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ELECTRICAL SYSTEM DESIGN

INTRODUCTION
Lighting or illumination is the deliberate use of light to achieve a practical or aesthetic
effect. Lighting includes the use of both artificial light sources like lamps and light
fixtures, as well as natural illumination by capturing daylight. Day lighting (using
windows, skylights, or light shelves) is sometimes used as the main source of light during
daytime in buildings. This can save energy in place of using artificial lighting, which
represents a major component of energy consumption in buildings. Proper lighting can
enhance task performance, improve the appearance of an area, or have positive
psychological effects on occupants.
Step of Light Design

Decide on Luminaire type and how many will be needed by considering


suitable illumination level.

Determine room index.

Reflectance of ceiling, walls and floor estimated.

Utilization factor for luminaire determined.

Determine the light loss factor

Determine necessary flux

Arrangement of luminaires for uniformity, architectural requirements.

Calculations for find number of Luminaries;


N=

E A
n UF LLF

Where,
N = No. Of Luminaries
E = Required illumination
A = Working area
= Luminous flux produced per lamp
n = No. Of lamps in a luminary
LLF = loss factor
UF = Utilization factor

Assumptions;
The reflectance is provided as Ceiling 50% Walls 50% Surface 30%.

LLF = 0.85

One lamp per luminaries

The Required illumination (E) can obtain from Table 2.3 according to the actions
performed in selected area. The IES (Illuminating Engineering society) standards
illumination level has been used for lighting calculation
Table: Light Level for Some Work Area
Activity

Public areas with dark surroundings


Simple orientation for short visits
Working areas where visual tasks are only occasionally
performed
Warehouses, Homes, Theatres, Archives
Easy Office Work, Classes
Normal Office Work, PC Work, Study Library, Groceries, Show
Rooms, Laboratories
Supermarkets, Mechanical Workshops, Office Landscapes
Normal Drawing Work, Detailed Mechanical Workshops,
Operation Theatres
Detailed Drawing Work, Very Detailed Mechanical Works
Performance of visual tasks of low contrast and very small size
for prolonged periods of time
Performance of very prolonged and exacting visual tasks
Performance of very special visual tasks of extremely low
contrast and small size

Illumination Lux ,
(lumen/m2)
20 - 50
50 - 100
100 - 150
150
250
500

750
1,000

1500 - 2000
2000 - 5000

5000 - 10000
10000 - 20000

Utilization Factor (UF);


The utilization factor is provided by the manufacturer and takes into account the pattern
of light-distribution from the whole fitting, its light-distributing efficiency, the shape and
size of the room for which it is being designed and the reflectivity of the ceiling and
walls. Values vary from 0.03, where purely indirect distribution is employed, the room
has poorly reflecting surfaces and all the light is upwards onto the ceiling or walls, to 0.75
for the most energy-efficient designs.

UF can be found from light fitting manufacturers tables, when the Room Index and the
Reflectance of the room are known.
Room Index = /(+)
Where,
L = Room Length (m)
W = Room Width (m)
Hm = Mounting height

Table: light fitting manufacturers tables


Utilization factor Ceiling recessed luminaire
Reflectance
Ceiling

0.8

0.8

0.8

0.5

0.5

0.8

0.8

0.5

0.5

0.3

Wall

0.8

0.5

0.3

0.5

0.3

0.8

0.3

0.5

0.3

0.3

Surface

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

Room
Index
0.3

Utilization factor (%)


63

35

28

38

26

58

27

33

28

27

0.6

73

46

37

46

36

66

36

42

35

35

0.8

82

57

47

54

46

74

45

51

44

44

1.0

91

66

56

62

54

80

53

59

52

51

1.5

98

75

65

70

62

85

61

66

60

59

2.0

103

82

73

76

69

89

67

72

66

65

2.5

109

91

82

84

78

94

75

78

73

72

Light Loss Factor (LLF);


The Maintenance Factor is defined as the ratio of Average luminance on the working
plane after a specified period of use of a lighting installation to the average luminance
obtained under the same conditions for a new installation. It is always less than 1. The
standard Light Loss Factor is 0.85.
The luminance levels in a lighting installation decrease progressively during use, due to

Dirt on lamps and luminaires

Dirt on the room surface

Decrease in the luminous output of lamps with use

Location

Ground
Floor
Open space
for temporary
separation
Female toilet

Avg. luminance

Length

Width

Height

Floor area

Required
E(lux)

L(m)

W(m)

H(m)

(Sq.m)

Hm=H0.85

Room
index

Lighting fixtures
Type

Utility
Factor

Light Loss
Factor LLF

Luminou
s flux

Required.

Provided

150

30.755

9.15

3.05

281.40

2.2

3.205

LDE-PAR3818W

0.84

0.85

820

47.29

73

150

5.56

3.075

3.05

17.097

2.2

0.899

0.58

0.85

820

4.16

Male toilet

150

5.56

4.575

3.05

25.437

2.2

1.140

0.64

0.85

820

5.61

Verandah

120

41.875

1.5

3.05

62.8125

2.2

0.658

0.49

0.85

820

22.06

23

Porch

150

6.7

3.075

3.05

20.6025

2.2

0.958

0.61

0.85

820

7.26

Stair

150

5.56

3.05

16.68

2.2

0.885

0.5

0.85

1250

4.70

Seating Space

100

41.875

2.65

3.05

110.968

2.2

1.132

LDE-PAR3818W
LDE-PAR3818W
LDE-PAR3818W
LDE-PAR3818W
LDE-PAR3836W
LDE-PAR3818W

0.64

0.85

820

16.31

25

Female toilet

150

6.7

4.575

3.05

30.652

2.2

1.235

0.66

0.85

820

6.55

10

Male toilet

150

5.34

4.575

3.05

24.430

2.2

1.119

0.64

0.85

820

5.38

Verandah

120

41.875

1.5

4.825

62.812

3.975

0.364

0.4

0.85

820

17.73

28

Snack bars

150

6.7

4.575

3.05

30.652

2.2

1.235

0.66

0.85

820

6.55

10

Stair 1

150

5.56

4.825

16.68

3.975

0.490

0.43

0.85

1250

5.47

Stair 2

150

4.575

3.35

4.825

15.326

3.975

0.486

LDE-PAR3818W
LDE-PAR3818W
LDE-PAR3818W
LDE-PAR3818W
LDE-PAR3836W
LDE-PAR3836W

0.43

0.85

1250

5.03

150

41.875

1.5

3.15

62.8125

2.3

0.629620

LDE-PAR38-

0.49

0.85

820

18.09

28

First Floor

Second Floor
Verandah

Seating space

100

41.875

10.95

7.25

458.53125

6.4

348

18W

1.356280
318

LDE-PAR3818W

0.69

0.85

820

62.54

96

Sockets (13A)
AC power plugs and sockets are devices that allow electrically operated equipment to be
connected to the primary alternating current (AC) power supply in a building. Electrical
plugs and sockets differ in voltage and current rating, shape, size and type of connectors.
The types used in each country are set by national standards. A proliferation of types
developed to address the issues of convenience and protection from electric shock. Today
there are approximately 20 types in common use around the world, and many obsolete
socket types are still found in older buildings. Co-ordination of technical standards has
allowed some types of plugs to be used over wide regions to facilitate trade in electrical
appliances, and for the convenience of travellers and consumers of imported electrical
goods. Some multi-standard sockets allow use of several different types of plugs;
improvised or unapproved adapters between incompatible sockets and plugs may not
provide the full safety and performance of an approved socket and plug combination. The
13A sockets are widely used in present in Sri Lanka. The 13A sockets shown in figure

Location
Room
Common Room
Kitchen
Medical Centre
Bathroom
Meditation area

No of sockets per one


2
2
2
2
1
3

Figure :
13A socket

PHONE INSTALLATION
The Telephones network installation comprises fixed connection points and wireless
access points (Figure ) connected to data hub rooms in the Building. Telephones in the
Building are voice over internet protocol (VOIP) type. With this system, special
telephones are used that connect to the data network to provide enhanced functions

Figure: Data Socket

FIRE ALARM
A fire alarm system is number of devices working together to detect and warn people
through visual and audio appliances when smoke, fire, carbon monoxide or
other emergencies are present. These alarms may be activated automatically from smoke
detectors, and heat detectors or may also be activated via manual fire alarm
activation devices such as manual call points or pull stations. Alarms can be either
motorized bells or wall mountable sounders or horns. The manual fire alarm equipment
(Figure ) is located throughout the building. The main panel is located in the main
entrance.

Figure : Fire alarm

FIRE EXTINGUISHER
A fire extinguisher is an active fire protection device used to extinguish or control small
fires, often in emergency situations. It is not intended for use on an out-of-control fire,
such as one which has reached the ceiling, endangers the user (i.e., no escape route,
smoke, explosion hazard, etc.), or otherwise requires the expertise of a fire department.
Typically, a fire extinguisher consists of a hand-held cylindrical pressure
vessel containing an agent which can be discharged to extinguish a fire. Fire extinguishers
manufactured with non-cylindrical pressure vessels also exist, but are less common. The
fire extinguisher will locate in six places in this building. Two set of fire extinguisher per
each floor. Water and carbon dioxide will be attached. Figure shows the water fire
extinguisher.

Figure: Fire extinguisher (Water)