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Chapter 13-16 Outline

Kelsey Harrelson


Solutions are homogenous mixtures.

Mixtures are classified as solutions, suspensions, or colloids, depending on the size of the
solute particles in the mixture.
The dissolved substance is the solute. Solutions that have water as a solvent are aqueous
Solutions can consist of solutes and solvents that are solids, liquids, or gases.
Suspensions settle out upon standing. Colloids do not settle out, and they scatter light that is
shined through them.
Most ionic solutes and some molecular solutes form aqueous solutions that conduct an electric
current. These solutes are called electrolytes.
Nonelectrolytes are solutes that dissolve in water to form solutions that do not conduct.

A solute dissolves at a rate that depends on the surface area of the solute, how vigorously the
solution is mixed, and the temperature of the solvent.
The solubility of a substance indicates how much of that substance will dissolve in a specified
amount of solvent under certain conditions.
The solubility of a substance depends on the temperature.
The solubility of gases in liquids increase with increases in pressure.
The solubility of gases in liquids decreases with increases in temperature.
The overall energy change per mole during solution formation is called the heat of solution.

Two useful expressions of concentration are molarity and molality.

The molar concentration of a solution represents the ratio of moles of solute to liters of solution.
The molal concentration of a solution represents the ratio of moles of solute to kilograms of

The separation of ions that occurs when an ionic solid dissolves is called dissociation.
When two different ionic solutions are mixed, a precipitate may form if ions from the two
solutions react to form an insoluble compound.
A net ionic equation for a reaction in aqueous solution includes only compounds and ions that
change chemically in the reaction. Spectator ions are ions that do not take part in such a

Formation of ions from solute molecules is called ionization. A molecular compound may ionize
in a water solution if the attraction of the polar water molecules is strong enough to break the
polar-covalent bonds of the solute molecules.
An H3O+ ion is called a hydronium ion.
All, or almost all, of a dissolved strong electrolyte exists as ions in an aqueous solution, whereas
a relatively small amount of a dissolved weak electrolyte exists as ions in an aqueous solution.

Colligative properties of solutions depend only on the total number of solute particles present.
Boiling-point elevation, freezing point depression, vapor-pressure lowering, and osmotic
pressure are all colligative properties.
The molal boiling-point and freezing-point constants are used to calculate coiling-point
elevations and freezing-point depressions of solvents containing nonvolatile solutes.
Electrolytes have a greater effect on the freezing and boiling points of solvents than do
Except in very dilute solutions, the values of colligative properties of electrolytic solutions are
less than expected because of the attraction between ions in solution.

Acids have a sour taste and react with active metals. They change the colors of acid-base
indicators, and react with bases to produce salts and water. Some conduct electricity.
Bases have a bitter taste, feel slippery to the skin in dilute aqueous solutions, change the colors
of acid-base indicators, react with acids to produce salts and water, and conduct electricity.
An Arrhenius acid contains hydrogen and ionizes in aqueous solution to form hydrogen ions. An
Arrhenius base produces hydroxide ions in aqueous solution.
The strength of an Arrhenius acid or base is determined by the extent to which it ionizes or
disassociates in aqueous solutions.

A Brnsted-Lowry acid is a proton donor. A Brnsted-Lowry base is a proton accepter.

A Lewis acid is an electron-pair acceptor. A Lewis base is an electron-pair donor.
Acids are described as monoprotic, diprotic, or triprotic, depending on whether they can donate
one, two, or three protons per molecule, respectively, in aqueous solutions.

In every Brnsted-Lowry acid-base reaction, there are two conjugate acid-base pairs.
A strong acid has a weak conjugate base; a strong base has a weak conjugate acid.
Proton-transfer reactions favor the production of weaker acids and bases.
The acidic or basic behavior of a molecule containing OH groups may depend on the
electronegativity of other atoms in the molecule and the number of oxygen atoms bonded to the
atom connected to the OH group.
A neutralization reaction produces water and an ionic compound called a salt.

Acid rain neutralizes the calcium carbonate in marble structures, causing them to deteriorate.

Pure water undergoes self-ionization to give 1.0 x 10-7 M H3O+ and 1.0 x 10-7 M OH- at 25 C.
pH = -log[H3O+]; pOH = -log[OH-] At 25 C, pH = pOH = 14.0.
At 25 C, acids have a pH of less than 7, bases have a pH of greater than 7, and neutral
solutions have a pH of 7.
If a solution contains a strong acid or a strong base, the [H3O+], [OH-] and pH can be calculated
from the molarity of the solution. If a solution contains a weak acid or a weak base, the [H3O+]
and the [OH-] must be calculated from an experimentally measured pH.