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# Kristen Houlihan

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Connected Lesson
Introduction
Throughout this connected lesson, there are two standards that I am hoping to meet. The
first standard is: MAFS.4.NF.1.1-Explain why a fraction a/b is equivalent to a fraction (n a)/(n
b) by using visual fraction models, with attention to how the number and size of the parts differ
even though the two fractions themselves are the same size. Use this principle to recognize and
generate equivalent fractions. The second standard is: MAFS.4.NF.1.2-Compare two fractions
with different numerators and different denominators, e.g., by creating common denominators or
numerators, or by comparing to a benchmark fraction such as 1/2. Recognize that comparisons
are valid only when the two fractions refer to the same whole. Record the results of comparisons
with symbols >, =, or <, and justify the conclusions, e.g., by using a visual fraction model.
Using Blooms Taxonomy, I created a scaffolded learning objective for both of the
connected lessons. By the end of both of these lessons, students will be able to: rename fractions
as equivalent fractions with a common numerator or common denominator to compare; use <,>,=
symbols to record the results of fractions comparisons; recognize that two fractions can only be
compared when they refer to the same whole; and justify fractions comparisons with written
explanations and visual fraction models.
This objective is very important to student learning in my internship classroom. As
fourth graders, these students will be expected to compare fractions with large denominators.
The students in my internship classroom have solely been using manipulatives to compare
fractions. The fraction tiles that the students have been using only go up to 1/12, so once the
students are required to compare fractions with a greater denominator than 12, they must rely on
other strategies to help them to solve the problem. With these connected lesson, my CT and I are

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working to have the students compare fractions using things such as benchmark fractions,
number lines, and common denominators.
Rationale
The mathematical practice that is associated with this standard and objective is: Model
with mathematics. This Mathematical Practice involves using tools to help students to explore
and deepen their math understanding. Students prior to these connected lessons have been
exploring fraction tiles extensively. The students need to have a deep understanding of what
these fraction tiles represent to be able to convert a physical model to a visual model. The
students need to have a rich understanding of the fraction tiles that they have been using to then
use this knowledge to compare fractions to the benchmark of . In using the fraction tiles, the
students are also being able to grasp the ideas of equivalent fractions and common denominators.
Even though it is important that the students move away from relying on the fraction tiles to help
them to compare fractions, a solid foundation of using fraction tiles and understanding what they
represent is vital for students to master the objective for this lesson.

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Assessment
Pre Assessment

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Graphs of Results

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Post Assessment

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Reflection of Assessment
The pre-assessment tool that I chose for this connected lesson was great for letting me
know where exactly the students were going to need to be scaffolded. The first question of the
pre-assessment has to do with comparing and ordering whole numbers on a number line. If a
student was having trouble answering this problem, I would know that I would have to back-

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track and reintroduce ordering whole numbers with the student. As can be seen in my preassessment data, all 32 of my students were able to answer this question correctly. Based on the
data collected on this first question, I knew that I did not have to go over ordering whole
numbers with any of the students in my internship classroom.
The second and third questions of the pre-assessment has do with plotting fractions with
friendly denominators on a number line and equivalent fractions. For this question to be
answered, students would have to be familiar with both ordering fractions and equivalent
fractions. Many of the fractions that the students were asked to plot in this question were
equivalent. This question aligns with the part of the first standard that states: recognize and
generate equivalent fractions and the part of the second standard that states: compare two
fractions with different numerators and different denominators. Students would need to be able
to recognize the equivalent fractions that were present in the second problem. As can be seen in
the pre-assessment data, 8 out of the 32 students answered the second question correctly. Upon
first glance, a teacher would think that the students struggled with finding equivalent fractions,
but this was not the case. As can be seen in the data collected on question #3, 19 out of the 32
students were able to identify equivalent fractions. After analyzing the data for these two
problems I was able to see that, even though finding equivalent fractions needed to be touched
on, that students were mostly struggling with plotting these fractions onto a number line.
Problems 4-7 directly aligned with the standards and the objectives that were connected
to these lessons. These problems had to do with common denominators, benchmark fractions,
and fraction inequalities. I was expecting for many students to not answer these questions
correctly, and I was right. These questions allowed me to see which students could possibly be
enriched throughout the lessons. One question stuck out to me when I was looking at my data

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chart, and that is question #6. As can be seen in the data chart, none of the students answered
this question correctly. Question 6 dealt specifically with benchmark fractions. After seeing this
data, I knew that benchmark fractions would need to be explicitly taught and touched on a lot
throughout the two lessons.
I decided to use the final questions in both of the lessons as summative assessments. The
first exit question has to do specifically with benchmark fractions. As can be seen from the data
collected from this exit question, 25 out of the 32 students were able to answer this question
correctly. I knew that based on this question, that benchmark fractions would still need to be
touched on in the next lesson. This data also let me know which students would need to be
pulled into a small group to go over benchmark fractions in a more one-on-one setting. The
second final question has to do with ordering and comparing fractions with unfriendly
denominators. Based on the data collected from this exit question, I was able to see that a
majority of the students were comfortable with ordering fractions with different denominators on
a number line. With the students that did not answer the question correctly, I knew which
students would need to go over the material again before the Unit Test.
In regards to an ELL student, these assessments would be great. In order to make these
assessments accommodating for an ELL, they would have to be translated. I do not want to
assess how well this student can read English, I want to assess how they compare and order
fractions. Translating these questions to the ELLs native language would not add an unfair
advantage, and would give the student every chance at success. Another thing that I would
change in the assessment would be the unit of measurement in one of the problems. Question #4
states: Jordan needs to buy 5/8 of a pound of peanuts. Depending on where the ELL is from,
they might not be familiar with pounds. I would change this question to a unit of measurement

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that the ELL was more familiar with. In regards to answering the questions, I would allow for
the student to write in his/her native language. I think that with all of these adjustments, these
assessments would be ready to give to am ELL!
Connected Lessons
#1

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#2

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## Reflection on Student Learning and Teaching Practice

Learning Statements
The first learning statement that I would like to make based on this connected lesson
would be: Teachers are better able to identify gaps in students knowledge if the students are
properly assessed and these assessments are then analyzed in a timely manner. In giving the
students multiple assessments throughout this connected lesson I was able to both identify and
address gaps in the students knowledge. The data collected from their assessments allowed me
to know which students were going to need further support and which students were going to be
enriched throughout the lesson.
The second learning statement that I would like to make based on analyzing the
assessments that I gave the students would be: A well thought out pre-assessment can help a
teacher to gauge how a lesson will go and can better help them plan. The pre-assessment that I
gave my students was all-encompassing. This assessment not only addressed the standards that
were in the lesson, but also standards and concepts from previous years. In having the
assessment cover both these things, I was able to see if any concepts from previous years would
need to be re-taught. This assessment also helped me to know which concepts I would need to
spend more time on, and which concepts could be briefly touched upon. This pre-assessment
was a great tool in helping me to plan for my connected lesson. I was able to use the data
collected from this assessment to make sure that my lesson was meeting the needs of my students
in the best way.

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Overall Reflection
One of the most powerful adjustments that I made during the planning process was
changing up my lesson plan to make sure that benchmark fractions were explicitly and
thoroughly covered over the course of both lessons. After seeing the data of the pre-assessment,
it was obvious that benchmark fractions would need to be explicitly taught during the lessons.
After seeing that some students were still struggling with benchmark fractions after the first
summative assessment, I was able to add the definition of benchmark fractions into my teaching
for the next day.
Another adjustment that I made during the planning process was the changing of my
groupings in this lesson. Throughout these connected lessons I could frequently assess my
students and then adjust my Reteach and Enrichment groups accordingly. I could be flexible
with my groupings and was able meet the needs of my students in the most beneficial way.
To improve student learning in the future, the next steps that I would make as a teacher
would be to explicitly teach common denominators. After seeing the success of frequently and
explicitly teaching benchmark fractions, I believe that students would benefit from this same
type of teaching in regards to common denominators.
After using student data to drive planning, I can now see the importance of assessing
students and the work that they complete. In analyzing student data, I could see many things
about the students knowledge that I would not have otherwise been able to see. I believe that
using student data helped me to understand my students and helped me figure out ways to best
meet their needs. I was able to cater my instruction to specifically address the areas that the

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students needed the most support in. I was also able to see gaps in student knowledge from
previous years and could better plan for differentiation for these students.
After completing these connected lessons, I have a couple of new wonderings. I wonder
if students would benefit from seeing their own data from the assessments. I also wonder in it
would be beneficial for students for the teacher to explain his/her findings with the students.
Appendix

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