–2003

1990–2003

0.7
39.2
1.9
208.3
9.9
4.1
7.9
1.3
2.0
7.0
24.7
0.3
82.4
159.9
2.9
1.6
6.1
43.7
4.3
0.1
600.6
0.3
..
4.2
7.5
0.3
2.1
0.7
82.3
5.9
3.2
7.6
51.9
0.3
17.8
3.6
1.8
6.3
.. d

3.3 e
202.5
8.8
721.5
44.6
17.9 e
22.8
4.6
6.4
18.6 e
51.0 e
0.6 e
266.9
474.1 e
9.3 c
7.0
8.6
120.6
12.4 e
..
3,078.2 e
0.8 e
..
27.9 e
15.0
1.0 e
10.0
..
311.3
35.0
14.4 e
46.3 e
244.4
..
64.1 e
3.6
8.2 e
36.8 e
31.4 c

965
482
378
970
389
745
892
514
463
1,001
2,009
1,348
1,220
3,489
5,900
246
4,505
1,452
2,120
378
564
553
..
315
4,372
538
375
797
555
237
578
369
376
389
530
949
362
249
.. d

4,230 e
2,490
1,751
3,361
1,744
3,262 e
2,587
1,850
1,510
2,665 e
4,148 e
2,944 e
3,950
10,346 e
19,780 c, e
1,106
6,397
4,004
6,180 e
..
2,892 e
1,753 e
..
2,078 e
8,714
1,714 e
1,759
..
2,097
1,420
2,619 e
2,238 e
1,770
..
1,910 e
965
1,696 e
1,457 e
2,443 c

0.7
5.0 b
–3.1 b
4.1
–1.2 b
–2.8
–0.3
–2.0 b
–5.1 b
0.1
0.2
0.2 b
2.7
–0.6
11.2 b
–8.1 b
–1.5
1.3
–0.1 b
–0.5 b
3.3
1.4
1.8 b
..
5.1
–1.0 b
3.3 b
4.0 b
2.5
2.1
0.4
0.4
1.9
..
1.1
–0.1
–0.8
2.6 b
(.) b

3.6
5.9
–2.4
2.0
–0.5
0.9
1.3
–2.5
–5.7
0.2
1.1
–0.3
2.5
0.1
16.8
–6.5
–0.4
1.0
0.9
–0.2
4.0
–2.5
5.7 b
4.0 b
2.7
–1.3
3.7
3.6
1.1
2.2
0.2
1.8
3.1
..
3.3
–1.4
0.4
3.9
–0.8 b

5.5
1.8
12.5
1.1
0.6
10.8
1.1
2.9
14.4
0.4
3.6
6.5

13.7
5.2
34.1
4.6 e
1.5 e
17.0
5.0 e
14.7 e
33.1
2.6 e
16.6
16.9

324
1,669
776
635
886
565
384
346
450
278
459
634

809
4,726
2,118
2,561 e
2,086 e
889
1,766 e
1,742 e
1,037
1,859 e
2,097
1,648

–1.6
1.8
–0.5
3.1
–4.2 b
..
0.4
–2.3
0.2
–0.2
1.4 b
(.)

–0.9
0.2
0.2
2.3
–3.3
2.4
1.6
–2.8
–0.6
–0.1
1.6
1.3

58.4
1.6

143.3
10.6 e

428
195

1,050
1,268 e

–0.5
–0.5

(.)
0.7

human de velopmen t repor t 2005

Highest
value
during
1975–2003
(PPP US$)

Average annual change
in consumer price index
(%)

Year of
highest
value

1990–2003

2002–03

4,482 e
2,490 b
2,586 b
3,493
1,744 b
7,602 e
2,690
2,888 b
3,974 b
2,876 e
4,255 e
3,935 b, e
3,950
12,663 e
19,780 b, e
2,790 b
11,767
4,004
8,462 b, e
..
2,892 e
2,713 e
..
2,078 b, e
9,182
2,177 b, e
1,759 b
..
2,097
1,444
2,900 e
2,238 e
1,770
..
1,910 e
1,318
2,227 e
1,457 b, e
3,112 b

1997
2003
1990
1997
2003
1977
1977
1988
1990
1979
1980
1984
2003
1981
2001
1988
1976
2003
1980
..
2003
1996
..
2003
2002
1985
2003
..
2003
2001
1994
2003
2003
..
2003
1996
1980
2003
1998

5.8
2.8
16.5
13.9
..
22.3
7.0
29.5
17.8
16.4
9.1
2.7
7.0
8.0
..
..
4.6
3.1
9.4
..
7.9
9.9
25.9
4.3
9.6
..
29.7
7.7
8.1
7.4
10.3
27.0
5.0
..
63.6
7.3
6.6
7.9
36.1

..
3.1
3.5
6.6
..
5.1
3.3
5.1
11.7
7.7
5.5
3.0
4.5
5.9
..
..
..
1.2
7.2
..
3.8
10.0
36.6
1.2
9.2
..
15.5
1.6
2.9
5.7
14.7
26.7
5.7
..
..
–0.8
–1.0
7.8
..

1,274
4,777
2,865
2,561 e
.. b, e
889 b
1,827 e
3,309 e
1,204
2,108 e
2,122 b
1,669

1975
1998
1986
2003
..
2003
1976
1980
1990
1986
2002
1976

15.8
9.2
5.5
9.0
..
20.8
5.6
19.7
12.6
4.0
..
4.3

–1.2
7.3
..
6.7
..
10.8
5.2
39.3
9.8
..
..
(.)

1,086
1,446 e

1977
1983

26.0
12.3

14.0
6.9

table

14

GDP per capita
GDP

HDI rank

US$ billions
2003

160 Angola
161 Eritrea
162 Benin
163 Côte d’Ivoire
164 Tanzania, U. Rep. of
165 Malawi
166 Zambia
167 Congo, Dem. Rep. of the
168 Mozambique
169 Burundi
170 Ethiopia
171 Central African Republic
172 Guinea-Bissau
173 Chad
174 Mali
175 Burkina Faso
176 Sierra Leone
177 Niger
Developing countries
Least developed countries
Arab States
East Asia and the Pacific
Latin America and the Caribbean
South Asia
Sub-Saharan Africa
Central and Eastern Europe and the CIS
OECD
High-income OECD
High human development
Medium human development
Low human development
High income
Middle income
Low income
World

13.2
0.8
3.5
13.7
10.3
1.7
4.3
5.7
4.3
0.6
6.7
1.2
0.2
2.6
4.3
4.2
0.8
2.7
6,981.9 T
221.4 T
773.4 T
2,893.6 T
1,745.9 T
902.2 T
418.5 T
1,189.9 T
29,650.5 T
28,369.5 T
30,341.0 T
5,414.8 T
202.2 T
29,052.4 T
6,021.9 T
1,103.0 T
36,058.3 T

Annual growth rate
(%)

US$
2003

PPP US$
2003

1975–2003

1990–2003

31.7 e
3.7 e
7.5
24.8
22.3
6.6
9.1
..
21.0 e
4.7 e
48.8 e
4.2 e
1.1 e
10.4 e
11.6
14.2 e
2.9
9.8 e
21,525.4 T
895.1 T
1,683.6 T
9,762.2 T
3,947.0 T
4,235.9 T
1,227.4 T
3,203.5 T
29,840.6 T
27,601.9 T
30,941.3 T
19,581.1 T
590.4 T
28,396.0 T
18,244.6 T
4,948.9 T
51,150.6 T

975
171
517
816
287
156
417
107
230
83
97
309
160
304
371
345
149
232
1,414
329
2,611
1,512
3,275
617
633
2,949
25,750
31,020
25,167
1,237
358
30,589
2,015
483
5,801

2,344 e
849 e
1,115
1,476
621
605
877
..
1,117 e
648 e
711 e
1,089 e
711 e
1,210 e
994
1,174 e
548
835 e
4,359
1,328
5,685
5,100
7,404
2,897
1,856
7,939
25,915
30,181
25,665
4,474
1,046
29,898
6,104
2,168
8,229

–1.1 b
..
0.7
–1.9
0.8 b
0.2
–1.9
–4.9
2.3 b
–0.9
0.1 b
–1.5
–0.4
0.1
(.)
1.2
–3.3
–1.8
2.3
0.7
0.2
6.0
0.6
2.6
–0.7
..
2.0
2.2
2.2
1.7
2.0 g
2.0
2.0
–0.8 g
1.4

0.4
1.0 b
2.2
–0.4
1.0
0.9
–0.9
–6.3
4.6
–3.5
2.0
–0.4
–2.4
(.)
2.4
1.7
–5.3
–0.6
2.9
2.0
1.0
5.6
1.1
3.5
0.1
0.3
1.8
1.9
1.8
2.4
2.8 g
1.8
2.5
0.1 g
1.4

2,910 b, e
999 b, e
1,115
2,726
621 b
653
1,496
2,452
1,117 b, e
952 e
752 b, e
1,707 e
1,091 e
1,210 e
995 b
1,174 e
1,139
1,383 e
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

Year of
highest
value
1992
1998
2003
1978
2003
1979
1976
1975
2003
1991
2002
1977
1997
2003
2002
2003
1982
1979
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

Average annual change
in consumer price index
(%)
1990–2003
500.8
..
6.5
6.0
16.2
31.0
48.4
0.0
24.8
14.6
4.0
4.4
24.6
7.2
4.3
4.6
22.4
5.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

2002–03
98.2
..
1.5
3.3
3.5
9.6
..
..
13.4
16.0
17.8
3.1
–3.5
–1.9
–1.3
2.0
7.6
–1.6
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

Sources
Columns 1 and 2: World Bank 2005c; aggregates
calculated for the Human Development Report Office
by the World Bank.
Columns 3 and 4: calculated on the basis of
GDP and population data from World Bank 2005c;
aggregates calculated for the Human Development
Report Office by the World Bank.
Columns 5 and 6: World Bank 2005a; aggregates
calculated for the Human Development Report Office
by the World Bank using least squares method.
Columns 7 and 8: based on GDP per capita PPP US$
time series from World Bank 2005c.
Columns 9 and 10: calculated on the basis of data
on the consumer price index from World Bank 2005c.

Human development indicators

notes
a In theory, for the United States the value of GDP in
purchasing power parity (PPP) US dollars should be
the same as that in US dollars, but practical issues
arising in the calculation of the PPP US dollar GDP
prevent this.
b Data refer to a period shorter than that specified.
c Data refer to 2001.
d Data refer to 2002.
e Estimates are based on regression.
f Estimate based on a bilateral comparison between
China and the United States (Ruoen and Kai 1995).
g India’s growth rate accounts for most of the
difference in average annual growth rates of lowincome and low human development countries.

GDP per capita

PPP US$
billions
2003

Highest
value
during
1975–2003
(PPP US$)

hum a n de v e l opme n t re p or t 2005

269

table

15

. . . to have access to the resources needed for a decent standard of living . . .

Inequality in income or consumption

MDG
Share of income or consumption
(%)
HDI rank

Inequality measures

Poorest 10%

Poorest 20%

Richest 20%

Richest 10%

Richest 10%
to poorest
10% a

2000 c
..
1994 c
..
1998 c
2000 c
1992 c
1996 c
1996 c
2000 c
1993 c
1999 c
2000 c
1997 c
1999 c
1995 c
1997 c
2000 c
1997 c
2000 c
1990 c
1996 c
1997 c
1998 c
1998 c
1998 c
1997 c
1998 c
..
..
1996 c
..
..
2001
2002 e
2002 e
2000 c
2000 c
2000 e
..
..
1996 c
..
..
2001 e
2000
2000 c
1998 c
..
..
..

3.9
..
2.0
..
2.5
3.6
2.6
2.8
2.9
1.9
4.8
2.5
4.0
2.6
2.1
2.8
3.1
2.3
2.2
3.2
2.8
2.0
2.4
2.9
1.9
3.6
2.0
2.9
..
..
4.3
..
..
1.0
4.0
3.1
1.2
1.9
3.2
..
..
3.1
..
..
3.4
1.8
1.4
2.8
..
..
..

9.6
..
5.9
..
7.0
9.1
6.9
7.1
8.3
5.4
10.6
7.6
9.6
8.3
6.1
7.2
8.1
6.5
6.4
8.5
7.5
5.3
6.9
7.1
5.0
9.1
5.8
7.9
..
..
10.3
..
..
3.1
9.5
7.6
3.3
6.1
7.9
..
..
8.8
..
..
8.3
4.8
4.2
7.3
..
..
..

37.2
..
41.3
..
40.4
36.6
40.3
43.3
37.3
45.8
35.7
38.7
36.7
35.8
44.0
40.2
38.5
42.0
43.8
36.9
40.3
50.7
44.3
43.6
49.0
35.7
45.9
37.5
..
..
35.9
..
..
56.4
36.5
41.9
62.2
44.0
40.0
..
..
34.8
..
..
39.6
50.1
51.5
41.1
..
..
..

23.4
..
25.4
..
25.0
22.2
25.2
27.6
22.6
29.9
21.7
22.9
22.6
21.3
28.5
25.1
23.5
26.8
27.8
22.1
25.2
34.9
28.2
28.5
32.8
21.4
29.8
22.5
..
..
22.4
..
..
38.9
22.2
26.7
47.0
28.5
24.9
..
`
20.9
..
..
24.5
33.5
34.8
26.1
..
..
..

6.1
..
12.5
..
10.1
6.2
9.9
9.7
7.8
15.9
4.5
9.2
5.6
8.1
13.8
9.1
7.6
11.6
12.5
6.9
9.0
17.8
11.7
10.0
17.7
5.9
15.0
7.8
..
..
5.2
..
..
39.1
5.5
8.6
40.6
14.9
7.9
..
..
6.7
..
..
7.3
18.9
25.1
9.2
..
..
..

3.9
..
7.0
..
5.8
4.0
5.8
6.1
4.5
8.4
3.4
5.1
3.8
4.3
7.2
5.6
4.7
6.5
6.8
4.3
5.4
9.7
6.4
6.2
9.7
3.9
8.0
4.7
..
..
3.5
..
..
18.1
3.8
5.5
18.7
7.2
5.1
..
..
4.0
..
..
4.8
10.4
12.3
5.6
..
..
..

25.8
..
35.2
..
33.1
25.0
33.1
35.9
25.0
40.8
24.9
30.9
26.9
24.7
36.0
32.7
30.0
36.0
36.2
28.3
32.5
43.4
35.5
35.4
42.5
28.4
38.5
31.6
..
..
25.4
..
..
52.2
26.9
34.1
57.1
37.2
31.9
..
..
25.8
..
..
29.0
44.6
46.5
33.6
..
..
..

..
2000 e

..
1.0

..
3.1

..
59.1

..
43.1

..
45.0

..
19.3

..
54.6

Survey year

Richest 20%
to poorest
20% a

Gini index b

Human development indicators

High human development

270

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51

Norway
Iceland
Australia
Luxembourg
Canada
Sweden
Switzerland
Ireland
Belgium
United States
Japan
Netherlands
Finland
Denmark
United Kingdom
France
Austria
Italy
New Zealand
Germany
Spain
Hong Kong, China (SAR)
Israel
Greece
Singapore
Slovenia
Portugal
Korea, Rep. of
Cyprus
Barbados
Czech Republic
Malta
Brunei Darussalam
Argentina d
Hungary
Poland
Chile
Estonia
Lithuania
Qatar
United Arab Emirates
Slovakia
Bahrain
Kuwait
Croatia
Uruguay d
Costa Rica
Latvia
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Bahamas
Seychelles

52 Cuba
53 Mexico

human de velopmen t repor t 2005

table

15

MDG
Share of income or consumption
(%)

Inequality measures

Poorest 20%

Richest 20%

Richest 10%

54 Tonga
55 Bulgaria
56 Panama
57 Trinidad and Tobago
Medium human development

..
2001 c
2000 c
1992 c

..
2.4
0.7
2.1

..
6.7
2.4
5.5

..
38.9
60.3
45.9

..
23.7
43.3
29.9

..
9.9
62.3
14.4

..
5.8
24.7
8.3

..
31.9
56.4
40.3

58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104

..
1998 e
..
1997 c
2002 e
2001 c
2002 e
..
..
2000 e
2001 e
1999 c
..
..
2002 e
2000 e
..
1998 c
..
..
1999 e
2000 c
2003 e
..
1998 e
1998 e
2000 e
2001 e
..
..
2002 c
2000 e
1997 e
..
..
1999 e
2000 e
1998 c
..
1998 e
2000 e
1998 e
2001 e
2001 e
..
1995 e
2000 c

..
3.3
..
1.7
3.3
0.7
3.2
..
..
3.5
3.9
0.8
..
..
3.8
2.5
..
0.6
..
..
3.7
0.7
3.2
..
0.9
2.6
2.2
1.8
..
..
0.6
2.3
3.3
..
..
3.4
2.3
2.1
..
2.6
2.7
2.0
2.3
3.1
..
2.8
0.9

..
8.4
..
4.4
8.2
2.4
7.9
..
..
8.4
9.5
2.7
..
..
9.1
6.1
..
3.0
..
..
8.8
2.9
7.8
..
3.3
6.7
5.4
4.7
..
..
2.2
6.0
7.6
..
..
8.3
6.1
5.1
..
6.1
6.7
5.1
6.4
7.4
..
7.0
2.9

..
36.7
..
54.3
39.3
63.2
41.0
..
..
39.1
35.8
61.8
..
..
37.4
50.0
..
53.4
..
..
37.8
53.2
40.0
..
58.0
45.1
52.3
50.0
..
..
61.3
47.3
44.4
..
..
42.2
46.7
53.3
..
47.5
46.0
49.9
43.6
44.5
..
42.6
57.1

..
22.1
..
38.4
23.8
46.9
26.1
..
..
24.1
21.4
46.5
..
..
22.4
33.8
..
36.3
..
..
23.2
37.2
24.4
..
41.6
29.7
36.3
33.1
..
..
45.4
31.5
29.8
..
..
27.8
30.7
37.9
..
31.7
30.3
33.7
27.9
29.5
..
26.8
40.6

..
6.8
..
22.1
7.1
68.0
8.1
..
..
6.9
5.4
57.8
..
..
5.9
13.4
..
62.9
..
..
6.4
49.9
7.5
..
44.9
11.5
16.5
18.4
..
..
73.4
13.4
9.1
..
..
8.1
13.3
17.7
..
12.3
11.4
17.2
12.0
9.7
..
9.6
47.4

..
4.4
..
12.4
4.8
26.4
5.2
..
..
4.6
3.8
22.9
..
..
4.1
8.3
..
17.9
..
..
4.3
18.4
5.1
..
17.3
6.8
9.7
10.7
..
..
27.8
7.9
5.9
..
..
5.1
7.7
10.5
..
7.7
6.9
9.7
6.8
6.0
..
6.1
19.8

..
28.2
..
49.2
31.0
59.3
30.3
..
..
30.4
26.2
57.6
..
..
28.2
43.2
..
49.1
..
..
29.0
49.8
32.3
..
43.7
37.9
46.1
44.7
..
..
57.8
39.8
36.4
..
..
33.2
40.0
47.4
..
40.8
37.9
43.0
36.9
36.5
..
35.3
53.2

..
..

..
..

..
..

..
..

..
..

..
..

..
..

HDI rank

Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
Macedonia, TFYR
Antigua and Barbuda
Malaysia
Russian Federation
Brazil
Romania
Mauritius
Grenada
Belarus
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Colombia
Dominica
Oman
Albania
Thailand
Samoa (Western)
Venezuela
Saint Lucia
Saudi Arabia
Ukraine
Peru
Kazakhstan
Lebanon
Ecuador
Armenia
Philippines
China
Suriname
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Paraguay
Tunisia
Jordan
Belize
Fiji
Sri Lanka
Turkey
Dominican Republic
Maldives
Turkmenistan
Jamaica
Iran, Islamic Rep. of
Georgia
Azerbaijan
Occupied Palestinian Territories
Algeria
El Salvador

105 Cape Verde
106 Syrian Arab Republic

Survey year

..
..

Richest 20%
to poorest
20% a

Gini index b

hum a n de v e l opme n t re p or t 2005

Human development indicators

Poorest 10%

Richest 10%
to poorest
10% a

271

table

15

Inequality in income or consumption

MDG
Share of income or consumption
(%)
Poorest 10%

Poorest 20%

Richest 20%

Richest 10%

107 Guyana
108 Viet Nam
109 Kyrgyzstan
110 Indonesia
111 Uzbekistan
112 Nicaragua
113 Bolivia
114 Mongolia
115 Moldova, Rep. of
116 Honduras
117 Guatemala
118 Vanuatu
119 Egypt
120 South Africa
121 Equatorial Guinea
122 Tajikistan
123 Gabon
124 Morocco
125 Namibia
126 São Tomé and Principe
127 India
128 Solomon Islands
129 Myanmar
130 Cambodia
131 Botswana
132 Comoros
133 Lao People’s Dem. Rep.
134 Bhutan
135 Pakistan
136 Nepal
137 Papua New Guinea
138 Ghana
139 Bangladesh
140 Timor-Leste
141 Sudan
142 Congo
143 Togo
144 Uganda
145 Zimbabwe
Low human development

..
2002 e
2002 e
2002 e
2000 e
2001 e
1999 e
1998 e
2002 e
1999 c
2000 c
..
1999 e
2000 e
..
2003 e
..
1998 e
1993 c
..
1999 e
..
..
1997 e
1993 e
..
1997 e
..
1998 e
1995 e
1996 e
1998 e
2000 e
..
..
..
..
1999 e
1995 e

..
3.2
3.2
3.6
3.6
2.2
1.3
2.1
2.7
0.9
0.9
..
3.7
1.4
..
3.3
..
2.6
0.5
..
3.9
..
..
2.9
0.7
..
3.2
..
3.7
3.2
1.7
2.1
3.9
..
..
..
..
2.3
1.8

..
7.5
7.7
8.4
9.2
5.6
4.0
5.6
6.8
2.7
2.6
..
8.6
3.5
..
7.9
..
6.5
1.4
..
8.9
..
..
6.9
2.2
..
7.6
..
8.8
7.6
4.5
5.6
9.0
..
..
..
..
5.9
4.6

..
45.4
43.0
43.3
36.3
49.3
49.1
51.2
44.1
58.9
64.1
..
43.6
62.2
..
40.8
..
46.6
78.7
..
43.3
..
..
47.6
70.3
..
45.0
..
42.3
44.8
56.5
46.6
41.3
..
..
..
..
49.7
55.7

..
29.9
27.9
28.5
22.0
33.8
32.0
37.0
28.4
42.2
48.3
..
29.5
44.7
..
25.6
..
30.9
64.5
..
28.5
..
..
33.8
56.6
..
30.6
..
28.3
29.8
40.5
30.0
26.7
..
..
..
..
34.9
40.3

..
9.4
8.6
7.8
6.1
15.5
24.6
17.8
10.3
49.1
55.1
..
8.0
33.1
..
7.8
..
11.7
128.8
..
7.3
..
..
11.6
77.6
..
9.7
..
7.6
9.3
23.8
14.1
6.8
..
..
..
..
14.9
22.0

..
6.0
5.5
5.2
4.0
8.8
12.3
9.1
6.5
21.5
24.4
..
5.1
17.9
..
5.2
..
7.2
56.1
..
4.9
..
..
6.9
31.5
..
6.0
..
4.8
5.9
12.6
8.4
4.6
..
..
..
..
8.4
12.0

..
37.0
34.8
34.3
26.8
43.1
44.7
30.3
36.9
55.0
59.9
..
34.4
57.8
..
32.6
..
39.5
70.7
..
32.5
..
..
40.4
63.0
..
37.0
..
33.0
36.7
50.9
40.8
31.8
..
..
..
..
43.0
56.8

146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157

2001 e
1994 c
2001 e
1995 e
..
1998 e
2000 e
..
1997 e
1998 e
1994 e
1995 e

1.9
1.0
2.3
0.5
..
3.0
2.5
..
2.5
1.8
2.6
2.6

4.9
2.7
5.6
1.5
..
7.4
6.2
..
6.0
4.8
6.4
6.4

53.5
64.4
50.9
66.5
..
41.2
45.7
..
49.1
53.4
47.2
48.2

36.6
50.2
35.4
48.3
..
25.9
29.5
..
33.9
37.0
32.0
33.5

19.2
49.7
15.7
105.0
..
8.6
12.0
..
13.6
20.2
12.3
12.8

11.0
23.8
9.1
44.2
..
5.6
7.4
..
8.2
11.2
7.3
7.5

47.5
60.9
44.6
63.2
..
33.4
39.0
..
42.5
47.5
40.3
41.3

1996 e
1983 e

1.6
4.2

4.4
9.7

55.7
39.1

40.8
24.2

24.9
5.8

12.8
4.0

50.6
28.9

Human development indicators

HDI rank

272

Inequality measures
Richest 10%
to poorest
10% a

Madagascar
Swaziland
Cameroon
Lesotho
Djibouti
Yemen
Mauritania
Haiti
Kenya
Gambia
Guinea
Senegal

158 Nigeria
159 Rwanda

Survey year

human de velopmen t repor t 2005

Richest 20%
to poorest
20% a

Gini index b

table

15

MDG
Share of income or consumption
(%)
HDI rank
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177

Survey year

Angola
Eritrea
Benin
Côte d’Ivoire
Tanzania, U. Rep. of
Malawi
Zambia
Congo, Dem. Rep. of the
Mozambique
Burundi
Ethiopia
Central African Republic
Guinea-Bissau
Chad
Mali
Burkina Faso
Sierra Leone
Niger

Notes
Because the underlying household surveys differ
in method and in the type of data collected, the
distribution data are not strictly comparable across
countries.
a Data show the ratio of the income or consumption
share of the richest group to that of the poorest.
Because of rounding, results may differ from ratios
calculated using the income or consumption shares
in columns 2–5.
b A value of 0 represents perfect equality, and a value
of 100 perfect inequality.
c Survey based on income.
d Data refer to urban areas only.
e Survey based on consumption.

..
..
..
2002 e
1993 e
1997 e
1998 e
..
1996 e
1998 e
1999 e
1993 e
1993 e
..
1994 e
1998 e
1989 e
1995 e

Inequality measures

Poorest 10%

Poorest 20%

Richest 20%

Richest 10%

Richest 10%
to poorest
10% a

..
..
..
2.0
2.8
1.9
1.0
..
2.5
1.7
3.9
0.7
2.1
..
1.8
1.8
0.5
0.8

..
..
..
5.2
6.8
4.9
3.3
..
6.5
5.1
9.1
2.0
5.2
..
4.6
4.5
1.1
2.6

..
..
..
50.7
45.5
56.1
56.6
..
46.5
48.0
39.4
65.0
53.4
..
56.2
60.7
63.4
53.3

..
..
..
34.0
30.1
42.2
41.0
..
31.7
32.8
25.5
47.7
39.3
..
40.4
46.3
43.6
35.4

..
..
..
16.6
10.8
22.7
41.8
..
12.5
19.3
6.6
69.2
19.0
..
23.1
26.2
87.2
46.0

Richest 20%
to poorest
20% a

Gini index b

..
..
..
9.7
6.7
11.6
17.2
..
7.2
9.5
4.3
32.7
10.3
..
12.2
13.6
57.6
20.7

..
..
..
44.6
38.2
50.3
52.6
..
39.6
33.3
30.0
61.3
47.0
..
50.5
48.2
62.9
50.5

Sources
Columns 1–5 and 8: World Bank 2005b.
Column 6: calculated on the basis of data in columns
2 and 5.
Column 7: calculated on the basis of data in columns
3 and 4.

Human development indicators

hum a n de v e l opme n t re p or t 2005

273

table

16

HDI rank

. . . to have access to the resources needed for a decent standard of living . . .

The structure of trade

High-technology
exports
(% of manufactured
exports)

Imports of goods
and services
(% of GDP)

Exports of goods
and services
(% of GDP)

Primary exports
(% of merchandise
exports)

1990

2003

1990

2003

1990

2003

1990

2003

1990

2003

2002

34
33
17
100
26
29
34
52
69
11
9
51
24
31
27
22
38
20
27
25
20
124
45
28
..
..
39
29
57
52
43
99
..
5
29
22
31
..
61
..
40
36
95
58
..
18
41
49
83
..
67

28
39
22 b
123
37 b
37
37 b
75 b
80
14 b
10
58 b
30
37
28
25
50
25
31 b
32
30
161
44
28
..
60
38 b
36
..
55 b
65
89 b
..
14
68 b
26
33
83
60
..
..
80
65 b
40 b
57
23
49
57
56
..
77

40
34
17
104
26
30
36
57
71
10
10
54
23
36
24
21
40
20
27
25
16
132
35
18
..
..
33
28
52
49
45
85
..
10
31
29
35
..
52
..
65
27
116
45
..
24
35
48
52
..
62

41
35
20 b
140
42 b
44
44 b
94 b
82
10 b
12
63 b
37
43
25
26
52
25
32 b
36
28
170
37
20
..
60
30 b
38
..
52 b
63
88 b
..
25
65 b
21
36
75
54
..
..
78
81 b
48 b
47
26
47
47
37
..
77

67
91
73
..
36
16
6
26
..
22
3
37
17
35
19
23
12
11
75
10
24
4
13
46
27
..
19
6
45
55
..
4
100
71
35
36
87
..
..
84
54
..
91
94
..
61
66
..
..
..
..

74
85
61
13
33
13
7
9
17
16
3
29
15
30
16
17
13
11
67
9
21
6
7
40
12
10
14
7
51
46
10
4c
94
72
11
17
81
26
37
89 b
96 c
12
91
93 c
28
66
34
40
27 c
..
..

33
8
24
..
59
83
94
70
..
74
96
59
83
60
79
77
88
88
23
89
75
95
87
54
72
..
80
94
55
43
..
96
(.)
29
63
59
11
..
..
16
46
..
9
6
..
39
27
..
..
..
(.)

21
15
30
84
61
81
93
86
80
80
93
71
84
66
78
81
78
87
29
84
77
93
93
58
85
90
86
93
49
52
90
96 c
6
27
87
81
16
74
63
10 b
4c
88
9
7c
72
34
66
60
73 c
37 c
5b

12
10
8
..
14
13
12
41
..
33
24
16
8
15
24
16
8
8
4
11
6
..
10
2
40
..
4
18
6
..
..
45
..
..
..
..
5
..
..
..
..
..
..
3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

19
6
14
12
14
15
22
34
8
31
24
31
24
20
26
19
13
8
10
16
7
13
18
12
59
6
9
32
5
14
13
62 c
(.)
9
26
3
3
13
5
(.) b
2c
4
(.)
1c
12
2
45
4
(.) c
1c
..

71
..
87
..
88
110
..
99
105
119
145
103
117
110
99
..
..
126
111
117
132
100
112
71
77
..
..
116
..
..
..
..
..
74
89
317
52
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
118
124
..
..
..
..

..
20

..
30

..
19

..
28

..
56

90 c
18

..
43

10 c
81

..
8

29 c
21

..
30

Manufactured exports
(% of merchandise
exports)

Terms of
trade
(1980=100) a

Human development indicators

High human development

274

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51

Norway
Iceland
Australia
Luxembourg
Canada
Sweden
Switzerland
Ireland
Belgium
United States
Japan
Netherlands
Finland
Denmark
United Kingdom
France
Austria
Italy
New Zealand
Germany
Spain
Hong Kong, China (SAR)
Israel
Greece
Singapore
Slovenia
Portugal
Korea, Rep. of
Cyprus
Barbados
Czech Republic
Malta
Brunei Darussalam
Argentina
Hungary
Poland
Chile
Estonia
Lithuania
Qatar
United Arab Emirates
Slovakia
Bahrain
Kuwait
Croatia
Uruguay
Costa Rica
Latvia
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Bahamas
Seychelles

52 Cuba
53 Mexico

human de velopmen t repor t 2005

table

16

HDI rank
54 Tonga
55 Bulgaria
56 Panama
57 Trinidad and Tobago
Medium human development
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
Macedonia, TFYR
Antigua and Barbuda
Malaysia
Russian Federation
Brazil
Romania
Mauritius
Grenada
Belarus
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Colombia
Dominica
Oman
Albania
Thailand
Samoa (Western)
Venezuela
Saint Lucia
Saudi Arabia
Ukraine
Peru
Kazakhstan
Lebanon
Ecuador
Armenia
Philippines
China
Suriname
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Paraguay
Tunisia
Jordan
Belize
Fiji
Sri Lanka
Turkey
Dominican Republic
Maldives
Turkmenistan
Jamaica
Iran, Islamic Rep. of
Georgia
Azerbaijan
Occupied Palestinian Territories
Algeria
El Salvador

105 Cape Verde
106 Syrian Arab Republic

Exports of goods
and services
(% of GDP)

Primary exports
(% of merchandise
exports)

1990

2003

1990

2003

1990

2003

1990

2003

65
37
79
29

58 c
63
58
41

34
33
87
45

13 c
53
59
50

..
..
78
73

..
29
89
67 b

21
..
21
27

..
66
11
33 b

..
..
..
..

..
4
1
2b

..
..
85
..

31
36
87
72
18
7
26
71
63
44
..
15
81
31
23
42
..
20
84
32
29
14
..
100
32
46
33
14
44
77
39
51
93
60
67
38
18
44
64
..
52
24
46
39
..
25
31

36 b
53
68 b
93
21
13
39
57
57 b
70
59
22
62
35 b
42
59
..
15
69
24
48
18
44
39
29
50
51
32
45 b
65
47
47
70
67
66 c
42
31
54
66
42 c
59
23
46
67
49
24
43

40
26
89
75
18
8
17
64
42
46
..
21
55
53
15
34
..
39
73
41
28
16
..
18
33
35
28
18
42
66
33
44
62
62
62
29
13
34
24
..
48
22
40
44
..
23
19

48 b
35
60 b
114
32
17
33
60
47 b
66
25
21
54
57 b
19
66
..
31
56
47
53
18
50
13
24
32
48
34
21 b
47
32
43
45
54
73 c
36
28
52
85
41 c
41
25
32
43
10
39
27

95
..
..
46
..
47
26
34
..
..
..
74
..
94
..
36
..
90
..
93
..
82
..
..
98
..
31
27
26
..
..
31
..
..
63
42
32
..
..
..
31
..
..
..
..
97
62

..
28
..
22
65
47
17
26
82
35
..
64
..
85
16
22
19
87
76 b
90 b
32 b
78
82
31
88
38
10
9
..
91 b
86
19
31
..
55
25 b
15
60 c
..
..
36 b
92
69
93
..
98
43

5
..
..
54
..
52
73
66
20
..
..
25
32
5
..
63
4
10
28
7
..
18
..
..
2
..
38
72
74
..
10
69
51
15
36
54
68
..
..
..
69
..
..
..
..
3
38

..
72
..
77
21
52
83
74
18
62
..
36
60
14
84
75
81
13
26
10 b
67 b
22
18
68
12
62
90
91
7b
10
14
81
69
1b
44
74 b
84
34 c
32
..
64 b
8
31
6
..
2
57

..
..
..
38
..
7
2
1
..
..
..
..
..
2
..
21
..
4
..
..
..
..
..
..
(.)
..
..
..
..
..
(.)
2
1
..
12
1
1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
1
..
58
19
12
4
5
1
4
..
7
7
2
1
30
(.)
4
8
(.) b
5b
2
9
2
6
1
74
27
(.) c
(.) b
6
4
2
(.) b
1
1b
2
1c
..
..
(.) b
2
24
5
..
2
5

..
..
..
..
..
145
..
94
..
..
..
71
..
..
..
69
..
37
..
..
..
50
..
..
36
..
85
..
..
..
175
85
129
..
..
..
94
57
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
31
123

44
28

68
33

13
28

32
40

..
64

..
89

..
36

96 c
11

..
..

1c
1

100
..

Manufactured exports
(% of merchandise
exports)

1990

2003

Terms of
trade
(1980=100) a
2002

hum a n de v e l opme n t re p or t 2005

Human development indicators

58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104

High-technology
exports
(% of manufactured
exports)

Imports of goods
and services
(% of GDP)

275

table

16

HDI rank

Human development indicators

107 Guyana
108 Viet Nam
109 Kyrgyzstan
110 Indonesia
111 Uzbekistan
112 Nicaragua
113 Bolivia
114 Mongolia
115 Moldova, Rep. of
116 Honduras
117 Guatemala
118 Vanuatu
119 Egypt
120 South Africa
121 Equatorial Guinea
122 Tajikistan
123 Gabon
124 Morocco
125 Namibia
126 São Tomé and Principe
127 India
128 Solomon Islands
129 Myanmar
130 Cambodia
131 Botswana
132 Comoros
133 Lao People’s Dem. Rep.
134 Bhutan
135 Pakistan
136 Nepal
137 Papua New Guinea
138 Ghana
139 Bangladesh
140 Timor-Leste
141 Sudan
142 Congo
143 Togo
144 Uganda
145 Zimbabwe
Low human development

276

146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157

Madagascar
Swaziland
Cameroon
Lesotho
Djibouti
Yemen
Mauritania
Haiti
Kenya
Gambia
Guinea
Senegal

158 Nigeria
159 Rwanda

The structure of trade

High-technology
exports
(% of manufactured
exports)

Imports of goods
and services
(% of GDP)

Exports of goods
and services
(% of GDP)

Primary exports
(% of merchandise
exports)

1990

2003

1990

2003

1990

2003

1990

2003

1990

80
45
50
24
48
46
24
53
51
40
25
77
33
19
70
35
31
32
67
72
9
73
5
13
50
35
25
32
23
22
49
26
14
..
..
46
45
19
23

106 b
68
42
26
30
51
25
80
88
54
28
..
24
26
..
79
41
36
47
83
16
33 b
..
71
34
25
25
43 b
20
29
..
52
20
..
12
53
47
26
22 b

63
36
29
25
29
25
23
24
49
36
21
49
20
24
32
28
46
26
52
14
7
47
3
6
55
14
11
28
16
11
41
17
6
..
..
54
33
7
23

93 b
60
38
31
37
24
24
68
54
36
16
..
22
28
..
60
62
32
39
38
14
31 b
..
62
44
13
25
22 b
20
17
..
40
14
..
16
78
34
12
24 b

..
..
..
65
..
92
95
..
..
91
76
..
57
..
..
..
..
48
..
..
28
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
21
..
89
..
..
..
..
..
89
..
68

75
49 b
60
48
..
87
83
62
68
79 b
60
..
63
42
..
..
..
31
58
..
22
..
..
99
9c
..
..
..
15
..
94
84 c
10
..
97 b
..
42
91
62 b

..
..
..
35
..
8
5
..
..
9
24
13
42
..
..
..
..
52
..
..
71
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
79
83
10
..
77
..
..
..
9
..
31

24
50 b
39
52
..
13
17
38
32
21 b
40
..
31
58
..
..
..
69
41
..
77
..
..
1
91 c
..
..
..
85
..
6
16 c
89
..
3b
..
58
9
38 b

..
..
..
1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
20
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
(.)
..
..
..
(.)
..
..
..
..
..
2

1
2b
2
14
..
4
8
(.)
3
(.) b
7
..
(.)
5
..
..
..
11
3
..
5
..
..
..
(.) c
..
..
..
1
..
39
3c
(.)
..
7b
..
1
8
3b

..
..
..
..
..
71
47
..
..
81
86
..
53
86
..
..
58
106
..
..
131
..
..
..
106
109
..
..
88
..
..
58
..
..
91
51
87
..
115

28
76
17
122
..
20
61
20
31
72
31
30

32
94
25
95
..
36
75
37 b
29
45
25
40

17
77
20
17
..
14
46
18
26
60
31
25

21
84
26
41
..
31
34
13 b
25
41
22
28

85
..
91
..
44
..
..
15
71
..
..
77

61
23 b
93
..
..
..
79
..
76
..
75 b
64

14
..
9
..
8
..
..
85
29
..
..
23

38
76 b
7
..
..
..
21
..
24
..
25 b
34

8
..
3
..
..
..
..
14
4
..
..
..

(.)
1b
2
..
..
..
..
..
4
..
(.) b
9

108
100
108
76
..
..
124
50
101
55
..
96

29
14

41
28

43
6

50
9

..
..

..
90

..
..

..
10

..
..

..
25

28
133

human de velopmen t repor t 2005

Manufactured exports
(% of merchandise
exports)

2003

Terms of
trade
(1980=100) a
2002

table

16

HDI rank
160 Angola
161 Eritrea
162 Benin
163 Côte d’Ivoire
164 Tanzania, U. Rep. of
165 Malawi
166 Zambia
167 Congo, Dem. Rep. of the
168 Mozambique
169 Burundi
170 Ethiopia
171 Central African Republic
172 Guinea-Bissau
173 Chad
174 Mali
175 Burkina Faso
176 Sierra Leone
177 Niger
Developing countries
Least developed countries
Arab States
East Asia and the Pacific
Latin America and the Caribbean
South Asia
Sub-Saharan Africa
Central and Eastern Europe and the CIS
OECD
High-income OECD
High human development
Medium human development
Low human development
High income
Middle income
Low income
World

notes
a The ratio of the export price index to the import
price index measured relative to the base year
1980. A value of more than 100 means that the
price of exports has risen relative to the price of
imports.
b Data refer to 2002.
c Data refer to 2001.

High-technology
exports
(% of manufactured
exports)

Imports of goods
and services
(% of GDP)

Exports of goods
and services
(% of GDP)

Primary exports
(% of merchandise
exports)

1990

2003

1990

2003

1990

2003

1990

2003

1990

2003

2002

21
..
26
27
37
33
37
29
36
28
12
28
37
28
34
24
24
22
24
22
38
32
15
13
26
26
18
18
19
20
29
19
21
17
19

67
99
27
34
27
41
28
22 b
39
18
37
31
44
53
31
23
49
25
33
30
30 b
48
21
18
33
37
22 b
21 b
23 b
28
37
22 b
30
24
24 b

39
..
14
32
13
24
36
30
8
8
8
15
10
13
17
11
22
15
25
13
38
33
17
11
27
27
17
17
18
20
27
18
22
13
19

71
14
14
47
18
27
21
19 b
23
7
17
24
30
21
26
9
22
16
35
22
36 b
52
24
17
33
37
21 b
21 b
22 b
31
34
22 b
33
21
24 b

100
..
..
..
..
95
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
81
..
65
..
..
..
20
19
21
..
..
20
..
..
..

..
..
92 b
78
82
88
86 b
..
91 c
..
89
51 b
..
..
59 c
82 b
..
91
29
..
86 b
13
44
43
..
36
16
16
18
36
..
17
34
40 b
22

(.)
..
..
..
..
5
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
2
..
..
..
58
..
16
75
36
71
..
..
76
78
76
51
..
78
48
..
72

..
..
8b
20
18
12
14 b
10
8c
2b
11
37
..
..
40 c
17 b
7b
8
73
..
20 b
86
55
61
..
58
79
79
79
63
..
80
65
60 b
77

..
..
..
..
..
(.)
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
7
..
..
..
18
18
18
..
..
18
..
..
18

..
..
2b
8
2
1
2b
..
3c
22 b
(.)
(.)
..
..
8c
2b
31 b
3
21
..
2
29
14
3
..
13
18
18
17
21
..
18
21
4
18

..
..
126
103
..
64
79
104
..
58
..
78
86
141
95
220
225
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

Manufactured exports
(% of merchandise
exports)

Terms of
trade
(1980=100) a

Sources
Columns 1–10: World Bank 2005c, based on
data from United Nations Conference on Trade and
Development.
Column 11: calculated on the basis of data on terms
of trade from World Bank 2005c.

Human development indicators

hum a n de v e l opme n t re p or t 2005

277

table

17

. . . to have access to the resources needed for a decent standard of living . . .

Rich country responsibilities: aid
MDG
Net official development
assistance (ODA) disbursed
Total a
(US$
millions)

HDI rank
1
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
24
27

Norway
Australia
Luxembourg
Canada
Sweden
Switzerland
Ireland
Belgium
United States
Japan
Netherlands
Finland
Denmark
United Kingdom
France
Austria
Italy
New Zealand
Germany
Spain
Greece
Portugal

DAC

278

MDG
ODA to basic
social services c
(% of total allocable
by sector)

MDG
Untied bilateral ODA
(% of total)

2003

1990 d

2003

1990

2003

1990

2003

1996/97 e

2002/03 e

1990

2003

2,042
1,219
194
2,031
2,400
1,299
504
1,853
16,254
8,880
3,981
558
1,748
6,282
7,253
505
2,433
165
6,784
1,961
362
320

1.17
0.34
0.21
0.44
0.91
0.32
0.16
0.46
0.21
0.31
0.92
0.65
0.94
0.27
0.60
0.11
0.31
0.23
0.42
0.20
..
0.24

0.92
0.25
0.81
0.24
0.79
0.39
0.39
0.60
0.15
0.20
0.80
0.35
0.84
0.34
0.41
0.20
0.17
0.23
0.28
0.23
0.21
0.22

314
49
73
80
184
119
19
88
58
83
179
131
227
55
119
21
54
27
96
23
..
18

388
50
354
55
218
154
103
145
55
66
199
89
265
95
100
51
34
32
68
37
26
25

44
18
39
30
39
43
37
41
19
19
33
38
39
32
32
63
41
19
28
20
..
70

39
21
34
31
34
31
53
59
28
22
32
33
38
36
41
33
45
27
37
17
15
64

12.9
7.5
..
5.7
10.5
8.6
0.5
11.3
22.7
3.0
12.4
6.5
9.6
23.5
..
5.0
7.2
..
9.8
13.9
16.9
6.4

20.2
18.1
..
27.8
17.0
14.3
30.6
19.4
23.4
5.0
19.9
13.4
14.3
28.9
10.3
7.1
20.0
14.8
11.5
12.4
18.4
2.9

61
33
..
47
87
78
..
..
..
89
56
32
..
..
64
32
22
100
62
..
..
..

100
67
..
53
94
96
100
99
..
96
..
86
71
100
93
51
..
81
95
56
94
94

69,029 T

0.33

0.25

72

70

29

33

9

17

73

92

Source
All columns: OECD 2005c; aggregates calculated
for the Human Development Report Office by the
OECD.

Human development indicators

Notes
This table presents data for members of the
Development Assistance Committee (DAC) of
the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and
Development (OECD).
a Some non-DAC countries and areas also provide
ODA. According to OECD 2005e, net ODA
disbursed in 2003 by Czech Republic, Hungary,
Iceland, Israel, Republic of Korea, Kuwait, Poland,
Saudi Arabia, Slovak Republic, Turkey, United Arab
Emirates and other small donors, including Estonia,
Latvia and Lithuania, totalled $3,278 million. China
also provides aid but does not disclose the amount.
b Includes imputed multilateral flows that make
allowance for contributions through multilateral
organizations. These are calculated using the
geographic distribution of disbursements for the
year specified.
c Data refer to the share of sector-allocable
ODA; they exclude technical cooperation and
administrative costs.
d Data for individual countries (but not the DAC
average) include forgiveness of non-ODA claims.
e Data refer to the average for the years specified.

As % of GNI

ODA per capita of
donor country
(2002 US$)

MDG
ODA to least
developed countries b
(% of total)

human de velopmen t repor t 2005

table

18

Rich country responsibilities: debt relief and trade
Trade
Goods imports
Debt relief
Gross bilateral
debt forgiveness
(US$ millions)

2004

1990–2003

HDI rank
1
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
24
27

From developing countries

Bilateral pledges to
the HIPC trust fund a
(US$ millions)
Norway
Australia
Luxembourg
Canada
Sweden
Switzerland
Ireland
Belgium
United States
Japan
Netherlands
Finland
Denmark
United Kingdom
France
Austria
Italy
New Zealand
Germany
Spain
Greece
Portugal

127
14
4
165
109
93
25
64
750
256
242
51
80
436
258
50
217
2
350
165
17
24

Table 18b OECD country support to
domestic agriculture
% of GDP

MDG
2003 a

Australia
Canada
Czech Republic
European Union b
Hungary
Iceland
Japan
Korea
Mexico
New Zealand
Norway
Poland
Slovak Republic
Switzerland
Turkey
United States

0.8
1.7
..
2.2
..
4.6
1.7
8.7
2.9
0.5
3.2
..
..
3.3
4.3
1.2

0.3
0.9
1.5
1.3
2.4
1.9
1.3
3.9
1.1
0.4
1.5
0.7
1.5
2.0
4.4
0.9

OECD

1.8

1.2

Total
(US$ millions)

Total
(US$ millions)

Share of total
imports
(%)

2003

2003

2003

2003

5,260
34,143
298
46,012
7,556
8,142
8,833
29,066
641,803
237,583
50,887
4,899
6,815
79,488
64,258
7,997
55,504
5,675
98,247
45,009
9,835
5,943

13
40
2
19
9
8
16
12
49
62
24
12
12
20
18
9
19
31
16
21
22
13

81
148
6
770
169
118
136
2,181
11,525
1,584
657
157
168
1,587
2,598
179
1,400
29
2,761
1,647
180
234

0.2
0.2
..
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.3
0.9
0.9
0.4
0.3
0.4
0.3
0.4
0.7
0.2
0.5
0.2
0.5
0.8
0.4
0.5

notes
This table presents data for members of the Development
Assistance Committee of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development.
a The Debt Initiative for Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPCs) is
a mechanism for debt relief, jointly overseen by the International
Monetary Fund and the World Bank. Bilateral and multilateral
creditors have provided debt relief through this framework since
1996. Includes pledges through the European Union.

Sources
Column 1: IMF and IDA 2004.
Column 2: calculated on the basis of data on debt cancellation from
OECD 2005f.
Columns 3–6: calculated on the basis of data from UN 2005a.

Human development indicators

1990

237
83
..
1,567
286
340
..
1,468
10,882
4,331
2,170
156
377
2,574
15,878
709
2,334
..
7,371
1,208
..
476

From least developed countries

Share of total
imports
(%)

a. Provisional data.
b. No data are available for individual member countries of the European Union.
The member countries in 2003 were Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France,
Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain,
Sweden and the United Kingdom. Austria, Finland and Sweden joined in 1995 and
thus are not included in the data for 1990.
Source: OECD 2005a; aggregates calculated for the Human Development Report
Office by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.

hum a n de v e l opme n t re p or t 2005

279

table

19

. . . to have access to the resources needed for a decent standard of living . . .

Flows of aid, private capital and debt
Official development assistance
(ODA) received a
(net disbursements)

HDI rank

Total
(US$
millions)

Per
capita
(US$)

2003

2003

As % of GDP

MDG
Total debt service
Net foreign direct
investment inflows b
(% of GDP)

Other private
flows b, c
(% of GDP)

As % of GDP

As % of exports of
goods, services
and net income
from abroad

1990

2003

1990

2003

1990

2003

1990

2003

1990

2003

High human development

Human development indicators

22 Hong Kong, China (SAR)
23 Israel
25 Singapore
26 Slovenia
28 Korea, Rep. of
29 Cyprus
30 Barbados
31 Czech Republic
32 Malta
33 Brunei Darussalam
34 Argentina
35 Hungary
36 Poland
37 Chile
38 Estonia
39 Lithuania
40 Qatar
41 United Arab Emirates
42 Slovakia
43 Bahrain
44 Kuwait
45 Croatia
46 Uruguay
47 Costa Rica
48 Latvia
49 Saint Kitts and Nevis
50 Bahamas
51 Seychelles
52 Cuba
53 Mexico
54 Tonga
55 Bulgaria
56 Panama
57 Trinidad and Tobago
Medium human development

280

58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73

Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
Macedonia, TFYR
Antigua and Barbuda
Malaysia
Russian Federation
Brazil
Romania
Mauritius
Grenada
Belarus
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Colombia
Dominica
Oman
Albania
Thailand

74 Samoa (Western)
75 Venezuela

5.0
440.0
7.1
65.9
–457.7
18.7
19.9
263.3
10.1
0.5
109.4
248.4
1,191.5
75.6
84.5
372.0
2.0
5.2
159.9
37.5
4.4
120.6
16.8
28.3
113.7
(.)
3.9
9.2
70.0
103.2
27.5
414.4
30.5
–2.3

0.7
65.8
1.7
33.6
–9.6
24.2
73.4
25.8
25.3
1.3
2.9
24.5
31.2
4.8
62.6
107.7
3.2
1.3
29.7
52.7
1.9
27.1
5.0
7.1
49.0
–0.2
12.3
110.1
6.2
1.0
269.2
53.0
10.2
–1.8

0.1
2.6
(.)
..
(.)
0.7
0.2
(.)
0.2
..
0.1
0.2
2.2
0.3
..
..
(.)
(.)
(.)
3.2
(.)
..
0.6
4.0
..
5.1
0.1
9.8
..
0.1
26.3
0.1
1.9
0.4

(.)
0.4
(.)
0.2
–0.1
0.2
0.8
0.3
0.2
..
0.1
0.3
0.6
0.1
0.9
2.0
..
..
0.5
..
(.)
0.4
0.1
0.2
1.0
(.)
0.1
1.3
..
(.)
16.9
2.1
0.2
(.)

..
0.3
15.1
..
0.3
2.3
6.5
0.0
..
..
1.3
0.9
0.2
2.2
0.0
0.0
..
..
0.0
..
0.0
0.0
0.0
2.8
0.0
30.7
–0.6
5.5
..
1.0
0.2
0.0
2.6
2.2

8.6
3.3
12.5
1.2
0.5
9.0
2.2
2.8
..
..
0.8
3.0
2.0
4.1
9.8
1.0
..
..
1.8
..
–0.2
6.9
2.5
3.3
2.7
15.2
2.8
8.1
..
1.7
1.7
7.1
6.1
5.9

..
..
..
..
..
..
–0.8
..
..
..
–1.5
–1.4
(.)
5.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
–2.1
–2.5
..
–0.3
..
–1.7
..
2.7
–0.1
..
–0.1
–3.5

..
..
..
..
..
..
3.1
3.2
..
..
0.1
3.2
1.4
1.2
14.1
–1.8
..
..
2.9
..
..
20.9
–2.1
1.5
2.4
12.0
..
–5.1
..
–0.2
0.0
1.2
2.2
0.0

..
..
..
..
..
..
8.2
..
..
..
4.4
12.8
1.6
9.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
10.6
8.8
..
1.9
..
5.9
..
4.3
1.7
..
6.5
8.9

..
..
..
..
..
..
3.2
6.1
..
..
10.8
18.3
9.1
11.7
13.4
36.4
..
..
10.7
..
..
11.8
7.8
4.8
8.4
12.6
..
11.0
..
6.5
2.3
5.8
7.4
2.4

..
..
..
..
..
..
14.6
..
..
..
34.7
33.4
4.4
18.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
35.2
22.0
..
3.4
..
7.8
..
18.3
3.5
18.6
4.1
15.6

..
..
..
..
..
..
5.6
3.0
..
..
34.7
6.8
6.5
5.5
0.9
11.3
..
..
6.9
..
..
7.9
23.1
8.9
4.0
34.9
..
13.6
..
11.3
5.8 d
7.6
9.2
3.6

10.0
233.5
5.0
109.1
1,254.8
296.0
601.2
–15.1
11.7
31.9
538.8
802.1
10.9
44.5
342.3
–966.3

1.8
114.0
64.1
4.4
8.8
1.7
27.1
–12.4
111.9
3.2
130.1
18.1
153.8
17.1
108.0
–15.6

0.1
..
1.2
1.1
(.)
(.)
0.6
3.7
6.3
..
..
0.2
11.9
0.6
0.5
0.9

..
5.0
0.7
0.1
0.3
0.1
1.1
–0.3
2.7
0.2
7.7
1.0
4.2
..
5.6
–0.7

..
0.0
..
5.3
0.0
0.2
0.0
1.7
5.8
0.0
..
1.2
7.7
1.4
0.0
2.9

..
2.0
..
2.4
1.8
2.1
3.2
1.2
0.0
1.0
5.5
2.2
0.0
..
2.9
1.4

..
..
..
–4.2
..
–0.1
(.)
1.9
0.1
..
..
–0.4
–0.3
–3.8
..
2.3

..
–0.1
..
–0.3
1.8
0.7
3.6
0.5
0.9
–0.3
0.3
–3.7
–0.3
–5.5
(.)
–0.6

..
..
..
9.8
..
1.8
(.)
6.5
1.5
..
..
9.7
3.5
7.0
..
6.2

..
5.2
..
9.1
4.4
11.5
6.4
4.5
7.0
1.4
2.6
10.7
6.5
8.6 d
0.9
10.5

..
..
..
10.6
..
18.5
0.0
7.3
3.1
..
..
34.5
6.0
12.0
0.9
11.4

..
8.7
..
4.7
8.3
38.6
10.4
4.7
17.5
1.7
6.4
34.6
13.4
5.3
3.6
8.0

33.0
82.2

185.6
3.2

23.7
0.2

12.3
0.1

3.3
0.9

–0.1
3.0

0.0
–1.2

0.0
1.2

2.7
10.3

4.9
10.4

10.6
..

..
..

human de velopmen t repor t 2005

table

19

Official development assistance
(ODA) received a
(net disbursements)

HDI rank
Saint Lucia
Saudi Arabia
Ukraine
Peru
Kazakhstan
Lebanon
Ecuador
Armenia
Philippines
China
Suriname
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Paraguay
Tunisia
Jordan
Belize
Fiji
Sri Lanka
Turkey
Dominican Republic
Maldives
Turkmenistan
Jamaica
Iran, Islamic Rep. of
Georgia
Azerbaijan
Occupied Palestinian Territories
Algeria
El Salvador
Cape Verde
Syrian Arab Republic
Guyana
Viet Nam
Kyrgyzstan
Indonesia
Uzbekistan
Nicaragua
Bolivia
Mongolia
Moldova, Rep. of
Honduras
Guatemala
Vanuatu
Egypt
South Africa
Equatorial Guinea
Tajikistan
Gabon
Morocco
Namibia
São Tomé and Principe
India

128 Solomon Islands
129 Myanmar

Per
capita
(US$)

2003

2003

As % of GDP

Net foreign direct
investment inflows b
(% of GDP)

Other private
flows b, c
(% of GDP)

As % of GDP

1990

2003

1990

2003

1990

2003

1990

As % of exports of
goods, services
and net income
from abroad

2003

1990

2003

14.8
21.9
322.9
500.2
268.4
228.3
176.2
247.4
737.2
1,324.6
10.9
6.3
50.7
305.5
1,234.3
12.1
51.1
671.9
165.8
69.0
18.0
27.2
3.4
133.1
219.8
296.7
971.6
232.2
191.8
143.7
160.3
86.6
1,768.6
197.7
1,743.5
194.4
833.2
929.7
247.1
116.6
389.0
247.0
32.4
893.8
624.9
21.3
144.1
–10.7
522.8
146.1
37.7
942.2

92.3
1.0
6.7
18.4
18.0
50.8
13.5
81.0
9.1
1.0
24.9
58.0
9.0
30.9
232.5
46.5
61.2
35.0
2.4
7.9
61.3
5.6
1.3
2.0
42.9
36.0
288.6
7.3
29.4
305.7
9.2
112.6
21.8
39.1
8.1
7.6
152.1
103.5
99.7
27.5
55.8
20.1
154.4
13.2
13.8
43.1
22.9
–8.0
17.4
72.5
239.9
0.9

3.1
(.)
0.4
1.5
..
8.9
1.6
..
2.9
0.6
15.5
7.8
1.1
3.2
22.1
7.4
3.7
9.1
0.8
1.4
9.8
..
5.9
0.1
..
..
..
0.2
7.2
31.8
5.6
42.6
2.9
..
1.5
..
32.9
11.2
..
..
14.7
2.6
33.0
12.6
..
46.0
..
2.2
4.1
5.2
95.0
0.4

2.1
(.)
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.2
0.6
8.8
0.9
0.1
0.9
1.7
0.8
1.2
12.5
1.2
2.5
3.7
0.1
0.4
2.5
0.4
(.)
0.1
5.5
4.2
28.1
0.3
1.3
18.0
0.7
11.7
4.5
10.4
0.8
2.0
20.4
11.8
19.4
5.9
5.6
1.0
11.4
1.1
0.4
0.7
9.3
–0.2
1.2
3.4
63.3
0.2

11.3
..
0.0
0.2
0.0
0.2
1.2
0.0
1.2
1.0
..
3.9
1.5
0.6
0.9
4.2
6.8
0.5
0.5
1.9
2.6
0.0
3.0
–0.3
0.0
0.0
..
(.)
(.)
0.1
0.6
2.0
2.8
0.0
1.0
0.0
0.0
0.6
..
0.0
1.4
0.6
8.7
1.7
–0.1
8.4
0.0
1.2
0.6
..
0.0
0.1

4.6
..
2.9
2.3
7.0
1.9
5.7
4.3
0.4
3.8
..
10.1
1.5
2.2
3.8
4.0
1.0
1.3
0.6
1.9
1.9
1.6
8.8
0.1
8.5
46.0
..
1.0
0.6
1.9
0.7
3.5
3.7
2.4
–0.3
0.7
4.9
2.1
10.3
3.0
2.8
0.5
6.7
0.3
0.5
49.1
2.0
0.9
5.2
..
16.8
0.7

–0.2
..
..
0.1
..
0.2
0.6
..
0.2
1.3
..
0.0
–0.2
–1.6
5.3
1.4
–1.2
0.1
0.8
(.)
0.5
..
–1.0
(.)
..
..
..
–0.7
0.1
(.)
–0.1
–4.1
0.0
..
1.6
..
2.0
–0.5
..
..
1.0
–0.1
–0.1
–0.2
..
0.0
..
0.5
1.2
..
–0.2
0.5

1.3
..
0.3
2.0
12.1
0.2
2.2
–0.2
1.3
0.4
..
5.5
0.5
3.1
–5.4
18.0
–0.1
(.)
0.5
4.9
1.4
..
–2.6
0.8
–0.4
–0.7
..
–0.1
2.1
0.2
(.)
–0.2
–0.7
–3.0
–1.5
0.1
0.7
1.6
(.)
1.3
–0.8
–0.2
0.0
–0.7
2.1
0.0
–1.6
–1.2
0.3
..
0.0
1.1

1.6
..
..
1.8
..
3.5
10.5
..
8.1
2.0
..
2.2
6.2
11.6
15.6
4.9
7.8
4.8
4.9
3.3
4.1
..
14.4
0.5
..
..
..
14.2
4.3
1.7
9.7
74.5
2.7
..
8.7
..
1.6
7.9
..
..
12.8
2.8
1.6
7.1
..
3.9
..
3.0
6.9
..
4.9
2.6

4.7
..
7.4
4.2
17.8
17.1
8.9
3.4
12.8
2.6
..
3.9
5.1
6.4
11.7
13.6
1.4
3.3
11.7
5.6
3.0
..
10.1
1.2
4.5
3.4
..
6.5
3.7
2.7
1.6
7.8
2.1
7.1
8.9
8.2
5.0
5.4
22.6
8.1
5.9
1.9
0.7
3.4
2.7
0.3
5.7
6.2
9.8
..
11.1
3.4

2.1
..
..
7.3
..
3.2
31.0
..
25.6
10.6
..
3.1
11.5
25.6
22.1
7.0
9.0
14.8
29.9
10.7
4.0
..
27.0
1.3
..
..
..
63.7
18.2
8.9
20.3
..
..
..
25.6
..
2.4
33.5
0.3
..
33.0
11.6
1.6
..
0.0
11.5
..
4.8
27.9
..
28.7
29.3

7.4
..
5.5
20.8
3.0
81.5
19.7
8.7
13.8
2.8
..
6.7 d
6.6
13.7
22.6
24.9
..
7.8
20.3
7.4
3.5
5.7
21.4
3.6
10.0
6.0
..
..
11.7
7.2
3.0
9.5 e, f
3.3
7.7
12.8
19.6
11.7 e, f
20.1 e, f
4.4
6.6
9.5 e, g
9.8
1.2
..
4.3
..
7.7
..
25.7
..
24.6 e, g
18.1

60.2
125.8

131.8
2.6

21.7
..

23.8
..

4.9
..

–0.8
..

–1.5
..

–1.0
..

5.5
..

3.7
..

11.3
18.3

..
3.8 e, h

hum a n de v e l opme n t re p or t 2005

Human development indicators

76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127

Total
(US$
millions)

MDG
Total debt service

281

table

19

Flows of aid, private capital and debt
Official development assistance
(ODA) received a
(net disbursements)

Human development indicators

HDI rank

282

Total
(US$
millions)

Per
capita
(US$)

2003

2003

As % of GDP

MDG
Total debt service
Net foreign direct
investment inflows b
(% of GDP)

1990

2003

1990

2003

Other private
flows b, c
(% of GDP)

As % of GDP

1990

2003

1990

2003

1990

2003

0.6
0.7
0.8
2.3
1.0
3.7
1.9
9.3
6.3
1.3
..
0.2
1.7
0.9
1.3
0.6 d

..
4.3
2.5
8.6
5.3
22.9
15.2
18.4
36.3
34.8
..
4.8
32.2
11.5
78.6
19.4

0.9
1.3
.. e, h
10.3 e, h
4.7 d
16.8
10.0
7.3
5.2 e, f
8.3
..
1.3 e, h
3.8 e, h
1.9 e, h
7.8 e, f
..

44.4
5.6
13.1
4.2
..
7.1
28.8
9.0
28.6
21.8
19.6
18.3
22.3
10.7
7.1
..
9.2
..
31.3
28.0
14.6
..
17.3
41.7
37.6
12.5
22.1
3.8
14.7
7.8
10.1
6.6

4.7 e, f
1.6
8.7 e, g
8.9
..
4.0
15.7 e, f
10.8
14.5
14.0 e, g
10.7 e, g
23.4 e, f
..
10.0 e, g
14.8
13.0
6.3 e, f
.. e, g
5.8 e, f
23.1 e, g
14.1 e, g
8.9 e, g
3.9 e, f
63.6 e, h
7.3 e, f
.. e, h
9.4 e, g
5.4 e, g
5.8 d, e, f
12.5 e, f
10.9 e, g
6.4 e, f

130 Cambodia
131 Botswana
132 Comoros
133 Lao People’s Dem. Rep.
134 Bhutan
135 Pakistan
136 Nepal
137 Papua New Guinea
138 Ghana
139 Bangladesh
140 Timor-Leste
141 Sudan
142 Congo
143 Togo
144 Uganda
145 Zimbabwe
Low human development

508.0
30.1
24.5
298.6
77.0
1,068.4
466.7
220.8
906.7
1,393.4
150.8
621.3
69.8
44.8
959.4
186.4

37.9
17.5
40.8
52.8
88.1
7.2
18.9
40.1
44.4
10.1
186.1
18.5
18.6
9.2
38.0
14.2

3.7
3.9
17.3
17.4
16.5
2.8
11.7
12.8
9.6
7.0
..
6.2
7.8
16.0
15.5
3.9

12.0
0.4
7.6
14.1
11.1
1.3
8.0
6.9
11.9
2.7
44.2
3.5
2.0
2.5
15.2
..

0.0
2.5
0.2
0.7
0.6
0.6
0.0
4.8
0.3
(.)
..
0.0
0.8
1.1
0.0
–0.1

2.1
1.1
0.3
0.9
(.)
0.6
0.3
3.2
1.8
0.2
..
7.6
5.6
1.1
3.1
..

0.0
–0.5
0.0
0.0
–0.9
–0.2
–0.4
1.5
–0.3
0.2
..
0.0
–3.6
0.3
0.4
1.1

0.0
(.)
0.0
0.0
0.0
–0.5
(.)
–3.1
–4.0
(.)
..
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.1
–0.3

2.7
2.8
0.4
1.1
1.8
4.8
1.9
17.2
6.2
2.5
..
0.4
19.0
5.3
3.4
5.4

146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177

539.5
27.1
883.9
79.0
77.8
243.1
242.7
199.8
483.5
59.8
237.5
449.6
317.6
331.6
498.7
307.3
293.7
252.1
1,669.3
497.9
560.1
5,381.0
1,032.8
224.2
1,504.4
49.9
145.2
246.9
527.6
451.1
297.4
453.3

31.9
24.5
55.0
44.1
110.4
12.7
90.1
23.7
15.2
42.1
30.0
44.7
2.3
40.2
36.9
70.0
43.7
15.0
46.5
45.4
53.8
101.2
55.0
31.1
21.9
12.9
97.5
28.8
45.3
37.3
55.7
38.5

12.9
6.3
4.0
23.0
46.4
8.4
23.3
5.9
13.9
31.3
10.4
14.4
0.9
11.3
2.6
..
14.5
6.4
27.5
26.8
14.6
9.6
40.7
23.3
11.8
16.8
52.7
18.0
19.9
10.6
9.4
16.0

9.9
1.5
7.1
6.9
12.5
2.2
22.2
6.8
3.4
15.1
6.5
6.9
0.5
20.3
3.8
40.9
8.5
1.8
16.2
29.1
12.9
94.9
23.9
37.6
22.6
4.2
60.8
9.5
12.2
10.8
37.5
16.6

0.7
3.5
–1.0
2.8
(.)
–2.7
0.7
0.0
0.7
0.0
0.6
1.0
2.1
0.3
–3.3
..
3.4
0.4
0.0
1.2
6.2
–0.2
0.4
0.1
0.1
(.)
0.8
0.5
0.2
(.)
5.0
1.6

0.2
2.4
1.7
3.7
1.8
–0.8
19.6
0.3
0.6
15.2
2.2
1.2
2.1
0.3
10.7
2.9
1.5
1.3
2.4
1.3
2.3
2.8
7.8
(.)
0.9
0.3
0.9
32.1
3.0
0.3
0.4
1.1

–0.5
–0.5
–0.1
(.)
–0.1
3.3
–0.1
0.0
0.8
–2.4
–0.7
–0.2
–0.4
–0.1
5.6
..
(.)
0.1
0.1
0.1
–0.3
–0.1
1.0
–0.5
–0.7
(.)
(.)
(.)
(.)
(.)
0.6
0.4

(.)
0.0
–0.5
–0.5
0.0
0.0
0.3
0.0
0.8
0.0
0.0
(.)
–0.4
0.0
3.7
0.0
0.0
–0.8
0.2
0.0
–0.2
0.5
–0.5
1.3
–0.1
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
(.)
–0.1
–0.3

7.2
5.4
4.6
3.8
3.6
3.5
14.3
1.2
9.2
11.9
6.0
5.7
11.7
0.8
3.2
..
2.1
11.7
4.2
7.1
6.2
3.7
3.2
3.7
2.7
2.0
3.4
0.7
2.8
1.1
3.3
4.0

Madagascar
Swaziland
Cameroon
Lesotho
Djibouti
Yemen
Mauritania
Haiti
Kenya
Gambia
Guinea
Senegal
Nigeria
Rwanda
Angola
Eritrea
Benin
Côte d’Ivoire
Tanzania, U. Rep. of
Malawi
Zambia
Congo, Dem. Rep. of the
Mozambique
Burundi
Ethiopia
Central African Republic
Guinea-Bissau
Chad
Mali
Burkina Faso
Sierra Leone
Niger

human de velopmen t repor t 2005

As % of exports of
goods, services
and net income
from abroad

1.3
1.5
3.6
5.9
2.5
1.6
5.0
1.8
4.0
5.0
3.6
3.8
2.8
1.3
10.1
1.6
1.7
4.2
0.9
2.1
9.0
2.6
2.0
4.9
1.4
0.1
6.4
1.8
1.8
1.2
3.2
1.2

table

19

Official development assistance
(ODA) received a
(net disbursements)

As % of exports of
goods, services
and net income
from abroad

Total
(US$
millions)

Per
capita
(US$)

2003

2003

1990

2003

1990

2003

1990

2003

1990

2003

1990

2003

65,401.3 T
23,457.4 T
8,320.3 T
7,231.9 T
6,090.4 T
6,623.8 T
22,691.8 T
4,885.9 T
269.0 T
.. T
646.1 T
27,342.9 T
18,565.3 T
37.5 T
18,969.6 T
32,128.3 T
69,783.7 T

9.7
33.4
27.5
3.4
9.9
4.3
32.9
24.0
..
..
..
6.5
27.9
..
8.4
13.7
10.9

2.7
13.0
6.8
1.0
1.3
1.6
12.0
..
..
..
..
1.6
11.7
..
1.2
4.6
..

3.0
18.7
1.6
0.5
0.8
0.7
18.6
..
..
..
..
0.9
18.7
..
0.4
6.1
..

0.9
0.1
0.5
1.7
0.8
(.)
0.4
(.)
1.0
1.0
1.0
0.5
0.5
1.0
0.6
0.3
0.9

2.3
3.6
1.7
3.1
2.1
0.6
2.2
2.9
1.4
1.4
1.5
2.2
2.8
1.5
2.4
1.5
1.6

0.4
0.4
–0.1
0.6
0.5
0.3
0.3
(.)
..
..
..
0.3
0.4
..
0.4
0.4
..

0.3
0.2
–0.1
0.1
0.3
0.8
0.7
2.6
..
..
..
0.6
0.1
..
0.7
0.5
..

3.5
2.8
4.1
3.0
4.0
2.6
3.8
0.5
..
..
..
2.9
6.4
..
3.1
3.6
..

4.7
2.1
2.5
3.2
8.6
2.9
2.9
7.7
..
..
..
5.3
3.3
..
6.4
3.1
..

21.9
16.2
..
17.9
23.7
19.5
..
13.5
..
..
..
21.3
20.6
..
20.8
24.9
..

17.6
7.5
15.5
10.5
30.7
13.5
9.6
17.3
..
..
..
16.2
10.2
..
17.9
13.5
..

HDI rank
Developing countries
Least developed countries
Arab States
East Asia and the Pacific
Latin America and the Caribbean
South Asia
Sub-Saharan Africa
Central and Eastern Europe and the CIS
OECD
High-income OECD
High human development
Medium human development
Low human development
High income
Middle income
Low income
World

MDG
Total debt service

Notes
This table presents data for countries included
in Parts I and II of the Development Assistance
Committee’s (DAC) list of aid recipients (OECD
2005e). The denominator conventionally used
when comparing official development assistance
and total debt service to the size of the economy is
GNI, not GDP (see Definitions of statistical terms).
GDP is used here, however, to allow comparability
throughout the table. With few exceptions the
denominators produce similar results.
a ODA receipts are total net ODA flows from DAC
countries as well as Czech Republic, Hungary,
Iceland, Israel, Republic of Korea, Kuwait, Poland,
Saudi Arabia, Slovak Republic, Turkey, United Arab
Emirates, other small donors, including Estonia,
Israel, Latvia and Lithuania, and concessional
lending from multilateral organizations.
b A negative value indicates that the capital flowing
out of the country exceeds that flowing in.

As % of GDP

c Other private flows combine non-debt-creating
portfolio equity investment flows, portfolio debt
flows and bank and trade-related lending.
d Data refer to 2002.
e Country included in the Debt Initiative for Heavily
Indebted Poor Countries (HIPCs).
f Completion point reached under the HIPC Initiative.
g Decision point reached under the HIPC Initiative.
h Decision and completion points not yet reached
under the HIPC Initiative.

Net foreign direct
investment inflows b
(% of GDP)

Other private
flows b, c
(% of GDP)

As % of GDP

Sources
Column 1: OECD 2005f; aggregates calculated
for the Human Development Report Office by
the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and
Development.
Columns 2–4: OECD 2005f.
Columns 5 and 6: World Bank 2005c; aggregates
calculated for the Human Development Report Office
by the World Bank.
Columns 7 and 8: calculated on the basis of data
on portfolio investment (bonds and equity), bank
and trade-related lending and GDP data from World
Bank 2005c.
Columns 9 and 10: calculated on the basis of data on
total debt service and GDP from World Bank 2005c.
Columns 11 and 12: UN 2005f, based on a joint
effort by the International Monetary Fund and the
World Bank.

Human development indicators

hum a n de v e l opme n t re p or t 2005

283

table

20

. . . to have access to the resources needed for a decent standard of living . . .

Priorities in public spending

Public expenditure
on education
(% of GDP)
HDI rank

Public expenditure
on health
(% of GDP)

Military
expenditure a
(% of GDP)

Total
debt service b
(% of GDP)

1990 c

2000–02 d

1990

2002

1990

2003

1990

2003

7.0
5.4
4.9
3.1
6.5
7.1
4.9
4.8
5.0
5.1
..
5.7
5.5
..
4.8
5.3
5.3
3.1
6.1
..
4.2
2.8
6.3
2.4
3.1
..
4.0
3.3
3.5
7.8
..
4.3
3.9
..
5.8
..
2.5
..
4.6
3.5
1.8
5.1
4.1
4.8
7.2
2.7
4.4
3.8
2.6
4.0
7.8

7.6
6.0 e
4.9
..
5.2
7.7
5.8 e
5.5
6.3
5.7
3.6
5.1
6.4
8.5
5.3
5.6
5.7
4.7
6.7
4.6
4.5
4.4
7.5
4.0
..
6.1
5.8
4.2
6.3
7.6
4.4
..
..
4.0
5.5
5.6
4.2
5.7
5.9
..
1.6 e
4.4
..
..
4.5
2.6
5.1
5.8
7.6
..
5.2

8.0
8.3
6.5
5.3
6.7
7.8
6.5
5.5
6.5
6.6
6.5
5.8
5.5
7.3
6.4
7.4
5.4
6.4
6.6
8.6
5.4
..
6.0
5.0
1.3
6.2
6.6
2.6
2.9
4.7
6.4
7.0
2.7
4.5
5.5
4.4
2.6
3.9
4.3
2.4
2.3
5.3
3.2
2.9
5.9
2.9
6.1
3.3
3.4
3.4
3.9

8.0
8.3
6.5
5.3
6.7
7.8
6.5
5.5
6.5
6.6
6.5
5.8
5.5
7.3
6.4
7.4
5.4
6.4
6.6
8.6
5.4
..
6.0
5.0
1.3
6.2
6.6
2.6
2.9
4.7
6.4
7.0
2.7
4.5
5.5
4.4
2.6
3.9
4.3
2.4
2.3
5.3
3.2
2.9
5.9
2.9
6.1
3.3
3.4
3.4
3.9

2.9
0.0
2.1
0.9
2.0
2.6
1.8
1.2
2.4
5.3
0.9
2.5
1.6
2.0
4.0
3.5
1.0
2.1
1.9
2.8 f
1.8
..
12.4
4.7
4.9
..
2.7
3.7
5.0
..
..
0.9
..
1.2
2.8
2.7
4.3
..
..
..
6.2
..
5.1
48.5
..
2.5
0.0
..
..
..
4.0

2.0
0.0
1.9
0.9
1.2
1.8
1.0
0.7
1.3
3.8
1.0
1.6
1.2
1.5
2.8
2.6
0.8
1.9
1.1
1.4
1.2
..
9.1
4.1
5.2
1.5
2.1
2.5
1.5
..
2.2
0.8
..
1.2
1.8
2.0
3.5
1.9
1.6
..
3.1
1.9
5.1
9.0
2.1
1.6
0.0
1.7
..
..
1.7

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
8.2
..
..
..
4.4
12.8
1.6
9.1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
10.6
8.8
..
1.9
..
5.9

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
3.2
6.1
..
..
10.8
18.3
9.1
11.7
13.4
36.4
..
..
10.7
..
..
11.8
7.8
4.8
8.4
12.6
..
11.0

8.9
3.6

9.0
5.3

6.5
2.7

6.5
2.7

..
0.5

..
0.5

..
4.3

..
6.5

Human development indicators

High human development

284

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51

Norway
Iceland
Australia
Luxembourg
Canada
Sweden
Switzerland
Ireland
Belgium
United States
Japan
Netherlands
Finland
Denmark
United Kingdom
France
Austria
Italy
New Zealand
Germany
Spain
Hong Kong, China (SAR)
Israel
Greece
Singapore
Slovenia
Portugal
Korea, Rep. of
Cyprus
Barbados
Czech Republic
Malta
Brunei Darussalam
Argentina
Hungary
Poland
Chile
Estonia
Lithuania
Qatar
United Arab Emirates
Slovakia
Bahrain
Kuwait
Croatia
Uruguay
Costa Rica
Latvia
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Bahamas
Seychelles

52 Cuba
53 Mexico

human de velopmen t repor t 2005

table
Public expenditure
on education
(% of GDP)

Public expenditure
on health
(% of GDP)

Military
expenditure a
(% of GDP)

20

Total
debt service b
(% of GDP)

2000–02 d

1990

2002

1990

2003

1990

2003

..
5.2
4.7
3.7

4.9 e
3.5
4.5
4.3 e

5.1
4.4
6.4
1.4

5.1
4.4
6.4
1.4

..
3.5
1.3
..

..
2.6
..
..

1.7
..
6.5
8.9

2.3
5.8
7.4
2.4

58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104

..
..
..
5.1
3.5
..
2.8
3.8
5.1
4.8
..
2.4
..
3.1
5.9
3.5
3.2
3.0
..
5.8
5.1
2.8
3.2
..
4.3
7.0
2.9
2.3
6.4
..
1.1
6.0
8.1
4.6
4.7
2.7
2.2
..
3.8
4.3
4.5
4.1
..
7.7
..
5.3
1.9

..
3.5
3.8
8.1
3.8
4.2
3.5
4.7
5.1
6.0 e
..
5.2
..
4.6 e
..
5.2
4.8 e
..
7.7 e
..
5.4
3.0
3.0
2.7
1.0 e
3.2 e
3.1
..
..
10.0
4.4
6.4
..
5.2
5.6 e
..
3.7
2.3
..
..
6.1
4.9
2.2
3.2
..
..
2.9

1.6
5.8
3.3
2.0
3.5
3.6
4.2
2.2
4.0
4.7
4.6
6.7
4.6
2.8
2.4
3.1
4.7
2.3
3.4
3.3
3.3
2.2
1.9
3.5
1.7
1.3
1.1
2.0
5.2
3.9
3.2
2.9
4.3
2.5
2.7
1.8
4.3
2.2
4.0
3.0
3.4
2.9
1.0
0.8
..
3.2
3.6

1.6
5.8
3.3
2.0
3.5
3.6
4.2
2.2
4.0
4.7
4.6
6.7
4.6
2.8
2.4
3.1
4.7
2.3
3.4
3.3
3.3
2.2
1.9
3.5
1.7
1.3
1.1
2.0
5.2
3.9
3.2
2.9
4.3
2.5
2.7
1.8
4.3
2.2
4.0 g
3.0
3.4
2.9
1.0
0.8
..
3.2
3.6

..
..
..
2.6
12.3
2.5
4.6
0.3
..
..
..
2.2
..
16.5
5.9
2.6
..
..
..
12.8
..
0.1
..
7.6
1.9
..
1.4
2.7
..
..
1.0
2.0
9.9
1.2
2.3
2.1
3.5
..
..
..
..
2.9
..
..
..
1.5
2.7

2.0
2.5
..
2.8
4.3
1.6
2.4
0.2
..
1.3
2.9
4.4
..
12.2
1.2
1.3
..
1.3
..
8.7
2.9
1.3
1.1
4.3
2.4
2.7
0.9
2.3
..
..
0.9
1.6
8.9
..
1.6
2.7
4.9
..
..
..
..
3.8
1.1
1.9
..
3.3
0.7

..
..
..
9.8
..
1.8
(.)
6.5
1.5
..
..
9.7
3.5
7.0
..
6.2
2.7
10.3
1.6
..
..
1.8
..
3.5
10.5
..
8.1
2.0
..
2.2
6.2
11.6
15.6
4.9
7.8
4.8
4.9
3.3
4.1
..
14.4
0.5
..
..
..
14.2
4.3

..
5.2
..
9.1
4.4
11.5
6.4
4.5
7.0
1.4
2.6
10.7
6.5
0.0
0.9
10.5
4.9
10.4
4.7
..
7.4
4.2
17.8
17.1
8.9
3.4
12.8
2.6
..
3.9
5.1
6.4
11.7
13.6
1.4
3.3
11.7
5.6
3.0
..
10.1
1.2
4.5
3.4
..
6.5
3.7

..
4.0

7.9
..

3.8
2.3

3.8
2.3

..
6.9

0.7
7.1

1.7
9.7

2.7
1.6

Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
Macedonia, TFYR
Antigua and Barbuda
Malaysia
Russian Federation
Brazil
Romania
Mauritius
Grenada
Belarus
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Colombia
Dominica
Oman
Albania
Thailand
Samoa (Western)
Venezuela
Saint Lucia
Saudi Arabia
Ukraine
Peru
Kazakhstan
Lebanon
Ecuador
Armenia
Philippines
China
Suriname
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Paraguay
Tunisia
Jordan
Belize
Fiji
Sri Lanka
Turkey
Dominican Republic
Maldives
Turkmenistan
Jamaica
Iran, Islamic Rep. of
Georgia
Azerbaijan
Occupied Palestinian Territories
Algeria
El Salvador

105 Cape Verde
106 Syrian Arab Republic

hum a n de v e l opme n t re p or t 2005

Human development indicators

1990 c

54 Tonga
55 Bulgaria
56 Panama
57 Trinidad and Tobago
Medium human development

HDI rank

285

table

20

Priorities in public spending

Human development indicators

Public expenditure
on education
(% of GDP)

286

Public expenditure
on health
(% of GDP)

Military
expenditure a
(% of GDP)

Total
debt service b
(% of GDP)

HDI rank

1990 c

2000–02 d

1990

2002

1990

2003

1990

2003

107 Guyana
108 Viet Nam
109 Kyrgyzstan
110 Indonesia
111 Uzbekistan
112 Nicaragua
113 Bolivia
114 Mongolia
115 Moldova, Rep. of
116 Honduras
117 Guatemala
118 Vanuatu
119 Egypt
120 South Africa
121 Equatorial Guinea
122 Tajikistan
123 Gabon
124 Morocco
125 Namibia
126 São Tomé and Principe
127 India
128 Solomon Islands
129 Myanmar
130 Cambodia
131 Botswana
132 Comoros
133 Lao People’s Dem. Rep.
134 Bhutan
135 Pakistan
136 Nepal
137 Papua New Guinea
138 Ghana
139 Bangladesh
140 Timor-Leste
141 Sudan
142 Congo
143 Togo
144 Uganda
145 Zimbabwe
Low human development

3.4
2.0
8.4
1.0
9.5
3.4
2.3
12.3
5.6
..
1.4
4.7
3.9
5.9
..
..
..
5.3
7.9
..
3.7
..
..
..
6.2
..
..
..
2.6
2.0
..
3.2
1.5
..
6.0
5.0
5.5
1.5
7.7

8.4
..
3.1 e
1.2
..
3.1
6.3
9.0
4.9
..
..
11.0 e
..
5.3 e
0.6
2.8
3.9 e
6.5
7.2
..
4.1
3.4 e
..
1.8
2.2
3.9
2.8 e
5.2
1.8 e
3.4
2.3 e
..
2.4
..
..
3.2 e
2.6
..
4.7 e

4.3
1.5
2.2
1.2
2.5
3.9
4.2
4.6
4.1
3.2
2.3
2.8
1.8
3.5
1.3
0.9
1.8
1.5
4.7
9.7
1.3
4.5
0.4
2.1
3.7
1.7
1.5
4.1
1.1
1.4
3.8
2.3
0.8
6.2
1.0
1.5
5.1
2.1
4.4

4.3
1.5
2.2
1.2
2.5
3.9
4.2
4.6
4.1
3.2
2.3
2.8
1.8
3.5
1.3
0.9
1.8
1.5
4.7
9.7
1.3
4.5
0.4
2.1
3.7
1.7
1.5
4.1
1.1
1.4
3.8
2.3
0.8
6.2
1.0
1.5
5.1
2.1
4.4

0.9
7.9
..
1.8
..
10.6
2.4
5.7
..
..
1.5
..
3.9
3.8
..
..
..
4.1
..
..
2.7
..
3.4
3.1
4.1
..
..
..
5.8
0.9
2.1
0.4
1.0
..
3.6
..
3.1
3.0
4.5

..
..
2.9
1.5
0.5
0.9
1.7
..
0.4
0.4
0.5
..
2.6
1.6
..
2.2
..
4.2
2.8
..
2.1
..
..
2.5
4.1
..
..
..
4.4
1.6
0.6
0.7
1.2
..
2.4
1.4
1.6
2.3
2.1

74.5
2.7
..
8.7
..
1.6
7.9
..
..
12.8
2.8
1.6
7.1
..
3.9
..
3.0
6.9
..
4.9
2.6
5.5
0.0
2.7
2.8
0.4
1.1
1.8
4.8
1.9
17.2
6.2
2.5
..
0.4
19.0
5.3
3.4
5.4

7.8
2.1
7.1
8.9
8.2
5.0
5.4
22.6
8.1
5.9
1.9
0.7
3.4
2.7
0.3
5.7
6.2
9.8
..
11.1
3.4
3.7
0.0
0.6
0.7
0.8
2.3
1.0
3.7
1.9
9.3
6.3
1.3
..
0.2
1.7
0.9
1.3
0.0

2.1
5.8
3.2
6.2
3.5
..
..
1.5
6.7
3.8
..
3.9

2.9 e
7.1
3.8
10.4 e
..
9.5 e
..
..
7.0
2.8
1.8 e
3.6

1.2
3.6
1.2
5.3
3.3
1.0
2.9
3.0
2.2
3.3
0.9
2.3

1.2
3.6
1.2
5.3
3.3
1.0
2.9
3.0
2.2
3.3
0.9
2.3

1.2
2.1
1.5
4.5
6.3
7.9
3.8
..
2.9
1.1
..
2.0

..
..
1.5
2.6
..
7.1
1.6
..
1.7
0.5
..
1.5

7.2
5.4
4.6
3.8
3.6
3.5
14.3
1.2
9.2
11.9
6.0
5.7

1.3
1.5
3.6
5.9
2.5
1.6
5.0
1.8
4.0
5.0
3.6
3.8

0.9
..

..
2.8 e

1.2
3.1

1.2
3.1

0.9
3.7

1.2
2.8

11.7
0.8

2.8
1.3

146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157

Madagascar
Swaziland
Cameroon
Lesotho
Djibouti
Yemen
Mauritania
Haiti
Kenya
Gambia
Guinea
Senegal

158 Nigeria
159 Rwanda

human de velopmen t repor t 2005

table
Public expenditure
on education
(% of GDP)
HDI rank
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177

Angola
Eritrea
Benin
Côte d’Ivoire
Tanzania, U. Rep. of
Malawi
Zambia
Congo, Dem. Rep. of the
Mozambique
Burundi
Ethiopia
Central African Republic
Guinea-Bissau
Chad
Mali
Burkina Faso
Sierra Leone
Niger

notes
a As a result of a number of limitations in the data,
comparisons of military expenditure data over time
and across countries should be made with caution.
For detailed notes on the data see SIPRI 2004.
b For aggregates, see table 19.
c Data may not be comparable across countries as a
result of differences in methods of data collection.
d Data refer to the most recent year available during
the period specified.
e Data refer to United Nations Educational, Scientific
and Cultural Organization Institute for Statistics
estimate when national estimate is not available.
f Data refer to the Federal Republic of Germany
before reunification.
g Data differ slightly from data presented in table 6
from WHO 2005a.

Public expenditure
on health
(% of GDP)

Military
expenditure a
(% of GDP)

20

Total
debt service b
(% of GDP)

1990 c

2000–02 d

1990

2002

1990

2003

1990

2003

3.9
..
..
..
2.8
3.2
2.4
..
3.1
3.4
3.4
2.2
..
..
..
2.4
..
3.2

2.8 e
4.1
3.3 e
4.6 e
..
6.0
2.0 e
..
..
3.9
4.6 e
..
..
..
..
..
3.7
2.3 e

2.1
3.2
2.1
1.4
2.7
4.0
3.1
1.1
4.1
0.6
2.6
1.6
3.0
2.7
2.3
2.0
1.7
2.0

2.1
3.2
2.1
1.4
2.7
4.0
3.1
1.1 g
4.1
0.6
2.6
1.6
3.0
2.7
2.3
2.0
1.7
2.0

5.8
..
1.8
1.3
..
1.3
3.7
..
5.9
3.4
8.5
..
..
..
2.1
3.0
1.4
..

4.7
19.4
..
1.5
2.1
..
..
..
1.3
5.9
4.3
1.3
..
1.5
1.9
1.3
1.7
..

3.2
..
2.1
11.7
4.2
7.1
6.2
3.7
3.2
3.7
2.7
2.0
3.4
0.7
2.8
1.1
3.3
4.0

10.1
1.6
1.7
4.2
0.9
2.1
9.0
2.6
2.0
4.9
1.4
0.1
6.4
1.8
1.8
1.2
3.2
1.2

Sources
Column 1: calculated on the basis of GDP and public
expenditure data from UNESCO Institute for Statistics
2005b.
Column 2: UNESCO Institute for Statistics 2005b.
Columns 3 and 4: World Bank 2005c.
Columns 5 and 6: SIPRI 2005a.
Columns 7 and 8: calculated on the basis of data on
GDP and total debt service from World Bank 2005c.

Human development indicators

hum a n de v e l opme n t re p or t 2005

287

table

21

. . . to have access to the resources needed for a decent standard of living . . .

Unemployment in OECD countries
MDG
Youth unemployment rate

Unemployment rate
Unemployed
people
(thousands)

Total
(% of labour
force)

Average
annual
(% of labour
force)

2003

2003

1 Norway
2 Iceland
3 Australia
4 Luxembourg
5 Canada
6 Sweden
7 Switzerland
8 Ireland
9 Belgium
10 United States
11 Japan
12 Netherlands
13 Finland
14 Denmark
15 United Kingdom
16 France
17 Austria
18 Italy
19 New Zealand
20 Germany
21 Spain
24 Greece
27 Portugal
28 Korea, Rep. of
31 Czech Republic
35 Hungary
36 Poland
42 Slovakia
53 Mexico
Medium human development

106.7
5.5
607.4
7.6
1,302.2
217.0
174.9
88.0
361.7
8,776.6
3,504.0
353.8
234.4
161.6
1,485.5
2,648.2
244.9
2,096.5
94.8
3,838.0
2,127.4
417.1
342.3
776.7
399.1
244.5
3,328.5
459.3
1,033.6

94 Turkey
OECD e

2,494.0
37,931.6 T

HDI rank

Female
(% of male rate)

Total
(% of labour
force ages
15–24) a

Female
(% of male rate)

Women

Men

1993–2003

2003

2003

2003

2003

2003

4.5
3.4
6.0
3.8
7.6
4.9
4.0
4.6
7.9
6.0
5.3
4.1
9.1
5.6
5.0
9.7
5.7
8.8
4.6
9.1
11.3
9.5
6.3
3.4
7.8
5.9
19.6
17.5
2.5

4.3
3.5
7.7
3.0
8.6
6.3
3.4
8.5
8.5
5.3
4.0
4.8
12.2
5.8
7.0
10.7
5.4
10.7
6.5
8.1
14.5
10.2
5.7
3.6
6.3
8.3
14.9
15.3 d
3.1

81
82 b
104
188 b
91
83
117
81
107
90
89
105
97
113
75
126
96
172
113
92
195
238
132
86
162
91
108
102
106

11.7
7.2 b
11.6
7.0 b
13.8
13.8
8.6
7.6
19.0
12.4
10.1
7.8
21.6
9.8
11.5
20.8
6.5
26.3
10.2
10.6
22.7
25.1
14.6
9.6
17.6
13.4
43.0
33.1
5.3

84
46 b
92
168
76
86
104
75
87
86
75
98
99
84
72
110
97
134
103
69
140
191
134
75
113
94
105
92
126

5.4
13.3 b
17.0
26.5 b, c
8.4
15.3
32.6
26.0
48.2
11.0
24.6
28.1
21.4
17.9
17.1
42.8
23.9
58.9
11.0
52.3
43.9
61.0
32.7
0.3
51.9
42.2
50.8
62.1
0.8

7.1
9.5 b
27.1
28.6 b, c
11.4
19.6
21.6
40.9
44.8
12.5
38.9
30.1
27.7
21.8
26.5
43.1
25.0
57.5
15.5
48.3
34.3
49.2
31.2
0.7
47.4
42.2
48.6
60.2
1.1

10.3
6.9

7.9
6.8

94
105

20.5
13.6

88
94

30.9
31.9

22.1
30.2

Long-term unemployment
(% of total unemployment)

High human development

Sources
Columns 1, 2 and 5 : OECD 2005b.
Columns 3, 4 and 6 : calculated on the basis of
data on male and female unemployment rates from
OECD 2005b.
Columns 7 and 8: OECD 2005d.

Human development indicators

notes
a The age range for the youth labour force may be
16–24 for some countries.
b Data refer to 2002.
c Data are based on a small sample and must be
treated with caution.
d Data refer to the average annual rate in
1994–2003.
e Aggregates for the Organisation for Economic
Co-operation and Development are from OECD
2005b, d.

288

human de velopmen t repor t 2005

table

22

. . . while preserving it for future generations . . .

Energy and the environment

Traditional
fuel
consumption
(% of total
energy
requirements)
HDI rank

Electricity
consumption
per capita
(kilowatt-hours)

MDG
GDP per unit of
energy use
(2000 PPP US$ per
kg of oil equivalent)

Ratification of environmental treaties a
MDG
Kyoto
Carbon dioxide emissions
Protocol
Share
to the
of world
Cartagena Framework Framework Convention
Per capita
total
Protocol Convention Convention
on
(metric tons)
(%)
on
on Climate on Climate Biological
Biosafety
Change
Change
Diversity
1980
2002
2000

2002

1980

2002

1980

2002

..
0.0
9.5
..
4.6
19.4
7.7 c
1.1
1.0
3.6
0.2
..
6.2
12.7
0.5
4.7 d
3.7
1.7 e
2.2
..
0.6
..
0.0
4.1
0.2
7.3
..
..
0.0
6.3
2.4
..
0.0
3.2
3.2
5.5
12.5
17.7
13.9
0.0
..
1.6
..
0.0
5.4
35.4
24.9
47.4
..
..
..

22,400 b
13,838
6,599
10,879
14,243
11,700
5,878 c
3,106
5,177
10,336
4,944
4,560
8,372
5,059
5,022
4,633 d
4,988
3,364 e
7,270
...
2,906
2,449
3,187
2,413
2,836
...
1,750
1,051
1,692
1,333
...
1,627
2,430
1,413
2,920
3,419
1,054
...
...
10,616
6,204
...
4,784
6,849
...
1,163
964
...
...
4,062
794

26,640 b
29,247
11,299
10,547
18,541
16,996
8,483 c
6,560
8,749
13,456
8,612
6,958
16,694
6,925
6,614
8,123 d
7,845
5,840 e
10,301
6,989
6,154
6,237
6,698
5,247
7,961
6,791
4,647
7,058
5,323
3,193
6,368
4,939
8,903
2,383
3,972
3,549
2,918
5,767
3,239
17,489
14,215
5,256
10,830
16,544
3,558
2,456
1,765
2,703
2,619
6,084
2,704

4.6
3.1
3.7
2.3
2.5
3.6
7.6
4.1
4.0
2.8
5.7
4.0
3.2
5.3
4.5
5.0
6.0
7.0
5.1
3.9
6.8
11.1
6.1
8.4
3.9
..
9.6
4.2
4.9
..
..
6.5
..
7.7
3.5
..
5.3
..
..
..
7.5
..
1.6
1.8
..
8.5
10.2
33.3
..
..
..

6.1
2.4
4.8
6.3
3.6
4.4
7.8
9.1
4.8
4.4
6.4
5.8
3.7
8.1
6.6
5.8
7.5
8.5
4.6
6.2
6.5
10.6
6.0
6.8
3.8
5.1
6.9
3.9
..
..
3.7
7.6
..
6.9
5.3
4.4
6.0
3.6
4.0
..
..
3.6
1.7
1.7
5.3
10.0
9.4
4.9
..
..
..

10.6
8.2
13.9
29.1
17.2
8.6
6.5
7.7
13.3
20.0
7.9
10.9
11.9
12.3
10.5
9.0
6.9
6.6
5.6
..
5.3
3.2
5.6
5.4
12.5
..
2.8
3.3
5.2
2.7
..
3.1
35.6
3.8
7.7
12.8
2.5
..
..
56.3
35.8
..
22.6
19.7
..
2.0
1.1
..
1.2
38.1
1.5

12.2
7.7
18.3
21.1
16.5
5.8
5.7
11.0
6.8
20.1
9.4
9.4
12.0
8.9
9.2
6.2
7.8
7.5
8.7
9.8
7.3
5.2
11.0
8.5
13.8
7.8
6.0
9.4
8.3
4.6
11.2
7.5
17.7
3.5
5.6
7.7
3.6
11.8
3.6
53.1
25.1
6.8
30.6
24.6
4.7
1.2
1.4
2.7
2.8
6.7
6.8

0.2
(.)
1.5
(.)
1.9
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.4
24.4
5.2
0.6
0.2
0.2
2.5
1.6 d
0.3
1.9 e
0.1
3.4
1.2
0.1
0.3
0.4
0.3
0.1
0.3
1.9
(.)
(.)
0.5
(.)
(.)
0.6
0.2
1.3
0.3
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.2
0.1
(.)
(.)
(.)
(.)
(.)
(.)

33.8
8.0

1,029
999

1,395
2,280

..
5.4

..
5.6

3.2
4.2

2.1
3.7

0.1
1.8

High human development
Norway
Iceland
Australia
Luxembourg
Canada
Sweden
Switzerland
Ireland
Belgium
United States
Japan
Netherlands
Finland
Denmark
United Kingdom
France
Austria
Italy
New Zealand
Germany
Spain
Hong Kong, China (SAR)
Israel
Greece
Singapore
Slovenia
Portugal
Korea, Rep. of
Cyprus
Barbados
Czech Republic
Malta
Brunei Darussalam
Argentina
Hungary
Poland
Chile
Estonia
Lithuania
Qatar
United Arab Emirates
Slovakia
Bahrain
Kuwait
Croatia
Uruguay
Costa Rica
Latvia
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Bahamas
Seychelles

52 Cuba
53 Mexico

l
°
l
°
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
°
l
l
l

°
l
l
°
l
l

l

l
°
°
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
°
l
l
l
l
l
l
°
l
l
l
l
l
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hum a n de v e l opme n t re p or t 2005

Human development indicators

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51

289

table

22

Energy and the environment

Human development indicators

Traditional
fuel
consumption
(% of total
energy
requirements)

290

Electricity
consumption
per capita
(kilowatt-hours)

MDG
GDP per unit of
energy use
(2000 PPP US$ per
kg of oil equivalent)

Ratification of environmental treaties a
MDG
Kyoto
Carbon dioxide emissions
Protocol
Share
to the
of world
Cartagena Framework Framework Convention
Per capita
total
Protocol Convention Convention
on
(metric tons)
(%)
on
on Climate on Climate Biological
Biosafety
Change
Change
Diversity
1980
2002
2000

HDI rank

2002

1980

2002

1980

2002

54 Tonga
55 Bulgaria
56 Panama
57 Trinidad and Tobago
Medium human development

..
6.2
17.8
0.4

109
4,371
930
1,900

340
4,624
1,654
4,422

..
1.6
7.2
2.7

..
2.9
5.9
1.3

0.4
8.5
1.8
15.4

1.1
5.3
2.0
31.9

(.)
0.2
(.)
0.1

58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104

0.9
8.9
..
1.5
2.9
26.7
11.8
..
0.0
5.5
7.7
16.0
..
0.0
5.1
13.6
..
2.8
..
..
1.0
20.6
0.2
0.5
17.5
0.0
12.8
5.3
3.3
..
45.7
7.8
1.4
..
..
41.6
10.5
7.2
0.0
..
6.5
0.1
25.2
0.0
..
6.0
32.8

1,588
...
984
740
...
1,145
3,061
482
281
...
...
726
149
847
1,204
340
252
2,379
504
1,969
...
579
...
1,056
423
...
373
307
4,442
276
233
434
366
370
489
113
554
582
25
...
834
570
...
...
..
381
336

3,915
3,363
1,438
3,234
6,062
2,183
2,385
1,631
1,913
3,326
2,527
1,019
1,197
5,219
1,844
1,860
597
3,484
1,698
6,620
3,525
907
4,030
2,834
943
1,554
610
1,484
4,447
1,000
1,129
1,205
1,585
713
625
366
1,904
1,326
448
2,126
2,640
2,075
1,508
2,579
..
881
665

..
..
..
4.6
..
7.4
..
..
..
..
..
7.2
..
8.2
..
5.1
..
2.9
..
6.8
..
8.0
..
..
5.2
..
9.8
1.2
..
..
7.2
6.9
5.5
..
..
5.5
5.6
6.3
..
..
3.0
4.9
6.4
..
..
8.5
7.7

..
..
..
4.1
1.9
6.8
3.8
..
..
2.1
5.3
9.8
..
3.0
6.7
5.0
..
2.4
..
2.1
1.8
10.7
1.8
3.8
4.8
4.8
7.6
4.6
..
..
6.3
7.7
3.9
..
..
8.0
5.7
6.8
..
1.4
2.5
3.1
4.4
2.2
..
5.6
7.1

8.9
..
2.2
2.0
..
1.5
8.7
0.6
0.5
..
..
1.4
0.5
5.0
1.8
0.9
0.6
5.8
0.9
14.9
..
1.4
..
2.3
1.7
..
0.8
1.5
6.7
0.4
0.5
1.5
2.1
1.3
1.2
0.2
1.7
1.1
0.3
..
4.0
3.0
..
..
..
3.5
0.5

9.1
5.1
4.7
6.3
9.9
1.8
4.0
2.6
2.3
6.0
4.8
1.3
1.5
12.1
0.8
3.7
0.8
4.3
2.4
15.0
6.4
1.0
9.9
4.7
2.0
1.0
0.9
2.7
5.1
1.6
0.7
2.3
3.2
3.1
1.6
0.5
3.0
2.5
3.4
9.1
4.1
5.3
0.7
3.4
..
2.9
1.0

0.2
(.)
(.)
0.6
6.2
1.3
0.4
(.)
(.)
0.3
0.1
0.3
(.)
0.1
(.)
0.9
(.)
0.7
(.)
1.6
1.5
0.1
0.5
0.1
0.1
(.)
0.3
12.1
(.)
(.)
(.)
0.1
0.1
(.)
(.)
(.)
1.0
0.1
(.)
0.2
(.)
1.4
(.)
0.1
..
0.4
(.)

..
0.0

55
433

99
1,570

..
4.5

..
3.2

0.4
2.2

0.3
2.8

(.)
0.2

Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
Macedonia, TFYR
Antigua and Barbuda
Malaysia
Russian Federation
Brazil
Romania
Mauritius
Grenada
Belarus
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Colombia
Dominica
Oman
Albania
Thailand
Samoa (Western)
Venezuela
Saint Lucia
Saudi Arabia
Ukraine
Peru
Kazakhstan
Lebanon
Ecuador
Armenia
Philippines
China
Suriname
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Paraguay
Tunisia
Jordan
Belize
Fiji
Sri Lanka
Turkey
Dominican Republic
Maldives
Turkmenistan
Jamaica
Iran, Islamic Rep. of
Georgia
Azerbaijan
Occupied Palestinian Territories
Algeria
El Salvador

105 Cape Verde
106 Syrian Arab Republic

human de velopmen t repor t 2005

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table
Traditional
fuel
consumption
(% of total
energy
requirements)

Electricity
consumption
per capita
(kilowatt-hours)

MDG
GDP per unit of
energy use
(2000 PPP US$ per
kg of oil equivalent)

Ratification of environmental treaties a
MDG
Kyoto
Carbon dioxide emissions
Protocol
Share
to the
of world
Cartagena Framework Framework Convention
Per capita
total
Protocol Convention Convention
on
(metric tons)
(%)
on
on Climate on Climate Biological
Biosafety
Change
Change
Diversity
1980
2002
2000

2002

1980

2002

1980

2002

107 Guyana
108 Viet Nam
109 Kyrgyzstan
110 Indonesia
111 Uzbekistan
112 Nicaragua
113 Bolivia
114 Mongolia
115 Moldova, Rep. of
116 Honduras
117 Guatemala
118 Vanuatu
119 Egypt
120 South Africa
121 Equatorial Guinea
122 Tajikistan
123 Gabon
124 Morocco
125 Namibia
126 São Tomé and Principe
127 India
128 Solomon Islands
129 Myanmar
130 Cambodia
131 Botswana
132 Comoros
133 Lao People’s Dem. Rep.
134 Bhutan
135 Pakistan
136 Nepal
137 Papua New Guinea
138 Ghana
139 Bangladesh
140 Timor-Leste
141 Sudan
142 Congo
143 Togo
144 Uganda
145 Zimbabwe
Low human development

42.5
25.3
0.0
17.6
0.0
47.9
..
2.1
2.2
52.8
58.6
..
9.2
11.8 f
57.1
..
..
2.2
.. g
..
20.0
..
74.1
92.3
.. g
..
77.3
87.8
..
..
61.9
82.5
61.6
..
73.7
72.2
83.3
93.4
66.2

545
78
...
94
...
363
292
1,119
...
259
245
171
433
3,181 f
83
...
766
254
.. g
96
173
93
44
15
.. g
26
68
17
176
17
406
450
30
..
47
98
74
28
1,020

1,195
392
2,252
463
2,008
496
485
1,318
1,314
696
660
208
1,287
4,715 f
54
2,559
1,226
560
.. g
115
569
69
135
10
.. g
25
133
236
469
62
249
416
119
..
89
210
120
61
981

..
..
..
3.9
..
8.7
5.4
..
..
5.0
7.1
..
5.9
4.8
..
..
3.5
11.4
..
..
3.3
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
3.5
2.6
..
4.9
11.1
..
2.5
1.6
7.4
..
2.7

..
4.2
3.1
4.1
0.8
5.7
4.8
..
2.0
5.0
6.4
..
4.6
3.9
..
1.8
5.1
10.1
10.2
..
5.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
4.3
3.8
..
5.0
10.5
..
3.6
3.7
4.9
..
..

2.3
0.3
..
0.6
..
0.7
0.8
4.1
..
0.6
0.6
0.5
1.0
7.2
0.3
..
8.9
0.8
..
0.4
0.5
0.4
0.1
(.)
0.9
0.1
0.1
(.)
0.4
(.)
0.6
0.2
0.1
..
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.1
1.3

2.2
0.8
1.0
1.4
4.8
0.7
1.2
3.3
1.6
0.9
0.9
0.4
2.1
7.4
0.4
0.7
2.6
1.4
1.1
0.6
1.2
0.4
0.2
(.)
2.3
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.7
0.2
0.4
0.4
0.3
..
0.3
0.6
0.3
0.1
1.0

(.)
0.3
(.)
1.2
0.5
(.)
(.)
(.)
(.)
(.)
(.)
(.)
0.6
1.4
(.)
(.)
(.)
0.2
(.)
(.)
4.7
(.)
(.)
(.)
(.)
(.)
(.)
(.)
0.5
(.)
(.)
(.)
0.1
..
(.)
(.)
(.)
(.)
0.1

146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157

81.5
.. g
66.9
.. g
..
2.3
..
45.5
64.9
63.6
87.8
72.1

49
.. g
168
.. g
416
...
60
58
109
70
85
115

42
.. g
207
.. g
296
159
58
73
155
96
95
141

..
..
5.4
..
..
..
..
8.0
1.8
..
..
3.9

..
..
4.7
..
..
3.8
..
6.6
2.0
..
..
4.8

0.2
0.8
0.4
..
0.9
..
0.4
0.1
0.4
0.2
0.2
0.6

0.1
0.9
0.2
..
0.5
0.7
1.1
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.1
0.4

(.)
(.)
(.)
..
(.)
(.)
(.)
(.)
(.)
(.)
(.)
(.)

46.4
90.4

108
32

148
23

1.4
..

1.3
..

1.0
0.1

0.4
0.1

0.2
(.)

158 Nigeria
159 Rwanda

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°
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hum a n de v e l opme n t re p or t 2005

Human development indicators

HDI rank

Madagascar
Swaziland
Cameroon
Lesotho
Djibouti
Yemen
Mauritania
Haiti
Kenya
Gambia
Guinea
Senegal

22

291

table

22

Energy and the environment

Traditional
fuel
consumption
(% of total
energy
requirements)
2002

1980

2002

1980

2002

160 Angola
161 Eritrea
162 Benin
163 Côte d’Ivoire
164 Tanzania, U. Rep. of
165 Malawi
166 Zambia
167 Congo, Dem. Rep. of the
168 Mozambique
169 Burundi
170 Ethiopia
171 Central African Republic
172 Guinea-Bissau
173 Chad
174 Mali
175 Burkina Faso
176 Sierra Leone
177 Niger
Developing countries
Least developed countries
Arab States
East Asia and the Pacific
Latin America and the Caribbean
South Asia
Sub-Saharan Africa
Central and Eastern Europe and the CIS
OECD
High-income OECD
High human development
Medium human development
Low human development
High income
Middle income
Low income
World

32.0
75.0
72.7
72.7
82.6
85.0
87.3
94.9
80.3
95.6
93.3
83.3
50.0
97.2
85.0
89.4
91.2
85.3
24.5
75.9
18.0
11.0
19.8
24.5
70.6
4.1
4.1
3.0
4.5
17.0
71.1
2.9
9.2
42.2
7.6 h

214
...
37
220
41
66
1,125
161
364
12
...
29
18
10
15
16
62
39
388
83
626
329
1,019
171
434
3,284
5,761
6,698
5,676
368
135
6,616
623
174
1,573

135
66
92
197
83
80
603
91
378
25
32
28
41
12
33
32
54
40
1,155
106
1,946
1,439
1,927
566
536
3,328
8,615
10,262
8,586
1,121
133
10,198
1,653
399
2,465

..
..
2.1
4.9
..
..
1.4
6.1
1.0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
3.7
..
5.8
2.1
6.3
3.8
3.3
..
3.9
3.8
3.8
3.5
3.3
3.9
3.7
2.3
3.8

3.2
..
3.0
3.7
1.4
..
1.3
2.2
2.3
..
2.4
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
4.6
4.0
3.5
4.6
6.1
4.8
2.7
2.4
5.1
5.2
5.2
4.1
4.1
5.1
4.1
2.0
4.6

succession.
° Signature.

Human development indicators

MDG
GDP per unit of
energy use
(2000 PPP US$ per
kg of oil equivalent)

HDI rank

l Ratification, acceptance, approval, accession or

292

Electricity
consumption
per capita
(kilowatt-hours)

Notes
a Information is as of 15 April 2005. The Cartagena
Protocol on Biosafety was signed in Cartagena in
2000, the United Nations Framework Convention
on Climate Change in New York in 1992, the
Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework
Convention on Climate Change in Kyoto in 1997
and the Convention on Biological Diversity in Rio de
Janeiro in 1992.
b Includes Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands.
c Includes Liechtenstein.
d Includes Monaco.
e Includes San Marino.

human de velopmen t repor t 2005

Ratification of environmental treaties a
MDG
Kyoto
Carbon dioxide emissions
Protocol
Share
to the
of world
Cartagena Framework Framework Convention
Per capita
total
Protocol Convention Convention
on
(metric tons)
(%)
on
on Climate on Climate Biological
Biosafety
Change
Change
Diversity
1980
2002
2000
0.7
..
0.1
0.7
0.1
0.1
0.6
0.1
0.3
(.)
(.)
(.)
0.2
(.)
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.1
1.3
0.1
3.1
1.4
2.4
0.5
1.0
10.1
11.0
12.2
10.9
1.2
0.4
12.1
2.1
0.5
3.4

0.5
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.1
0.1
0.2
(.)
0.1
(.)
0.1
0.1
0.2
(.)
(.)
0.1
0.1
0.1
2.0
0.2
4.1
2.6
2.4
1.2
0.8
5.9
11.2
13.0
11.2
2.0
0.2
13.0
2.9
0.8
3.6

(.)
(.)
(.)
(.)
(.)
(.)
(.)
(.)
(.)
(.)
(.)
(.)
(.)
(.)
(.)
(.)
(.)
(.)
36.9
0.4
4.5
17.6
5.6
6.3
1.9
12.2
51.0
46.2
53.0
39.0
0.5
47.8
38.9
7.3
100.0 i

l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

l
l
l
°
l
l
l
l
°
°
l
l

f Data refer to the South African Customs Union,
which includes Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia and
Swaziland.
g Included in data for South Africa.
h Data refer to the world aggregate from UN 2005d.
i Data refer to the world aggregate from CDIAC
2005. Data refer to total carbon dioxide emissions,
including those of countries not shown in the main
indicator tables as well as emissions not included in
national totals, such as those from bunker fuels and
oxidation of non-fuel hydrocarbon products.

l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

l
l
l
°
l
l
l
l

l
l

Sources
Column 1: calculated on the basis of data on
traditional fuel consumption and total energy
requirements from UN 2005d.
Columns 2 and 3: UN 2005b.
Columns 4 and 5: World Bank 2005c, based on data
from the International Energy Agency; aggregates
calculated for the Human Development Report Office
by the World Bank.
Columns 6 and 7: UN 2005f, based on data from the
Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center.
Column 8: CDIAC 2005.
Columns 9–12: UN 2005g.

table

23

HDI rank

. . . protecting personal security . . .

Refugees and armaments

Conventional arms transfers b
(1990 prices)

Refugees

Internally
displaced
people a
(thousands)
2004 e

By country
of asylum
(thousands)
2004 e

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
150–300 f
..
..
..
..
..
210
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
10
..
..
..
..
..
..

46
(.)
56
1
133
112
50
6
13
453
2
141
11
70
277
131
16
12
6
960
6
2
4
3
(.)
2
(.)
(.)
(.)
..
2
(.)
..
3
7
2
(.)
(.)
(.)
(.)
(.)
(.)
0
2
4
(.)
14
(.)
..
..
..
1
6

By country
of origin c
(thousands)
2004 e

Exports
Imports
(US$ millions)

Total armed forces

Share d
(%)
2000–04

Thousands
2003

Index
(1985=100)
2003

1994

2004

US$ millions
2004

(.)
(.)
(.)
..
(.)
(.)
(.)
(.)
(.)
(.)
(.)
(.)
(.)
(.)
(.)
(.)
(.)
(.)
(.)
1
(.)
(.)
1
(.)
(.)
1
(.)
(.)
(.)
(.)
7
(.)
(.)
1
3
15
2
1
2
(.)
(.)
1
(.)
1
230
(.)
(.)
3
(.)
(.)
(.)

99
..
263
0
333
258
113
48
52
625
585
143
174
66
538
6
36
146
16
..
636
..
793
1,215
117
11
433
668
46
..
0
0
0
177
4
8
113
15
0
10
554
30
7
37
57
8
0
12
..
0
0

1
..
334
0
340
13
125
25
12
533
195
183
57
194
171
89
46
317
42
..
261
..
724
1,434
456
14
59
737
0
..
18
0
0
129
15
256
43
5
31
0
1,246
0
10
0
8
0
0
14
..
0
0

51
0
52
..
543
260
154
..
0
5,453
0
211
17
6
985
2,122
1
261
1
..
75
..
283
0
70
..
0
50
0
..
0
10
..
0
0
86
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
..
0
..
..
..

(.)
(.)
(.)
..
2
2
(.)
..
(.)
31
(.)
1
(.)
(.)
5
8
(.)
1
(.)
..
1
..
1
(.)
(.)
..
(.)
(.)
(.)
..
(.)
(.)
..
(.)
(.)
(.)
(.)
(.)
(.)
(.)
(.)
(.)
(.)
(.)
(.)
(.)
..
(.)
..
..
..

27
..
52
1
52
28
27
10
41
1,434
240
53
27
21
208
259
35
194
9
285
151
..
168
171
73
7
45
688
10
1
45
2
7
71
32
142
78
5
14
12
51
20
11
16
21
24
..
5
..
1
1

72
..
74
129
63
42
137
76
45
67
99
50
74
72
62
56
64
50
69
60
47
..
118
85
132
..
62
115
100
60
22
263
171
66
30
44
77
..
..
207
117
..
400
129
..
75
..
..
..
180
42

16
2

0
120

0
265

..
..

..
..

49
193

30
149

High human development
Norway
Iceland
Australia
Luxembourg
Canada
Sweden
Switzerland
Ireland
Belgium
United States
Japan
Netherlands
Finland
Denmark
United Kingdom
France
Austria
Italy
New Zealand
Germany
Spain
Hong Kong, China (SAR)
Israel
Greece
Singapore
Slovenia
Portugal
Korea, Rep. of
Cyprus
Barbados
Czech Republic
Malta
Brunei Darussalam
Argentina
Hungary
Poland
Chile
Estonia
Lithuania
Qatar
United Arab Emirates
Slovakia
Bahrain
Kuwait
Croatia
Uruguay
Costa Rica
Latvia
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Bahamas
Seychelles

52 Cuba
53 Mexico

..
10–12

hum a n de v e l opme n t re p or t 2005

Human development indicators

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51

293

table

23

Refugees and armaments

HDI rank

Human development indicators

54 Tonga
55 Bulgaria
56 Panama
57 Trinidad and Tobago
Medium human development

294

58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104

Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
Macedonia, TFYR
Antigua and Barbuda
Malaysia
Russian Federation
Brazil
Romania
Mauritius
Grenada
Belarus
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Colombia
Dominica
Oman
Albania
Thailand
Samoa (Western)
Venezuela
Saint Lucia
Saudi Arabia
Ukraine
Peru
Kazakhstan
Lebanon
Ecuador
Armenia
Philippines
China
Suriname
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Paraguay
Tunisia
Jordan
Belize
Fiji
Sri Lanka
Turkey
Dominican Republic
Maldives
Turkmenistan
Jamaica
Iran, Islamic Rep. of
Georgia
Azerbaijan
Occupied Palestinian Territories
Algeria
El Salvador

105 Cape Verde
106 Syrian Arab Republic

Internally
displaced
people a
(thousands)
2004 e
..
..
..
..
..
2
..
..
339 f
..
..
..
..
..
309
1,575–3,410 g
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
60
..
50–600
..
8
60
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
352
230–1,000+
..
..
..
..
..
240
575
21–50 h
1,000 i
..
..
305

human de velopmen t repor t 2005

Conventional arms transfers b
(1990 prices)

Refugees
By country
of asylum
(thousands)
2004 e

By country
of origin c
(thousands)
2004 e

Exports
Imports
(US$ millions)

US$ millions
2004

Total armed forces

Share d
(%)
2000–04

Thousands
2003

Index
(1985=100)
2003

1994

2004

..
4
1
..

(.)
3
(.)
(.)

0
0
0
0

0
12
0
0

..
0
..
..

..
(.)
..
..

..
51
..
3

..
34
..
129

12
(.)
..
(.)
10
3
2
0
..
1
23
(.)
..
..
(.)
119
..
(.)
..
241
3
1
16
3
6
239
(.)
299
0
..
(.)
(.)
1
1
..
(.)
2
..
..
14
..
985
4
(.)
0
169
(.)

2
6
(.)
(.)
96
(.)
8
(.)
(.)
8
300
38
(.)
(.)
10
(.)
0
1
(.)
(.)
94
6
7
25
1
13
(.)
132
(.)
(.)
(.)
3
1
(.)
1
122
186
(.)
(.)
1
(.)
132
12
253
428
12
6

0
27
..
375
40
226
25
0
..
0
3
39
..
168
0
627
..
1
..
982
0
133
0
12
0
310
71
142
0
..
0
32
5
0
4
53
1,215
0
0
0
0
389
0
25
5
156
0

74
0
..
277
0
38
276
0
..
0
0
17
..
123
6
105
..
12
..
838
29
14
27
0
22
68
59
2,238
0
..
4
0
132
0
0
6
418
21
0
20
0
283
0
0
0
282
0

0
29
..
0
6,197
100
0
..
..
50
0
..
..
0
..
5
..
1
..
0
452
5
5
0
..
..
..
125
..
..
..
..
72
..
..
..
18
..
..
..
..
1
20
..
..
..
0

(.)
(.)
..
(.)
32
(.)
(.)
..
..
1
(.)
..
..
(.)
..
(.)
..
(.)
..
(.)
3
(.)
(.)
(.)
..
..
..
2
..
..
..
..
(.)
..
..
..
(.)
..
..
..
..
(.)
(.)
..
..
..
(.)

76
11
(.)
110
1,212
303
97
..
..
73
25
207
..
42
22
307
..
82
..
200
273
80
66
72
47
45
106
2,255
2
..
10
35
101
1
4
151
515
25
..
26
3
540
18
67
..
128
16

104
..
200
100
23
110
51
..
..
..
..
313
..
143
53
130
..
168
..
319
..
63
..
414
109
..
92
58
90
..
70
100
143
183
130
699
82
110
..
..
133
89
..
..
..
75
37

..
4

(.)
20

0
44

0
0

..
0

..
(.)

1
297

16
74

table
HDI rank
107 Guyana
108 Viet Nam
109 Kyrgyzstan
110 Indonesia
111 Uzbekistan
112 Nicaragua
113 Bolivia
114 Mongolia
115 Moldova, Rep. of
116 Honduras
117 Guatemala
118 Vanuatu
119 Egypt
120 South Africa
121 Equatorial Guinea
122 Tajikistan
123 Gabon
124 Morocco
125 Namibia
126 São Tomé and Principe
127 India
128 Solomon Islands
129 Myanmar
130 Cambodia
131 Botswana
132 Comoros
133 Lao People’s Dem. Rep.
134 Bhutan
135 Pakistan
136 Nepal
137 Papua New Guinea
138 Ghana
139 Bangladesh
140 Timor-Leste
141 Sudan
142 Congo
143 Togo
144 Uganda
145 Zimbabwe
Low human development
Madagascar
Swaziland
Cameroon
Lesotho
Djibouti
Yemen
Mauritania
Haiti
Kenya
Gambia
Guinea
Senegal

158 Nigeria
159 Rwanda

Conventional arms transfers b
(1990 prices)

Refugees
By country
of asylum
(thousands)
2004 e

By country
of origin c
(thousands)
2004 e

Exports
Imports
(US$ millions)

Total armed forces

Share d
(%)
2000–04

Thousands
2003

Index
(1985=100)
2003

1994

2004

US$ millions
2004

..
..
..
600
3
..
..
..
..
..
242
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
600
..
526 f
..
..
..
..
..
30 f
100–150
..
..
500
..
6,000
100
..
1,400 f
150

..
15
6
(.)
45
(.)
1
0
(.)
(.)
1
..
89
27
..
3
14
2
20
0
165
..
0
(.)
3
0
0
..
1,124
124
7
44
20
(.)
138
91
12
231
13

(.)
363
3
13
7
4
(.)
(.)
11
1
7
..
6
(.)
1
59
(.)
1
1
(.)
14
(.)
147
31
(.)
(.)
10
104
24
1
(.)
16
6
(.)
606
29
11
35
7

0
0
0
559
0
0
7
..
2
0
3
..
1,944
19
0
24
0
131
3
..
565
0
3
71
0
..
0
0
755
0
1
10
50
..
0
0
3
0
0

0
247
5
85
0
0
1
..
0
0
0
..
398
8
0
0
0
0
53
..
2,375
0
65
0
10
..
0
0
344
32
0
27
26
..
270
0
0
19
0

..
..
0
50
170
0
..
..
0
..
..
..
0
35
..
..
..
..
..
..
22
..
..
0
..
..
..
..
10
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
(.)
(.)
1
(.)
..
..
(.)
..
..
..
(.)
(.)
..
..
..
..
..
..
(.)
..
..
(.)
..
..
..
..
(.)
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

2
484
13
302
52
14
32
9
7
12
29
..
450
56
1
8
5
196
9
..
1,325
..
378
124
9
..
29
..
619
72
..
7
126
..
105
10
9
50
29

24
47
..
109
..
22
114
26
..
72
92
..
101
52
59
..
196
132
..
..
105
..
203
355
225
..
54
..
128
288
..
46
137
..
185
115
236
250
71

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
360
..
82
64

0
1
59
0
27
62
(.)
..
238
7
184
21

(.)
(.)
6
(.)
1
2
31
8
3
1
4
8

0
0
0
0
0
4
27
..
12
0
0
1

0
0
0
1
0
309
0
..
0
0
0
0

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

14
..
23
2
10
67
16
..
24
1
10
14

64
..
316
100
327
104
185
..
176
160
98
135

200
..

9
37

24
75

73
0

10
0

0
..

(.)
..

79
51

84
981

hum a n de v e l opme n t re p or t 2005

Human development indicators

146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157

Internally
displaced
people a
(thousands)
2004 e

23

295

table

23

Refugees and armaments

HDI rank

Human development indicators

160 Angola
161 Eritrea
162 Benin
163 Côte d’Ivoire
164 Tanzania, U. Rep. of
165 Malawi
166 Zambia
167 Congo, Dem. Rep. of the
168 Mozambique
169 Burundi
170 Ethiopia
171 Central African Republic
172 Guinea-Bissau
173 Chad
174 Mali
175 Burkina Faso
176 Sierra Leone
177 Niger
Developing countries
Least developed countries
Arab States
East Asia and the Pacific
Latin America and the Caribbean
South Asia
Sub-Saharan Africa
Central and Eastern Europe and the CIS
OECD
High-income OECD
High human development
Medium human development
Low human development
High income
Middle income
Low income
World

296

notes
a Refers to estimates maintained by the Global IDP
Project based on various sources. Estimates are
associated with high levels of uncertainty.
b Data are as of 16 February 2005 and are trend
indicator values, which are an indicator only of
the volume of international arm transfers, not
of the actual financial value of such transfers.
Published reports of arms transfers provide partial
information, as not all transfers are fully reported.
The estimates presented are conservative and
may understate actual transfers of conventional
weapons.
c The country of origin for many refugees is
unavailable or unreported. These data may
therefore be underestimates.
d Calculated using the 2000–04 totals for all
countries and non-state actors with exports of
major conventional weapons as defined in SIPRI
2005b.
e Data refer to the end of 2004 unless otherwise
specified.

Conventional arms transfers b
(1990 prices)

Refugees

Internally
displaced
people a
(thousands)
2004 e

By country
of asylum
(thousands)
2004 e

40–340 f
59
..
500
..
..
..
2,330
..
170
132
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
25,300 j

13
4
5
76
650
3
227
234
(.)
41
130
45
8
146
10
(.)
61
(.)
6,484 T
2,476 T
883 T
444 T
38 T
2,417 T
2,698 T
678 T
2,524 T
2,505 T
2,560 T
4,353 T
2,299 T
2,516 T
2,812 T
4,344 T
9,672 T

By country
of origin c
(thousands)
2004 e
324
124
(.)
34
1
(.)
(.)
453
(.)
532
63
35
1
52
(.)
1
71
1
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

f Estimate excludes certain parts of the country or
some groups of internally displaced persons.
g Lower estimate accumulated since 1994. Higher
figure accumulated since 1985.
h Lower estimate only includes internally displaced
persons evicted mainly by house demolitions since
2000. Higher figure cumulative since 1967.
i Figures accumulated since 1992.
j Aggregate provided by the Global IDP Project.
k Data refer to the world aggregate from SIPRI 2005c
and include all countries and non-state actors with
transfers of major conventional weapons as defined
therein.

human de velopmen t repor t 2005

Exports
Imports
(US$ millions)
1994

2004

US$ millions
2004

96
16
0
0
2
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
8
0
0
1
0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
19,501 T k

5
382
0
14
0
0
0
0
0
0
162
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
19,162 T k

0
0
..
..
..
0
0
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
19,156 T k

Sources
Column 1: Global IDP Project 2005.
Columns 2 and 3: UNHCR 2005.
Columns 4–6: SIPRI 2005c.
Column 7: calculated on the basis of data on
weapons transfers from SIPRI 2005c.
Column 8: IISS 2004.
Column 9: calculated on the basis of data on armed
forces from IISS 2004.

Total armed forces

Share d
(%)
2000–04

Thousands
2003

Index
(1985=100)
2003

(.)
(.)
..
..
..
(.)
(.)
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

108
202
5
17
27
5
18
65
10
51
183
3
7
30
7
11
13
5
12,670 T
1,933 T
1,866 T
4,874 T
1,282 T
2,923 T
1,200 T
2,352 T
5,002 T
4,055 T
5,165 T
12,215 T
1,076 T
4,412 T
10,614 T
4,640 T
18,560 T

219
..
102
129
67
100
112
135
65
971
84
113
84
248
151
270
419
241
81
165
69
65
95
115
142
36
69
69
69
71
154
72
65
92
67

table

24

. . . protecting personal security . . .

Victims of crime

Population victimized by crime a
(% of total)
Year b

Total crime c

Property crime d

Robbery

Sexual assault e

Assault

Bribery
(corruption) f
0.3
0.7
0.3
0.4
0.3
0.1
0.2
1.3
..
(.)
4.0
0.4
..
0.2
5.1
1.4
..
2.1
0.1
0.2 g
0.2

National
1999
1995
1999
1999
1999
1999
1999
1999
1991
1999
1996
1999
1991
1999
1999
1999
1999
2000
1999
1999
1999

30.1
18.8
21.4
23.8
23.0
26.4
19.1
21.4
24.6
15.2
23.1
25.2
29.4
15.0
22.7
15.5
23.2
21.2
24.7
18.2
21.1

13.9
3.1
7.7
10.4
7.6
12.2
4.4
8.7
12.7
3.4
10.9
7.4
14.8
6.2
9.0
7.5
7.6
7.7
8.4
4.5
10.0

1.2
0.2
1.0
0.9
0.7
1.2
0.6
1.1
1.3
0.1
0.4
0.8
0.7
0.1
1.8
1.1
0.7
1.1
0.9
0.7
0.6

1.0
1.2
0.3
0.8
0.4
0.9
1.1
0.7
0.6
0.1
0.1
0.8
1.3
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.3
0.8
1.1
0.6
0.4

2.4
0.8
1.2
2.3
1.4
2.8
2.1
1.4
0.2
0.1
1.1
1.0
2.4
2.1
1.1
0.4
3.0
1.1
1.2
1.0
1.2

Asunción (Paraguay)
Baku (Azerbaijan)
Beijing (China)
Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan)
Bogotá (Colombia)
Bratislava (Slovakia)
Bucharest (Romania)
Budapest (Hungary)
Buenos Aires (Argentina)
Cairo (Egypt)
Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, U. Rep. of)
Gaborone (Botswana)
Jakarta (Indonesia)
Johannesburg (South Africa)
Kampala (Uganda)
Kiev (Ukraine)
La Paz (Bolivia)
Manila (Philippines)
Maputo (Mozambique)
Minsk (Belarus)
Moscow (Russian Federation)
Mumbai (India)
New Delhi (India)
Prague (Czech Republic)
Rïga (Latvia)
Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)
San José (Costa Rica)
Skopje (Macedonia, TFYR)
Sofia (Bulgaria)

1995
1999
1991
1995
1996
1996
1999
1999
1995
1991
1991
1996
1995
1995
1995
1999
1995
1995
2001
1999
1999
1995
1995
1999
1999
1995
1995
1995
1999

34.4
8.3
19.0
27.8
54.6
36.0
25.4
32.1
61.1
28.7
..
31.7
20.9
38.0
40.9
29.1
39.8
10.6
40.6
23.6
26.3
31.8
30.5
34.1
26.5
44.0
40.4
21.1
27.2

16.7
2.4
2.2
11.3
27.0
20.8
10.8
15.6
30.8
12.1
23.1
19.7
9.4
18.3
20.6
8.9
18.1
3.3
29.3
11.1
10.9
6.7
6.1
21.6
9.4
14.7
21.7
9.4
16.1

6.3
1.6
0.5
1.6
11.5
1.2
1.8
1.8
6.4
2.2
8.2
2.0
0.7
4.7
2.3
2.5
5.8
1.5
7.6
1.4
2.4
1.3
1.0
0.5
2.8
12.2
8.9
1.1
1.5

1.7
0.0
0.6
2.2
4.8
0.4
0.4
0.9
6.4
1.8
6.1
0.7
1.3
2.7
5.1
1.2
1.5
0.1
2.2
1.4
1.2
3.5
1.7
0.9
0.5
7.5
3.5
0.3
0.1

0.9
0.4
0.6
2.1
2.5
0.5
0.6
0.8
2.3
1.1
1.7
3.2
0.5
4.6
1.7
1.5
2.0
0.1
3.2
1.3
1.1
0.8
0.8
1.1
1.9
3.4
1.7
0.7
0.6

13.3
20.8
..
19.3
19.5
13.5
19.2
9.8
30.2
..
..
2.8
29.9
6.9
19.5
16.2
24.4
4.3
30.5
20.6
16.6
22.9
21.0
5.7
14.3
17.1
9.2
7.4
16.4

Tallinn (Estonia)
Tbjlisi (Georgia)

1999
1999

41.2
23.6

22.5
11.1

6.3
1.8

3.3
0.4

3.7
0.9

9.3
16.6

hum a n de v e l opme n t re p or t 2005

Human development indicators

Australia
Austria
Belgium
Canada
Denmark
England and Wales
Finland
France
Italy
Japan
Malta
Netherlands
New Zealand
Northern Ireland
Poland
Portugal
Scotland
Slovenia
Sweden
Switzerland
United States
Major city

297

table

24

Victims of crime

Population victimized by crime a
(% of total)
Year b
Tirana (Albania)
Tunis (Tunisia)
Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia)
Vilnius (Lithuania)
Zagreb (Croatia)

298

31.7
37.5
41.8
31.0
14.3

Source
All columns: UNODC 2004.

Human development indicators

notes
a Data refer to victimization as reported in the
International Crime Victims Survey.
b Surveys were conducted in 1992, 1995, 1996–97
and 2000–01. Data refer to the year preceding the
survey.
c Data refer to people victimized by 1 or more of 11
crimes recorded in the survey: robbery, burglary,
attempted burglary, car theft, car vandalism,
bicycle theft, sexual assault, theft from car, theft of
personal property, assault and threats, and theft of
motorcycle or moped.
d Includes car theft, theft from car, burglary with
entry and attempted burglary.
e Data refer to women only.
f Data refer to people who have been asked or
expected to pay a bribe by a government official.
g Data refer to 1995.

1999
1991
1999
1999
1999

Total crime c

human de velopmen t repor t 2005

Property crime d
11.2
20.1
20.0
17.8
4.4

Robbery

Sexual assault e

Assault

2.9
5.4
4.5
3.2
0.5

1.2
1.5
1.4
2.0
0.8

0.7
0.4
2.1
1.4
0.5

Bribery
(corruption) f
59.1
..
21.3
22.9
9.5

table

25

. . . and achieving equality for all women and men

Gender-related development index

Gender-related
development
index (GDI)
HDI rank

Life expectancy at birth
(years)
2003

Adult literacy rate a
(% ages 15 and above)
2003

Combined gross
enrolment ratio for
primary, secondary
and tertiary schools b
(%)
2002/03

Estimated earned
income c
(PPP US$)
2003

Rank

Value

Female

Male

Female

Male

Female

Male

Female

Male

HDI rank
minus GDI
rank d

1
3
2
7
5
4
6
11
9
8
14
12
10
13
15
16
19
18
17
20
21
22
23
24
..
25
26
27
28
29
30
32
..
34
31
33
38
35
36
..
..
37
41
39
40
42
44
43
..
..
..

0.960
0.953
0.954
0.944
0.946
0.947
0.946
0.939
0.941
0.942
0.937
0.939
0.940
0.938
0.937
0.935
0.926
0.928
0.929
0.926
0.922
0.912
0.911
0.907
..
0.901
0.900
0.896
0.884
0.876
0.872
0.858
..
0.854
0.860
0.856
0.846
0.852
0.851
..
..
0.847
0.837
0.843
0.837
0.836
0.829
0.834
..
..
..

81.9
82.6
82.8
81.5
82.4
82.4
83.2
80.3
82.0
80.0
85.4
81.1
81.7
79.4
80.6
83.0
81.8
83.1
81.3
81.5
83.2
84.6
81.7
80.9
80.6
80.0
80.6
80.6
81.1
78.5
78.7
80.8
79.0
78.2
76.8
78.4
80.9
77.0
77.8
76.0
80.8
77.9
75.9
79.5
78.4
79.0
80.6
77.0
..
73.0
..

76.8
78.7
77.7
75.2
77.4
77.9
77.6
75.1
75.7
74.6
78.4
75.7
75.1
74.8
76.0
75.9
76.0
76.9
76.8
75.7
75.9
78.7
77.6
75.6
76.7
72.7
73.9
73.3
76.1
71.4
72.3
75.9
74.3
70.7
68.6
70.3
74.8
65.6
66.6
71.2
76.4
70.1
73.1
75.2
71.4
71.7
75.9
65.8
..
66.5
..

.. e
.. e
.. e
.. e
.. e
.. e
.. e
.. e
.. e
.. e
.. e
.. e
.. e
.. e
.. e
.. e
.. e
.. e
.. e
.. e
.. e
89.6
95.6
88.3 e
88.6
99.6 e
.. e
.. e
95.1
99.7 e
..
89.2 j
90.2
97.2
99.3 e
99.7 e
95.6
99.8 e
99.6 e
..
80.7 k
99.6 e
83.0
81.0 k
97.1
98.1 k
95.9 k
99.7 e
..
96.3
92.3

.. e
.. e
.. e
.. e
.. e
.. e
.. e
.. e
.. e
.. e
.. e
.. e
.. e
.. e
.. e
.. e
.. e
.. e
.. e
.. e
.. e
96.9
98.3
94.0 e
96.6
99.7 e
.. e
.. e
98.6
99.7 e
..
86.4 j
95.2
97.2
99.4 e
99.8 e
95.8
99.8 e
99.6 e
0.0
75.6 k
99.7 e
92.5
84.7 k
99.3 e
97.3 k
95.7 k
99.8 e
..
94.6
91.4

106
102
117
89 f
96 h, i
124
88
97
119
97
83
99
112
106
133 h
94
90
89
104
88
96
73
93
93
..
99
97
87
79
94 i
81
80
75
99
92
93
81
99
98
84
79 h
76
85
85 h
76
93 h
69
95
94 h
..
85

97
91
114
88 f
92 h, i
105
92
89
110
89
85
99
103
97
113 h
90
88
85
94
90
91
74
89
91
..
92
90
100
78
84 i
80
78
72
91
87
88
82
87
90
80
69 h
74
77
75 h
74
83 h
67
84
83 h
..
85

32,272
25,411
24,827
34,890
23,922
21,842
28,972
22,125
19,951
29,017
17,795
20,512
23,211
26,587
20,790
20,642
15,878
17,176
18,379
19,534
13,854
19,593
14,159
12,531
16,489
14,751
12,853
11,698
11,864
11,976
12,843
9,893
..
6,635
11,287
8,769
5,753
10,745
9,595
..
..
10,681
7,685
8,448
8,047
5,763
5,236
8,050
..
13,357
..

43,148
36,908
34,446
89,883 g
37,572
31,722
32,149
53,549
37,019
46,456
38,612
38,389
32,250
36,430
33,713
35,123
45,174
37,670
26,960
36,258
31,322
35,037
25,969
27,591
32,089
23,779
23,829
24,167
25,260
19,687
20,051
25,525
..
17,800
18,183
14,147
14,872
16,750
14,064
..
..
16,463
24,909
24,204
14,351
10,950
14,000
12,886
..
20,723
..

0
–1
1
–3
0
2
1
–3
0
2
–3
0
3
1
0
0
–2
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
..
0
0
0
0
0
0
–1
..
–2
2
1
–3
1
1
..
..
1
–2
1
1
0
–1
1
..
..
..

..
46

..
0.804

79.2
77.5

75.5
72.6

96.8 k
88.7

97.0 k
92.0

81
76

79
74

..
5,068

..
13,506

..
–1

High human development
Norway
Iceland
Australia
Luxembourg
Canada
Sweden
Switzerland
Ireland
Belgium
United States
Japan
Netherlands
Finland
Denmark
United Kingdom
France
Austria
Italy
New Zealand
Germany
Spain
Hong Kong, China (SAR)
Israel
Greece
Singapore
Slovenia
Portugal
Korea, Rep. of
Cyprus
Barbados
Czech Republic
Malta
Brunei Darussalam
Argentina
Hungary
Poland
Chile
Estonia
Lithuania
Qatar
United Arab Emirates
Slovakia
Bahrain
Kuwait
Croatia
Uruguay
Costa Rica
Latvia
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Bahamas
Seychelles

52 Cuba
53 Mexico

hum a n de v e l opme n t re p or t 2005

Human development indicators

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51

299

table

25

Gender-related development index

Gender-related
development
index (GDI)

Human development indicators

Adult literacy rate a
(% ages 15 and above)
2003

Estimated earned
income c
(PPP US$)
2003

Rank

Value

Female

Male

Female

Male

Female

Male

Female

Male

HDI rank
minus GDI
rank d

54 Tonga
55 Bulgaria
56 Panama
57 Trinidad and Tobago
Medium human development

..
45
47
48

..
0.807
0.800
0.796

73.5
75.6
77.4
73.0

71.0
68.9
72.3
66.9

99.0 j
97.7
91.2
97.9 k

98.8 j
98.7
92.5
99.0 k

84 h
78
82
67 h

82 h
77
76
64 h

..
6,212
4,597
6,792

..
9,334
9,069
14,807

..
1
0
0

58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104

..
49
..
50
..
52
51
54
..
53
..
55
..
60
56
57
..
58
..
65
59
67
61
68
..
62
63
64
..
..
72
69
73
76
71
66
70
74
..
..
75
78
..
77
..
82
80

..
0.794
..
0.791
..
0.786
0.789
0.781
..
0.785
..
0.780
..
0.759
0.776
0.774
..
0.765
..
0.749
0.763
0.745
0.759
0.745
..
0.756
0.755
0.754
..
..
0.742
0.743
0.740
0.734
0.742
0.747
0.742
0.739
..
..
0.736
0.719
..
0.725
..
0.706
0.715

76.2
76.3
..
75.6
72.1
74.6
75.0
75.7
..
74.0
76.8
75.4
..
75.7
76.7
73.8
73.7
75.9
73.9
73.9
72.5
72.6
69.0
74.2
77.3
74.7
72.5
73.5
72.6
73.9
73.2
75.4
72.9
74.5
70.1
76.8
71.1
71.0
66.1
66.8
72.5
71.9
74.3
70.5
74.0
72.4
73.9

71.6
71.3
..
70.9
59.0
66.6
67.8
68.8
..
62.4
71.4
69.3
..
72.8
71.0
66.3
67.2
70.0
70.9
70.1
60.1
67.5
57.8
69.8
71.4
68.0
68.3
69.9
65.9
68.3
68.7
71.2
69.9
69.5
65.7
71.5
66.5
63.9
67.1
58.3
69.0
69.0
66.6
63.2
70.9
69.8
67.8

70.7 k
94.1
..
85.4
99.2 e
88.6
96.3
80.5
..
99.4 e, j
91.1
94.6
..
65.4 k
98.3
90.5
98.4 k
92.7
90.6
69.3
99.2 e
82.1
99.3 e, j
81.0
89.7
99.2 e
92.7
86.5
84.1
..
90.2
65.3
84.7
77.1
91.4 j
88.6 l
81.1
87.3
97.2 k
98.3 j
91.4 k
70.4
..
98.2 j
87.4
60.1
77.1 k

91.8 k
98.2
..
92.0
99.7 e
88.3
98.4
88.2
..
99.8 e, j
98.4
93.7
..
82.0 k
99.2 e
94.9
98.9 k
93.3
89.5
87.1
99.7 e
93.5
99.8 e, j
92.4
92.3
99.7 e
92.5
95.1
92.3
..
93.1
83.4
95.1
76.7
94.5 j
92.2 l
95.7
88.0
97.3 k
99.3 e, j
83.8 k
83.5
..
99.5 e, j
96.3
79.5
82.4 k

100 h
71
..
73
..
93
73
71 h
96
91
..
72
78
63 h
70
72 h
72 h
76 h
78 h
57 h
87
88 h
87
80 h
..
74
83
68
78 h
68
74 h
76
79
78 h
73 h, i
69 h
62 h
81 h
75 h
..
77 h
65 h
71
68
81 h
72 h
67

93 h
69
..
68
..
89
70
71 h
96
86
..
69
73
63 h
68
72 h
70 h
73 h
72 h
58 h
84
87 h
83
77 h
..
69
80
70
69 h
65
73 h
73
77
76 h
73 h, i
67 h
74 h
71 h
74 h
..
71 h
72 h
70
71
78 h
76 h
68

..
4,861
..
6,075
7,302
4,704
5,391
6,084
..
4,842
3,759
4,557
..
4,013
3,266
5,784
..
2,890
..
4,440
3,891
2,231
5,221
2,430
1,696
3,026
3,213
3,961
..
..
2,316
3,840
2,004
2,695
3,146
2,579
4,276
3,608
..
4,603
3,279
3,094
1,566
2,683
..
2,896
2,939

..
8,725
..
12,869
11,429
10,963
9,261
16,606
..
7,418
8,229
8,892
..
21,614
5,836
9,452
..
6,929
..
20,717
7,329
8,256
8,217
7,789
5,569
4,352
5,409
5,976
..
..
7,000
10,420
6,491
11,143
8,525
5,009
9,286
9,949
..
7,305
4,944
10,856
3,715
4,591
..
9,244
6,689

..
0
..
0
..
–1
1
–1
..
1
..
0
..
–4
1
1
..
1
..
–5
2
–5
2
–4
..
3
3
3
..
..
–4
0
–3
–5
1
7
4
1
..
..
1
–1
..
1
..
–3
0

81
84

0.714
0.702

73.2
75.1

67.0
71.6

68.0 k
74.2

85.4 k
91.0

73
60 h

73
65 h

3,392
1,584

7,136
5,534

0
–2

HDI rank

300

Life expectancy at birth
(years)
2003

Combined gross
enrolment ratio for
primary, secondary
and tertiary schools b
(%)
2002/03

Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
Macedonia, TFYR
Antigua and Barbuda
Malaysia
Russian Federation
Brazil
Romania
Mauritius
Grenada
Belarus
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Colombia
Dominica
Oman
Albania
Thailand
Samoa (Western)
Venezuela
Saint Lucia
Saudi Arabia
Ukraine
Peru
Kazakhstan
Lebanon
Ecuador
Armenia
Philippines
China
Suriname
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Paraguay
Tunisia
Jordan
Belize
Fiji
Sri Lanka
Turkey
Dominican Republic
Maldives
Turkmenistan
Jamaica
Iran, Islamic Rep. of
Georgia
Azerbaijan
Occupied Palestinian Territories
Algeria
El Salvador

105 Cape Verde
106 Syrian Arab Republic

human de velopmen t repor t 2005

table
Gender-related
development
index (GDI)

Life expectancy at birth
(years)
2003

Adult literacy rate a
(% ages 15 and above)
2003

Combined gross
enrolment ratio for
primary, secondary
and tertiary schools b
(%)
2002/03
Female

25

Estimated earned
income c
(PPP US$)
2003

Rank

Value

Female

Male

Female

Female

Male

107 Guyana
108 Viet Nam
109 Kyrgyzstan
110 Indonesia
111 Uzbekistan
112 Nicaragua
113 Bolivia
114 Mongolia
115 Moldova, Rep. of
116 Honduras
117 Guatemala
118 Vanuatu
119 Egypt
120 South Africa
121 Equatorial Guinea
122 Tajikistan
123 Gabon
124 Morocco
125 Namibia
126 São Tomé and Principe
127 India
128 Solomon Islands
129 Myanmar
130 Cambodia
131 Botswana
132 Comoros
133 Lao People’s Dem. Rep.
134 Bhutan
135 Pakistan
136 Nepal
137 Papua New Guinea
138 Ghana
139 Bangladesh
140 Timor-Leste
141 Sudan
142 Congo
143 Togo
144 Uganda
145 Zimbabwe
Low human development

79
83
85
87
86
88
89
90
91
..
94
..
..
92
95
93
..
97
96
..
98
..
..
99
100
101
102
..
107
106
103
104
105
..
110
108
112
109
111

0.716
0.702
0.700
0.691
0.692
0.683
0.679
0.677
0.668
..
0.649
..
..
0.652
0.641
0.650
..
0.616
0.621
..
0.586
..
..
0.567
0.559
0.541
0.540
..
0.508
0.511
0.518
0.517
0.514
..
0.495
0.507
0.491
0.502
0.493

66.1
72.6
71.1
68.8
69.8
72.1
66.2
66.1
71.3
69.9
71.0
70.6
72.1
50.2
43.9
66.3
55.2
71.9
49.0
64.0
65.0
63.0
63.1
59.8
36.7
65.4
55.9
64.2
63.2
62.0
56.0
57.3
63.7
56.6
57.9
53.2
56.3
47.6
36.5

60.0
68.6
62.7
64.9
63.4
67.3
62.0
62.1
63.9
65.8
63.6
66.9
67.7
46.8
42.6
61.0
53.7
67.5
47.6
62.0
61.8
61.6
57.5
52.4
35.9
61.1
53.4
61.7
62.8
61.2
54.9
56.3
62.1
54.5
54.9
50.7
52.4
46.9
37.3

98.2
86.9 j
98.1 j
83.4 k
98.9 k
76.6
80.4
97.5
95.0
80.2
63.3
..
43.6 j
80.9 j
76.4
99.3 e
..
38.3 k
83.5
..
47.8
..
86.2
64.1
81.5 k
49.1 k
60.9
..
35.2
34.9
50.9
45.7
31.4 k
..
49.9 l
77.1 k
38.3
59.2 k
86.3 k

99.0
93.9 j
99.3 e, j
92.5 k
99.6 k
76.8
92.9
98.0
97.5
79.8
75.4
..
67.2 j
84.1 j
92.1
99.7 e
..
63.3 k
86.8
..
73.4
..
93.7
84.7
76.1 k
63.5 k
77.0
..
61.7
62.7
63.4
62.9
50.3 k
..
69.2 l
88.9 k
68.5
78.8 k
93.8 k

78 h
61 h
83
65
74
71
84 h
80
64
..
59
58
..
78 h
60 h
69
70 h, i
54
72 h
59 h, i
56
..
49 h
54
71 h
42 h
55
14
31
55
37 h
43 h
54
..
35 h
44
52
72 h
51 h

77 h
67 h
81
67
77
68
90 h
69
60
..
63
59
..
78 h
71 h
82
74 h, i
62
70 h
64 h, i
64
..
48 h
64
70 h
51 h
67
16
43
66
44 h
48 h
52
..
41 h
52
76
75 h
54 h

2,426
2,026
1,388
2,289
1,385
2,018
1,615
1,478
1,200
1,447
2,073
..
1,614
6,505
10,771
854
4,765
2,299
4,201
..
1,569
1,391
..
1,807
6,617
1,216
1,391
..
1,050
949
1,896
1,915
1,245
..
918
689
1,092
1,169
1,751

6,152
2,964
2,128
4,434
2,099
4,512
3,573
2,227
1,850
3,877
6,197
..
6,203
14,326
27,053
1,367
8,054
5,699
8,234
..
4,130
2,107
..
2,368
10,816
2,206
2,129
..
3,082
1,868
3,305
2,567
2,289
..
2,890
1,238
2,318
1,751
3,042

4
1
0
–1
1
0
0
0
0
..
–2
..
..
1
–1
2
..
–1
1
..
0
..
..
0
0
0
0
..
–4
–2
2
2
2
..
–2
1
–2
2
1

146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157

116
115
113
114
..
121
118
..
117
119
..
120

0.483
0.485
0.487
0.487
..
0.448
0.471
..
0.472
0.464
..
0.449

56.8
32.9
46.5
37.7
54.0
61.9
54.3
52.4
46.3
57.1
54.1
56.9

54.1
32.1
45.1
34.6
51.6
59.3
51.1
50.8
48.1
54.3
53.4
54.5

65.2
78.1
59.8
90.3
..
28.5 k
43.4
50.0 k
70.2
30.9
..
29.2

76.4
80.4
77.0
73.7
..
69.5 k
59.5
53.8 k
77.7
45.0
..
51.1

40
58 h
50 h
67 h
23 h
41 h
43 h
..
50 h
45 h
34 h
37 h

41
61 h
60 h
65 h
31 h
69 h
47 h
..
53 h
50 h
49 h
43 h

603
2,669
1,310
1,480
..
413
1,269
1,250
1,001
1,391
1,692
1,175

1,017
6,927
2,940
3,759
..
1,349
2,284
2,247
1,078
2,339
2,503
2,131

–3
–1
2
2
..
–4
0
..
2
1
..
1

123
122

0.439
0.447

43.6
45.6

43.1
42.1

59.4 k
58.8

74.4 k
70.5

57 h
53

71 h
58

614
985

1,495
1,583

–1
1

Madagascar
Swaziland
Cameroon
Lesotho
Djibouti
Yemen
Mauritania
Haiti
Kenya
Gambia
Guinea
Senegal

158 Nigeria
159 Rwanda

Male

Male

hum a n de v e l opme n t re p or t 2005

Human development indicators

HDI rank

HDI rank
minus GDI
rank d

301

table

25

Gender-related development index

Gender-related
development
index (GDI)

Life expectancy at birth
(years)
2003

Adult literacy rate a
(% ages 15 and above)
2003

Combined gross
enrolment ratio for
primary, secondary
and tertiary schools b
(%)
2002/03

HDI rank

Rank

Value

Female

Male

Female

Male

Female

160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177

124
125
126
128
127
129
130
131
133
132
134
..
135
137
136
138
139
140

0.438
0.431
0.419
0.403
0.414
0.396
0.383
0.373
0.365
0.373
0.355
..
0.326
0.322
0.323
0.311
0.279
0.271

42.3
55.7
54.7
46.7
46.3
39.6
36.9
44.1
42.7
44.5
48.7
40.1
46.2
44.7
48.5
48.2
42.1
44.4

39.3
51.8
53.2
45.2
45.5
39.8
37.9
42.1
41.1
42.6
46.6
38.4
43.2
42.5
47.2
46.8
39.4
44.3

53.8
45.6
22.6
38.2
62.2
54.0 j
59.7 j
51.9
31.4 k
51.9
33.8 k
33.5
24.7
12.7
11.9 j
8.1 j
20.5
9.4

82.1
68.2
46.4
60.1
77.5
74.9 j
76.1 j
79.8
62.3 k
66.8
49.2 k
64.8
55.2
40.6
26.7 j
18.5 j
39.8
19.6

27 h, i
30 h
43 h
34 h, i
40 h
69 h
45 h
24 h, i
38 h
31 h
29 h
..
29 h, i
28 h
27 h
20 h
38 i
17 h

Angola
Eritrea
Benin
Côte d’Ivoire
Tanzania, U. Rep. of
Malawi
Zambia
Congo, Dem. Rep. of the
Mozambique
Burundi
Ethiopia
Central African Republic
Guinea-Bissau
Chad
Mali
Burkina Faso
Sierra Leone
Niger

notes
a Data refer to national literacy estimates from
censuses or surveys conducted between 2000 and
2004, unless otherwise noted. Due to differences
in methodology and timeliness of underlying data,
comparisons across countries and over time should
be made with caution. For more details, see www.
uis.unesco.org/ev.php?ID=4930_201&ID2=DO_
TOPIC.
b Data refer to the 2002/03 school year. Data for some
countries may refer to national or United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
(UNESCO) Institute for Statistics estimates. For details,
see www.uis.unesco.org. Because data are from
different sources, comparisons across countries should
be made with caution.

c Because of the lack of gender-disaggregated income
data, female and male earned income are crudely
estimated on the basis of data on the ratio of the
female non-agricultural wage to the male nonagricultural wage, the female and male shares of the
economically active population, the total female and
male population and GDP per capita (PPP US$) (see
Technical note 1). Estimates are based on data for
the most recent year available during 1991–2003,
unless otherwise specified.
d The HDI ranks used in this column are those
recalculated for the 140 countries with a GDI value.
A positive figure indicates that the GDI rank is higher
than the HDI rank, a negative the opposite.
e For purposes of calculating the GDI, a value of
99.0% was applied.

Male
32 h, i
40 h
66 h
50 h, i
42 h
75 h
50 h
31 h, i
48 h
40 h
42 h
..
45 h, i
48 h
38 h
27 h
52 i
25 h

f Statec 2005.
g For purposes of calculating the GDI, a value of
$40,000 (PPP US$) was applied.
h Preliminary UNESCO Institute for Statistics estimate,
subject to further revision.
i Data refer to year other than that specified.
j Data refer to a year between 1995 and 1999.
k Estimate produced by UNESCO Institute for Statistics
in July 2002.
l Data refer to a year or period other than that
specified, differ from the standard definition or refer
to only part of a country.

Estimated earned
income c
(PPP US$)
2003
Female

Male

HDI rank
minus GDI
rank d

1,797
579
910
792
516
486
629
500
910
545
487
829
466
902
742
986
325
601

2,897
1,125
1,316
2,142
725
717
1,130
903
1,341
758
931
1,366
960
1,525
1,247
1,357
783
1,056

0
0
0
–1
1
0
0
0
–1
1
0
..
0
–1
1
0
0
0

Sources
Column 1: determined on the basis of the GDI values
in column 2
Column 2: calculated on the basis of data in columns
3–10; see Technical note 1 for details.
Columns 3 and 4: UN 2005c, unless otherwise noted.
Columns 5 and 6: UNESCO Institute for Statistics
2005a, unless otherwise noted.
Columns 7 and 8: UNESCO Institute for Statistics 2005c.
Columns 9 and 10: calculated on the basis of data on
GDP per capita (PPP US$) and population from World
Bank 2005c, data on wages from ILO 2005b; data on
the economically active population from ILO 2002, unless
otherwise noted.
Column 11: calculated on the basis the recalculated
HDI ranks on the GDI ranks in column 1.

Human development indicators

GDI ranks for 140 countries and areas

302

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28

Norway
Australia
Iceland
Sweden
Canada
Switzerland
Luxembourg
United States
Belgium
Finland
Ireland
Netherlands
Denmark
Japan
United Kingdom
France
New Zealand
Italy
Austria
Germany
Spain
Hong Kong, China (SAR)
Israel
Greece
Slovenia
Portugal
Korea, Rep. of
Cyprus

29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56

Barbados
Czech Republic
Hungary
Malta
Poland
Argentina
Estonia
Lithuania
Slovakia
Chile
Kuwait
Croatia
Bahrain
Uruguay
Latvia
Costa Rica
Bulgaria
Mexico
Panama
Trinidad and Tobago
Macedonia, TFYR
Malaysia
Romania
Brazil
Belarus
Mauritius
Colombia
Albania

human de velopmen t repor t 2005

57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84

Thailand
Venezuela
Ukraine
Oman
Kazakhstan
Armenia
Philippines
China
Saudi Arabia
Sri Lanka
Peru
Lebanon
Tunisia
Turkey
Fiji
Paraguay
Jordan
Dominican Republic
Jamaica
Belize
Azerbaijan
Iran, Islamic Rep. of
Guyana
El Salvador
Cape Verde
Algeria
Viet Nam
Syrian Arab Republic

85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112

Kyrgyzstan
Uzbekistan
Indonesia
Nicaragua
Bolivia
Mongolia
Moldova, Rep. of
South Africa
Tajikistan
Guatemala
Equatorial Guinea
Namibia
Morocco
India
Cambodia
Botswana
Comoros
Lao People’s Dem. Rep.
Papua New Guinea
Ghana
Bangladesh
Nepal
Pakistan
Congo
Uganda
Sudan
Zimbabwe
Togo

113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140

Cameroon
Lesotho
Swaziland
Madagascar
Kenya
Mauritania
Gambia
Senegal
Yemen
Rwanda
Nigeria
Angola
Eritrea
Benin
Tanzania, U. Rep. of
Côte d’Ivoire
Malawi
Zambia
Congo, Dem. Rep. of the
Burundi
Mozambique
Ethiopia
Guinea-Bissau
Mali
Chad
Burkina Faso
Sierra Leone
Niger

table

26

. . . and achieving equality for all women and men

Gender empowerment measure

Gender empowerment measure
(GEM)
HDI rank

Female legislators,
senior officials
and managers b
(% of total)

Female professional
and technical
workers b
(% of total)

Rank

Value

Seats in parliament
held by women a
(% of total)

1
4
7
..
10
3
11
16
6
12
43
8
5
2
18
..
13
37
14
9
15
..
24
36
22
30
21
59
39
25
34
58
..
20
44
27
61
35
26
..
..
33
68
..
32
50
19
28
..
17
..

0.928
0.834
0.826
..
0.807
0.852
0.795
0.724
0.828
0.793
0.534
0.814
0.833
0.860
0.716
..
0.779
0.589
0.769
0.813
0.745
..
0.622
0.594
0.654
0.603
0.656
0.479
0.571
0.615
0.595
0.486
..
0.665
0.528
0.612
0.475
0.595
0.614
..
..
0.597
0.393
..
0.599
0.504
0.668
0.606
..
0.719
..

38.2
30.2
28.3 d
23.3
24.7
45.3
24.8
14.2
35.7
14.8
9.3
34.2
37.5
36.9
17.9
13.9
32.2
10.4
28.3
31.3
30.5
..
15.0
14.0
16.0
12.2
20.0
13.0
16.1
17.6
15.7
9.2
—e
33.6
9.1
20.7
10.1
18.8
22.0
—e
0.0
16.7
7.5 f
0.0 g
21.7
10.8
35.1
21.0
0.0
26.8
29.4

30
29
36
..
35
30
28
29
31
46
10
26
28
26
33
..
27
21
36
36
30
26
29
26
26
33
32
6
18
45
26
18
..
25
34
34
24
35
39
..
8
35
10
..
26
35
29
40
..
40
..

50
55
55
..
54
51
45
50
48
55
46
48
53
51
45
..
49
45
52
50
47
39
54
48
45
56
52
39
47
71
52
39
..
55
61
61
52
69
70
..
25
61
19
..
52
53
40
64
..
51
..

0.75
0.69
0.72
0.39
0.64
0.69
0.90
0.41
0.54
0.62
0.46
0.53
0.72
0.73
0.62
0.59
0.35
0.46
0.68
0.54
0.44
0.56
0.55
0.45
0.51
0.62
0.54
0.48
0.47
0.61
0.64
0.39
..
0.37
0.62
0.62
0.39
0.64
0.68
..
..
0.65
0.31
0.35
0.56
0.53
0.37
0.62
..
0.64
..

..
38

..
0.583

36.0
23.7

..
25

..
40

..
0.38

Ratio of estimated
female to male
earned income c

High human development
Norway
Iceland
Australia
Luxembourg
Canada
Sweden
Switzerland
Ireland
Belgium
United States
Japan
Netherlands
Finland
Denmark
United Kingdom
France
Austria
Italy
New Zealand
Germany
Spain
Hong Kong, China (SAR)
Israel
Greece
Singapore
Slovenia
Portugal
Korea, Rep. of
Cyprus
Barbados
Czech Republic
Malta
Brunei Darussalam
Argentina
Hungary
Poland
Chile
Estonia
Lithuania
Qatar
United Arab Emirates
Slovakia
Bahrain
Kuwait
Croatia
Uruguay
Costa Rica
Latvia
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Bahamas
Seychelles

52 Cuba
53 Mexico

hum a n de v e l opme n t re p or t 2005

Human development indicators

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51

303

table

26

Gender empowerment measure

Gender empowerment measure
(GEM)

Human development indicators

Female professional
and technical
workers b
(% of total)

Rank

Value

54 Tonga
55 Bulgaria
56 Panama
57 Trinidad and Tobago
Medium human development

..
29
40
23

..
0.604
0.563
0.650

0.0
26.3
16.7
25.4

..
30
40
38

..
34
50
54

..
0.67
0.51
0.46

58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104

..
41
..
51
60
..
56
..
..
..
..
52
..
..
..
63
..
64
..
78
66
48
..
..
55
..
46
..
..
..
65
..
..
57
70
72
76
45
..
..
..
75
67
..
..
..
62

..
0.555
..
0.502
0.477
..
0.488
..
..
..
..
0.500
..
..
..
0.452
..
0.441
..
0.253
0.417
0.511
..
..
0.490
..
0.526
..
..
..
0.427
..
..
0.486
0.381
0.370
0.285
0.527
..
..
..
0.316
0.416
..
..
..
0.467

..
19.2
13.9
13.1
8.0
9.1
10.9
5.7
32.1
30.1
12.3
10.8
19.4
7.8
6.4
8.1
6.1
9.7
20.7
0.0
5.3
18.3
9.5
2.3
16.0
5.3
15.4
20.2
19.6
22.7
9.6
22.8
7.9
11.9
9.7
4.9
4.4
15.4
4.8
16.0
13.6
4.1
9.4
10.5
..
5.3
10.7

..
27
..
23
39
..
31
..
..
..
..
38
..
..
..
26
..
27
..
31
39
23
..
..
26
..
58
..
28
..
23
..
..
31
51
21
6
31
15
..
..
13
28
..
12
..
32

..
51
..
40
64
62
57
..
..
..
..
50
..
..
..
52
..
61
..
6
63
47
..
..
40
..
62
..
51
..
54
..
..
52
9
46
30
49
40
..
..
33
63
..
34
..
44

..
0.56
..
0.47
0.64
0.43
0.58
0.37
..
0.65
0.46
0.51
..
0.19
0.56
0.61
..
0.42
..
0.21
0.53
0.27
0.64
0.31
0.30
0.70
0.59
0.66
..
..
0.33
0.37
0.31
0.24
0.37
0.51
0.46
0.36
..
0.63
0.66
0.28
0.42
0.58
..
0.31
0.44

..
..

..
..

11.1
12.0

..
..

..
..

0.48
0.29

HDI rank

304

Female legislators,
senior officials
and managers b
(% of total)

Seats in parliament
held by women a
(% of total)

Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
Macedonia, TFYR
Antigua and Barbuda
Malaysia
Russian Federation
Brazil
Romania
Mauritius
Grenada
Belarus
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Colombia
Dominica
Oman
Albania
Thailand
Samoa (Western)
Venezuela
Saint Lucia
Saudi Arabia
Ukraine
Peru
Kazakhstan
Lebanon
Ecuador
Armenia
Philippines
China
Suriname
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Paraguay
Tunisia
Jordan
Belize
Fiji
Sri Lanka
Turkey
Dominican Republic
Maldives
Turkmenistan
Jamaica
Iran, Islamic Rep. of
Georgia
Azerbaijan
Occupied Palestinian Territories
Algeria
El Salvador

105 Cape Verde
106 Syrian Arab Republic

human de velopmen t repor t 2005

Ratio of estimated
female to male
earned income c

table
Gender empowerment measure
(GEM)

Female legislators,
senior officials
and managers b
(% of total)

Female professional
and technical
workers b
(% of total)

26

Rank

Value

Seats in parliament
held by women a
(% of total)

107 Guyana
108 Viet Nam
109 Kyrgyzstan
110 Indonesia
111 Uzbekistan
112 Nicaragua
113 Bolivia
114 Mongolia
115 Moldova, Rep. of
116 Honduras
117 Guatemala
118 Vanuatu
119 Egypt
120 South Africa
121 Equatorial Guinea
122 Tajikistan
123 Gabon
124 Morocco
125 Namibia
126 São Tomé and Principe
127 India
128 Solomon Islands
129 Myanmar
130 Cambodia
131 Botswana
132 Comoros
133 Lao People’s Dem. Rep.
134 Bhutan
135 Pakistan
136 Nepal
137 Papua New Guinea
138 Ghana
139 Bangladesh
140 Timor-Leste
141 Sudan
142 Congo
143 Togo
144 Uganda
145 Zimbabwe
Low human development

..
..
..
..
..
..
47
69
53
74
..
..
77
..
..
..
..
..
31
..
..
..
..
73
49
..
..
..
71
..
..
..
79
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..
0.525
0.388
0.494
0.356
..
..
0.274
..
..
..
..
..
0.603
..
..
..
..
0.364
0.505
..
..
..
0.379
..
..
..
0.218
..
..
..
..
..
..

30.8
27.3
..
11.3
16.4
20.7
17.8
6.7
15.8
5.5
8.2
3.8
4.3
32.8 h
18.0
..
11.9
6.4
25.5
9.1
9.3
0.0
.. i
10.9
11.1
3.0
22.9
8.7
20.6
6.4
0.9
10.9
2.0
25.3 j
9.7
10.6
6.2
23.9
10.0

..
..
..
..
..
..
36
30
40
22
..
..
9
..
..
..
..
..
30
..
..
..
..
14
31
..
..
..
2
..
..
..
8
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..
40
66
66
36
..
..
31
..
..
..
..
..
55
..
..
..
..
33
53
..
..
..
26
..
..
..
25
..
..
..
..
..
..

0.39
0.68
0.65
0.52
0.66
0.45
0.45
0.66
0.65
0.37
0.33
..
0.26
0.45
0.40
0.62
0.59
0.40
0.51
..
0.38
0.66
..
0.76
0.61
0.55
0.65
..
0.34
0.51
0.57
0.75
0.54
..
0.32
0.56
0.47
0.67
0.58

146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157

..
54
..
..
..
80
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
0.492
..
..
..
0.123
..
..
..
..
..
..

8.4
16.8
8.9
17.0
10.8
0.3
4.4
9.1
7.1
13.2
19.3
19.2

..
24
..
..
..
4
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
61
..
..
..
15
..
..
..
..
..
..

0.59
0.39
0.45
0.39
..
0.31
0.56
0.56
0.93
0.59
0.68
0.55

..
..

..
..

5.8
45.3

..
..

..
..

0.41
0.62

HDI rank

158 Nigeria
159 Rwanda

hum a n de v e l opme n t re p or t 2005

Human development indicators

Madagascar
Swaziland
Cameroon
Lesotho
Djibouti
Yemen
Mauritania
Haiti
Kenya
Gambia
Guinea
Senegal

Ratio of estimated
female to male
earned income c

305

table

26

Gender empowerment measure

Gender empowerment measure
(GEM)
HDI rank
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177

Angola
Eritrea
Benin
Côte d’Ivoire
Tanzania, U. Rep. of
Malawi
Zambia
Congo, Dem. Rep. of the
Mozambique
Burundi
Ethiopia
Central African Republic
Guinea-Bissau
Chad
Mali
Burkina Faso
Sierra Leone
Niger

notes
a Data are as of 1 March 2005. Where there are
lower and upper houses, data refer to the weighted
average of women’s shares of seats in both houses.
b Data refer to the most recent year available during
1992–2003. Estimates for countries that have
implemented the recent International Standard
Classification of Occupations (ISCO-88) are not
strictly comparable with those for countries using
the previous classification (ISCO-68).
c Calculated on the basis of data in columns 9 and
10 in table 25. Estimates are based on data for the
most recent year available during 1991–2003.
d The figure reflects the Senate composition until
1 July 2005.
e Brunei Darussalam and Qatar do not currently
have a parliament. Elections for a new parliament

Rank

Value

Seats in parliament
held by women a
(% of total)

..
..
..
..
42
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
0.538
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

15.0
22.0
7.2
8.5
21.4
14.0
12.7
10.2
34.8
18.5
7.8
—k
14.0
6.5
10.2
11.7
14.5
12.4

in Qatar, according to the 2004 constitution, are
scheduled to take place in late 2005 or early 2006.
f Women were allowed to vote in the referendum
of 14–15 February 2001, which approved the
National Action Charter. Subsequently, women
exercised their full political rights as both voters
and candidates in the 2002 national elections.
g On 16 May 2005 parliament passed a law granting
women the right to vote and stand for election.
h Does not include the 36 upper house special
rotation delegates appointed on an ad hoc basis.
The shares given are therefore calculated on the
basis of lower house seats and the 54 permanent
seats in the upper house.
i The parliament elected in 1990 has never been
convened nor authorized to sit, and many of its
members were detained or forced into exile.

Female legislators,
senior officials
and managers b
(% of total)

Female professional
and technical
workers b
(% of total)

..
..
..
..
49
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
32
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

j The purpose of elections held on 30 August 2001
was to elect members of the Constituent Assembly
of Timor-Leste. This body became the National
Parliament on 20 May 2002, the date on which
the country became independent, without any new
elections.
k Parliament was suspended on 15 March 2003. May
2005 election results are not yet available.

Ratio of estimated
female to male
earned income c
0.62
0.51
0.69
0.37
0.71
0.68
0.56
0.55
0.68
0.72
0.52
0.61
0.49
0.59
0.60
0.73
0.42
0.57

Sources
Column 1: determined on the basis of GEM values
in column 2.
Column 2: calculated on the basis of data in columns
3–6; see Technical note 1 for details.
Column 3: calculated on the basis of data on
parliamentary seats from IPU 2005a, d.
Columns 4 and 5: calculated on the basis of
occupational data from ILO 2005b.
Column 6: calculated on the basis of data in columns
9 and 10 of table 25.

Human development indicators

GEM ranks for 80 countries

306

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16

Norway
Denmark
Sweden
Iceland
Finland
Belgium
Australia
Netherlands
Germany
Canada
Switzerland
United States
Austria
New Zealand
Spain
Ireland

17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32

Bahamas
United Kingdom
Costa Rica
Argentina
Portugal
Singapore
Trinidad and Tobago
Israel
Barbados
Lithuania
Poland
Latvia
Bulgaria
Slovenia
Namibia
Croatia

human de velopmen t repor t 2005

33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48

Slovakia
Czech Republic
Estonia
Greece
Italy
Mexico
Cyprus
Panama
Macedonia, TFYR
Tanzania, U. Rep. of
Japan
Hungary
Dominican Republic
Philippines
Bolivia
Peru

49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64

Botswana
Uruguay
Malaysia
Colombia
Moldova, Rep. of
Swaziland
Ecuador
Romania
Belize
Malta
Korea, Rep. of
Russian Federation
Chile
El Salvador
Thailand
Venezuela

65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80

Paraguay
Ukraine
Georgia
Bahrain
Mongolia
Fiji
Pakistan
Sri Lanka
Cambodia
Honduras
Iran, Islamic Rep. of
Turkey
Egypt
Saudi Arabia
Bangladesh
Yemen

table

27

. . . and achieving equality for all women and men

Gender inequality in education

Adult literacy a

HDI rank

MDG
Youth literacy a

Female rate Female rate Female rate Female rate
(% ages 15
as % of
(% ages
as % of
and above)
male rate
15–24)
male rate
2003
2003
2003
2003

MDG
Net primary enrolment b, c

MDG
Net secondary
enrolment b, c

MDG
Gross tertiary
enrolment c, d

Female
ratio
(%)
2002/03

Ratio of
female to
male e
2002/03

Female
ratio
(%)
2002/03

Ratio of
female to
male e
2002/03

Female
ratio
(%)
2002/03

Ratio of
female to
male e
2002/03

97
88
89 f
83
98 f, g
100
84
87
98
89
101 f, i
89
95
98
97
95
89
92
94
88
98
75 f
89
87
..
94
89
88 l
94
90
92
88
..
84
94
83
81 l
90
94
85 f
72
88
90
79 f, h
87
77
55
88
100 h
77 f
100

1.01
1.05
1.02 f
1.07
1.00 f, g
1.01
0.95
1.08
1.01
1.01
1.01 f, i
1.01
1.01
1.04
1.03
1.02
0.99
1.01
1.03
1.00
1.04
1.04 f
1.00
1.02
..
1.01
1.11
1.00 l
1.03
1.00
1.03
1.02
..
1.06
1.00
0.99
1.01 l
1.04
1.01
1.06 f
1.03
1.01
1.08
1.05 f, h
1.02
1.10
1.09
1.01
1.06 h
1.04 f
1.00

99
81
82
13
66 f, h
102
44
59
66
96
47
61
96
79
72
63
53
65
90
51
67
31
66
78
..
79
64
64 l
33
55 g
37
35
17
72
59
71
44 l
83
88
32
53 f
36
44
32 f, n
43
50 f
21
91
..
..
..

1.55
1.81
1.23
1.17
1.34 f, h
1.55
0.83
1.32
1.19
1.37
0.88
1.09
1.20
1.43
1.27
1.28
1.20
1.34
1.53
1.00
1.19
0.99
1.33
1.10
..
1.35
1.35
0.61 l
1.03
2.47 g
1.07
1.40
1.76
1.49
1.37
1.42
0.94 l
1.66
1.56
2.71
2.55 f
1.17
1.89
2.58 f, n
1.18
1.95 f
1.16
1.66
..
..
..

High human development
Norway
Iceland
Australia
Luxembourg
Canada
Sweden
Switzerland
Ireland
Belgium
United States
Japan
Netherlands
Finland
Denmark
United Kingdom
France
Austria
Italy
New Zealand
Germany
Spain
Hong Kong, China (SAR)
Israel
Greece
Singapore
Slovenia
Portugal
Korea, Rep. of
Cyprus
Barbados
Czech Republic
Malta
Brunei Darussalam
Argentina
Hungary
Poland
Chile
Estonia
Lithuania
Qatar
United Arab Emirates
Slovakia
Bahrain
Kuwait
Croatia
Uruguay
Costa Rica
Latvia
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Bahamas
Seychelles

52 Cuba
53 Mexico

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
95.6
88.3
88.6
99.6 k
..
..
95.1
99.7 k
..
89.2 m
90.2
97.2
99.3
..
95.6
99.8
99.6
..
80.7 k
99.6
83.0
81.0 k
97.1
98.1 k
95.9 k
99.7
..
..
92.3

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
97
94
92
100 k
..
..
96
100 k
..
103 m
95
100
100
..
100
100
100
..
107 k
100
90
96 k
98
101 k
100 k
100
..
..
101

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
99.4
99.5
99.6
99.8 k
..
..
99.8
99.8 k
..
97.8 m
98.9
99.1
99.6
..
99.2
99.8
99.7
..
95.0 k
99.7
99.3
93.9 k
99.7
99.4 k
98.7 k
99.8
..
..
99.4

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
100
100
100
100 k
..
..
100
100 k
..
104 m
100
100
100
..
100
100
100
..
108 k
100
100
102 k
100
101 k
101 k
100
..
..
101

100
99
97
91
100 f, g
99
99
97
100
93
100
99
100
100
100
99
91
99
99 f
84
99
97 j
99
99
..
93
99
100 l
96
100
87
96
..
..
90
98
84 l
94
91
94
82
86
91
84
89
91
91
85
..
88 f
99

1.00
0.99
1.01
1.01
1.00 f, g
0.99
0.99
1.02
1.00
1.01
1.00
0.99
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.02
0.99
0.99 f
1.02
0.99
0.99 j
1.00
1.00
..
0.99
0.99
1.00 l
1.00
1.00
1.00
0.99
..
..
0.99
1.00
0.99 l
0.99
1.00
1.00
0.98
1.01
1.02
1.02
0.99
1.00
1.02
0.99
..
1.03 f
0.99

96.8 k
88.7

100 k
96

99.8 k
97.3

100 k
99

93
100

0.99
1.01

86
64

1.00
1.04

39
22

1.34
0.97

hum a n de v e l opme n t re p or t 2005

Human development indicators

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51

307

table

27

Gender inequality in education

Adult literacy a

Human development indicators

HDI rank

308

MDG
Youth literacy a

Female rate Female rate Female rate Female rate
(% ages 15
as % of
(% ages
as % of
and above)
male rate
15–24)
male rate
2003
2003
2003
2003

MDG
Net primary enrolment b, c
Female
ratio
(%)
2002/03

Ratio of
female to
male e
2002/03

MDG
Net secondary
enrolment b, c

MDG
Gross tertiary
enrolment c, d

Female
ratio
(%)
2002/03

Ratio of
female to
male e
2002/03

Female
ratio
(%)
2002/03

Ratio of
female to
male e
2002/03

54 Tonga
55 Bulgaria
56 Panama
57 Trinidad and Tobago
Medium human development

99.0 m
97.7
91.2
97.9 k

100 m
99
99
99 k

99.4 m
98.1
95.6
99.8 k

100 m
100
99
100 k

100 h
90
99
90

1.00 h
0.99
0.99
0.99

77 f, h
86
66 f
75 f

1.14 f, h
0.98
1.11 f
1.08 f

4 f, h
42
55
11

1.40 f, h
1.18
1.69
1.59

58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104

70.7 k
94.1
..
85.4
99.2
88.6
96.3
80.5
..
99.4 m
91.1
94.6
..
65.4 k
98.3
90.5
98.4 k
92.7
90.6
69.3
99.2
82.1
99.3 m
..
89.7
99.2
92.7
86.5
84.1
..
90.2
65.3
84.7
77.1
91.4 m
88.6 o
81.1
87.3
97.2 k
98.3 m
91.4 k
70.4
..
98.2 m
87.4
60.1
77.1 k

77 k
96
..
93
100
100
98
91
..
100 m
93
101
..
80 k
99
95
99 k
99
101
80
99
88
100 m
..
97
99
100
91
91
..
97
78
89
101
97 m
96 o
85
99
100 k
99 m
109 k
84
..
99 m
91
76
94 k

94.0 k
98.5
..
97.3
99.8
97.7
97.8
95.4
..
99.8 m
99.7
98.4
..
97.3 k
99.5
97.8
99.5 k
98.1
95.9
93.7
99.8
95.7
99.9 m
..
96.5
99.9
95.7
98.5
92.1
..
96.5
92.2
98.9
84.5
99.4 m
96.0 o
94.8
95.0
99.2 k
99.8 m
97.8 k
..
..
99.9 m
98.6
86.1
88.1 k

94 k
99
..
100
100
102
100
102
..
100 m
100
102
..
98 k
100
100
100 k
102
101
96
100
98
100 m
..
100
100
101
99
97
..
100
96
100
101
100 m
101 o
96
102
100 k
100 m
107 k
..
..
100 m
100
92
98 k

..
91
..
93
90 f
91 g
88
98
80 f, g
94 f
..
87 f
79
72
94
84 l
96 f
91
100
54
84 f
100
91
90
100
93
95
..
98 f
90
89
97
93
100
100 f, h
..
84
94 f
93
..
95
85
88
79
91
94
90

..
1.00
..
1.00
1.02 f
0.93 g
0.99
1.02
0.90 f, g
0.99 f
..
0.99 f
0.95
1.01
0.98
0.97 l
0.98 f
1.01
1.01
0.99
1.00 f
1.00
0.99
0.99
1.01
0.98
1.02
..
1.02 f
0.99
1.00
1.00
1.02
1.02
1.00 f, h
..
0.94
0.95 f
1.00
..
1.00
0.97
0.98
0.97
1.00
0.97
1.00

..
80 f, h
..
74
..
78
82
74 f
..
86 f
..
58 f
98 f
70
78
..
65 f
64
85 f
52 f
85 f
68
87
..
51
85
65
..
74 f
61
53
68
81
71 f
79 f, h
..
..
41 f
55 f
..
77 f
..
61
75
86
69 f
49 f

..
0.97 f, h
..
1.11
..
1.08
1.03
1.00 f
..
1.04 f
..
1.10 f
1.14 f
1.01
1.02
..
1.11 f
1.16
1.25 f
0.96 f
1.01 f
0.97
1.00
..
1.03
1.03
1.19
..
1.38 f
1.09
1.06
1.11
1.03
1.05 f
1.07 f, h
..
..
1.34 f
1.15 f
..
1.04 f
..
0.98
0.98
1.05
1.05 f
1.02 f

61 f
32
..
33
79 f
23
39
18
..
72
..
25
..
10 f, h
21
42 l
6 f, h
42 f
..
30
67 j
33 f
51
48
..
31
34
14
15 h
..
31 f
30
37
3j
..
..
24
43
..
..
25 f
22
38
14
35
..
19

1.09 f
1.34
..
1.28
1.31 f
1.32
1.24
1.41
..
1.39
..
1.09
..
1.67 f, h
1.78
1.17 l
0.90 f, h
1.08 f
..
1.47
1.19 j
1.07 f
1.31
1.19
..
1.26
1.28
0.84
1.69 h
..
1.39 f
1.28
1.10
1.91 j
..
..
0.76
1.67
..
..
2.36 f
1.07
0.98
0.78
1.04
..
1.21

68.0 k
74.2

80 k
82

86.3 k
93.0

94 k
96

98
96

0.98
0.96

61
41

1.11
0.93

Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
Macedonia, TFYR
Antigua and Barbuda
Malaysia
Russian Federation
Brazil
Romania
Mauritius
Grenada
Belarus
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Colombia
Dominica
Oman
Albania
Thailand
Samoa (Western)
Venezuela
Saint Lucia
Saudi Arabia
Ukraine
Peru
Kazakhstan
Lebanon
Ecuador
Armenia
Philippines
China
Suriname
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Paraguay
Tunisia
Jordan
Belize
Fiji
Sri Lanka
Turkey
Dominican Republic
Maldives
Turkmenistan
Jamaica
Iran, Islamic Rep. of
Georgia
Azerbaijan
Occupied Palestinian Territories
Algeria
El Salvador

105 Cape Verde
106 Syrian Arab Republic

human de velopmen t repor t 2005

5
..

1.09
..

table
Adult literacy a

HDI rank

MDG
Youth literacy a

Female rate Female rate Female rate Female rate
(% ages 15
as % of
(% ages
as % of
and above)
male rate
15–24)
male rate
2003
2003
2003
2003

MDG
Net primary enrolment b, c

MDG
Net secondary
enrolment b, c

27

MDG
Gross tertiary
enrolment c, d

Female
ratio
(%)
2002/03

Ratio of
female to
male e
2002/03

Female
ratio
(%)
2002/03

Ratio of
female to
male e
2002/03

Female
ratio
(%)
2002/03

Ratio of
female to
male e
2002/03

..
86.9 m
98.1 m
83.4 k
98.9 k
76.6
80.4
97.5
95.0
80.2
63.3
..
43.6 m
80.9 m
76.4
99.3
..
38.3 k
83.5
..
47.8
..
86.2
64.1
81.5 k
49.1 k
60.9
..
35.2
34.9
50.9
45.7
31.4 k
..
49.9 o
77.1 k
38.3
59.2 k
86.3 k

..
93 m
99 m
90 k
99 k
100
87
100
98
101
84
..
65 m
96 m
83
100
..
61 k
96
..
65
..
92
76
107 k
77 k
79
..
57
56
80
73
62 k
..
72 o
87 k
56
75 k
92 k

..
..
99.7 m
97.6 k
99.6 k
88.8
96.1
98.4
99.1
90.9
78.4
..
66.9 m
94.3 m
93.7
99.8
..
61.3 k
93.5
..
67.7
..
93.2
78.9
92.8 k
52.2 k
74.7
..
53.9
60.1
64.1
..
41.1 k
..
69.2 o
97.3 k
63.3
74.0 k
96.2 k

..
..
100 m
99 k
100 k
106
98
101
101
105
91
..
85 m
101 m
100
100
..
79 k
103
..
80
..
98
90
109 k
79 k
90
..
72
75
93
..
71 k
..
85 o
99 k
76
86 k
97 k

98 f
92 f, g
88
92
..
85
95
80
79
88 f, h
86
95 f
90 f
89
78 h
91 n
78 f, g
87
81
94 f, h
85
..
85
91
83 f
50 f, i
82
..
50 f, g
66 f, g
69 f, h
53 l
86
..
42 f, i
53
83
..
80 l

0.98 f
0.94 f, g
0.96
0.98
..
1.00
1.00
1.03
0.99
1.02 f, h
0.97
1.02 f
0.96 f
1.01
0.85 h
0.94 n
0.99 f, g
0.94
1.07
0.94 f, h
0.94
..
1.01
0.95
1.04 f
0.84 f, i
0.93
..
0.74 f, g
0.88 f, g
0.90 f, h
0.81 l
1.04
..
0.83 f, i
0.96
0.84
..
1.02 l

78 f, g
..
..
54
..
42
71 f
83
70
..
29
28 h
79 f, h
68 f
19 f, i
76 f
..
33 f
50
26 f, h
..
..
34
19 f
57 f
..
32
..
..
..
21 f, h
33 f, l
47
..
..
..
17 f, i
16 f
33 l

1.04 f, g
..
..
0.99
..
1.18
0.98 f
1.16
1.04
..
0.95
1.01 h
0.95 f, h
1.09 f
0.58 f, i
0.85 f
..
0.86 f
1.29
0.83 f, h
..
..
0.94
0.64 f
1.15 f
..
0.83
..
..
..
0.79 f, h
0.85 f, l
1.11
..
..
..
0.48 f, i
0.90 f
0.93 l

7f
9f
46
15
14
19
22 f, n
47
34
17 f, h
8
..
..
16
2i
8
5n
10
7
1 f, h
10
..
15 f, g
2f
4f
2
4
..
2
3
1n
2l
4
15 h, j
6 f, i
1f
1i
2f
3 f, l

1.58 f
0.76 f
1.19
0.80
0.80
1.10
0.55 f, n
1.69
1.32
1.31 f, h
0.78
..
..
1.15
0.43 i
0.34
0.54 n
0.84
0.89
0.56 f, h
0.68
..
1.75 f, g
0.40 f
0.75 f
0.77
0.57
..
0.81
0.34
0.54 n
0.46 l
0.50
1.58 h, j
0.92 f, i
0.14 f
0.20 i
0.52 f
0.63 f, l

146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157

65.2
78.1
59.8
90.3
..
28.5 k
43.4
50.0 k
70.2
..
..
29.2

85
97
78
123
..
41 k
73
93 k
90
..
..
57

68.1
89.4
..
..
..
50.9 k
55.5
66.5 k
80.7
..
..
41.0

94
103
..
..
..
60 k
82
101 k
101
..
..
70

79
75
..
89
32 l
59
67
..
66
78 f
58
54 f

1.00
1.00
..
1.07
0.80 l
0.71
0.97
..
1.00
0.99 f
0.80
0.89 f

12 f, n
36 f
..
27 f
17 f, l
21 f, i
14 f
..
24 f
27 f
13 f
..

1.03 f, n
1.21 f
..
1.53 f
0.69 f, l
0.46 f, i
0.77 f
..
0.98 f
0.68 f
0.48 f
..

2
5f
4f
4
2l
5 f, i
2f
..
2 f, h
1n
..
..

0.83
1.16 f
0.63 f
1.48
0.81 l
0.28 f, i
0.27 f
..
0.53 f, h
0.29 n
..
..

59.4 k
58.8

80 k
84

86.5 k
75.9

95 k
98

60 f
88

0.82 f
1.04

26
..

0.80
..

7f
2

0.69 f
0.46

Madagascar
Swaziland
Cameroon
Lesotho
Djibouti
Yemen
Mauritania
Haiti
Kenya
Gambia
Guinea
Senegal

158 Nigeria
159 Rwanda

hum a n de v e l opme n t re p or t 2005

Human development indicators

107 Guyana
108 Viet Nam
109 Kyrgyzstan
110 Indonesia
111 Uzbekistan
112 Nicaragua
113 Bolivia
114 Mongolia
115 Moldova, Rep. of
116 Honduras
117 Guatemala
118 Vanuatu
119 Egypt
120 South Africa
121 Equatorial Guinea
122 Tajikistan
123 Gabon
124 Morocco
125 Namibia
126 São Tomé and Principe
127 India
128 Solomon Islands
129 Myanmar
130 Cambodia
131 Botswana
132 Comoros
133 Lao People’s Dem. Rep.
134 Bhutan
135 Pakistan
136 Nepal
137 Papua New Guinea
138 Ghana
139 Bangladesh
140 Timor-Leste
141 Sudan
142 Congo
143 Togo
144 Uganda
145 Zimbabwe
Low human development

309

table

27

Gender inequality in education

Adult literacy a

HDI rank

Human development indicators

MDG
Net primary enrolment b, c

Female rate Female rate Female rate Female rate
(% ages 15
as % of
(% ages
as % of
and above)
male rate
15–24)
male rate
2003
2003
2003
2003

160 Angola
161 Eritrea
162 Benin
163 Côte d’Ivoire
164 Tanzania, U. Rep. of
165 Malawi
166 Zambia
167 Congo, Dem. Rep. of the
168 Mozambique
169 Burundi
170 Ethiopia
171 Central African Republic
172 Guinea-Bissau
173 Chad
174 Mali
175 Burkina Faso
176 Sierra Leone
177 Niger
Developing countries
Least developed countries
Arab States
East Asia and the Pacific
Latin America and the Caribbean
South Asia
Sub-Saharan Africa
Central and Eastern Europe and the CIS
OECD
High-income OECD
High human development
Medium human development
Low human development
High income
Middle income
Low income
World

310

MDG
Youth literacy a

notes
a Data refer to national literacy estimates from
censuses or surveys conducted between 2000 and
2004, unless otherwise noted. Due to differences
in methodology and timeliness of underlying data,
comparisons across countries and over time should
be made with caution. For more details, see www.
uis.unesco.org/ev.php?ID=4930_201&ID2=DO_
TOPIC.
b The net enrolment ratio is the ratio of enrolled
children of the official age for the education level
indicated to the total population at that age.
Net enrolment ratios exceeding 100% reflect
discrepancies between these two data sets.
c Data for some countries may refer to national or
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural
Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics
estimates. For details, see www.uis.unesco.
org. Because data are from different sources,
comparisons across countries should be made with
caution.

53.8
..
22.6
38.2
62.2
54.0 m
59.7 m
51.9
31.4 k
51.9
33.8 k
33.5
..
12.7
11.9 m
8.1 m
20.5
9.4
69.6
44.6
53.1
86.2
88.9
46.6
52.6
98.6
..
..
..
73.3
47.9
..
86.2
49.9
..

66
..
49
64
80
72 m
78 m
65
50 k
78
69 k
52
..
31
44 m
44 m
52
48
84
70
71
91
98
66
76
99
..
..
..
86
73
..
93
70
..

62.6
..
32.5
51.5
76.2
70.7 m
66.1 m
61.1
49.2 k
69.5
51.8 k
46.8
..
23.1
16.9 m
14.0 m
29.9
14.2
81.2
56.8
75.8
97.5
96.3
63.3
67.9
99.6
..
..
..
84.1
63.6
..
96.3
65.4
..

76
..
56
74
94
86 m
91 m
80
64 k
92
82 k
67
..
42
52 m
55 m
64
54
92
81
87
99
101
79
88
100
..
..
..
93
86
..
99
82
..

d Tertiary enrolment is generally calculated as a
gross ratio.
e Calculated as the ratio of the female enrolment ratio
to the male enrolment ratio.
f Preliminary UNESCO Institute for Statistics
estimate, subject to further revision.
g Data refer to the 2000/01 school year.
h Data refer to the 2001/02 school year.
i Data refer to the 1999/2000 school year.
j National estimate.
k Estimate produced by UNESCO Institute for
Statistics in July 2002.
l Data refer to the 2003/04 school year.
m Data refer to a year between 1995 and 1999.
n Data refer to the 1998/99 school year.
o Data refer to a year or period other than that
specified, differ from the standard definition or
refer to only part of a country.
p Data refer to the 2004/05 school year.

human de velopmen t repor t 2005

MDG
Net secondary
enrolment b, c

MDG
Gross tertiary
enrolment c, d

Female
ratio
(%)
2002/03

Ratio of
female to
male e
2002/03

Female
ratio
(%)
2002/03

Ratio of
female to
male e
2002/03

Female
ratio
(%)
2002/03

Ratio of
female to
male e
2002/03

57 f, n
42
47 f, i
54 j
81 p
..
68
..
53
52
47 l
..
38 i
51 f
39
31
..
31
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

0.86 f, n
0.86
0.69 f, i
0.81 j
0.98 p
..
0.98
..
0.91
0.84
0.85 l
..
0.71 i
0.68 f
0.77
0.73
..
0.69
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
18
13 f, g
15 f, h
..
26 f
21 f
..
10
8f
13 f, l
..
6 f, i
4 f, g
..
7
..
5
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
0.74
0.48 f, g
0.57 f, h
..
0.81 f
0.83 f
..
0.70
0.78 f
0.57 f, l
..
0.55 f, i
0.31 f, g
..
0.67
..
0.67
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

1j
(.) f
1i
4n
1
(.)
2 f, g
..
(.) f, i
1f
1l
1i
(.) i
(.) i
..
1f
1 f, h
1 f, h
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

0.65 j
0.15 f
0.24 i
0.36 n
0.44
0.41
0.46 f, g
..
0.73 f, i
0.45 f
0.33 l
0.19 i
0.18 i
0.17 i
..
0.34 f
0.40 f, h
0.34 f, h
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

Sources
Columns 1 and 3: UNESCO Institute for Statistics
2005a.
Columns 2 and 4: calculated on the basis of data
on adult literacy rates from UNESCO Institute for
Statistics 2005a.
Columns 5, 7 and 9: UNESCO Institute for Statistics
2005c.
Columns 6, 8 and 10: calculated on the basis of
data on net enrolment rates from UNESCO Institute for
Statistics 2005c.

table

28

HDI rank

. . . and achieving equality for all women and men

Gender inequality in economic activity

Female economic activity
(ages 15 and above)
Index
Rate
As % of
(%)
(1990=100) male rate
2003
2003
2003

Employment by economic activity
(%)
Agriculture

Industry

Contributing
family workers
(%)

Services

Women
1995–
2002 a

Men
1995–
2002 a

Women
1995–
2002 a

Men
1995–
2002 a

Women
1995–
2002 a

Men
1995–
2002 a

Women
1995–
2003 a

Men
1995–
2003 a

High human development
Norway
Iceland
Australia
Luxembourg
Canada
Sweden
Switzerland
Ireland
Belgium
United States
Japan
Netherlands
Finland
Denmark
United Kingdom
France
Austria
Italy
New Zealand
Germany
Spain
Hong Kong, China (SAR)
Israel
Greece
Singapore
Slovenia
Portugal
Korea, Rep. of
Cyprus
Barbados
Czech Republic
Malta
Brunei Darussalam
Argentina
Hungary
Poland
Chile
Estonia
Lithuania
Qatar
United Arab Emirates
Slovakia
Bahrain
Kuwait
Croatia
Uruguay
Costa Rica
Latvia
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Bahamas
Seychelles

52 Cuba
53 Mexico

60.3
66.7
56.7
38.3
60.7
62.8
51.1
38.3
40.3
59.6
51.2
46.0
56.8
61.8
53.5
49.3
44.2
39.0
58.4
48.0
38.5
51.2
49.5
38.7
50.0
54.3
51.8
54.4
49.3
62.6
61.3
26.5
51.0
37.2
48.7
57.0
39.0
60.1
57.3
42.6
32.1
62.6
34.5
36.2
49.0
48.9
37.9
59.0
..
67.1
..

111
101
109
104
105
102
104
119
107
107
104
107
98
100
106
108
103
108
111
101
114
105
116
109
99
97
105
113
103
108
100
114
113
127
102
99
122
94
96
129
110
99
121
96
102
110
114
94
..
104
..

86
83
79
58
83
90
67
54
67
83
68
68
87
85
76
78
66
60
81
71
58
66
69
60
64
81
72
71
63
80
83
38
64
48
72
81
50
82
80
47
38
84
40
49
74
68
47
80
..
84
..

2
3
3
..
2
1
3
2
1
1
5
2
4
2
1
1
6
5
6
2
5
(.)
1
18
(.)
10
14
12
4
4
3
1
..
(.)
4
19
5
4
12
..
(.)
4
..
..
15
2
4
12
..
1
..

6
12
6
..
4
3
5
11
3
3
5
4
7
5
2
2
5
6
12
3
8
(.)
3
15
(.)
10
12
9
5
5
6
3
..
1
9
19
18
10
20
..
9
8
..
..
16
6
22
18
..
6
..

9
10
10
..
11
11
13
14
10
12
21
9
14
14
11
13
14
20
12
18
15
10
12
12
18
29
23
19
13
10
28
21
..
12
26
18
13
23
21
..
14
26
..
..
21
14
15
16
..
5
..

33
33
30
..
33
36
36
39
36
32
37
31
40
36
36
34
43
39
32
44
42
27
34
30
31
46
44
34
31
29
50
36
..
30
42
40
29
42
34
..
36
48
..
..
37
32
27
35
..
24
..

88
85
87
..
87
88
84
83
82
87
73
86
82
85
88
86
80
75
82
80
81
90
86
70
81
61
63
70
83
63
68
78
..
87
71
63
83
73
67
..
86
71
..
..
63
85
80
72
..
93
..

58
54
64
..
64
61
59
50
58
65
57
64
53
59
62
64
52
55
56
52
51
73
62
56
69
43
44
57
58
49
44
61
..
69
49
40
53
48
45
..
55
44
..
..
47
62
51
47
..
69
..

63
50
58
..
65
50
59
53
85
63
81
80
42
..
68
..
67
54
61
78
63
87
76
69
76
62
70
88
84
..
86
..
..
59
70
58
..
50
59
..
..
75
..
..
73
74
43
50
..
..
..

38
50
42
..
35
50
41
47
15
37
19
20
58
..
32
..
33
46
39
22
37
13
24
31
24
38
30
12
16
..
14
..
..
41
30
42
..
50
41
..
..
25
..
..
27
25
57
50
..
..
..

51.5
40.6

122
120

67
49

..
6

..
24

..
22

..
28

..
72

..
48

..
49

..
51

hum a n de v e l opme n t re p or t 2005

Human development indicators

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51

311

table

28

Gender inequality in economic activity

Human development indicators

HDI rank

312

Female economic activity
(ages 15 and above)
Index
Rate
As % of
(%)
(1990=100) male rate
2003
2003
2003

Employment by economic activity
(%)
Agriculture

Industry

Contributing
family workers
(%)

Services

Women
1995–
2002 a

Men
1995–
2002 a

Women
1995–
2002 a

Men
1995–
2002 a

Women
1995–
2002 a

Men
1995–
2002 a

Women
1995–
2003 a

Men
1995–
2003 a

54 Tonga
55 Bulgaria
56 Panama
57 Trinidad and Tobago
Medium human development

..
55.8
44.3
45.3

..
93
114
116

..
85
56
60

..
..
6
3

..
..
29
11

..
..
10
13

..
..
20
36

..
..
85
84

..
..
51
53

..
..
36
75

..
..
64
25

58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104

25.9
50.1
..
49.2
59.1
43.7
50.3
38.7
..
59.0
43.1
49.3
..
20.3
60.2
72.9
..
44.2
..
22.4
55.3
35.6
61.2
30.7
33.7
62.3
50.1
72.4
37.6
..
37.5
37.7
28.1
27.7
39.5
43.5
51.2
41.2
65.4
62.7
67.3
30.5
55.7
55.2
9.6
31.6
47.6

126
104

..
97
99
116
..
160
104
97
..
117
..
150
98
121
101
126
121
99
107
98
126
..
111
115
165
116
149
108
117
121
101
105
101
141
100
107
153
165
128

35
73
..
62
83
52
76
49
..
82
60
62
..
27
74
85
..
55
..
29
80
45
82
40
40
89
62
86
50
..
44
48
36
33
49
56
63
49
80
82
86
39
79
76
14
41
56

..
..
..
14
8
16
45
13
10
..
..
7
14
..
..
48
..
2
16
..
17
6
..
..
4
..
25
..
2
..
20
..
..
6
..
49
56
2
5
..
10
..
53
43
26
..
4

..
..
..
21
15
24
40
15
17
..
..
33
31
..
..
50
..
15
27
..
22
11
..
..
10
..
45
..
8
..
39
..
..
37
..
38
24
21
18
..
30
..
53
37
9
..
34

..
..
..
29
23
10
22
43
12
..
..
17
10
..
..
17
..
12
14
..
22
10
..
..
16
..
12
..
1
..
10
..
..
12
..
22
15
17
24
..
9
..
6
7
11
..
22

..
..
..
34
36
27
30
39
32
..
..
19
24
..
..
20
..
28
24
..
39
24
..
..
30
..
18
..
22
..
21
..
..
19
..
23
28
26
16
..
26
..
12
14
32
..
25

..
..
..
57
69
74
33
45
77
..
..
76
72
..
..
35
..
86
71
..
55
84
..
..
79
..
63
..
97
..
69
..
..
81
..
27
29
81
39
..
81
..
41
50
62
..
74

..
..
..
45
49
49
30
46
46
..
..
48
40
..
..
30
..
57
49
..
33
65
..
..
60
..
37
..
64
..
40
..
..
44
..
37
48
53
55
..
45
..
35
49
58
..
42

..
61
..
..
42
..
71
..
..
..
..
58
..
..
..
66
..
..
..
..
60
66
..
..
64
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
32
..
56
68
23
57
..
66
46
57
..
46
..
39

..
39
..
..
58
..
29
..
..
..
..
42
..
..
..
34
..
..
..
..
40
34
..
..
36
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
68
..
44
32
77
43
..
34
54
43
..
54
..
61

46.9
29.5

110
125

54
38

..
..

..
..

..
..

..
..

..
..

..
..

..
..

..
..

Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
Macedonia, TFYR
Antigua and Barbuda
Malaysia
Russian Federation
Brazil
Romania
Mauritius
Grenada
Belarus
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Colombia
Dominica
Oman
Albania
Thailand
Samoa (Western)
Venezuela
Saint Lucia
Saudi Arabia
Ukraine
Peru
Kazakhstan
Lebanon
Ecuador
Armenia
Philippines
China
Suriname
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Paraguay
Tunisia
Jordan
Belize
Fiji
Sri Lanka
Turkey
Dominican Republic
Maldives
Turkmenistan
Jamaica
Iran, Islamic Rep. of
Georgia
Azerbaijan
Occupied Palestinian Territories
Algeria
El Salvador

105 Cape Verde
106 Syrian Arab Republic

human de velopmen t repor t 2005

..
110
98
98
97
112

table
HDI rank

Female economic activity
(ages 15 and above)
Index
Rate
As % of
(%)
(1990=100) male rate
2003
2003
2003

Employment by economic activity
(%)
Agriculture

Industry

28
Contributing
family workers
(%)

Services

Women
1995–
2002 a

Men
1995–
2002 a

Women
1995–
2002 a

Men
1995–
2002 a

Women
1995–
2002 a

Men
1995–
2002 a

Women
1995–
2003 a

Men
1995–
2003 a

41.9
73.3
61.4
56.3
63.0
48.5
48.6
73.9
60.2
41.6
37.7
..
36.0
47.3
45.8
58.9
63.2
41.9
53.7
..
42.5
80.8
65.8
80.1
62.4
62.3
74.6
57.1
36.7
56.9
67.6
79.8
66.5
73.1
35.7
58.4
53.5
79.1
64.9

117
96
105
112
107
120
107
103
98
123
134
..
119
102
101
113
101
108
101
..
105
97
99
98
95
99
101
100
129
101
100
98
101
96
116
100
101
98
97

51
91
85
69
86
58
58
88
84
49
44
..
46
59
52
81
77
53
68
..
50
92
75
97
76
73
85
65
44
67
79
98
76
86
42
71
62
88
78

..
..
53
43
..
..
3
..
50
9
18
..
39
9
..
..
..
6
29
..
..
..
..
..
17
..
..
..
73
..
..
..
77
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
52
43
..
..
6
..
52
50
50
..
27
12
..
..
..
6
33
..
..
..
..
..
22
..
..
..
44
..
..
..
53
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
8
16
..
..
14
..
10
25
23
..
7
14
..
..
..
40
7
..
..
..
..
..
14
..
..
..
9
..
..
..
9
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
14
19
..
..
39
..
18
21
18
..
25
33
..
..
..
32
17
..
..
..
..
..
26
..
..
..
20
..
..
..
11
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
38
41
..
..
82
..
40
67
56
..
54
75
..
..
..
54
63
..
..
..
..
..
67
..
..
..
18
..
..
..
12
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
34
38
..
..
55
..
31
30
27
..
48
50
..
..
..
63
49
..
..
..
..
..
51
..
..
..
36
..
..
..
30
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..
63
70
70
40
..
..
33
..
..
..
..
19
..
..
..
..
..
64
45
..
..
..
33
..
..
..
81
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..
37
30
30
60
..
..
67
..
..
..
..
81
..
..
..
..
..
36
55
..
..
..
67
..
..
..
19
..
..
..
..
..
..

146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157

68.9
42.1
49.7
47.7
..
30.9
63.1
55.6
74.7
69.8
77.0
61.8

99
107
105
103
..
110
97
97
100
101
97
101

78
52
59
56
..
37
74
70
85
78
89
72

..
..
..
..
..
88
..
37
16
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
43
..
63
20
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
3
..
6
10
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
14
..
15
23
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
9
..
57
75
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
43
..
23
57
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
26
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
74
..
..
..
..
..
..

47.8
82.3

102
98

56
88

2
..

4
..

11
..

30
..

87
..

67
..

..
..

..
..

Madagascar
Swaziland
Cameroon
Lesotho
Djibouti
Yemen
Mauritania
Haiti
Kenya
Gambia
Guinea
Senegal

158 Nigeria
159 Rwanda

hum a n de v e l opme n t re p or t 2005

Human development indicators

107 Guyana
108 Viet Nam
109 Kyrgyzstan
110 Indonesia
111 Uzbekistan
112 Nicaragua
113 Bolivia
114 Mongolia
115 Moldova, Rep. of
116 Honduras
117 Guatemala
118 Vanuatu
119 Egypt
120 South Africa
121 Equatorial Guinea
122 Tajikistan
123 Gabon
124 Morocco
125 Namibia
126 São Tomé and Principe
127 India
128 Solomon Islands
129 Myanmar
130 Cambodia
131 Botswana
132 Comoros
133 Lao People’s Dem. Rep.
134 Bhutan
135 Pakistan
136 Nepal
137 Papua New Guinea
138 Ghana
139 Bangladesh
140 Timor-Leste
141 Sudan
142 Congo
143 Togo
144 Uganda
145 Zimbabwe
Low human development

313

table

28

Gender inequality in economic activity

HDI rank

Female economic activity
(ages 15 and above)
Index
Rate
As % of
(%)
(1990=100) male rate
2003
2003
2003

160 Angola
161 Eritrea
162 Benin
163 Côte d’Ivoire
164 Tanzania, U. Rep. of
165 Malawi
166 Zambia
167 Congo, Dem. Rep. of the
168 Mozambique
169 Burundi
170 Ethiopia
171 Central African Republic
172 Guinea-Bissau
173 Chad
174 Mali
175 Burkina Faso
176 Sierra Leone
177 Niger
Developing countries
Least developed countries
Arab States
East Asia and the Pacific
Latin America and the Caribbean
South Asia
Sub-Saharan Africa
Central and Eastern Europe and the CIS
OECD
High-income OECD
High human development
Medium human development
Low human development
High income
Middle income
Low income
World

72.5
74.5
73.1
44.0
81.4
77.5
63.9
60.3
82.6
81.7
57.2
67.1
57.0
67.4
69.6
74.6
45.2
69.3
56.0
64.3
33.3
68.9
42.7
44.1
62.3
57.5
51.8
52.8
51.1
56.4
61.3
52.5
59.5
51.2
55.6

314

82
87
90
51
93
90
74
72
92
89
67
78
63
77
79
85
55
75
67
74
42
83
52
52
73
81
72
75
71
68
71
74
73
61
69

Agriculture

human de velopmen t repor t 2005

Industry

Contributing
family workers
(%)

Services

Women
1995–
2002 a

Men
1995–
2002 a

Women
1995–
2002 a

Men
1995–
2002 a

Women
1995–
2002 a

Men
1995–
2002 a

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

Sources
Columns 1–3: calculated on the basis of data on the
economically active population and total population
from ILO 2002.
Columns 4–9: ILO 2003.
Columns 10 and 11: calculated on the basis of data
on contributing family workers from ILO 2005b.

Human development indicators

Notes
As a result of limitations in the data, comparisons
of labour statistics over time and across countries
should be made with caution. For detailed notes
on the data, see ILO 2002, 2003, 2005b. The
percentage shares of employment by economic
activity may not sum to 100 because of rounding or
the omission of activities not classified.
a Data refer to the most recent year available during
the period specified.

98
98
96
102
97
97
98
97
99
98
98
96
100
102
97
97
107
99
102
100
119
100
110
107
99
99
107
107
106
101
99
107
102
103
103

Employment by economic activity
(%)

Women
1995–
2003 a
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

Men
1995–
2003 a
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

table

29

. . . and achieving equality for all women and men

Gender, work and time allocation

Time allocation
(%)
Total work time
(minutes per day)

Total work time

Time spent by women

Time spent by men

Year

Women

Men

Female
work time
(% of male)

1983
1992
1986
1978
1983

399
398
590
579
440
481

356
366
572
554
416
453

112
109
103
105
106
107

49
60
46
58
59
54

51
40
54
42
41
46

24
35
41
25
30
31

76
65
59
75
70
69

77
86
79
67
87
79

23
14
21
33
13
21

1990
1977
1988
1978
1978
1978
1978
1975–77

545
678
676
641
692
649
583
546
617

496
579
500
547
586
534
520
452
515

110
117
135
117
118
122
112
121
120

52
59
56
56
59
56
52
73
59

48
41
44
44
41
44
48
27
41

35
37
42
46
52
48
37
29
38

65
63
58
54
48
52
63
71
62

70
84
76
67
66
65
70
84
76

30
16
24
33
34
35
30
16
24

2000
2000
2000

457
545
332
445

391
501
273
388

117
109
122
116

61
61
51
58

39
39
49
42

35
49
35
40

65
51
65
60

92
75
70
79

8
25
30
21

1997
1992
1998
1987
1987–88
1999
1991–92
1999
1991–92
1988–89
1996
1999
1996
1995
1999
1990–91
1985
1985

435
438
420
449
430
391
440
432
375
470
393
431
535
308
420
445
413
453
423

418
393
429
458
410
363
441
445
377
367
363
373
481
315
417
412
411
428
403

104
111
98
98
105
108
100
97
99
128
108
116
111
98
101
108
100
106
105

46
49
53
68
51
46
44
51
51
45
66
64
46
48
46
50
51
50
52

54
51
47
32
49
54
56
49
49
55
34
36
54
52
54
50
49
50
48

30
31
41
58
39
33
30
41
29
22
43
45
35
27
32
38
37
37
37

70
69
59
42
61
67
70
59
71
78
57
55
65
73
68
62
63
63
64

62
71
65
79
64
60
61
60
74
77
93
88
58
69
60
64
68
63
69

38
29
35
21
36
40
39
40
26
23
7
12
42
31
40
36
32
37
31

HDI rank

Market
activities

Non-market
activities

Market
activities

Non-market
activities

Market
activities

Non-market
activities

Selected developing countries
Urban areas
Colombia
Indonesia
Kenya
Nepal
Venezuela
Average a
Rural areas
Bangladesh
Guatemala
Kenya
Nepal
Highlands
Mountains
Rural Hills
Philippines
Average a
National b
India
Mongolia
South Africa
Average a
Selected OECD countries c
Australia
Austria d
Canada
Denmark d
Finland d
France
Germany d
Hungary
Israel d
Italy d
Japan
Korea, Rep. of
Latvia
Netherlands
New Zealand
Norway d
United Kingdom d
United States d
Average e

UN System of National Accounts; surveys before
1993 are not strictly comparable with those for
later years.
a Refers to the unweighted average for countries or
areas shown above.
b Classifications of market and non-market activities
are not strictly based on the 1993 revised UN
System of National Accounts, so comparisons
between countries and areas must be made with
caution.

c Includes Israel and Latvia although they are not
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and
Development (OECD) countries.
d Goldshmidt-Clermont and Aligisakis 1995.
e Refers to the unweighted average for the selected
OECD countries above (excluding Israel and Latvia).

Sources
Columns 1–10: For urban and rural areas in selected
developing countries, Harvey 1995; for national
studies in selected developing countries, UN 2002;
for OECD countries and Latvia, Harvey 2001, unless
otherwise noted.

hum a n de v e l opme n t re p or t 2005

Human development indicators

Notes
Data are estimates based on time use surveys
available in time for publication. Time use data have
also being collected in other countries, including
Benin, Chad, Cuba, the Dominican Republic,
Ecuador, Guatemala, the Lao People’s Democratic
Republic, Mali, Mexico, Morocco, Nepal, Nicaragua,
Nigeria, Oman, the Philippines, Thailand and Viet
Nam. Market activities refer to market-oriented
production activities as defined by the 1993 revised

315

table

30

. . . and achieving equality for all women and men

Women’s political participation

Year women received right a
HDI rank

To vote

To stand for
election

1907
1915, 1920
1902, 1962
1919
1917, 1960
1862, 1921
1971
1918, 1928
1919, 1948
1920, 1965
1945, 1947
1919
1906
1915
1918, 1928
1944
1918
1945
1893
1918
1931
..
1948
1949, 1952
1947
1945
1931, 1976
1948
1960
1950
1920
1947

1947
1918
1918
1931, 1949
1918
1921


1920
1973 g

1945
1932
1949
1918
1951
1961, 1964
1948

1907, 1913
1915, 1920
1902, 1962
1919
1920, 1960
1907, 1921
1971
1918, 1928
1921, 1948
1788 d
1945, 1947
1917
1906
1915
1918, 1928
1944
1918
1945
1919
1918
1931
..
1948
1949, 1952
1947
1945
1931, 1976
1948
1960
1950
1920
1947

1947
1918
1918
1931, 1949
1918
1921


1920
1973 g

1945
1932
1949
1918
1951
1961, 1964
1948

MDG
Seats in parliament held by women
(% of total) c

Women in
government at
ministerial level
(% of total) b
2005

1990

1911 A
1922 E
1943 E
1919 E
1921 E
1921 E
1971 E
1918 E
1921 A
1917 E
1946 E
1918 E
1907 E
1918 E
1918 E
1945 E
1919 E
1946 E
1933 E
1919 E
1931 E
..
1949 E
1952 E
1963 E
1992 E e
1934 E
1948 E
1963 E
1966 A
1992 E e
1966 E

1951 E
1920 E
1919 E
1951 E
1919 E
1920 A


1992 E e
2002 A

1992 E e
1942 E
1953 E
..
1984 E
1977 A
1976 E+A

44.4
27.3
20.0
14.3
23.1
52.4
14.3
21.4
21.4
14.3
12.5
36.0
47.1
33.3
28.6
17.6
35.3
8.3
23.1
46.2
50.0
..
16.7
5.6
0
6.3
16.7
5.6
0
29.4
11.1
15.4
9.1
8.3
11.8
5.9
16.7
15.4
15.4
7.7
5.6
0
8.7
0
33.3
0
25.0
23.5
0
26.7
12.5

36
21
6
13
13
38
14
8
9
7
1
21
32
31
6
7
12
13
14
0
15
..
7
7
5
0
8
2
2
4
0
3
..
6
21
14
0
0
0
..
0
0
0
0
0
6
11
0
7
4
16

38.2
30.2
24.7
23.3
21.1
45.3
25.0
13.3
34.7
15.0
7.1
36.7
37.5
36.9
18.1
12.2
33.9
11.5
28.3
32.8
36.0
..
15.0
14.0
16.0
12.2
19.1
13.0
16.1
13.3
17.0
9.2
.. f
33.7
9.1
20.2
12.5
18.8
22.0
.. f
0.0
16.7
0.0
0.0 h
21.7
12.1
35.1
21.0
0.0
20.0
29.4

..
..
35.5
..
37.1
..
23.9
16.7
38.0
14.0
13.6
29.3
..
..
17.8
16.9
27.4
8.1
..
18.8
23.2
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
23.8
12.3
..
.. f
33.3
..
23.0
4.2
..
..
.. f
..
..
15.0
.. h
..
9.7
..
..
..
43.8
..

1940 E
1952 A

16.2
9.4

34
12

36.0
24.2

..
21.9

Year first woman
elected (E) or
appointed (A)
to parliament

Lower or single house
2005

Upper house
or senate
2005

Human development indicators

High human development

316

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51

Norway
Iceland
Australia
Luxembourg
Canada
Sweden
Switzerland
Ireland
Belgium
United States
Japan
Netherlands
Finland
Denmark
United Kingdom
France
Austria
Italy
New Zealand
Germany
Spain
Hong Kong, China (SAR)
Israel
Greece
Singapore
Slovenia
Portugal
Korea, Rep. of
Cyprus
Barbados
Czech Republic
Malta
Brunei Darussalam
Argentina
Hungary
Poland
Chile
Estonia
Lithuania
Qatar
United Arab Emirates
Slovakia
Bahrain
Kuwait
Croatia
Uruguay
Costa Rica
Latvia
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Bahamas
Seychelles

52 Cuba
53 Mexico

1934
1947

human de velopmen t repor t 2005

1934
1953

table
Year women received right a

Year first woman
elected (E) or
appointed (A)
to parliament

Women in
government at
ministerial level
(% of total) b
2005

30

MDG
Seats in parliament held by women
(% of total) c

1990

2005

Upper house
or senate
2005

54 Tonga
55 Bulgaria
56 Panama
57 Trinidad and Tobago
Medium human development

..
1944
1941, 1946
1946

..
1944
1941, 1946
1946

..
1945 E
1946 E
1962 E+A

..
23.8
14.3
18.2

0
21
8
17

0.0
26.3
16.7
19.4

..
..
..
32.3

58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104

1964
1946
1951
1957
1918
1934
1929, 1946
1956
1951
1919
1946
1954
1951
1994, 2003
1920
1932
1948, 1990
1946
1951

1919
1955
1924
1952
1929, 1967
1921
1937
1949
1948
1951
1961
1957, 1959
1974
1954
1963
1931
1930, 1934
1942
1932
1927
1944
1963
1918, 1921
1921
..
1962
1939

1964
1946
1951
1957
1918
1934
1929, 1946
1956
1951
1919
1946
1954
1951
1994, 2003
1920
1932
1948, 1990
1946
1951

1919
1955
1924
1952
1929, 1967
1921
1937
1949
1948
1951
1961
1957, 1959
1974
1954
1963
1931
1930, 1934
1942
1932
1927
1944
1963
1918, 1921
1921
..
1962
1961

..
1990 E e
1984 A
1959 E
1993 E e
1933 E
1946 E
1976 E
1976 E+A
1990 E e
1990 E e
1954 A
1980 E
..
1945 E
1948 A
1976 A
1948 E
1979 A

1990 E e
1956 E
1990 E e
1991 A
1956 E
1990 E e
1941 E
1954 E
1975 E
1979 E
1963 E
1959 E
1989 A
1984 E+A
1970 A
1947 E
1935 A
1942 E
1979 E
1990 E e
1944 E
1963 E+A
1992 E e
1990 E e
..
1962 A
1961 E

..
16.7
15.4
9.1
0
11.4
12.5
8.0
40.0
10.0
11.1
35.7
0
10.0
5.3
7.7
7.7
13.6
8.3
0
5.6
11.8
17.6
6.9
14.3
0
25.0
6.3
11.8
20.0
30.8
7.1
10.7
6.3
9.1
10.3
4.3
14.3
11.8
9.5
17.6
6.7
22.2
15.0
..
10.5
35.3

..
0
0
5
0
5
34
7
0
0
0
5
10
0
29
3
0
10
0
0
0
6
0
0
5
36
9
21
8
10
6
4
0
0
0
5
1
8
6
26
5
2
0
0
..
2
12

..
19.2
10.5
9.1
9.8
8.6
11.1
5.7
26.7
29.4
16.7
12.0
19.4
2.4
6.4
10.6
6.1
9.7
11.1
0.0
5.3
18.3
10.4
2.3
16.0
5.3
15.3
20.2
19.6
22.7
10.0
22.8
5.5
6.7
8.5
4.9
4.4
17.3
12.0
..
11.7
4.1
9.4
10.5
..
6.2
10.7

..
..
17.6
25.7
3.4
12.3
9.5
..
38.5
31.6
0.0
8.8
..
15.5
..
10.5
..
..
36.4
..
..
..
7.7
..
..
..
16.7
..
..
..
8.9
..
12.7
25.0
12.5
..
..
6.3
..
..
19.0
..
..
..
..
2.8
..

1975
1949, 1953

1975
1953

1975 E
1973 E

18.8
6.3

12
9

11.1
12.0

..
..

HDI rank

Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
Macedonia, TFYR
Antigua and Barbuda
Malaysia
Russian Federation
Brazil
Romania
Mauritius
Grenada
Belarus
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Colombia
Dominica
Oman
Albania
Thailand
Samoa (Western)
Venezuela
Saint Lucia
Saudi Arabia
Ukraine
Peru
Kazakhstan
Lebanon
Ecuador
Armenia
Philippines
China
Suriname
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Paraguay
Tunisia
Jordan
Belize
Fiji
Sri Lanka
Turkey
Dominican Republic
Maldives
Turkmenistan
Jamaica
Iran, Islamic Rep. of
Georgia
Azerbaijan
Occupied Palestinian Territories
Algeria
El Salvador

105 Cape Verde
106 Syrian Arab Republic

Lower or single house

hum a n de v e l opme n t re p or t 2005

Human development indicators

To vote

To stand for
election

317

table

30

Women’s political participation

Year women received right a

Human development indicators

1990

Lower or single house

Upper house
or senate
2005

To vote

To stand for
election

107 Guyana
108 Viet Nam
109 Kyrgyzstan
110 Indonesia
111 Uzbekistan
112 Nicaragua
113 Bolivia
114 Mongolia
115 Moldova, Rep. of
116 Honduras
117 Guatemala
118 Vanuatu
119 Egypt
120 South Africa
121 Equatorial Guinea
122 Tajikistan
123 Gabon
124 Morocco
125 Namibia
126 São Tomé and Principe
127 India
128 Solomon Islands
129 Myanmar
130 Cambodia
131 Botswana
132 Comoros
133 Lao People’s Dem. Rep.
134 Bhutan
135 Pakistan
136 Nepal
137 Papua New Guinea
138 Ghana
139 Bangladesh
140 Timor-Leste
141 Sudan
142 Congo
143 Togo
144 Uganda
145 Zimbabwe
Low human development

1953
1946
1918
1945
1938
1955
1938, 1952
1924
1978
1955
1946, 1985
1975, 1980
1956
1930, 1994
1963
1924
1956
1963
1989
1975
1950
1974
1935
1955
1965
1956
1958
1953
1947
1951
1964
1954
1972
..
1964
1961
1945
1962
1919, 1957

1945
1946
1918
1945
1938
1955
1938, 1952
1924
1978
1955
1946, 1965
1975, 1980
1956
1930, 1994
1963
1924
1956
1963
1989
1975
1950
1974
1946
1955
1965
1956
1958
1953
1947
1951
1963
1954
1972
..
1964
1961
1945
1962
1919, 1978

1968 E
1976 E
1990 E e
1950 A
1990 E e
1972 E
1966 E
1951 E
1990 E
1957 E
1956 E
1987 E
1957 E
1933 E
1968 E
1990 E e
1961 E
1993 E
1989 E
1975 E
1952 E
1993 E
1947 E
1958 E
1979 E
1993 E
1958 E
1975 E
1973 E e
1952 A
1977 E
1960
1973 E
..
1964 E
1963 E
1961 E
1962 A
1980 E+A

22.2
11.5
12.5
10.8
3.6
14.3
6.7
5.9
11.1
14.3
25.0
8.3
5.9
41.4
4.5
3.1
11.8
5.9
19.0
14.3
3.4
0
..
7.1
26.7
..
0
0
5.6
7.4
..
11.8
8.3
22.2
2.6
14.7
20.0
23.4
14.7

37
18
0
12
0
15
9
25
0
10
7
4
4
3
13
0
13
0
7
12
5
0
..
0
5
0
6
2
10
6
0
0
10
0
0
14
5
12
11

30.8
27.3
3.2
11.3
17.5
20.7
19.2
6.7
15.8
5.5
8.2
3.8
2.9
32.8
18.0
..
9.2
10.8
25.0
9.1
8.3
0.0
.. j
9.8
11.1
3.0
22.9
8.7
21.3
5.9
0.9
10.9
2.0
25.3 k
9.7
8.5
6.2
23.9
10.0

..
..
..
..
15.0
..
11.1
..
..
..
..
..
6.8
33.3 i
..
11.8
15.4
1.1
26.9
..
11.6
..
.. j
13.1
..
..
..
..
18.0
8.3
..
..
..
..
..
15.0
..
..
..

146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157

1959
1968
1946
1965
1946
1967, 1970
1961
1950
1919, 1963
1960
1958
1945

1959
1968
1946
1965
1986
1967, 1970
1961
1957
1919, 1963
1960
1958
1945

1965 E
1972 E+A
1960 E
1965 A
2003 E
1990 E e
1975 E
1961 E
1969 E+A
1982 E
1963 E
1963 E

5.9
13.3
11.1
27.8
5.3
2.9
9.1
25.0
10.3
20.0
15.4
20.6

7
4
14
0
0
4
0
0
1
8
0
13

6.9
10.8
8.9
11.7
10.8
0.3
3.7
3.6
7.1
13.2
19.3
19.2

11.1
30.0
..
36.4
..
..
5.4
25.9
..
..
..
..

1958
1961

1958
1961

..
1981

10.0
35.7

0
17

6.4
48.8

3.7
34.6

HDI rank

318

Year first woman
elected (E) or
appointed (A)
to parliament

MDG
Seats in parliament held by women
(% of total) c

Women in
government at
ministerial level
(% of total) b
2005

Madagascar
Swaziland
Cameroon
Lesotho
Djibouti
Yemen
Mauritania
Haiti
Kenya
Gambia
Guinea
Senegal

158 Nigeria
159 Rwanda

human de velopmen t repor t 2005

2005

table
Year women received right a
HDI rank
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177

Angola
Eritrea
Benin
Côte d’Ivoire
Tanzania, U. Rep. of
Malawi
Zambia
Congo, Dem. Rep. of the
Mozambique
Burundi
Ethiopia
Central African Republic
Guinea-Bissau
Chad
Mali
Burkina Faso
Sierra Leone
Niger

notes
a Data refer to the year in which right to vote or stand
for election on a universal and equal basis was
recognized. Where two years are shown, the first
refers to the first partial recognition of the right to
vote or stand for election.
b Data are as of 1 January 2005. The total includes
deputy prime ministers and ministers. Prime
ministers were also included when they held
ministerial portfolios. Vice-presidents and heads of
ministerial-level departments or agencies were also
included when exercising a ministerial function in
the government structure.
c Data are as of 1 March 2005 unless otherwise
specified. The percentage was calculated using
as a reference the number of total seats filled in
parliament at that time.
d No information is available on the year all women
received the right to stand for election. However,
the constitution does not mention gender with
regard to this right.

To vote

To stand for
election

1975
1955
1956
1952
1959
1961
1962
1967
1975
1961
1955
1986
1977
1958
1956
1958
1961
1948

1975
1955
1956
1952
1959
1961
1962
1970
1975
1961
1955
1986
1977
1958
1956
1958
1961
1948

Year first woman
elected (E) or
appointed (A)
to parliament
1980 E
1994 E
1979 E
1965 E
..
1964 E
1964 E+A
1970 E
1977 E
1982 E
1957 E
1987 E
1972 A
1962 E
1959 E
1978 E
..
1989 E

e Refers to the year women were elected to the
current parliamentary system.
f Brunei Darussalam and Qatar do not currently
have a parliament. Elections for a new parliament
in Qatar, according to the 2004 constitution, are
scheduled to take place in late 2005 or early 2006.
g According to the constitution in force (1973),
all citizens are equal before the law; however,
women were not able to exercise electoral rights
in the first legislative elections held in 1973. The
first legislature was dissolved by decree of the
Emir on 26 August 1975. Women were allowed to
vote in the referendum of 14–15 February 2001,
which approved the National Action Charter.
Subsequently, women exercised their full political
rights as both voters and candidates in the 2002
national elections.
h On 16 May 2005 Parliament voted a law granting
women the right to vote and stand for election.
i Data on the distribution of seats do not include the
36 special rotating delegates appointed on an ad hoc

30

MDG
Seats in parliament held by women
(% of total) c

Women in
government at
ministerial level
(% of total) b
2005

1990

2005

5.7
17.6
19.0
17.1
15.4
14.3
25.0
12.5
13.0
10.7
5.9
10.0
37.5
11.5
18.5
14.8
13.0
23.1

15
0
3
6
0
10
7
5
16
0
0
4
20
0
0
0
0
5

15.0
22.0
7.2
8.5
21.4
14.0
12.7
12.0
34.8
18.4
7.7
.. l
14.0
6.5
10.2
11.7
14.5
12.4

Lower or single house

basis, and the percentages given are therefore
calculated on the basis of the 54 permanent seats.
j The parliament elected in 1990 has never been
convened nor authorized to sit, and many of its
members were detained or forced into exile.
k The purpose of elections held on 30 August 2001
was to elect members of the Constituent Assembly
of Timor-Leste. This body became the National
Parliament on 20 May 2002, the date on which
the country became independent, without any new
elections.
l Parliament was suspended on 15 March 2003. May
2005 election results are yet to become available.

Upper house
or senate
2005
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
2.5
..
18.9
8.3
.. l
..
..
..
..
..
..

Sources
Columns 1–3: IPU 1995.
Column 4: IPU 2005a.
Column 5: UN 2005f.
Columns 6 and 7: IPU 2005d.

Human development indicators

hum a n de v e l opme n t re p or t 2005

319

table

31

HDI rank

Human and labour rights instruments

Status of major international human rights instruments

International
International
Convention on the Convention on the
Prevention and
Elimination of All
Punishment of the Forms of Racial
Crime of Genocide
Discrimination
1948
1965

International
Covenant
on Civil and
Political Rights
1966

International
Covenant on
Economic,
Social and
Cultural Rights
1966

Convention on
the Elimination
of All Forms of
Discrimination
against Women
1979

Convention
against Torture
and Other
Cruel, Inhuman
or Degrading
Treatment or
Punishment
1984

Convention
on the Rights
of the Child
1989

Human development indicators

High human development

320

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52

Norway
Iceland
Australia
Luxembourg
Canada
Sweden
Switzerland
Ireland
Belgium
United States
Japan
Netherlands
Finland
Denmark
United Kingdom
France
Austria
Italy
New Zealand
Germany
Spain
Israel
Greece
Singapore
Slovenia
Portugal
Korea, Rep. of
Cyprus
Barbados
Czech Republic
Malta
Brunei Darussalam
Argentina
Hungary
Poland
Chile
Estonia
Lithuania
Qatar
United Arab Emirates
Slovakia
Bahrain
Kuwait
Croatia
Uruguay
Costa Rica
Latvia
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Bahamas
Seychelles
Cuba

53 Mexico
54 Tonga

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
°
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
°
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
°
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l

human de velopmen t repor t 2005

l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l

table
HDI rank

International
International
Convention on the Convention on the
Prevention and
Elimination of All
Punishment of the Forms of Racial
Crime of Genocide
Discrimination
1948
1965

International
Covenant
on Civil and
Political Rights
1966

International
Covenant on
Economic,
Social and
Cultural Rights
1966

Convention on
the Elimination
of All Forms of
Discrimination
against Women
1979

Convention
against Torture
and Other
Cruel, Inhuman
or Degrading
Treatment or
Punishment
1984

31
Convention
on the Rights
of the Child
1989

l
l
l

l
l
l

l
l
l

l
l
l

l
l
l

l
l

l
l
l

58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
103
104
105
106

l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l

l
l
l

l
l

l
l
l

l
l
l
l
°
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
°
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l

l
l
l

l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
Macedonia, TFYR
Antigua and Barbuda
Malaysia
Russian Federation
Brazil
Romania
Mauritius
Grenada
Belarus
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Colombia
Dominica
Oman
Albania
Thailand
Samoa (Western)
Venezuela
Saint Lucia
Saudi Arabia
Ukraine
Peru
Kazakhstan
Lebanon
Ecuador
Armenia
Philippines
China
Suriname
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Paraguay
Tunisia
Jordan
Belize
Fiji
Sri Lanka
Turkey
Dominican Republic
Maldives
Turkmenistan
Jamaica
Iran, Islamic Rep. of
Georgia
Azerbaijan
Algeria
El Salvador
Cape Verde
Syrian Arab Republic

107 Guyana
108 Viet Nam

l
l
l

l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
°
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l

l
l
°
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
°
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

hum a n de v e l opme n t re p or t 2005

Human development indicators

55 Bulgaria
56 Panama
57 Trinidad and Tobago
Medium human development

321

table

31

HDI rank

Human development indicators

109 Kyrgyzstan
110 Indonesia
111 Uzbekistan
112 Nicaragua
113 Bolivia
114 Mongolia
115 Moldova, Rep. of
116 Honduras
117 Guatemala
118 Vanuatu
119 Egypt
120 South Africa
121 Equatorial Guinea
122 Tajikistan
123 Gabon
124 Morocco
125 Namibia
126 São Tomé and Principe
127 India
128 Solomon Islands
129 Myanmar
130 Cambodia
131 Botswana
132 Comoros
133 Lao People’s Dem. Rep.
134 Bhutan
135 Pakistan
136 Nepal
137 Papua New Guinea
138 Ghana
139 Bangladesh
140 Timor-Leste
141 Sudan
142 Congo
143 Togo
144 Uganda
145 Zimbabwe
Low human development

322

146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159

Madagascar
Swaziland
Cameroon
Lesotho
Djibouti
Yemen
Mauritania
Haiti
Kenya
Gambia
Guinea
Senegal
Nigeria
Rwanda

Status of major international human rights instruments

International
International
Convention on the Convention on the
Prevention and
Elimination of All
Punishment of the Forms of Racial
Crime of Genocide
Discrimination
1948
1965
l

International
Covenant
on Civil and
Political Rights
1966

International
Covenant on
Economic,
Social and
Cultural Rights
1966

Convention on
the Elimination
of All Forms of
Discrimination
against Women
1979
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
°
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
°
l
l

l
°
l
l
l
l
l
°
l
l

l
l
l
l
°
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l

l
l
l

l
l
l
l
°
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l

l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l

l

l
l
°
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l

160 Angola
161 Eritrea
human de velopmen t repor t 2005

l
l
l
l
l
l
l

°
°
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

Convention
against Torture
and Other
Cruel, Inhuman
or Degrading
Treatment or
Punishment
1984
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
°
l

l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

°
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

Convention
on the Rights
of the Child
1989
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

table
HDI rank

International
International
Convention on the Convention on the
Prevention and
Elimination of All
Punishment of the Forms of Racial
Crime of Genocide
Discrimination
1948
1965

162 Benin
163 Côte d’Ivoire
164 Tanzania, U. Rep. of
165 Malawi
166 Zambia
167 Congo, Dem. Rep. of the
168 Mozambique
169 Burundi
170 Ethiopia
171 Central African Republic
172 Guinea-Bissau
173 Chad
174 Mali
175 Burkina Faso
176 Sierra Leone
177 Niger
Others a
Afghanistan
Andorra
Iraq
Kiribati
Korea, Dem. Rep.
Liberia
Liechtenstein
Marshall Islands
Micronesia, Fed. Sts.
Monaco
Nauru
Palau
San Marino
Somalia
Tuvalu
Serbia and Montenegro
Total states parties b
Signatures not yet followed by ratification

l Ratification, accession or succession.
° Signature not yet followed by ratification.

International
Covenant
on Civil and
Political Rights
1966

Convention
against Torture
and Other
Cruel, Inhuman
or Degrading
Treatment or
Punishment
1984

International
Covenant on
Economic,
Social and
Cultural Rights
1966

Convention on
the Elimination
of All Forms of
Discrimination
against Women
1979
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l

l
°

l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

31
Convention
on the Rights
of the Child
1989

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
°
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
°
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l

l
°
l

l

l

l
°
l

l
l
l

l
l

l
l

l
°

l
°

l

l
l

l
l

l
l

l

l

l

l

l
l

l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
°
l
l

136
2

170
6

170
6

151
7

180
1

146
5

192
2

l
l

l
l
l
l

l
l

l

l

l

l

l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l

l
°
°
l

Source
All columns: UN 2005g.

Human development indicators

Notes
The table includes states that have signed or
ratified at least one of the seven human rights
instruments. Information is as of 1 May 2005.
a These are the countries or areas, in addition to
the 177 countries or areas included in the main
indicator tables, that have signed or ratified at least
one of the seven human rights instruments.
b Refers to ratification, accession or succession.

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

hum a n de v e l opme n t re p or t 2005

323

table

32

Human and labour rights instruments

Status of fundamental labour rights conventions

Freedom of association and
collective bargaining
HDI rank

Elimination of forced and
compulsory labour

Elimination of discrimination
in respect of employment
and occupation

Abolition of child labor

Convention
87 a

Convention
98 b

Convention
29 c

Convention
105 d

Convention
100 e

Convention
111 f

Convention
138 g

Convention
182 h

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l

l

l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l

l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l

l

l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

Human development indicators

High human development

324

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52

Norway
Iceland
Australia
Luxembourg
Canada
Sweden
Switzerland
Ireland
Belgium
United States
Japan
Netherlands
Finland
Denmark
United Kingdom
France
Austria
Italy
New Zealand
Germany
Spain
Israel
Greece
Singapore
Slovenia
Portugal
Korea, Rep. of
Cyprus
Barbados
Czech Republic
Malta
Brunei Darussalam
Argentina
Hungary
Poland
Chile
Estonia
Lithuania
Qatar
United Arab Emirates
Slovakia
Bahrain
Kuwait
Croatia
Uruguay
Costa Rica
Latvia
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Bahamas
Seychelles
Cuba

53 Mexico
54 Tonga

l
l
l
l

human de velopmen t repor t 2005

l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
t
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l

l

l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

table
Freedom of association and
collective bargaining

Elimination of forced and
compulsory labour

Elimination of discrimination
in respect of employment
and occupation

32

Abolition of child labor

Convention
98 b

Convention
29 c

Convention
105 d

Convention
100 e

Convention
111 f

Convention
138 g

Convention
182 h

55 Bulgaria
56 Panama
57 Trinidad and Tobago
Medium human development

l
l
l

l
l
l

l
l
l

l
l
l

l
l
l

l
l
l

l
l
l

l
l
l

58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
103
104
105
106

l
l
l

l
l
l
t
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l

l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l

l
l

l

l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l

l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

HDI rank

Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
Macedonia, TFYR
Antigua and Barbuda
Malaysia
Russian Federation
Brazil
Romania
Mauritius
Grenada
Belarus
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Colombia
Dominica
Oman
Albania
Thailand
Samoa (Western)
Venezuela
Saint Lucia
Saudi Arabia
Ukraine
Peru
Kazakhstan
Lebanon
Ecuador
Armenia
Philippines
China
Suriname
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Paraguay
Tunisia
Jordan
Belize
Fiji
Sri Lanka
Turkey
Dominican Republic
Maldives
Turkmenistan
Jamaica
Iran, Islamic Rep. of
Georgia
Azerbaijan
Algeria
El Salvador
Cape Verde
Syrian Arab Republic

107 Guyana
108 Viet Nam

l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l

l
l

l
l
l

l
l
l

l
l
l

l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l

l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

hum a n de v e l opme n t re p or t 2005

Human development indicators

Convention
87 a

325

table

32

Status of fundamental labour rights conventions

Freedom of association and
collective bargaining

Human development indicators

Elimination of discrimination
in respect of employment
and occupation

Abolition of child labor

Convention
87 a

Convention
98 b

Convention
29 c

Convention
105 d

Convention
100 e

Convention
111 f

Convention
138 g

Convention
182 h

109 Kyrgyzstan
110 Indonesia
111 Uzbekistan
112 Nicaragua
113 Bolivia
114 Mongolia
115 Moldova, Rep. of
116 Honduras
117 Guatemala
118 Vanuatu
119 Egypt
120 South Africa
121 Equatorial Guinea
122 Tajikistan
123 Gabon
124 Morocco
125 Namibia
126 São Tomé and Principe
127 India
128 Solomon Islands
129 Myanmar
130 Cambodia
131 Botswana
132 Comoros
133 Lao People’s Dem. Rep.
134 Bhutan
135 Pakistan
136 Nepal
137 Papua New Guinea
138 Ghana
139 Bangladesh
140 Timor-Leste
141 Sudan
142 Congo
143 Togo
144 Uganda
145 Zimbabwe
Low human development

l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l

l
l

l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l

l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l

l
l
l

l
l

l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l

l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l

l
l
l

l
l
l

l
l
l

l
l

l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l

l

l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l

l
l
l

l

l

146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

HDI rank

326

Elimination of forced and
compulsory labour

Madagascar
Swaziland
Cameroon
Lesotho
Djibouti
Yemen
Mauritania
Haiti
Kenya
Gambia
Guinea
Senegal
Nigeria
Rwanda

160 Angola
161 Eritrea

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l

l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l

human de velopmen t repor t 2005

l
l
l

l
l
l

l
l

l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l

table
Freedom of association and
collective bargaining
HDI rank
162 Benin
163 Côte d’Ivoire
164 Tanzania, U. Rep. of
165 Malawi
166 Zambia
167 Congo, Dem. Rep. of the
168 Mozambique
169 Burundi
170 Ethiopia
171 Central African Republic
172 Guinea-Bissau
173 Chad
174 Mali
175 Burkina Faso
176 Sierra Leone
177 Niger
Others i
Afghanistan
Iraq
Kiribati
Liberia
San Marino
Serbia and Montenegro
Somalia
Total ratifications

l Convention ratified.
t Convention denounced.

Elimination of forced and
compulsory labour

Elimination of discrimination
in respect of employment
and occupation

32

Abolition of child labor

Convention
87 a

Convention
98 b

Convention
29 c

Convention
105 d

Convention
100 e

Convention
111 f

Convention
138 g

Convention
182 h

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l

l
l
l

l

l

l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l
l
l

l
l

l
l

l

l

l
l
l
l

l
l
l
l
l

l
l

l
l
l
l

l
l

l
l
l

142

154

164

160

161

161

135

152

Notes
Table includes UN member states. Information is as
of 1 May 2005.
a Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right
to Organize Convention (1948).
b Right to Organize and Collective Bargaining
Convention (1949).
c Forced Labour Convention (1930).
d Abolition of Forced Labour Convention (1957).
e Equal Remuneration Convention (1951).
f Discrimination (Employment and Occupation)
Convention (1958).
g Minimum Age Convention (1973).
h Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention (1999).
i States not included in the human development
index that have ratified at least one labour rights
convention.

Source
All columns: ILO 2005a.

Human development indicators

hum a n de v e l opme n t re p or t 2005

327

table

33

Basic indicators for other UN member countries
Human development index components

Afghanistan
Andorra
Iraq
Kiribati
Korea, Dem. Rep.
Liberia
Liechtenstein
Marshall Islands
Micronesia, Fed. Sts.
Monaco
Nauru
Palau
San Marino
Serbia and Montenegro
Somalia
Tuvalu

Life
expectancy
at birth
(years)
2000–05 b

Adult
literacy
rate
(% ages
15 and
above)
2003 c

46.0
..
58.8
..
63.0
42.5
..
..
67.6
..
..
..
..
73.2
46.2
..

..
..
..
..
..
55.9
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
96.4
..
..

328

39.4
65.9
63.0
84.9
..
61.2
..
74.3
..
..
55.1
90.1
..
74.4
..
68.7

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

countries and over time should be made with
caution.
d Data on net enrolment ratios refer to the 2002/03
school year, unless otherwise specified. For details,
see www.uis.unesco.org.
e Data refer to the average for the years specified.
f Data refer to the 2000/01 school year.
g Preliminary United Nations Edcuational, Scientific
and Cultural Organization Institute for Statistics
estimate, subject to further revision.
h Data refer to the 1999/2000 school year.
i Data refer to the 2001/02 school year.
j Data refer to the 1998/99 school year.

Human development indicators

Notes
This table presents data for UN member countries
not included in the main indicator tables.
a Data refer to point and range estimates based on
new estimation models developed by the Joint
United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS. Regional
aggregates refer to 2004. Range estimates are
presented in square brackets.
b Data refer to estimates for the period specified.
c Data refer to national literacy estimates from
censuses or surveys conducted between 2000
and 2004. Due to differences in methodology and
timeliness of underlying data, comparisons across

MDG
MDG
MDG
Population
Combined gross
MDG
with sustain­
enrolment ratio
Under-five
Net
Total
for primary,
GDP per
fertility
mortality
primary
Population able access to
HIV
a
an improved
Total
secondary and
capita
rate
rate
enrolment prevalence
under­
tertiary schools
population (births per (per 1,000
ratio
nourished water source
(PPP
(% ages
(%)
(%)
US$)
(thousands)
woman)
live births)
(%)
15–49)
(% of total)
2002/03 d
2003
2003
2000–05 b
2003
2002/03 c
2003
2000/02 e
2002

human de velopmen t repor t 2005

27
(.)
27
(.)
22
3
(.)
(.)
(.)
(.)
(.)
(.)
(.)
11
8
(.)

7.5
..
4.8
..
2.0
6.8
..
..
4.4
..
..
..
..
1.7
6.4
..

257
7
125
66
55
235
11
61
23
4
30
28
5
11
225
51

..
89
91 f, g
..
..
70 h
..
84 i
..
..
81 g, j
97 g, i
..
96 f
..
..

Sources
Column 1: UN 2005c.
Column 2: UNESCO Institute for Statistics 2005a.
Columns 3 and 8: UNESCO Institute for Statistics
2005b.
Column 4: World Bank 2005c.
Columns 5 and 6: UN 2005h.
Column 7: UNICEF 2004.
Column 9: UNAIDS 2005.
Column 10: FAO 2004.
Column 11: UN 2005f.

..
..
<0.1 [<0.2]
..
..
5.9 [2.7–12.4]
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
0.2 [0.1–0.4]
..
..

..
..
..
..
36
46
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
11
..
..

13
100
81
64
100
62
..
85
94
..
..
84
..
..
29
93