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lab manual

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- MOSFET
- 8
- 2sk2595 Final Mosfet Tk2170
- Mosfet
- ELECTRICALELECTRONICSCOMMUNICATION (1)
- 05668069
- TND017
- Week14
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APPARATUS:

S.No

EQUIPMENT

Qty

1.

KIT

2.

PATCH CARDS

1 set

THEORY:

Silicon Controlled Rectifier: Silicon Controlled Rectifier is a four-layer three junction p-n-p-n

switching device. It has three terminals, Anode, cathode and gate. In normal operation of

thyristor anode held with high positive potential with respect to cathode and gate has a small

positive with respect to cathode.

When Anode is made positive with respect to cathode and switch is open in the gate circuit

,then p-n junction j1 and j3 are forward biased ,where as j2 becomes wider and j1 thinner at j1

and j3. There is no base current in transistor t2 and hence that of t1.under such conditions the

SCR is in a state of blocking forward direction. If now gate is made positive w.r.t. cathode or

switch is closed , a small gate current will flow through junction j2 as a result anode starts flows

if anode current is greater than latching current of SCR.SCR is forward conduction state or

simply SCR is closed state.

MOSFET: A Power MOSFET has three terminal called drain, source and gate. MOSFET is a

voltage controlled device. As its operation depends upon the flow of majority carriers only.

MOSFET is uni polar device. The control signal or gate current less than a BJT. This is because

9

of fact that gate circuit impedance in MOSFET is very high of the order of 10 ohm. This larger

impedance permits the MOSFET gate be driven directly from microelectronic circuits. Power

MOSFETs are now finding increasing applications in low-power high frequency converters.

IGBT: IGBT is a new development in the area of Power MOSFET Technology. This device

combines into its the advantages of both MOSFET and BJT. So an IGBT has high input

impedance like a MOSFET and low-on-state power loss in a BJT.IGBT is also known as metal

oxide insulated gate transistor (MOSIGT). Conductively modulated field effect

transistor(COMFET) or gain modulated FET (GEMFET). It was initially called insulated gate

transistor(IGT).

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

SCR CHARACTERISTICS:

IA

VGK

VAK

MOSFETCHARACTERISTICS:

ID

VDD

VGS

IGBT CHARACTERISTICS:

ID

VCC

VGG

PROCEDURE:

SCR CHARACTERISTICS:

A) Forward V-I Characteristics:

1. The connections are made as shown in the circuit diagram.

2.

Switch on the power supply .Apply constant VAK voltage say 10V varying VAA

3.

Gradually increase the gate current till the SCR becomes on i.e. V AK and IA

4. Now VAK is increased gradually and IA noted for two to three readings,

5. Steps 3 to 4 are repeated for another values of VAK say 30V.

6. Tabulate the readings in the tabule.

7.

1. Now reverse the polarities of the anode voltage source.

2. Open the switch in the gate circuit.

3. Note down the readings of anode voltage and current by increasing the value of

voltage source in the anode circuit.

C) Gate Characteristics:

1. Now open the switch in the anode circuit.

2. Set the gate circuit voltage source and anode circuit voltage source as per the given

value.

3. Note down the readings of gate voltage and gate current by reducing the value of gate

side rheostat.

MOSFET CHARACTERISTICS:

A) OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS:

1. The connections are made as shown in the circuit diagram.

Switch on the Supply. Keep VDS say 10V vary VGS note down the range of VGS for

which drain current is varying for constant VGS

2.

3. Keep VGS constant (VGS must be within the range determined by step2)

4.

5.

Plot a graph of ID against VDS for different VGS

7.

B) TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS:

1. The connections are made as shown in the circuit diagram.

2.

Switch on the regulated power supplies. Keep VDS constant say 10V. Vary VGS in steps,

note down the corresponding ID

4.

IGBT CHARACTERISTICS:

A) OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS:

1. Connections are made as shown in the circuit diagram

2. Switch on power supply. Keep VGE say 5v, vary VGE note down the range of VGE for

which collector current is varying for constant VGE.

3. Keep VGE constant ( VGE must be within the range )

Vary VCE in steps ,note down corresponding IC

4.

7. Tabulate the readings in the table.

Plot a graph of IC against VCE for different VGE

8.

B) TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS:

1. Connections are made as shown in the circuit diagram

2.

Switch on the power supply. Keep VCE constant. Vary VGE in steps .note down

corresponding IC

4. Tabulate the readings in the table.

5.

TABULAR COLUMN:

SCR CHARACTERISTICS:

A) FORWARD V-I CHARACTERISTICS

IG1=

mA

IG2=

mA

S.NO.

VAK=

V

IA= mA

VAK=

V

IA= mA

S .NO.

VAK= V

IA= mA

C) GATE CHARACTERISTICS:

S.No.

VG

IG

2.5K/25W (0-200mA)

G

+ VCE

+ VBE

(0-15V)

(0-20V)

(0-35V)

MOSFET

CHARACTERISTICS:

V

(0-20V)

A) OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS

VGS1=

B) TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS

VGS2=

S.NO.

VDS=

V

ID= mA

VDS=

V

ID= mA

IGBT CHARACTERISTICS:

A) OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS

VGE1=

VGE2=

S.NO.

VBE= V

IC= mA

VBE= V

I C=

mA

S.NO.

VDS1=

VGS=

V

ID =

mA

B) TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS

VCE=

V

S.NO.

VGE=

V

IC =

A

IG

2.5K/25W (0-200mA)

(0-20mA)

+ VAK

V

(0-50V)

(0-15V)

(0-35V)

2.5K/25W (0-200mA)

+ VDS

mA

+ VGS

(0-15V)

(0-50V)

(0-35V)

(0-20V)

MODEL GRAPHS:

SCR CHARACTERISTICS:

FORWARD AND REVERSE CHARACTERISTICS:

Gate characteristics:

Vg

Ig

MOSFET CHARACTERISTICS:

MOSFET V-I

Characteristics

ID

ID

VDS

VGST

VGS

IGBT CHARACTERISTICS:

IGBT

I

are studied

AIM: To Verify the different types of forced commutation circuits by connecting a resistive load.

APPARATUS:

S.No

EQUIPMENT

Qty

1.

2.

3.

Rheostat

4.

CRO

5.

Patch cards

THEORY: Commutation is the process of turning off the SCR and it normally causes the

transfer of current flow to other parts of circuit. Commutation can be divided into

VGS4 >VGS3 >VGS2

a) Natural

commutation

VGS4

VGS3 VGS2

VGS1

b)Forced commutation

a) Natural commutation: If the source voltage AC the SCR current goes through a natural zero

and reverse voltage appears across the SCR. The device is automatically turns off due to the

natural behavior of the source voltage. This is known as natural commutation or line

commutation.

b) Forced commutation: In some SCR circuits the input voltage is DC and the forward current

of the SCR is DC and the forward current of the SCR is forced to zero by external or

additional circuitry called as commutation circuitry to turn off SCR. This Technique is called

forced commutation and normally applied in DC to DC converters .

i.

ii.

iii.

iv.

v.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

CLASS-A COMMUTATION:

CLASS-B COMMUTATION:

T1

L

C

CLASS-C COMMUTATION:

CLASS-D COMMUTATION:

T1

PROCEDURE:

CLASS-A COMMUTATION:

1. Connect the circuit as shown in the circuit.

2. Connect Trigger output T1 to gate and cathode of SCR T1

3. Switch on the DC supply to the power circuit and observe the voltage waveform across

load by varying the frequency potentiometer.

4. Repeat the same for different values of L,C and R.

CLASS-B COMMUTATION:

1. Connect the circuit as shown in the circuit.

2. Connect Trigger output T1 to gate and cathode of SCR T1

3. Switch on the DC supply to the power circuit and observe the voltage waveform across

load by varying the frequency potentiometer.

4. Repeat the same for different values of L,C and R.

Note: Same procedure for Class-A and Class-B

Commutation. CLASS-C COMMUTATION:

1. Connect the circuit as shown in the circuit.

2. Connect T1 and T2 from firing circuit to gate and cathode of Thyristor T1 and T2.

3.

Observe the waveforms across R1,R2 and C by varying frequency and also duty cycle

potentiometer.

4.

CLASS-D COMMUTATION:

2. Connect T1 and T2 gate pulse from the firing circuit to the corresponding SCRs in the

power circuit.

3. Initially keep the trigger ON/OFF at OFF position to initially charge the capacitor, this

can be observed by connecting CRO across the capacitor.

4. Now switch ON the trigger output switch and observe the voltage waveform across the

load T1, T2 and capacitor. Note down the voltage waveforms at different frequency of

chopping and also at different duty cycle.

5. Repeat the experiment for different values of load Resistance, commutation inductance

and capacitance.

CLASS-E COMMUTATION:

1. Connect the circuit as shown in the circuit.

2. Connect the trigger output T1 from the firing circuit to the SCR.

3. Connect T2 to the Transistor base and emitter points

4. Switch on the Power Supply and External DC supply.

5. Switch on the trigger output and observe and note down waveforms. Repeat the

Same by varying frequency and duty cycle.

MODEL GRAPHS:

CLASS-A COMMUTATION:

+

TA

R

(0-30V)

L

R1

R2

C

(0-15V)

T1

CLASS-B COMMUTATION:

V

VV

V

CLASS-C COMMUTATION:

CLASS-D COMMUTATION:

(0-15V)

To CRO

T

(0-15V)

R

To CRO

CLASS-E COMMUTATION:

AIM: To Verify the operation of single phase AC Voltage controller with R and RL Loads and

to observe the output and input waveforms

APPARATUS:

S.No

EQUIPMENT

Qty

1.

I- Transformer

2.

I- AC voltage controller

power circuit with firing unit

3.

Voltmeters(MI meters)

4.

Rheostat

5.

Inductive load

6.

Patch cards

THEORY: AC voltage controllers are thyristor based devices ,which converts the fixed Ac

voltage into variable AC voltage with same frequency .The circuit diagram of Single phase AC

voltage controller is shown in figure .It consists of two SCRs connected in anti parallel. The

input and output voltage waveforms are also shown. The SCRs are gate controlled and gate

pulses are obtained from firing unit.

A) For R-Load: For the first half cycle of input voltage waveform SCR T1 conducts and gives

controlled output to load. During the other half cycle of input voltage waveform SCR T2

conducts .During the Positive half cycle T1 is triggered at a firing angle of wt= .T1 starts

conducting and source voltage is applied to the load from to . At wt= both V o and Io

falls to zero. Just after wt= , T1 is reverse biased and therefore it is turned off by self

commutation. During the negative half cycle of T2 is triggered at wt= +, then T2

conducts from wt = +

Vo rms {[( ) (1/ 2) sin 2 ] / }1/

Vph

Vph is the phase voltage of the input voltage and is the firing angle

B) For RL Load:

During the first half cycle wt = 0 to SCR T1 is forward biased and is

triggered at wt= and output current starts building up through load .At wt=, load and

source voltage are zero. But the output current is not zero because of inductive load. At

wt=(>), the load current reduces to zero, angle is called extinction angle. After wt =

, SCR T1 is reverse biased, but does not turn off because the output current is not zero.

At wt=, only when output current is zero T1 turns off.

During the negative half cycle SCR T2 is forward biased and is triggered at

wt = +. The output current flows through the load in reverse direction. The operation

of SCR T2 is similar as that of SCR T1 during the period wt = + to wt = (2-) but in

the negative direction. At wt= ( 2-) the SCR t2 is commutated and the next positive

half cycle will be regulated by SCR T1. In this way the AC Voltage controller will be

useful for regulating the AC voltage.

Vorms {[( ) (1/ 2)(sin 2 (1/ 2) sin 2 )] / 2}1/ 2

Vph

Theoretically the value of Extinction angle can be calculated by

-1

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

AC VOLTAGE CONTROLLER:

T1

Ph

1-

AC Supply

T1

Ph

1-

CRO

AC Supply

19

PROCEDURE:

A) For R-Load:

1. Connect the circuit as shown in figure.

2. Verify the connections from the lab instructor before switch on the supply.

3. Keep the rheostat position value given by the lab instructor

4. Switch ON the CRO and calibrate it with the input voltage.

5. Switch on the power circuit and firing circuit.

6. Observe the output voltage waveform in the CRO.

7. Note down the reading of from the CRO and Vo from the voltmeter

8. Also calculate the theoretical value of output voltage from the formula and

compare it with the practical value of the output voltage, which is observed from

the voltmeter.

9. Repeat the above process from step 6 to 8 for various firing angles.

B). For RL-Load:

1. Switch off the power supply and connect an inductance of given value in series

with the load resistance.

2. Repeat steps 2 to 9 in this case and also note down the reading of .

TABULAR COLUMN:

A) For R-Load:

The input voltage Vph =

S.NO. Firing angle()

in milli seconds

Firing angle()

in degrees

msec =

radians

Firing angle()

in radians

Vo (Practical )

Vo

(Theoritical)

A) For RL-Load:

The input voltage Vph =

msec =

radians

(in msec) =

(degrees) =

(radians)

(in msec) =

(degrees) =

(radians)

in milli seconds

MODEL GRAPHS:

With R-Load:

Firing angle()

in degrees

Firing angle()

in radians

Vo (Practical )

Vo

(Theoritical)

With RL-Load:

R

T2

To

L

RESULT: The operation of I- ac voltage controller with R&RL loads is verified and

the theoretical and practical values of output voltages with R and RL loads are found.

WITH R & RL LOAD

AIM: To obtain controlled output waveforms of a single phase fully controlled bridge

Converter with R and RL Loads.

APPARATUS:

S.No

EQUIPMENT

Qty

1.

I- Transformer

2.

with firing unit

3.

Voltmeter(MI meter)

4.

Voltmeter(MC meter)

5.

Rheostat

6.

Inductive load

8.

Patch cards

T2

V

THEORY:

To CR

A) For R-Load: A fully controlled bridge converter using four SCRs is shown in the circuit

diagram. In the bridge circuit diagonally opposite pair of SCRs are made to conduct and

are commutated simultaneously. During the first positive half cycle SCRs T1 and T2 are

forward biased and they are triggered simultaneously at wt = then the current flowing

through the path A-T1-R-T2-B. During the negative half cycle of the input SCRs T3 and

T4 are forward biased and they are triggered at wt= (+) simultaneously then the current

flows through B-T3-R-T4-A. Thyristors T1,T2 and T3,T4 are triggered at same firing

angle in each positive and negative half cycle of the input voltage respectively.

When the output voltage falls to zero, the output current also falls to zero because of

resistive load .Hence SCRs T1, T2 in positive half cycle and T3,T4 in negative half cycle

turn off by natural commutation.

The related voltage and current wave forms are shown in the diagram.

The theoretical value of the average DC output voltage can be calculated by

Voth= (Vm/)(1+cos).

Vm is the maximum value of the AC input voltage and

is the firing angle.

B) For RL-Load:

A fully controlled bridge converter using four SCRs is shown in the circuit diagram. To

conduct the SCRs simultaneously firing of SCRs T1,T2 in the first half cycle and T3,T4

in the next half cycle is necessary. To ensure this both T1,T2 are fired from the same firing

angle.

As shown in the diagram when wt=, SCRs T1, T2 are triggered simultaneously.

The current flow through A-T1-R-L-T2-B.Supply voltage from this instant appears

across output terminals and forces the current through load. At wt=,the output voltage

tends to reverse its direction where as the output current tries to flows on the same

direction because of inductive load. The output current becomes zero at a angle of wt=.

At an angle wt=(+) SCRs T3 ,T4 are triggered, with this negative line voltage

reverse biases SCRs T1 and T2 hence the SCRs T1 and T2 are commutated.Now the

current flows through the path B-T3-R-L-T4-A.This continue in every half cycle and we

get output voltage as shown in waveforms.

The theoretical value of the average DC output voltage can be calculated by

VOTH (

2Vm

/ )(cos cos )

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

With R-Load:

Ph

1-, 230V

AC Supply

Fig-1

With RL-Load:

Ph

1-, 230V

AC Supply

Fig-2

PROCEDURE:

B) For R-Load:

1. Connect the circuit as shown in figure.

2. Verify the connections from the lab instructor before switch on the supply.

3. Keep the rheostat position value given by the lab instructor

4. Switch ON the CRO and calibrate it with the input voltage.

5. Switch on the power circuit and firing circuit.

6. Observe the output voltage waveform in the CRO.

7. Note down the reading of from the CRO and Vo from the voltmeter

8. Also calculate the theoretical value of output voltage from the formula and

compare it with the practical value of the output voltage, which is observed

from the voltmeter.

9. Repeat the above process from step 6 to 8 for various firing angles.

B). For RL-Load:

1. Switch off the power supply and connect an inductance of given value in series

with the load resistance.

2. Repeat steps 2 to 9 in this case and also note down the reading of .

MODEL GRAPHS:

With R-Load:

With RL-Load:

TABULAR COLUMN:

B) For R-Load:

The input voltage Vph =

S.NO. Firing angle()

in milli seconds

Firing angle()

in degrees

msec =

radians

Firing angle()

in radians

Vo (Practical )

Vo

(Theoritical)

B) For RL-Load:

The input voltage Vph =

msec =

T1

T3

V

(in msec) =

R

(in msec) =

radians

(degrees) =

(degrees) =

(radians)

(radians)

To CR

4

S.NO. TFiring

angle()T2 Firing angle()

in milli seconds in degrees

Firing angle()

in radians

Vo (Practical )

Vo

(Theoritical)

RESULT: The operation of I- fully controller converter is verified and the theoretical

and practical values of output voltages are found ,both for R and RL loads at different

firing angles.

WITH R & RL LOAD

AIM: To obtain the output waveform of single phase half controlled bridge converter with R

and RL Loads.

APPARATUS:

1.

Single phase half

controlled converter power

circuit

2.

3.

Firing Unit

Voltmeter

4.

5.

6.

7.

8

Rheostat

Inductive load

CRO

Patch Chords

Type

Ramge

Quantity

1

MI

MC

Wire wound

(0-60V)

(0-50V)

1KVA

100ohm/5A

0-150mH

1

1

1

1

1

1

THEORY:

Single Phase half wave controlled bridge converter with R&RL loads

are shown in the diagram.

R-Load:

During the positive half cycle of AC supply SCR T1 and diode D1 are forward biased.

The SCR T1 is triggered at a firing angle t=, the output current flows through hthe

path A-T1-R-D1-B. The load current will flow until T1 is commutated by reversal of supply at

t=. During The nagative half cycle of AC supply SCR T2 and diode D2 are forward biased.

When the SCR T2 is triggered at angle t=(+), the output current would flow through the path

B-T2-R-D2-A. This current continues up to t=2, at this angle the SCR T2 is commutated due

to reversal of the supply voltage. The theoretical average vale of DC output voltage can be

calculated by,

Vm is the maximum value of AC input voltage and

= is the firing angle

T1

T3

To CR

RL-Load:

The main

differenceT2between the operation of the circuit with a complex load, and with a

T4

purely resistive load is that at end of each half-cycle of the supply voltage, the current flow is

maintained in the load circuit by the inductance of the load. The thyristor that has been

conducting, say SCR1, continues to conduct, but current transfers from diode D2 to D1 so that

the inductive back emf of the load drives current through the bridge without including the

reverse supply voltage. During this part of the cycle, the load current decays exponentially and is

unaffected by the supply voltage. When SCR2 is triggered, SCR1 is reverse biased by the supply

voltage and turns off. Current now flows from the supply through SCR2 and diode D1 into the

load. SCR1 is triggered in the next half-cycle and the sequence is repeated.

The theoretical average vale of DC output voltage can be calculated by,

Ph

1-, 230V

AC Supply

Ph

1-, 230V

AC Supply

PROCEDURE:

R-load:

2. Verify the connections from the lab instructor before switching ON the supply.

3. Keep the rheostat position and variac position as the value given by the lab instructor.

4. Switch ON the CRO and calibrate it with the input voltage.

5. Switch ON the power circuit and firing circuit.

33

7. Note down the readings of from the CRO Vo from the voltmeter.

8. Also calculate the theoretical value of the output voltage from the formula and

compare it with the practical value of the output voltage, which is observed from the

voltmeter.

9. Repeat the above process for various firing angle.

RL-load:

10. Switch off the supply and connect an inductance of given value in series with the load

resistance.

11. Repeat steps 2 to 9 and also note down the readings of .

OBSERVATIONS:

For R-Load:

Input voltage Vph=

Load resistance R=

S.No

Firing

angle() in

msec

Firing angle

in Degrees

Firing angle

in radians

Vo

(theoretical)

Vo

(practical)

Firing angle

in Degrees

Firing angle

in radians

Vo

(theoretical)

Vo

(practical)

RL-Load:

Input voltage Vph=

Load resistance R=

Value of Inductance L=

Theoretical Extinction angle =

Practical Extinction angle =

S.No

Firing

angle() in

msec

Model Graphs:

R-Load:

RL Loads

Result:

The operation of Single Phase half controlled converter is verified and the theoretical and

practical values of output voltage are found, both for R and RL loads.

AIM: To verify the operation of single phase Cyclo Converter with R and RL Loads and to

observe the output and input waveforms

APPARATUS:

S.No

EQUIPMENT

Qty

1.

2.

firing unit

3.

Rheostat

4.

Inductive load

5.

Voltmeter(MI)

7.

8.

Patch cards

1 set

THEORY

The circuit diagram of 1- cyclo converter with R and RL load are shown in fig.

Construction ally there are four SCRs T1, T2, T3 &T4.Out of them T1, T2 are responsible for

generating positive halves forming the positive group. The other two T 3, T4 are responsible for

negative haves forming negative group. This configuration and waveforms are shown for and

1/3 of the supply frequency. Natural commutation process is used to turn off the SCRs.

A) For R-Load: During the half cycle when point A is positive with respect to O, SCR T 1 is in

conducting mode and is triggered at wt = then current flows through positive point A-T 1load-negative O. In the negative half cycle when B point is positive with respect to the

point O,SCR T1 is automatically turned off due to natural commutation and SCR T 2 is

triggered at wt = +. In this condition the current flows through B-T 2-load-O. The flowthe

current direction is same as in the first case. After two positive half cycles of load voltage and

load current SCR T4 is gated at wt=2+ when O is positive with respect to B. In this condition

the load current flows through O-load-T 4-B.Thus the direction of load current is reversed. In the

next half cycle when O is positive with respect to A when wt=3, T 4 turnoff due to natural

commutation and at wt=3+ T3 is triggered. In this condition the load current flows through Oload-T3T-A.

The direction

of load current is same as previous case. In this manner two negative

1

T3

half cycles of load voltage and load Rcurrent, equal to the number of two positive half cycles are

V

To CR

D1 Now T1 is again

generated.

triggered to fabricate further two positive half cycles of load voltage

D2

and so on. Like this the input frequency 50Hz is reduced to at the output across the load.

The input and output waveforms are shown in figure.

Frequency ( f

o )=(Time

period)

-1

B) For RL-Load:When A is positive with respect to O forward biased SCR T 1 is triggered at wt= and the

current start to flow through A-T 1-R-L-O. Load voltage becomes zero at wt= but load

current will not become zero at this angle due to inductance. It becomes zero at wt =

which is called extinction angle. So it is naturally commutated at wt=. After half cycle

point B positive with respect to point O. Now at angle wt=+. T 2 is triggered and the load

current takes path from B-T2-R-L_o and its direction is positive as in the previous case.

The load current decays zero at wt =+ and SCR T2 is naturally commutated.

In the half cycle when O is positive with respect to B point, T 4 is triggered instead of T1

at an angle of wt= (2+). Now the load current flows through O-L-R-T 4-B but the

direction of load current reversed. When the load current becomes zero at an angle wt=

(2+) , T4 naturally commutated because the voltage is already reversed at wt = 3.When

wt = (3+) and point O, is positive with respect to point A,T 3 is triggered then the current

flows through O-L-R-T3-A , and the direction of load current is same in previous case. In

the next half cycle again T1 will triggered like this we get one cycle of output frequency for

two cycles of input frequency, when the frequency division switch is at 2. The waveforms

of load voltage and load current are shown in fig.

The frequency of load voltage can be calculated by f o=(Time period)

-1

CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS:

T1

Ph

T3

To CRO

T2

center tapped

transformer

T4

T1

Ph

T1

T3

To CR

V

D1

PROCEDURE:

D2

A) For R-Load:

1. Connect the circuit as shown in figure.

2. Verify the connections from the lab instructor before switch on the supply.

3. Keep the rheostat position value given by the lab instructor

4. Switch ON the supply and note down the frequency of input voltage from the

CRO.

5. Set the frequency division switch at 2 and note the readings of time period of

output voltage waveform for different set of firing angles

time period and theoretical value of frequency will be found from frequency

division setting

7. Repeat the above process from step 5 to 6 for frequency division of 3 and 4.

B). For RL-Load:

2. Connect an inductance of given value in series with the load resistance.

3. Verify the connections from the lab instructor before switch on the supply.

4. Keep the rheostat position value given by the lab instructor

5. Switch ON the supply and note down the frequency of input voltage from the

CRO.

6. Set the frequency division switch at 2 and note the readings of time period of

output voltage waveform for different set of firing angles

7. Calculate the practical value of output frequency by reciprocating the value of

time period and theoretical value of frequency will be found from frequency

division setting

8. Repeat the above process from step 5 to 6 for frequency division of 3 and 4.

TABULAR COLUMN:

C) For R-Load:

The input voltage Vph =

Input frequency

S.NO. Frequency

division

C) For RL-Load:

Hz

Firing angle()

in degrees

Time period in

msec

Frequency

(practical)

Frequency

(theoretical)

S.NO. Frequency

division

Firing angle()

in degrees

MODEL GRAPHS:

1-, 230V

50Hz

AC Supply

Time period in

msec

Frequency

(practical)

Frequency

(theoretical)

T3

R

To CRO

T2

center tapped

transformer

T4

RESULT: The operation of I- cyclo converter is verified and the theoretical and

practical values of output frequencies at different frequency divisions are found both for

R & RL loads

AC Supply

AIM: To observe the output waveforms of resistance, Resistance- Capacitance and UJT gate

firing Circuits of SCR.

.

APPARATUS:

S.No

EQUIPMENT

Qty

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Patch cards

1 set

THEORY:

R-firing Circuit:

Uni-Junction Transistor: UJT exhibits negative resistance characteristics; it can be used as

relaxation oscillator. The external characteristics R B1 and RB2 are resistances which are small in

comparison with internal resistances R 1 and R2 of the UJT base. The emitter potential V is varied

depending on the charging rate of capacitance C. The charging resistance R c should be such that

the load line intersects the device only in the negative resistance region. is called as the

intrinsic standoff ratio. It is defined as

(RB1 ) /(RB1 RB 2 )

UJT is a highly efficient switch .Its switching time is in a range of nano seconds. Since UJT

exhibits negative resistance characteristics it can be used as a relaxation oscillator. The rise time

output pulse will depend on the switching speed of the UJT and duration will be proportional to the time

constant RB1C of the discharge circuit.

The output pulses of UJT are identical in magnitude and time period

T RC (ln( 1 /( 1 )))

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

R-firing circuit:

VL

RC-firing circuit:

Half Wave RC Triggering

To CRO

To CRO

1.

Turn the potentiometer fully anti clockwise, connect load as shown by jumpers,

2.

Connect SCR in the ckt by using shorting links as shown by the dashed lines.

3.

4.

Vary the firing angle and observe the waveforms on the CRO

5. Draw

1. Connect the load and SCR in the CKT by jumpers as shown in the ckt diagram.

2. Tune the potentiometer fully anticlockwise.

3. Connect oscilloscope in the load divider and switch on the power supply.

4. Vary the firing angle and draw the corresponding waveforms.

PROCEDURE:

UJT firing circuit:

1. Connect the circuit as shown in figure.

2. Connect a capacitor C1 in series with variable resistance.

3. Place the knob of variable resistance at either of the extreme positions and place one capacitor in

series and take the reading of firing angle at that time period. i.e. total time is equal to the sum of

turn off and turn on times.

4. Vary the resistance to the other extreme position and note down the readings.

5. Replace the capacitor with another one and calculate the RC from noted reading.

MODEL CALCULATIONS:

T RC (ln( 1 /( 1 )))

RESULT: The waveforms across the load and device for different values of

firing angles are studied.

R& RL LOADS

AIM: To obtain the output waveforms of three-phase full wave half-controlled

bridge rectifier with R and RL load and with or without commutating or

freewheeling Diode.

APPARATUS:

S.No

1.

controlled bridge

converter power circuit

2.

Firing Unit

3.

Voltmeter

4.

3-ph Variac

5.

Rheostat

6.

Inductive load

7.

CRO

Patch Chords

Type

Ramge

Quantity

1

1

MI

(0-100V)

MC

(0-100V)

415V/(0-415V)

100ohm/5A

0-150mH

Wire wound

Theory :

For large power dc loads, 3-ph ac to dc converter are commonly used. The various types

of three phase controlled converter are 3-ph half wave converter, 3-ph half wave converter is

rarely used in industry because it introduces de component in the supply circuit. If diodes are

replaced by 3-thyristors, a semi converter bride is obtained.

Free wheeling mode of operation of bridge connected rectifiers can be realized half of its

thyristor with diodes. Therefore, circuit of three phase half-controlled bridge converter contains

three thyristor in three arms and diodes in the other three arms.

0 the

For <60

continuous conduction mode is possible. For firing angles >60 the

discontinuous conduction mode occurs. It can be observed from the waveforms that the output

voltage becomes zero during a part of the output voltage period, because of the free wheeling

action. It is easily noted from the waveforms that the freewheeling period is

. Therefore

the supply current flows for the period (-) in each half cycle. As increase the duration of the

supply current pulse decreases. Therefore, the harmonic content in the source current increases

as the firing angle increases.

For large firing angle delays, commutation failure may take place due to the limited time

available in symmetrical half controlled converter circuit configuration, if the current is assumed

to be continuous. This may result in half weaving effect.

The theoretical output voltage can be calculated as

For R-load:

100E/10W

A

------for discontinuous

1-, 230V

50Hz

AC Supply

mode

K

For RL-load:

Ph

R1

R2

1-

AC Supply

D

G

T1

T2

T3

D1

D2

To CRO

D3

Fig-1

R

T1

T2

T3

R

V

D1

L

D2

D3

Fig-2

Procedure:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

Verify the connections before switching on the supply

Keep the rheostat position and variac positions as the values given by the instructor.

Switch on power circuit and firing circuit.

Switch on the CRO and calibrate it with input voltage.

Observe output voltage waveform on CRO.

Note down readings of firing angle and output voltage.

Also calculate theoretical and practical values of output voltages and compare.

Repeat above steps for various firing angles.

11. Repeat the above steps.

To CRO

OBSERVATIONS:

For R-load:

Input voltage Vph=

Load resistance R=

S.No

Firing

angle() in

msec

Firing angle

in Degrees

Firing angle

in radians

Vo

(theoretical)

Vo

(practical)

Firing angle

in Degrees

Firing angle

in radians

Vo

(theoretical)

Vo

(practical)

RL-Load:

Input voltage Vph=

Load resistance R=

Value of Inductance L=

Theoretical Extinction angle =

Practical Extinction angle =

S.No

Firing

angle() in

msec

Input Supply

Model Graphs

RESULT: Observed and drawn the output waveforms of 3-phase halfcontrolled bridge converter with R and RL loads.

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