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B Ravikumar1. Int.

Journal of Engineering Research and Application

ISSN : 2248-9622, Vol. 6, Issue 12, ( Part -2) December 2016, pp.18-25


Mitigate the Control Packets Using Weighted Rough Set Model

with LAR Method in MANET
B Ravikumar1, T K Rama Krishna Rao2

PP COMPSCI & ENGG 0593 C, Computer Science and Engineering, Rayalaseema University,
Aditya College of Engineering & Technology

A mobile Ad-hoc network comprises of wireless moderator that may move regularly, movement of host results
changes in way in view of node movement. The Ad-Hoc On-request separate vector routing protocol decides a
route when no route exists or route breaks a point. To build up new way from source to goal, it communicates
control packets too, which expands the network bandwidth utilization. According to network territories,
versatile Ad-hoc networks have constrained bandwidth, it is critical to moderate the control packets. We existing
a protocol which utilizes the weighted Rough set model to control the route ask for packets in the current
MANET protocol. We lessen the superfluous route ask for control packets in view of existing system however
doesn't bolster for finding the new route area and it's not diminish the routing overhead so we propose area
helped routing technique with individual node data put away and in addition plan time based support of AODV.

A Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET)
comprises of an arrangement of wireless gadgets
that are equipped for moving around uninhibitedly
and coordinate in transferring packets for the
benefit of each other. It doesn't require any static
framework or unified organization. Rather, it is
totally self-mending. MANET's have numerous
potential applications in an assortment of fields like
military strategic Communications, calamity
safeguard operations, recuperation and shared
gathering gatherings. As of late, there have been
fast advancements in cell phones and developing
enthusiasm for portable interchanges. Because of
this present, MANET's have been picking up an
incredible centrality in the general public amid the
previous couple of years. Every node goes about as
both router and host too. Because of expanding
interest of cell phones, successful utilization of
accessible bandwidth has been a testing issue. A
few existing routing calculations accessible in the
writing are not focusing in on the successful
bandwidth utilization. A clear approach for
broadcasting is visually impaired flooding in which
every node will be committed to rebroadcast the
parcel at whatever point it gets the same
surprisingly. Daze flooding will create numerous
excess transmissions and communicate storm issue
in which these packets cause conflict and impact.
1.1. Ad hoc networks
In specially appointed networks, all nodes
are versatile and it can be associated powerfully in
a self-assertive way itself. According to the scope
of every host's wireless transmission is restricted,
so it can speak with hosts outside its transmission

run, a host needs to enrolling the guide of its closeby hosts in that sending packets to the goal. So all
nodes of these networks carry on like as routers and
takes a section in revelation and upkeep of routes to
different nodes in the network design. Specially
appointed Networks realized that are extremely
valuable in crisis hunt and safeguard operations,
gatherings or traditions in which people wish to
rapidly share data and information. MANET is sort
of Ad-hoc networks, is an accumulation of free
versatile nodes that can impart to each other. The
portable nodes that are radio scope of every client
can straightforwardly speak with clients, while
different nodes need to get the guide of transitional
nodes to route their packets. These networks are
conveyed, and can cooperate in that at wherever
without the assistance of any framework. This
property makes that these networks are profoundly
adaptable and strong.
1.2. Ad hoc on-demand distance vector routing
It known as a receptive protocol that it
asks for a route when required and that it doesn't
keep up routes for that those nodes that don't
effectively partake in that a correspondence. A vital
component of AODV is that it utilizes that a goal
grouping number in that, which compares to a goal
node that it was asked for by a routing sender node.
The goal itself giving the number along that route it
needs to be taken to reach from the demand sender
node up to the goal node. On the off chance that
there are different routes from a demand from
sender to a goal, the sender brings that route with a
higher arrangement number itself. This guarantees
the impromptu network protocol remains circle 18 | P a g e

B Ravikumar1. Int. Journal of Engineering Research and Application

ISSN : 2248-9622, Vol. 6, Issue 12, ( Part -2) December 2016, pp.18-25
free. Likewise a few heuristic methodologies were
found by scientists which are for the most part
counter based, likelihood based and work based. In
particular sending technique, 1-hop neighbors are
chosen in a manner that it covers all its 2-hop
neighbors in a heuristic way. The majority of these
current protocol propositions can be grouped into
two principle classifications: proactive protocols
(e.g., DSDV) and receptive (or on-request)
protocols (e.g., TORA, DSR and Ad-Hoc OnDemand Distance Vector (AODV)). As a rule,
proactive protocols depend on intermittent trade of
routing data and every node keeps up information
of whole network topology, whereas receptive
protocols rely on upon question based approach in
which a portable node performs route revelation
and route support just when required. A portion of
the on-request protocols like DSR and AODV
utilize flooding based inquiry answer system to
look for new route. Positional Attribute Based
Next-hop Determination Approach (PANDA)
endeavors to use positional data to decide the
rebroadcast delay. In this approach, a node can
discover the hopeful nodes in view of speed and
area data. We attempted to plan a model to discover
the applicant nodes among the neighbors in view of
WRS model which is a scientific idea successfully
utilized for characterization of items (nodes) which
utilize the neighbor learning based strategies all the
more viably. In this paper, we recommend a way to
deal with abatement overhead of route disclosure
by using area data for portable hosts. Such area
data might be gotten utilizing the global positioning
system (GPS). We show how area data might be
utilized by method for two Location-Aided Routing
(LAR) protocols for route disclosure. The LAR
protocols utilize area data to diminish the scan
space for a sought route. Constraining the pursuit
space brings about less route revelation messages.
Area Aided Routing (LAR) is a change to DSR and
AODV. It endeavors to diminish the flooding
utilizing data of area of a node.


2.1. Weighted rough set mechanism for MANET
It is utilized for centrality of articles and
lessening the clamor. Here protest implies node so
node criticalness can be considered as weight
component of a node. The protest data system can
be viewed as a record. One record is to govern
which is a condition to forward the control data
towards the goal existed protocol. Give M a chance
to be the arrangement of portable nodes. A route is
a way through versatile nodes in M. it is signified
as arrangement of versatile nodes m1,m2,
let A be the arrangement of traits indicated by
x1,x2, xp these properties are surrounded for
viable routing system. The traits resemble area,

delay time, speed and so forth of a portable node.

Each property will shape a run in light of
predefined edge esteem. The edge qualities are
distinguished in view of the accessible assets at a
specific time. Each mode keeps up neighbor node
table for knowing the ability of neighbors. In this
technique, set of neighbor nodes partitioned into
lower and estimation set of nodes in light of the
relationship between the 1-hop and 2-hop nodes.
The way toward discovering lower and upper
approximations can be portrayed into various
stages. The first would choose the principles. The
second stage is to relegate the essentialness
qualities to the built tenets.
Definition 1: Weighted Information System
Weighted information system S is an ordered pair
, A, V, f, w>, in which U is a non-empty
and finite set.
, where condition attribute
set and conclusion attribute set is denoted as C and
. V is the attributes value set, a is an
arbitrary attribute, is an arbitrary object,
attribute value of and w is weighted factor of
Definition 2: Rough Membership
In WIS, let X be a non-empty subset of finite
universe U. The measure of the relative
membership of
with respect to X is defined
, The above formula becomes the
basic rough membership.
Definition 3: Lower approximations
The lower approximation of M is defined as
Definition 3: Upper approximations
The upper approximation of M is defined as
2.2. Weighted rough based on routing
In this strategy, a route is set up utilizing
the neighbor node data. Additionally it is upgraded
at whatever point a change happens in the
topology. At the point when a node is required to
send any control data to the following node it
utilizes the neighbor node data. In like manner
neighbor nodes are classified into lower and upper
guess nodes utilizing the numerical WRS
2.3. Weighted rough set AODV
The current protocol zeroes in on
diminishment of the repetitive flooding in Route
Request Phase (RREQ) of AODV. Here, we
presented an exceptional hi bundle when there is an
adjustment in the topology. It conveys not just the
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B Ravikumar1. Int. Journal of Engineering Research and Application

ISSN : 2248-9622, Vol. 6, Issue 12, ( Part -2) December 2016, pp.18-25
current status of the neighbor node additionally
sends neighbor node properties. The routing tables
inside the area of a node are sorted out to upgrade
reaction time to nearby movements and to give
speedy reaction time to foundation of new routes.
In the present work node relative data is also added
to the current routing table. The essential targets in
the current AODV calculation are all the more
successfully used in the present work as takes after.
The communication of revelation packets happens
just when important. Neighborhood network
administration and general topology upkeep are
recognized. Data about changes in nearby
availability is scattered to neighboring versatile
nodes which may liable to look for data.
Here the process of lower and upper
approximations can be categorized into different
stages and node weight factor depend on WRS
equation. The equation written by,
y is the output, G is the granuilization of the input
space into weight and N is the number of rules then
R is the set of rules.
The Rules are as follows:
If battery power of a node is >= 100
Then return w1
Return 0
If traffic of a node is <= 1000
Then return w2
Return 0
If pause time of a node >= 20s
Then return w3
Return 0
If relative distance is ,= 20
Then return w4
Return 0
2.4. Path discovery
The way disclosure process is started at
whatever point a source node needs to send data to
another node for which it has no routing data in its
table. Each node keeps up two counters: a node
arrangement number and communicate id. The
source node starts way revelation by sending the
RREQ bundle to specific neighbors. To discover
specific neighbors every node will keep up the
neighbor data as a table. At the point when source
node or middle of the road node gets the RREQ
parcel it changes over the put away data into lower
and upper guess utilizing WRS with the assistance
of confined tenets.
2.5. Reverse path setup
AODV keeps up two grouping numbers
separated from broadcast_id. These are the source

succession number and the goal arrangement

number known to the source. The source grouping
number is utilized to keep up freshness data about
the switch route to the source, and the goal
succession number indicates how crisp a route to
the goal must be before it can be acknowledged by
the source. A switch way from every one of the
nodes to the source is naturally settled amid when
the RREQ flies out from a source to different goals.
So as to build up a turnaround way a node records
the address of the neighbor from which it gets the
main duplicate of the RREQ.Theseturn-around
time for the RREQ to navigate the network and
create an answer to the sender.
2.6. Forward path setup
Forward way setup is taken care of by
RREQ stage alongside neighbor table data. The
accepting node first checks whether the RREQ was
gotten over bidirectional connection. On the off
chance that the middle of the road node has a route
passage for the sought goal, it figures out if the
routing is present by looking at the goal grouping
number in its own particular route section to the
goal succession number in the RREQ. In the event
that the RREQ's arrangement number for the goal
is more noteworthy than recorded one by the
middle of the road node, then the moderate node
rebroadcasts RREQ as opposed to utilizing it. The
middle of the road node can answer just when it
has a route with grouping number that is more
noteworthy than or equivalent to the contained one
in the RREQ. On the off chance that it has no
present route to the goal and the RREQ has not
been handled beforehand the node then unicasts a
RREP back to its neighbor from which it gets the
1. Doesn't discover the area of node especially
2. Request zone data not appropriately send.
3. Here more ways are happen so connect
disappointment might be conceivable


We propose area helped routing strategy with
individual node data put away and in addition plan
time based support of AODV. In this paper, we
investigate the likelihood of utilizing area data to
enhance execution of routing protocols for
Step1: check node movement in network
Step2: create the packet format and header of node
Step3: packet selection based on random selection
Step4: check the status of packet format and send
to particular destination
Step5: attributes of all in network considered
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B Ravikumar1. Int. Journal of Engineering Research and Application

ISSN : 2248-9622, Vol. 6, Issue 12, ( Part -2) December 2016, pp.18-25
Step6: calculate the pause time, speed, neighbor
value and location
Step7: flow id, sequence no and packet id verified
Step8: authenticate the system based on flow of
Step9: secure route maintain in network
Step10: calculate destination address and
destination sequence number
Step11: calculate hop count value and check
lifetime of network
Step12: weighted rough set theory apply for
Step13: calculating weighting factor based on node
Step14: network topology created and provides the
individual information of a node maintains a
routing table.
At the point when a node S needs to
discover a route to node D, node S communicates a

route ask for message to all its neighbors2 here

after, node S will be alluded to as the sender and
node D as the goal. A node, says X, on getting a
route ask for message, contrasts the coveted goal
and its own particular identifier. On the off chance
that there is a match, it implies that the demand is
for a route to itself. Something else, node X
communicates the demand to its neighbors to keep
away from excess transmissions of route demands,
a node X just communicates a specific route ask for
once. In this calculation, node S needs to decide a
route to node D. Along these lines, node S
communicates a route demand to its neighbors. At
the point when node B and C get the route ask for,
they forward it to every one of their neighbors. At
the point when node F gets the route ask for from
B, it advances the demand to its neighbors. Be that
as it may, when node F gets a similar route ask for
from C, node F just disposes of the route ask.

Fig.1 Flooding
As the route demand is proliferated to
different nodes, the way took after by the demand
is incorporated into the route ask for bundle.
Utilizing the above flooding calculation, gave that
the planned goal is reachable from the sender, the
goal ought to in the end get a route ask for
message. On getting the route ask for, the goal
reacts by sending a route answer message to the
sender the route answer message takes after a way
that is gotten by switching the way taken after by
the route ask forgot by D. Route revelation is
started either when the sender S distinguishes that a
formerly decided route to node D is broken, or if S
does not know a route to the goal. In our usage, we
expect that node S can realize that the route is
broken just on the off chance that it endeavors to
utilize the route. At the point when node S sends an
information parcel along a specific route, a node
along that way gives back a route blunder message,
if the following hop on the route is broken. At the
point when node S gets the route mistake message,
it starts route disclosure for goal D.

3.1. Location information

The proposed approach is named
Location-Aided Routing (LAR), as it makes
utilization of area data to decrease routing
overhead. Area data utilized as a part of the LAR
protocol might be given by the Global Positioning
System (GPS). With the accessibility of GPS, it is
workable for a versatile host to know its physical
area. In all actuality, position data gave by GPS
incorporates some measure of mistake, which is the
contrast between GPS-computed arranges and the
genuine directions. Here GPS is a locator it implies
its considered in network as a node.
3.2. Request zone
Consider node S that necessities to decide
a route to node D. The proposed LAR calculations
utilize flooding with one alteration. Node S
characterizes a demand zone for the route ask. A
node advances a route ask for just in the event that
it has a place with the demand zone. To expand the
likelihood that the route demand will achieve node
D, the demand zone ought to incorporate the
normal zone.

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B Ravikumar1. Int. Journal of Engineering Research and Application

ISSN : 2248-9622, Vol. 6, Issue 12, ( Part -2) December 2016, pp.18-25

3.3. Architecture diagram

Fig.2 system architecture

The above outline demonstrates that from
source to goal route demand are shaped and in light
of hop nodes more information moving and achieve
the goal. Here ask for information by rely on upon
area of node and transmission rate. Each node data
sends through hop node in view of way id as secure
way. Route ask for zone specified according to
necessity in network. Each information point
checks by support of way id. Weighted variable of
a node it's rely on upon limit of node and routing
execution. The for the most part protocol backings
to area, weighted element and control the bundle
routing overhead. In this paper, we set secure way
id for each node and check the information focuses
and also time and increment the execution of
1. Routing data send in view of area and also ask
for zone.


It can support to movement levels, area of a

node and route revelation
3. Performance of network increments
4. Setup the routing table with support of
In this, we spoke about a technique to
lessen the excess telecom. In a specific
circumstance impromptu networks are steady for a
short stipulated time interim and this strength is
made use to gather the neighbor node data which is
kept with every node. A node needs to discover the
goal from the source then the gathered node data
will be useful to build up a long haul legitimate
way. This long haul legitimate way thus to lessen
the quantity of pointless Route Request control
packets. We propose LAR protocol with each node
data check with way id and in view of time area
discover for node level then decrease the routing
overhead. The execution of proposed build contrast
with existing scheme.


Application traffic
Transmission rate
Radio range
Packet size
Channel data rate
Maximum speed
Simulation time
Number of nodes
Network protocol
Mac layer
Transport layer
Node placement

In this graph shows and represents energy
consumption in network and here graph represents

15 packets/sec
512 bytes
IEEE 802.11
a simulation time versus energy. The performance
of LAR method compare to weighted rough set
model is better and consumption of energy less.

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B Ravikumar1. Int. Journal of Engineering Research and Application

ISSN : 2248-9622, Vol. 6, Issue 12, ( Part -2) December 2016, pp.18-25

Fig.3 Energy Vs Time

Fig.4 Number of broken links Vs Time

In this graph shows and represents links
failure in network based on routing. Here graph
represents a simulation time versus number of

links. The performance of LAR method compare to

existing as weighted rough set model is better and
failures of links decreased.

In this graph shows and represents packet

delivery ratio and it shows a simulation time versus
route request packets. The performance of LAR

method improves delivery ratio compare to existing

as weighted rough set model.

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B Ravikumar1. Int. Journal of Engineering Research and Application

ISSN : 2248-9622, Vol. 6, Issue 12, ( Part -2) December 2016, pp.18-25

In this graph shows and represents

end2end delay and it shows a simulation time
versus end2end delay. The performance of LAR

method compare to existing as weighted rough set

is better and decreased.

In this graph shows and represents throughput in

network. In this simulation time versus throughput

showed. Here compare to existing as weighted

rough set, the LAR method is better.

In this paper we discussed a method to
reduce the redundant broadcasting. In a particular
situation ad-hoc networks are stable for a short
stipulated time interval and this stability is made
use to collect the neighbor node information which
is kept with each node. A node needs to find the
destination from the source then the collected node
information will be helpful to establish along term
valid path. This long term valid path in turn to
reduce the number of unnecessary Route Request
control packets. We propose LAR protocol with
every node information check with path id and
based on time location find out for node level then
reduce the routing overhead. The performance of
proposed increases compare to existing.


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B Ravikumar1. Int. Journal of Engineering Research and Application

ISSN : 2248-9622, Vol. 6, Issue 12, ( Part -2) December 2016, pp.18-25





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