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- G. & W. H. Corson, Inc. v. Commissioner of Internal Revenue, 453 F.2d 578, 3rd Cir. (1971)
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Based on British Standard BS 812-110:1990, the two tests conducted in this experiment are

Aggregate Impact Value (AIV) and Aggregate Crushing Value (ACV). The first experiment is

carried out to determine aggregate impact value which gives a relative measure of the resistance

of an aggregate to sudden shock or impact and second experiment is carried to determine the

aggregate crushing value which gives a relative measure of the resistance of an aggregate to

crushing under a gradually applied compressive load. Both experiment used two different

condition of samples to determine the better percentage of strength of aggregate. First test

specimen is in a dry condition (temperature of 105 5C) and second test specimens is in heat

condition (temperature of 250 5C). The samples aggregate used are passing a 14.0 mm test

sieve and retained on 10.0 mm test sieve.

To determine AIV, a test specimen is compacted in a standardized manner and subjected to 15

blows by a dropping weight. As a result, the aggregate is broken to a degree which is dependent

on the impact resistance of the material. AIV is known by taking the ratio of the impacted

specimen passing 2.36 mm sieve to the total mass of the sample tested and the mean aggregate

will calculated between two different temperatures. In this experiment, the mean between two

specimens as the aggregate impact value must less than 0.15%. Hence the result is accepted.

OBJECTIVE

To assess the mechanical properties of different coarse aggregate types by means of aggregate

impact value (AIV) and aggregate crushing value (ACV) which passes 14.0 mm test sieve and

retained on a 10.0 mm test sieve.

INTRODUCTION

The term aggregates is used to describe the gravels crushed rocks and sand which are mixed with

cement and water to make concrete. The aggregates affect the concrete performances as it

dictates the bulk of volume concrete. So the selection of suitable materials, especially aggregate

is very important.

The fact, the properties of the aggregates will have significant effect on the properties of concrete

both in the fresh and hardening state. In order to determine the mechanical properties of coarse

from Junjung Quarry, two test are carried out which are Aggregates Impact Value (AIV) Test

and Aggregates Crushing Value (ACV) Test.

The property that we considered in AIV experiment is toughness. It is defined as the ability of

aggregates to resist failure by the impact while the property that we considered in ACV

experiment is the physical strength. It determines the aggregate crushing value in which the

value indicates the ability of the aggregates to resist crushing. The lower the percentage of the

value, the stronger the aggregate.

Test 1 : Aggregate Impact Value (AIV)

1. Impact Testing Machine

A testing machine weighing 45 to 60 kg and having a metal base with a painted

lower surface of not less than 30 cm in diameter. It is supported on level and

plane concrete floor of minimum 45 cm thickness. The machine should also have

provisions for fixing its base.

2. A Cylindrical Steel Cup

A Cylindrical Steel Cup of internal diameter 102 mm, depth 50 mm and minimum

thickness 6 mm

3. A Metal Hammer

A metal hammer weighing between 13.5 to 14.0 kg the lower end being

cylindrical in shape, 50 mm long, 100.0 mm in diameter, with a 1.5mm chamfer

at the lower edge and case hardened. The hammer should slide freely between

vertical guides and be concentric with the cup. Free fall of hammer should be

within 3805 mm.

4. A Cylindrical Metal Measure

A cylindrical metal measure having internal diameter 75 mm and depth 50 mm

for measuring aggregates.

5. Tamping Rod

Tamping rod is made out of straight iron or steel bar circular cross section, 10 mm

in diameter and 230 mm long, rounded at one end.

6. A balance of capacity

A balance of capacity not less than 500g, readable and accurate up to 0.1 g.

7. A Circular Metal Base

8. Means for raising the Hammer

9. Square-hole Perforated-plat Test Sieves

Sizes 14.0 mm and 10.0 mm and wovenwire 2.36 mm test sieve.

10. A Well-Ventilated Oven

Thermostatically controlled at a temperature of 1055C.

11. A Rubber Mallet

12. A Metal Tray

Mass large enough to contain 3 kg of aggregate.

13. A Brush

With stiff bristles.

1. A Steel Cylinder

Open ended steel cylinder of nominal 150mm internal diameter with plunger and

base plate.

2. A Tamping Rod

A tamping rod with a 16mm diameter and 600mm long

3. Test Sieve

British standard sieves of sizes 14.0mm, 10.0mm and 2.36mm.

4. A Compression Testing Machine

Compression testing machine which capable of applying force of 400kN.

5. A Cylindrical Metal Measure

Cylindrical metal measures for measuring the sample.

6. A Well Ventilated

Thermostatically controlled at a temperature of 1055C.

7. A Rubber Mallet

8. A Metal Tray

Mass large enough to contain 3 kg of aggregate.

9. A Brush

With stiff bristles.

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE

Preparation of Sample

Test specimens by heating at a temperature (105 5C) and another one is heating at

temperature (250 5C) for a period not more than 4 hour and cool to room temperature before

testing and will thoroughly sieve the entire surface dry test portion on the 14 mm and 10 mm test

sieves to remove the oversize and undersize fraction.

Test 1 : Aggregate Impact Value (AIV)

Fill the measure to overflowing with the aggregate comprising the test specimen which already

heating at a temperature (105 5C) by means of a scoop. Tamp the aggregate with 25 blows of

the rounded end of the tamping rod, each blow being given by allowing the tamping rod to fall

freely from a height of about 50 mm above the surface of the aggregate and the blows being

evenly distributed over the surface.

Remove the surplus aggregate by rolling the tamping rod across and in contact with the top of

the container. Remove by hand any aggregate which impedes its progress and fill any obvious

depressions with added aggregate. Record the net mass aggregate in the measure.

Next step is using impact machine. Rest the impact machine, without wedging or packing upon

the level plate, block or floor, so that it is rigid and the hammer guide columns are vertical.

Before fixing the cup to the impact machine, place the whole of the test specimen in the cup and

then compact by 25 strokes of the tamping rod. With the minimum of disturbance to the test

specimen, fix the cup firmly in position on the base of the machine. Adjust the height of the

hammer so that its lower face 380 5 mm above the upper surface of the aggregate in the cup

and then allow it to fall freely on to the aggregate. Subject the test specimen to a total of 15 such

blows each being delivered at an interval of not less than 1s.

Remove the crushed aggregate by holding the cup over a clean tray and hammering on the

outside with the rubber mallet until the particles are sufficiently disturbed to enable the mass of

the specimen to fall freely on to the tray.

Transfer fine particles adhering to the inside of the cup and the underside of the hammer to the

tray by means of the stiff bristle brush. Weigh the tray and the aggregate and record the mass of

aggregate used (M1) to the nearest 0.1 g.

Sieve the whole of the life specimen in the tray on the 2.36 mm test sieve until no further

significant amount passes during a further period of 1 min. weigh and record the masses of the

fractions passing and retained on the sieve to the nearest 0.1 g (M2 and M3 respectively) and if

the mass (M2 + M3) differs from the initial mass (M1) by more than 1g, discard the result and test

a further specimen.

Repeat the procedure as above for second specimen with temperature (250 5C).

Calculate the aggregate impact value (AIV) expressed as a percentage to the first decimal place

for each test specimen from the following equation :

(AIV) = M2

M1

X 100

Where

M1

M2

is the mass of the material passing the 2.36 mm test sieve (in g).

Place the cylinder of the test apparatus in position on the baseplate and add the test specimen

which already heating at a temperature (105 5C) in three layers of approximately equal depth,

each layer being subjected to 25 strokes from the tamping rod distributed evenly over the surface

of the layer and dropping from a height approximately 50 mm above the surface of the

aggregate. Carefully level the surface of the aggregate and insert the plunger so that it rests

horizontally on this surface. Take care to ensure that the plunger does not jam in the cylinder.

Place the apparatus, with the test specimen prepared as samples description before and plunger in

position, between the platens of the testing machine and load it at as uniform a rate as possible so

that the required force of 400 kN is reached in 10 min 30 s.

Release the load and remove the crushed material by holding the cylinder over a clean tray of

known mass and hammering on the outside of the cylinder with the rubber mallet until the

particles are sufficiently disturbed to enable the mass of the specimen to fall freely on to the tray.

Transfer any particles adhering to the inside of the cylinder, to the baseplate and the underside of

the plunger, to the tray by means of a stiff bristle brush. Weigh the tray and the aggregate and

determine the mass of the aggregate used (M1) to the nearest gram.

Sieve the whole of the test specimen on the tray on the 2.36 mm test sieve until no further

significant amount passes during a further period of 1 min. Weigh and record the masses of the

fractions passing and retained on the sieve to the nearest gram (M2 and M3 respectively). If the

total mass of the two individual fractions (M2 + M3) differs from the initial mass (M1) by more

than 10 g, procedure 10 g, discard the result and repeat the complete procedure using a new test

specimen.

Repeat the procedure as above for second specimen with temperature (250 5C).

Calculate the aggregate crushing value (ACV) expressed as a percentage to the first decimal

place for each test specimen from the following equation :

(AIV) = M2

M1

X 100

Where

M1

M2

is the mass of the material passing the 2.36 mm test sieve (in g).

DISCUSSION

(a) Aggregate Impact Value Test

100 C heated aggregate and 250C heated aggregate are used to be tested in this

experiment. The aggregate used are sieved through a 14.0mm test sieve and retained on 10.0mm

test sieve. In this test, the specimens are subjected to a dropping weight for 15 blows with each

blow not less than a second. Then, it is sieved through 2.36mm test sieve. In our test, the AIV of

100 C heated aggregate is 28.62%, which is the mean of the first sample, 29.48% and the

second sample, 27.76%. The difference between the two samples is 1.72%, less than 4.29%

which is the value of 0.15 times the mean AIV. Owing to the difference not exceeding the 0.15%

times the mean AIV, the experiment is acceptable. On the other hand, for 250C aggregate, the

AIV is 32.73% which is the mean of the first sample, 31.22% and the second sample, 34.24%.

The difference AIV between the first sample and second sample (3.02%) is not exceeding 0.15

times the mean AIV (4.91%). Besides, for that 2 samples, the amount of aggregates before being

sieving through a 2.36mm test sieve and after the process do not exceed 1.0g. Therefore, the

experiment is acceptable.

From the results obtained, the lower the aggregate impact value, the higher the toughness of the

aggregates. Therefore, 100 C heated aggregate is stronger and tougher to resist fracture under

impact than the 250C heated aggregates. Moreover, this can be proved that the bonding of the

intermolecular forces getting weaken proportionally toward heat as the molecules getting more

energy to breaking the bond tighten them.

There are a few precaution steps to be taken when carrying out this test. The test specimen put in

the cup has to be compacted by 25 strokes of the tamping rod with three layers. This is an

important step to ensure that the volume of the specimens and the height of the specimens to be

equal, resulting in the height of fall of the impact hammer on the specimens to be equal. If the

mass of the aggregate sample before the blow and after the blow were exceeded by 1.0g, the

result has to be discarded and other specimen should be taken again. Besides, if the difference in

AIV of two samples exceeds 0.15 times the mean value, another two specimens have to be tested

and the median of the four results should be taken as the aggregate impact value. These

procedures are to ensure the accuracy of the results.

100 C heated aggregate and 250C heated aggregate are used to be tested in this test.

The aggregate used are sieved through a 14.0mm test sieve and retained on 10.0mm test sieve. In

this test, the specimens are placed in a compression testing machine and subjected to a constantly

increasing loading to 400kN in 10 minutes with an allowance of 30seconds. After that, it is

sieved through a 2.36mm test sieve. In this test, The ACV of 100 C heated aggregate is 22.94%,

which is the mean of the first sample, 22.91% and the second sample, 22.96%. The difference

between the two samples is 0.05%, less than 1.6% which is the value of 0.07 times the mean

ACV. Owing to the difference not exceeding the 0.07 times the mean AIV, the experiment is

acceptable. On the other hand, for 250C heated aggregate, the ACV is 21.8% which is the mean

of the first sample, 21.89% and the second sample, 21.70%. The difference ACV between the

first sample and second sample (0.19%) is not exceeding 0.07 times the mean ACV (1.53%).

Besides, for that 2 samples, the amount of aggregates before being sieving through 2.36mm and

after the sieving process do not exceed 10.0g. Therefore, the experiment is acceptable. From the

results obtained, the lower the aggregate crushing value, the higher the resistance of the

aggregates to crushing. This is due to the lesser particles passing through the 2.36mm sieve test.

Therefore, 250C heated aggregate is more resistance to compression compared to 100 C heated

aggregates. In other words, 250C heated aggregate has higher compressive strength than 100 C

heated aggregates. Hence, 250C heated aggregates are more suitable to be used for road

pavement construction as it can withstand high stresses due to wheel loads. There are a few

precaution steps to be taken when carrying out this test. The aggregate sample is filled into the

cylindrical measure by one-third and followed by 25 strokes tamping for three layers and

weighed. This step is to ensure the volume to be equal. For the second specimen, the same

weight of specimen is taken as it is essential to keep the volume and height of the specimens in

the aggregate crushing mould constant to ensure the conditions remained unaltered. Next, if the

mass of the aggregate sample before the 2.36mm test sieve and after it were exceeded by 10.0g,

the result has to be discarded and other specimen should be taken again. Besides, if the

difference in ACV of two samples exceeds 0.07 times the mean value, another two specimens

have to be tested and the median of the four results should be taken as the aggregate crushing

value. Accurate results are ensured by following strictly to the precaution steps.

CONCLUSION

100C heated aggregates and 250C heated aggregates are the type of aggregates used in this

experiment. Two tests are carried out to test on the mechanical properties of the mentioned

coarse aggregates, aggregate impact value test and aggregate crushing value test. The aggregates

samples used are passing through a 14.0mm test sieve and retained on a 10.0mm test sieve. Only

two samples for each quarry for each test are carried out as all the tests are within the acceptance

limit.

a. Aggregate impact value (AIV) for 100C heated is 28.62% whereas for the 250C

heated is 32.73%.

b. Aggregate crushing value (ACV) for 100C heated is 22.94% whereas for the

250C heated is 21.8%.

The experiment is accepted. From the two tests, it is clearly shown that the 100C heated

aggregates is far better than 250C heated aggregates in term of strength as the lower the

percentage of the aggregate impact value, the higher the strength of the aggregates. 250C heated

aggregates has low aggregate crushing value indicates strong aggregates due to the fact that the

crushed fraction is low. Hence, it can be concluded that 250C heated aggregates is more suitable

to be used for pavement construction as the aggregates can withstand the high stresses due to

wheel loads, including the steel tyres of loaded bullock-carts.

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