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STUDY OF CHARACTERISTICS OF SCR, MOSFET AND IGBT

AIM: To study various characteristics of SCR, MOSFET and IGBT.


APPARATUS:
S.No

EQUIPMENT

Qty

1.

SCR,MOSFET AND IGBT


KIT

2.

PATCH CARDS

1 set

THEORY:
Silicon Controlled Rectifier: Silicon Controlled Rectifier is a four-layer three junction p-n-p-n
switching device. It has three terminals, Anode, cathode and gate. In normal operation of
thyristor anode held with high positive potential with respect to cathode and gate has a small
positive with respect to cathode.
When Anode is made positive with respect to cathode and switch is open in the gate circuit
,then p-n junction j1 and j3 are forward biased ,where as j2 becomes wider and j1 thinner at j1
and j3. There is no base current in transistor t2 and hence that of t1.under such conditions the
SCR is in a state of blocking forward direction. If now gate is made positive w.r.t. cathode or
switch is closed , a small gate current will flow through junction j2 as a result anode starts flows
if anode current is greater than latching current of SCR.SCR is forward conduction state or
simply SCR is closed state.
MOSFET: A Power MOSFET has three terminal called drain, source and gate. MOSFET is a
voltage controlled device. As its operation depends upon the flow of majority carriers only.
MOSFET is uni polar device. The control signal or gate current less than a BJT. This is because
9

of fact that gate circuit impedance in MOSFET is very high of the order of 10 ohm. This larger
impedance permits the MOSFET gate be driven directly from microelectronic circuits. Power
MOSFETs are now finding increasing applications in low-power high frequency converters.
IGBT: IGBT is a new development in the area of Power MOSFET Technology. This device
combines into its the advantages of both MOSFET and BJT. So an IGBT has high input
impedance like a MOSFET and low-on-state power loss in a BJT.IGBT is also known as metal
oxide insulated gate transistor (MOSIGT). Conductively modulated field effect
transistor(COMFET) or gain modulated FET (GEMFET). It was initially called insulated gate
transistor(IGT).

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
SCR CHARACTERISTICS:
IA

VGK
VAK

MOSFETCHARACTERISTICS:
ID

VDD
VGS

IGBT CHARACTERISTICS:
ID

VCC
VGG

PROCEDURE:
SCR CHARACTERISTICS:
A) Forward V-I Characteristics:
1. The connections are made as shown in the circuit diagram.
2.

Switch on the power supply .Apply constant VAK voltage say 10V varying VAA

3.

Gradually increase the gate current till the SCR becomes on i.e. V AK and IA

4. Now VAK is increased gradually and IA noted for two to three readings,
5. Steps 3 to 4 are repeated for another values of VAK say 30V.
6. Tabulate the readings in the tabule.
7.

Plot a graph of VAK versus IA for different(two) values of IG

B) Reverse V-I Characteristics :


1. Now reverse the polarities of the anode voltage source.
2. Open the switch in the gate circuit.
3. Note down the readings of anode voltage and current by increasing the value of
voltage source in the anode circuit.

C) Gate Characteristics:
1. Now open the switch in the anode circuit.
2. Set the gate circuit voltage source and anode circuit voltage source as per the given
value.
3. Note down the readings of gate voltage and gate current by reducing the value of gate
side rheostat.
MOSFET CHARACTERISTICS:
A) OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS:
1. The connections are made as shown in the circuit diagram.
Switch on the Supply. Keep VDS say 10V vary VGS note down the range of VGS for
which drain current is varying for constant VGS

2.

3. Keep VGS constant (VGS must be within the range determined by step2)
4.

Vary VDS in steps ,note down corresponding ID

Step4 is repeated for different VGS

5.

6. Tabulate the readings in the table.


Plot a graph of ID against VDS for different VGS

7.

B) TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS:
1. The connections are made as shown in the circuit diagram.
2.

Switch on the regulated power supplies. Keep VDS constant say 10V. Vary VGS in steps,
note down the corresponding ID

3. Tabulate the readings in the table.


4.

Plot a graph of ID against VGS

IGBT CHARACTERISTICS:

A) OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS:
1. Connections are made as shown in the circuit diagram
2. Switch on power supply. Keep VGE say 5v, vary VGE note down the range of VGE for
which collector current is varying for constant VGE.
3. Keep VGE constant ( VGE must be within the range )
Vary VCE in steps ,note down corresponding IC

4.

5. Adjust VGE to constant while doing step4.

6. Step4 is repeated for different VGE.


7. Tabulate the readings in the table.
Plot a graph of IC against VCE for different VGE

8.

B) TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS:
1. Connections are made as shown in the circuit diagram
2.

Switch on the power supply. Keep VCE constant. Vary VGE in steps .note down
corresponding IC

3. Adjust VCE to constant while doing step2.


4. Tabulate the readings in the table.
5.

Plot a graph of IC against VGE for the constant VCE

TABULAR COLUMN:
SCR CHARACTERISTICS:
A) FORWARD V-I CHARACTERISTICS
IG1=

mA

IG2=

B) REVERSE V-I CHARACTERISTICS


mA

S.NO.
VAK=
V

IA= mA

VAK=
V

IA= mA

S .NO.

VAK= V

IA= mA

C) GATE CHARACTERISTICS:

S.No.

VG

IG

2.5K/25W (0-200mA)

G
+ VCE

+ VBE

(0-15V)

(0-20V)

(0-35V)

MOSFET
CHARACTERISTICS:
V
(0-20V)
A) OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS

VGS1=

B) TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS

VGS2=

S.NO.
VDS=
V

ID= mA

VDS=
V

ID= mA

IGBT CHARACTERISTICS:
A) OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS
VGE1=

VGE2=

S.NO.
VBE= V

IC= mA

VBE= V

I C=

mA

S.NO.

VDS1=
VGS=

V
ID =

mA

B) TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS
VCE=
V
S.NO.
VGE=
V
IC =

A
IG

2.5K/25W (0-200mA)

(0-20mA)

+ VAK
V

(0-50V)

(0-15V)

(0-35V)

2.5K/25W (0-200mA)

+ VDS

mA

+ VGS

(0-15V)

(0-50V)

(0-35V)

(0-20V)

MODEL GRAPHS:
SCR CHARACTERISTICS:
FORWARD AND REVERSE CHARACTERISTICS:

Gate characteristics:

Vg

Ig

MOSFET CHARACTERISTICS:

MOSFET V-I
Characteristics

MOSFET Transfer Characteristics


ID

ID

VDS
VGST

VGS

IGBT CHARACTERISTICS:

IGBT
I

RESULT: Output and Transfer Characteristics of SCR, MOSFET and IGBT


are studied

STUDY OF FORCED COMMUTATION CIRCUITS


AIM: To Verify the different types of forced commutation circuits by connecting a resistive load.
APPARATUS:
S.No

EQUIPMENT

Qty

1.

Forced commutation Kit

2.

Regulated Power Supply

3.

Rheostat

4.

CRO

5.

Patch cards

THEORY: Commutation is the process of turning off the SCR and it normally causes the
transfer of current flow to other parts of circuit. Commutation can be divided into
VGS4 >VGS3 >VGS2

a) Natural
commutation
VGS4
VGS3 VGS2
VGS1

b)Forced commutation
a) Natural commutation: If the source voltage AC the SCR current goes through a natural zero
and reverse voltage appears across the SCR. The device is automatically turns off due to the
natural behavior of the source voltage. This is known as natural commutation or line
commutation.
b) Forced commutation: In some SCR circuits the input voltage is DC and the forward current
of the SCR is DC and the forward current of the SCR is forced to zero by external or
additional circuitry called as commutation circuitry to turn off SCR. This Technique is called
forced commutation and normally applied in DC to DC converters .

Forced Commutation circuits can be classified as


i.

Class-A Commutation (Series resonant commutation circuit)

ii.

Class-B Commutation (Parallel resonant commutation circuit)

iii.

Class-C Commutation ( Complementary commutation circuit)

iv.

Class-D Commutation (Auxiliary Commutation)

v.

Class-E Commutation (External Pulse Commutation)

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

CLASS-A COMMUTATION:

CLASS-B COMMUTATION:

T1

L
C

CLASS-C COMMUTATION:

CLASS-D COMMUTATION:

T1

PROCEDURE:

CLASS-A COMMUTATION:
1. Connect the circuit as shown in the circuit.
2. Connect Trigger output T1 to gate and cathode of SCR T1
3. Switch on the DC supply to the power circuit and observe the voltage waveform across
load by varying the frequency potentiometer.
4. Repeat the same for different values of L,C and R.

CLASS-B COMMUTATION:
1. Connect the circuit as shown in the circuit.
2. Connect Trigger output T1 to gate and cathode of SCR T1
3. Switch on the DC supply to the power circuit and observe the voltage waveform across
load by varying the frequency potentiometer.
4. Repeat the same for different values of L,C and R.
Note: Same procedure for Class-A and Class-B
Commutation. CLASS-C COMMUTATION:
1. Connect the circuit as shown in the circuit.
2. Connect T1 and T2 from firing circuit to gate and cathode of Thyristor T1 and T2.
3.

Observe the waveforms across R1,R2 and C by varying frequency and also duty cycle
potentiometer.

4.

Repeat the same for different values of C and R.


CLASS-D COMMUTATION:

1. Connect the circuit as shown in the circuit.


2. Connect T1 and T2 gate pulse from the firing circuit to the corresponding SCRs in the
power circuit.
3. Initially keep the trigger ON/OFF at OFF position to initially charge the capacitor, this
can be observed by connecting CRO across the capacitor.
4. Now switch ON the trigger output switch and observe the voltage waveform across the
load T1, T2 and capacitor. Note down the voltage waveforms at different frequency of
chopping and also at different duty cycle.
5. Repeat the experiment for different values of load Resistance, commutation inductance
and capacitance.

CLASS-E COMMUTATION:
1. Connect the circuit as shown in the circuit.
2. Connect the trigger output T1 from the firing circuit to the SCR.
3. Connect T2 to the Transistor base and emitter points
4. Switch on the Power Supply and External DC supply.
5. Switch on the trigger output and observe and note down waveforms. Repeat the
Same by varying frequency and duty cycle.
MODEL GRAPHS:
CLASS-A COMMUTATION:
+

TA
R

(0-30V)
L

R1

R2
C

(0-15V)

T1

VGE4 >VGE3 >VGE2 >VGE1

CLASS-B COMMUTATION:
V
VV
V

CLASS-C COMMUTATION:

CLASS-D COMMUTATION:

(0-15V)

To CRO

T
(0-15V)
R

To CRO

CLASS-E COMMUTATION:

RESULT: The operations of class- A, B, C, D and E are observed.

SINGLE PHASE AC VOLTAGE CONTROLLER WITH R & RL LOADS


AIM: To Verify the operation of single phase AC Voltage controller with R and RL Loads and
to observe the output and input waveforms
APPARATUS:
S.No

EQUIPMENT

Qty

1.

I- Transformer

2.

I- AC voltage controller
power circuit with firing unit

3.

Voltmeters(MI meters)

4.

Rheostat

5.

Inductive load

6.

CRO with (1:10) Probe

Patch cards

THEORY: AC voltage controllers are thyristor based devices ,which converts the fixed Ac
voltage into variable AC voltage with same frequency .The circuit diagram of Single phase AC
voltage controller is shown in figure .It consists of two SCRs connected in anti parallel. The
input and output voltage waveforms are also shown. The SCRs are gate controlled and gate
pulses are obtained from firing unit.
A) For R-Load: For the first half cycle of input voltage waveform SCR T1 conducts and gives
controlled output to load. During the other half cycle of input voltage waveform SCR T2
conducts .During the Positive half cycle T1 is triggered at a firing angle of wt= .T1 starts
conducting and source voltage is applied to the load from to . At wt= both V o and Io
falls to zero. Just after wt= , T1 is reverse biased and therefore it is turned off by self
commutation. During the negative half cycle of T2 is triggered at wt= +, then T2
conducts from wt = +
Vo rms {[( ) (1/ 2) sin 2 ] / }1/
Vph

Where Vorms is the theoretical RMS value of the output voltage,


Vph is the phase voltage of the input voltage and is the firing angle
B) For RL Load:
During the first half cycle wt = 0 to SCR T1 is forward biased and is
triggered at wt= and output current starts building up through load .At wt=, load and
source voltage are zero. But the output current is not zero because of inductive load. At
wt=(>), the load current reduces to zero, angle is called extinction angle. After wt =
, SCR T1 is reverse biased, but does not turn off because the output current is not zero.
At wt=, only when output current is zero T1 turns off.
During the negative half cycle SCR T2 is forward biased and is triggered at
wt = +. The output current flows through the load in reverse direction. The operation
of SCR T2 is similar as that of SCR T1 during the period wt = + to wt = (2-) but in
the negative direction. At wt= ( 2-) the SCR t2 is commutated and the next positive
half cycle will be regulated by SCR T1. In this way the AC Voltage controller will be
useful for regulating the AC voltage.
Vorms {[( ) (1/ 2)(sin 2 (1/ 2) sin 2 )] / 2}1/ 2
Vph
Theoretically the value of Extinction angle can be calculated by
-1

= (+); Where =tan (wL/R)

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
AC VOLTAGE CONTROLLER:

T1

Ph

1-
AC Supply

Fig-1 Single Phase AC Voltage controller with R-load

T1

Ph

1-

CRO

AC Supply

Fig-2 Single Phase AC Voltage controller with RL-load

19

PROCEDURE:
A) For R-Load:
1. Connect the circuit as shown in figure.
2. Verify the connections from the lab instructor before switch on the supply.
3. Keep the rheostat position value given by the lab instructor
4. Switch ON the CRO and calibrate it with the input voltage.
5. Switch on the power circuit and firing circuit.
6. Observe the output voltage waveform in the CRO.
7. Note down the reading of from the CRO and Vo from the voltmeter
8. Also calculate the theoretical value of output voltage from the formula and
compare it with the practical value of the output voltage, which is observed from
the voltmeter.
9. Repeat the above process from step 6 to 8 for various firing angles.
B). For RL-Load:
1. Switch off the power supply and connect an inductance of given value in series
with the load resistance.
2. Repeat steps 2 to 9 in this case and also note down the reading of .

TABULAR COLUMN:
A) For R-Load:
The input voltage Vph =

V (As given by the instructor)

Value of load resistance RL=

(As given by the instructor)

CRO calibration: 180 degrees =


S.NO. Firing angle()
in milli seconds

Firing angle()
in degrees

msec =

radians

Firing angle()
in radians

Vo (Practical )

Vo
(Theoritical)

A) For RL-Load:
The input voltage Vph =

V (As given by the instructor)

Value of load resistance RL=

(As given by the instructor)

Value of Load inductance L=

mH(As given by the instructor)

CRO calibration: 180 degrees =

msec =

radians

Theoretical Extinction angle =

(in msec) =

(degrees) =

(radians)

Practical Extinction angle =

(in msec) =

(degrees) =

(radians)

S.NO. Firing angle()


in milli seconds

MODEL GRAPHS:
With R-Load:

Firing angle()
in degrees

Firing angle()
in radians

Vo (Practical )

Vo
(Theoritical)

With RL-Load:
R

T2

To
L

RESULT: The operation of I- ac voltage controller with R&RL loads is verified and
the theoretical and practical values of output voltages with R and RL loads are found.

SINGLE PHASE FULL CONTROLLED BRIDGE CONVERTER


WITH R & RL LOAD

AIM: To obtain controlled output waveforms of a single phase fully controlled bridge
Converter with R and RL Loads.
APPARATUS:
S.No

EQUIPMENT

Qty

1.

I- Transformer

2.

I- fully controlled power circuit


with firing unit

3.

Voltmeter(MI meter)

4.

Voltmeter(MC meter)

5.

Rheostat

6.

Inductive load

CRO with (1:10) Probe

8.

Patch cards

T2
V

THEORY:

To CR

A) For R-Load: A fully controlled bridge converter using four SCRs is shown in the circuit
diagram. In the bridge circuit diagonally opposite pair of SCRs are made to conduct and
are commutated simultaneously. During the first positive half cycle SCRs T1 and T2 are
forward biased and they are triggered simultaneously at wt = then the current flowing
through the path A-T1-R-T2-B. During the negative half cycle of the input SCRs T3 and
T4 are forward biased and they are triggered at wt= (+) simultaneously then the current
flows through B-T3-R-T4-A. Thyristors T1,T2 and T3,T4 are triggered at same firing
angle in each positive and negative half cycle of the input voltage respectively.
When the output voltage falls to zero, the output current also falls to zero because of
resistive load .Hence SCRs T1, T2 in positive half cycle and T3,T4 in negative half cycle
turn off by natural commutation.
The related voltage and current wave forms are shown in the diagram.
The theoretical value of the average DC output voltage can be calculated by
Voth= (Vm/)(1+cos).

Where Voth is the theoretical value of the output voltage


Vm is the maximum value of the AC input voltage and
is the firing angle.
B) For RL-Load:
A fully controlled bridge converter using four SCRs is shown in the circuit diagram. To
conduct the SCRs simultaneously firing of SCRs T1,T2 in the first half cycle and T3,T4
in the next half cycle is necessary. To ensure this both T1,T2 are fired from the same firing
angle.
As shown in the diagram when wt=, SCRs T1, T2 are triggered simultaneously.
The current flow through A-T1-R-L-T2-B.Supply voltage from this instant appears
across output terminals and forces the current through load. At wt=,the output voltage
tends to reverse its direction where as the output current tries to flows on the same
direction because of inductive load. The output current becomes zero at a angle of wt=.
At an angle wt=(+) SCRs T3 ,T4 are triggered, with this negative line voltage
reverse biases SCRs T1 and T2 hence the SCRs T1 and T2 are commutated.Now the
current flows through the path B-T3-R-L-T4-A.This continue in every half cycle and we
get output voltage as shown in waveforms.
The theoretical value of the average DC output voltage can be calculated by

VOTH (
2Vm

/ )(cos cos )

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
With R-Load:

Ph

1-, 230V
AC Supply

Fig-1

With RL-Load:

Ph

1-, 230V
AC Supply

Fig-2

PROCEDURE:
B) For R-Load:
1. Connect the circuit as shown in figure.
2. Verify the connections from the lab instructor before switch on the supply.
3. Keep the rheostat position value given by the lab instructor
4. Switch ON the CRO and calibrate it with the input voltage.
5. Switch on the power circuit and firing circuit.
6. Observe the output voltage waveform in the CRO.
7. Note down the reading of from the CRO and Vo from the voltmeter
8. Also calculate the theoretical value of output voltage from the formula and
compare it with the practical value of the output voltage, which is observed
from the voltmeter.
9. Repeat the above process from step 6 to 8 for various firing angles.
B). For RL-Load:
1. Switch off the power supply and connect an inductance of given value in series
with the load resistance.
2. Repeat steps 2 to 9 in this case and also note down the reading of .
MODEL GRAPHS:
With R-Load:

With RL-Load:

TABULAR COLUMN:
B) For R-Load:
The input voltage Vph =

V (As given by the instructor)

Value of load resistance RL=

(As given by the instructor)

CRO calibration: 180 degrees =


S.NO. Firing angle()
in milli seconds

Firing angle()
in degrees

msec =

radians

Firing angle()
in radians

Vo (Practical )

Vo
(Theoritical)

B) For RL-Load:
The input voltage Vph =

V (As given by the instructor)

Value of load resistance RL=

(As given by the instructor)

CRO calibration: 180 degrees =

msec =

Theoretical Extinction angle =


T1

T3

Practical Extinction angle =


V

(in msec) =
R

(in msec) =

radians
(degrees) =
(degrees) =

(radians)
(radians)

To CR

4
S.NO. TFiring
angle()T2 Firing angle()
in milli seconds in degrees

Firing angle()
in radians

Vo (Practical )

Vo
(Theoritical)

RESULT: The operation of I- fully controller converter is verified and the theoretical
and practical values of output voltages are found ,both for R and RL loads at different
firing angles.

SINGLE PHASE HALF CONTROLLED BRIDGE CONVERTER


WITH R & RL LOAD
AIM: To obtain the output waveform of single phase half controlled bridge converter with R
and RL Loads.
APPARATUS:

S.No Name of the Equipment


1.
Single phase half
controlled converter power
circuit
2.
3.

Firing Unit
Voltmeter

4.
5.
6.
7.
8

1:1 Isolation Transformer


Rheostat
Inductive load
CRO
Patch Chords

Type

Ramge

Quantity
1

MI
MC
Wire wound

(0-60V)
(0-50V)
1KVA
100ohm/5A
0-150mH

1
1
1
1
1
1

THEORY:
Single Phase half wave controlled bridge converter with R&RL loads
are shown in the diagram.

R-Load:
During the positive half cycle of AC supply SCR T1 and diode D1 are forward biased.
The SCR T1 is triggered at a firing angle t=, the output current flows through hthe
path A-T1-R-D1-B. The load current will flow until T1 is commutated by reversal of supply at
t=. During The nagative half cycle of AC supply SCR T2 and diode D2 are forward biased.
When the SCR T2 is triggered at angle t=(+), the output current would flow through the path
B-T2-R-D2-A. This current continues up to t=2, at this angle the SCR T2 is commutated due

to reversal of the supply voltage. The theoretical average vale of DC output voltage can be
calculated by,

Where VoTH is the theoretical average vale of DC output voltage


Vm is the maximum value of AC input voltage and
= is the firing angle

T1

T3

To CR

RL-Load:
The main
differenceT2between the operation of the circuit with a complex load, and with a
T4
purely resistive load is that at end of each half-cycle of the supply voltage, the current flow is
maintained in the load circuit by the inductance of the load. The thyristor that has been
conducting, say SCR1, continues to conduct, but current transfers from diode D2 to D1 so that
the inductive back emf of the load drives current through the bridge without including the
reverse supply voltage. During this part of the cycle, the load current decays exponentially and is
unaffected by the supply voltage. When SCR2 is triggered, SCR1 is reverse biased by the supply
voltage and turns off. Current now flows from the supply through SCR2 and diode D1 into the
load. SCR1 is triggered in the next half-cycle and the sequence is repeated.
The theoretical average vale of DC output voltage can be calculated by,

Where extinction angle =+

And can be calculated as

Power Electronics and Simulation Lab Manual, EEE Department, BVRIT

Ph

1-, 230V
AC Supply

Fig-1 for R-load

Ph

1-, 230V
AC Supply

Fig-2 for RL-load

PROCEDURE:
R-load:

1. Make connections as per the circuit diagram.


2. Verify the connections from the lab instructor before switching ON the supply.
3. Keep the rheostat position and variac position as the value given by the lab instructor.
4. Switch ON the CRO and calibrate it with the input voltage.
5. Switch ON the power circuit and firing circuit.
33

6. Observe the output voltage wave form in the CRO.


7. Note down the readings of from the CRO Vo from the voltmeter.
8. Also calculate the theoretical value of the output voltage from the formula and
compare it with the practical value of the output voltage, which is observed from the
voltmeter.
9. Repeat the above process for various firing angle.
RL-load:
10. Switch off the supply and connect an inductance of given value in series with the load
resistance.
11. Repeat steps 2 to 9 and also note down the readings of .

OBSERVATIONS:
For R-Load:
Input voltage Vph=
Load resistance R=

S.No

Firing
angle() in
msec

Firing angle
in Degrees

Firing angle
in radians

Vo
(theoretical)

Vo
(practical)

Firing angle
in Degrees

Firing angle
in radians

Vo
(theoretical)

Vo
(practical)

RL-Load:
Input voltage Vph=
Load resistance R=
Value of Inductance L=
Theoretical Extinction angle =
Practical Extinction angle =
S.No

Firing
angle() in
msec

Model Graphs:
R-Load:

RL Loads

Result:

The operation of Single Phase half controlled converter is verified and the theoretical and
practical values of output voltage are found, both for R and RL loads.

SINGLE PHASE CYCLO CONVERTER WITH R & RL LOADS


AIM: To verify the operation of single phase Cyclo Converter with R and RL Loads and to
observe the output and input waveforms
APPARATUS:
S.No

EQUIPMENT

Qty

1.

I- Center tapped Transformer

2.

I- Cyclo Converter power circuit with


firing unit

3.

Rheostat

4.

Inductive load

5.

Voltmeter(MI)

7.

CRO with (1:10) Probe

8.

Patch cards

1 set

THEORY
The circuit diagram of 1- cyclo converter with R and RL load are shown in fig.
Construction ally there are four SCRs T1, T2, T3 &T4.Out of them T1, T2 are responsible for
generating positive halves forming the positive group. The other two T 3, T4 are responsible for
negative haves forming negative group. This configuration and waveforms are shown for and
1/3 of the supply frequency. Natural commutation process is used to turn off the SCRs.
A) For R-Load: During the half cycle when point A is positive with respect to O, SCR T 1 is in

conducting mode and is triggered at wt = then current flows through positive point A-T 1load-negative O. In the negative half cycle when B point is positive with respect to the
point O,SCR T1 is automatically turned off due to natural commutation and SCR T 2 is
triggered at wt = +. In this condition the current flows through B-T 2-load-O. The flowthe
current direction is same as in the first case. After two positive half cycles of load voltage and
load current SCR T4 is gated at wt=2+ when O is positive with respect to B. In this condition
the load current flows through O-load-T 4-B.Thus the direction of load current is reversed. In the
next half cycle when O is positive with respect to A when wt=3, T 4 turnoff due to natural
commutation and at wt=3+ T3 is triggered. In this condition the load current flows through Oload-T3T-A.
The direction
of load current is same as previous case. In this manner two negative
1
T3
half cycles of load voltage and load Rcurrent, equal to the number of two positive half cycles are
V

To CR

D1 Now T1 is again
generated.
triggered to fabricate further two positive half cycles of load voltage
D2
and so on. Like this the input frequency 50Hz is reduced to at the output across the load.
The input and output waveforms are shown in figure.

The frequency of the output voltage can be calculated by:


Frequency ( f

o )=(Time

period)

-1

B) For RL-Load:When A is positive with respect to O forward biased SCR T 1 is triggered at wt= and the
current start to flow through A-T 1-R-L-O. Load voltage becomes zero at wt= but load
current will not become zero at this angle due to inductance. It becomes zero at wt =
which is called extinction angle. So it is naturally commutated at wt=. After half cycle
point B positive with respect to point O. Now at angle wt=+. T 2 is triggered and the load
current takes path from B-T2-R-L_o and its direction is positive as in the previous case.
The load current decays zero at wt =+ and SCR T2 is naturally commutated.
In the half cycle when O is positive with respect to B point, T 4 is triggered instead of T1
at an angle of wt= (2+). Now the load current flows through O-L-R-T 4-B but the
direction of load current reversed. When the load current becomes zero at an angle wt=
(2+) , T4 naturally commutated because the voltage is already reversed at wt = 3.When
wt = (3+) and point O, is positive with respect to point A,T 3 is triggered then the current
flows through O-L-R-T3-A , and the direction of load current is same in previous case. In
the next half cycle again T1 will triggered like this we get one cycle of output frequency for
two cycles of input frequency, when the frequency division switch is at 2. The waveforms
of load voltage and load current are shown in fig.
The frequency of load voltage can be calculated by f o=(Time period)

-1

CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS:
T1

Ph

T3
To CRO

T2

center tapped
transformer

T4

Fig1-Single phase cyclo converter with R-load

T1

Ph

T1

T3

Fig2-Single phase cyclo converterRwith RL-load


To CR
V

D1

PROCEDURE:

D2

A) For R-Load:
1. Connect the circuit as shown in figure.
2. Verify the connections from the lab instructor before switch on the supply.
3. Keep the rheostat position value given by the lab instructor
4. Switch ON the supply and note down the frequency of input voltage from the
CRO.
5. Set the frequency division switch at 2 and note the readings of time period of
output voltage waveform for different set of firing angles

6. Calculate the practical value of output frequency by reciprocating the value of


time period and theoretical value of frequency will be found from frequency
division setting
7. Repeat the above process from step 5 to 6 for frequency division of 3 and 4.
B). For RL-Load:

1. Connect the circuit as shown in figure.


2. Connect an inductance of given value in series with the load resistance.
3. Verify the connections from the lab instructor before switch on the supply.
4. Keep the rheostat position value given by the lab instructor
5. Switch ON the supply and note down the frequency of input voltage from the
CRO.

6. Set the frequency division switch at 2 and note the readings of time period of
output voltage waveform for different set of firing angles
7. Calculate the practical value of output frequency by reciprocating the value of
time period and theoretical value of frequency will be found from frequency
division setting
8. Repeat the above process from step 5 to 6 for frequency division of 3 and 4.

TABULAR COLUMN:
C) For R-Load:
The input voltage Vph =

V (As given by the instructor)

Value of load resistance RL=

(As given by the instructor)

Input frequency
S.NO. Frequency
division

C) For RL-Load:

Hz

Firing angle()
in degrees

Time period in
msec

Frequency
(practical)

Frequency
(theoretical)

The input voltage Vph =

V (As given by the instructor)

Value of load resistance RL=

(As given by the instructor)

Value of Load inductance L=

mH(As given by the instructor)

S.NO. Frequency
division

Firing angle()
in degrees

MODEL GRAPHS:

1/2f cycloconverter waveforms

1-, 230V
50Hz
AC Supply

Time period in
msec

Frequency
(practical)

Frequency
(theoretical)

1/3f cycloconverter waveforms

T3

R
To CRO

1/4f cycloconverter waveforms

T2

center tapped
transformer

T4

RESULT: The operation of I- cyclo converter is verified and the theoretical and
practical values of output frequencies at different frequency divisions are found both for
R & RL loads

STUDY OF GATE FIRING CIRCUITS

1-, 230V 50Hz


AC Supply

AIM: To observe the output waveforms of resistance, Resistance- Capacitance and UJT gate
firing Circuits of SCR.
.
APPARATUS:
S.No

EQUIPMENT

Qty

1.

R-firing circuit Kit

2.

RC firing circuit kit

3.

UJT firing circuit kit

4.

CRO with (1:10) Probe

5.

Patch cards

1 set

THEORY:
R-firing Circuit:
Uni-Junction Transistor: UJT exhibits negative resistance characteristics; it can be used as
relaxation oscillator. The external characteristics R B1 and RB2 are resistances which are small in
comparison with internal resistances R 1 and R2 of the UJT base. The emitter potential V is varied
depending on the charging rate of capacitance C. The charging resistance R c should be such that
the load line intersects the device only in the negative resistance region. is called as the
intrinsic standoff ratio. It is defined as

(RB1 ) /(RB1 RB 2 )

UJT is a highly efficient switch .Its switching time is in a range of nano seconds. Since UJT
exhibits negative resistance characteristics it can be used as a relaxation oscillator. The rise time
output pulse will depend on the switching speed of the UJT and duration will be proportional to the time
constant RB1C of the discharge circuit.

The output pulses of UJT are identical in magnitude and time period
T RC (ln( 1 /( 1 )))

The value of is specified for each device .For UJT =0.63.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
R-firing circuit:

VL

RC-firing circuit:
Half Wave RC Triggering

To CRO
To CRO

full Wave RC Triggering

PROCEDURE FOR R-FIRING CIRCUIT:

1.

Turn the potentiometer fully anti clockwise, connect load as shown by jumpers,

2.

Connect SCR in the ckt by using shorting links as shown by the dashed lines.

3.

Connect the Oscilloscope across the load.

4.

Vary the firing angle and observe the waveforms on the CRO

5. Draw

the corresponding waveforms

PROCEDURE FOR RC FIRING CKT:


1. Connect the load and SCR in the CKT by jumpers as shown in the ckt diagram.
2. Tune the potentiometer fully anticlockwise.
3. Connect oscilloscope in the load divider and switch on the power supply.
4. Vary the firing angle and draw the corresponding waveforms.
PROCEDURE:
UJT firing circuit:
1. Connect the circuit as shown in figure.
2. Connect a capacitor C1 in series with variable resistance.
3. Place the knob of variable resistance at either of the extreme positions and place one capacitor in
series and take the reading of firing angle at that time period. i.e. total time is equal to the sum of
turn off and turn on times.
4. Vary the resistance to the other extreme position and note down the readings.
5. Replace the capacitor with another one and calculate the RC from noted reading.

6. Calculate the RLmax and RLmin from the above readings.

MODEL CALCULATIONS:

(RB1 ) /(RB1 RB 2 ) =0.63 for UJT


T RC (ln( 1 /( 1 )))

Model Graphs of R firing circuit:

Model Graphs of RC gate firing circuit:

Model Graphs of UJT firing circuit:

RESULT: The waveforms across the load and device for different values of
firing angles are studied.

THREE PHASE HALF CONTROLLED BRIDGE CONVERTER WITH


R& RL LOADS
AIM: To obtain the output waveforms of three-phase full wave half-controlled
bridge rectifier with R and RL load and with or without commutating or
freewheeling Diode.

APPARATUS:
S.No

Name of the Equipment

1.

There phase Half


controlled bridge
converter power circuit

2.

Firing Unit

3.

Voltmeter

4.

3-ph Variac

5.

Rheostat

6.

Inductive load

7.

CRO

Patch Chords

Type

Ramge

Quantity

1
1
MI

(0-100V)

MC

(0-100V)

415V/(0-415V)

100ohm/5A

0-150mH

Wire wound

Theory :
For large power dc loads, 3-ph ac to dc converter are commonly used. The various types
of three phase controlled converter are 3-ph half wave converter, 3-ph half wave converter is
rarely used in industry because it introduces de component in the supply circuit. If diodes are
replaced by 3-thyristors, a semi converter bride is obtained.
Free wheeling mode of operation of bridge connected rectifiers can be realized half of its
thyristor with diodes. Therefore, circuit of three phase half-controlled bridge converter contains
three thyristor in three arms and diodes in the other three arms.
0 the

For <60
continuous conduction mode is possible. For firing angles >60 the
discontinuous conduction mode occurs. It can be observed from the waveforms that the output
voltage becomes zero during a part of the output voltage period, because of the free wheeling
action. It is easily noted from the waveforms that the freewheeling period is
. Therefore
the supply current flows for the period (-) in each half cycle. As increase the duration of the

supply current pulse decreases. Therefore, the harmonic content in the source current increases
as the firing angle increases.

For large firing angle delays, commutation failure may take place due to the limited time
available in symmetrical half controlled converter circuit configuration, if the current is assumed
to be continuous. This may result in half weaving effect.
The theoretical output voltage can be calculated as
For R-load:

100E/10W
A

------for discontinuous

1-, 230V
50Hz
AC Supply

-----for continuous mode

mode
K

For RL-load:

Ph

R1

R2

1-
AC Supply

D
G

T1

T2

T3

D1

D2

To CRO

D3

Fig-1
R
T1

T2

T3
R
V

D1

L
D2

D3

Fig-2

Procedure:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Make the connections as per the circuit diagram.


Verify the connections before switching on the supply
Keep the rheostat position and variac positions as the values given by the instructor.
Switch on power circuit and firing circuit.
Switch on the CRO and calibrate it with input voltage.
Observe output voltage waveform on CRO.
Note down readings of firing angle and output voltage.
Also calculate theoretical and practical values of output voltages and compare.
Repeat above steps for various firing angles.

10. For RL-load connect Inductance in series with resistance.


11. Repeat the above steps.

To CRO

OBSERVATIONS:
For R-load:
Input voltage Vph=
Load resistance R=

S.No

Firing
angle() in
msec

Firing angle
in Degrees

Firing angle
in radians

Vo
(theoretical)

Vo
(practical)

Firing angle
in Degrees

Firing angle
in radians

Vo
(theoretical)

Vo
(practical)

RL-Load:
Input voltage Vph=
Load resistance R=
Value of Inductance L=
Theoretical Extinction angle =
Practical Extinction angle =

S.No

Firing
angle() in
msec

Input Supply

Model Graphs

RESULT: Observed and drawn the output waveforms of 3-phase halfcontrolled bridge converter with R and RL loads.