Simulation Study on Model-free Control Method in DC-DC Converter

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Simulation Study on Model-free Control Method in DC-DC Converter

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He Lihong

Li Ke

Northeastern University

ShenyangChin

ShenyangChin

lnlike1012@126.com

helihong@mail.neu.edu.cn

AbstractBased on the nonlinear characteristics of DC-DC

and

and

applications.

circuit

parameters

variations.

Simulation

controlleBoost converter

INTRODUCTION

and compare the method with optimal PID control in

DC-DC converter is a typical switch non-linear system,

obviously and

CONTROLLER DESIGN

of modern and classic control theory, also break the

shackles of these theories. It provides a good and simple

control method which does not rely on mathematical

models to ensure that the closed-loop system is stable. The

innovation lies in: modeling and control integration, breaks

the shackles of PID and linear frame, and also breaks the

adaptive parameter limits to achieve the structural

adaptation.

Consider the following discrete-time nonlinear system:

and electronics field [1]. PID also has the model mismatch

problem caused by circuit parameters change and load

disturbance during the applications. Therefore, there is an

urgent need to find a new control method to solve a variety

of problems during applications.

For the controlled system, the establishment of the

mathematical model is not an easy task, and sometimes

even impossible, for the time-varying case or nonlinear

y ( k + 1) = f ( y (k ), y (k 1), , y (k nm ),

u (k ), u ( k 1), u (k nn ))

In Equation (1), y(k ) u (k ) represent the system output

DOI 10.1109/IHMSC.2016.213

60

unknown system.

The following hypothesis: (a) system (1) is observable,

controllable. (b) f ( ) is the Partial derivative of control

forms of full format linearization. Since loose form full

format linearization is a special form of elastic form

linearization, Model-free adaptive control scheme based on

elastic full format linearization is only considered .

The scheme with time-varying forgetting factor

least squares method for the estimation is given below:

kLy +1 (k )

[ y (k + 1) y (k ) 'T (k ) ' (k )]

9

u (k ) = u (k 1) +

2

+ 2Ly +1 (k )

and continuous. (C) system (1) is a generalized Lipschitz.

For nonlinear system represented by the formula (1), under

the condition of meeting the assumptions of a, b and c,

when u ( k ) 0 there must be a known as "pseudo

(k ) , make

y (k + 1) = (k )u (k )

In

Equation

( k + 1) = ( k ) +

u (k ) = u (k ) u ( k 1)

P( k ) =

(k ) p , p is a constant y ( k + 1) = y (k + 1) y (k ) .

From Equation () can obtain the dynamic liner model of

systemas following

y ( k + 1) = y ( k ) + ( k ) u ( k )

2

11

(3)

2

1

P(k 1) (k ) T (k ) P(k 1)

[ P(k 1)

]

(k 1)

(k 1) + T (k ) P(k 1) (k )

where

J (u (k )) = y (k + 1) y (k + 1) + u (k ) u (k 1)

P ( k 1) ( k )

[ y ( k + 1) T ( k ) ( k )]10

( k 1) + T ( k ) P ( k 1) ( k )

y +2

(k ), ,L' y + Lu (k )]T

of

This control method achieves an order-reduced design

classic adaptive control of the system without involving

dynamic problem from model-free system. Calculation is

simpler than classic adaptive control system, and can be

adapted to non-minimum phase systems and nonlinear

systems, this is the object in this study.

From the control rate9and pseudo partial derivative

estimation equation10, we can see only the I/O data is

needed for full-format MFAC method, and is not related to

the mathematical model and order of the controlled system.

(4)

weight coefficient.

Put (3) in (4), and differentiate u (k ) and make it equal

to zerowe can get the control rate u ( k ) as following:

(k )

u(k ) = u(k 1) +

( y (k + 1) y(k ))

5

2

+ (k )

It is concluded from (5) that the control rate u (k ) is not

related to the system structure parameter and only related to

the system input and output.

Because the pseudo derivative of the system (k ) is

unknown, we cant directly apply (k ) to (5). In the

CCM Boost converter works as shown in Figure 1, Fig.(a)

is a circuit schematic diagram, Fig.(b) is the inductor

charging mode with switch on, Fig. (c) is the inductor

discharge mode with switch off. In this system, the state

variables can be determined by the number of energy

storage elements in the converter, here consider the inductor

current and the capacitor voltage as the system state

variables.

(k ) then(5) can be written as (6).

( k )

u ( k ) = u ( k 1) +

( y ( k + 1) y ( k ))

6

2

+ (k )

Considering the estimation criterion function

of pseudo partial derivative:

in

i

u

in

in

iL u

iC

uC

iR

2

J ((k)) = y(k) y(k 1) (k)u(k 1) + (k) (k 1)

7

weight coefficient.

Put(3) in (7), and differentiate (k ) and make it equal

to zero, we can get:

Estimation value of pseudo derivative (k )

u (k 1)

(k ) = (k 1) +

(y (k ) (k 1)u (k 1))

8

2

+ u (k 1)

y(k )

(b) work mode 1

(c) work mode2

Figure1. Boost principle diagram and work modes

can be obtained

61

diL

L dt = [u (t ) 1]uC + Vin

C duC = [1 u (t )]i 1 u

L

C

dt

R

data-driven full format, model-free controlled Boost

converter starts fast, and quickly reaches stable state

(1.3ms), the output voltage is basically not overshoot, the

transition process of the inductor current is smooth,

effectively and accurately track the given value, the duty

cycle control is quicker and more effective.

as a system constant .Pulse function u (t ) is a control

variablemake u (t ) = u the nonlinear standard equation of

CCM Boost suitable for differential geometry approach is:

1 1

1

L x2 + L Vin L x2

X =

+

u

1 x 1 x 1 x

C 1 RC 2 C 1

Y = x2 Vref

103

103

(a) PID

(b) MFAC

STUDY

In order to compare MFAC and PID control effect on

Boost converter, in Matlab simulation platform, simulation

experiments were performed on starting performance, load

changes, input voltage and circuit parameter changes.

10

10

(c) PID

inductor L = 500mH capacitor C = 470F load

(d) MFAC

B.Load changes

Since the load changes is the most common phenomenon

during the application, in this paper, take the model

mismatch caused by load changes of Boost converter for an

example, to verify the robustness of MFAC and PID

through simulation.

Figure 4 (a), (b) show output wave forms of PID control

and full format model-free control under the Matlab /

Simulink.

DC voltage to 10 V DC voltage output, the simulation

model shown in Figure 2.

K d = 0 . Full Format control parameters are: = 1

= 100 .

Figure4 (a), (c) is the start-up wave forms of inductor

current and output voltage based on DP algorithm for

optimal PID control. Figure4 (a), (c) is the start-up

waveforms of inductor current and output voltage based on

the data-driven full-format model-free controlled Boost

converter. Comparing with the optimal PID control method,

(a) PID

(b)

MFAC

From the figures above, the PID and full format

model-free can be well maintained 10V output voltage

when load resistenance switches between 50 100 ,

but compared to the PID, the response of full-format model

free is faster, no overshoot start up and switching transition

62

is more gentle.

In practice, not only the load disturbance, the unstable

input voltage is also considered to be a common disturbance

for Boost converter.

Figure 5 (a), (b), are actual output waveforms when input

voltage suddenly change from 5V to 6V during 0.5s for PID

and full-format model-free control.

smaller comparing with PID. In terms of anti-change of

circuit parameters, both have strong robustness

CONCLUSION

In this paper, taking DC / DC Boost Converter as an

object, through Matlab / Simulink simulation, performed

analyses and comparisons of the various performance

indicators of full-format model free adaptive control and

PID control, the results show that full-format model free

adaptive

control

has

strong

anti-interference,

(a) PID

(b)

MFAC

REFERENCES

full-format mode- free

Method on the CCM Boost Converter andNonlinear PID Control

Law[J]. Proceedings of the CSEEVol.24 No.8 Aug 2004 45-50

voltage reaches 13.4V peak, significantly higher than the

voltage peak 11.5V of full-format, model-free, which

indicates that full-format model-free is more capable of

anti-interference of input voltage than traditional PID.

Southwest Jiaotong University 2010.

>@Ortega R, Pray L, Landau I O, Robustness of discrete time adaptive

controllers IEEE Trans, 1985, AC-301179-1187.

Transformer inductance, capacitance, switch resistance,

inductor resistance, and the freewheeling diode conduction

voltage drop and other parameters will change due to the

temperature change, electromagnetic interference and other

working conditions change. In order to explain why Boost

circuit itself will change with time and environment

changes, we performed a simulation experiment under the

circumstances of changing circuit parameters of PID and

full format model free, and then further performed study of

their robustness.

Figure 6 (a), (b), are simulation diagrams of PID and

model free respectively when Inductance parameter changes

from 0.5mH to 1mH.

control, IEEE Trans, 1984, AC-31127-132.

>@Ioannou P A, Kokotovic D V, Robust redesign of adaptive control,

IEEE Trans 1984, AC-29: 202-211.

>@Rohrs C E, et al, Some design guidelines for discrete-time adaptive

controllers, Automatica, 1984, 20: 653-660.

>@Rohrs C E, et al, Robustness of adaptive control algorithms in the

presence of unmodelled dynamics,IEEE Trans, 1985 AC-30:881-889.

>@Cook P A, Application of model reference adaptive control to a

benchmark problem, Automatica,1994, 36(4):585-588.

>@ Cook P A, Direct adaptive control of nonlinear systems IFAC

Nonlinear Control Systems Design, Capri, Italy 1989, 235-238.

>@Zhong-sheng Hou. On Model-adaptive Control: the state of the art

and perspective[J].Control Theory&Application 2006v0123(4)

586-592.

>@Zhongsheng Hou, Shangtai Jin, Data-Driven Model-Free Adaptive

Control for a Class of MIMO Nonlinear Discrete-Time Systems,

IEEE TRANSACTION ON

NEURAL NET WORKS, Vol

22,No.12,2173-2188, DEC.2011.

(a) PID

(b)

Dynamic Linearization Based Model Free Adaptive Control 51st

IEEE Conference on Decision and Control December 10-13, 2012.

Maui, Hawaii, USA.

MFAC

and Full format model free

Both PID and full-format model-free have strong ability of

anti-interference and anti-change of circuit parameters,

63

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