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GRD Journals | Global Research and Development Journal for Engineering | International Conference on Innovations in Engineering and Technology

(ICIET) - 2016 | July 2016

e-ISSN: 2455-5703

Enhancing EGRC using ANOVA based
Clustering in Underwater Sensor Networks
1M.

Raghini 2S. Lavanya 3G. Nivetha 4R. Priya Dharshini
1
Assistant Professor 2,3,4Student
1,2,3,4
Department of Computer Science & Engineering
1,2,3,4
K.L.N. College of Engineering, Pottapalayam, Sivagangai 630612, India
Abstract
As reliability and efficient data transmission is the challenging factor in underwater sensor network, the application such as
monitoring abnormal submarine pipelines becomes complex. Thus in the existing EGRC, the whole network which can be viewed
as big cube is divided into small cube (SC) where SC is a cluster. To enhance the selection of optimal cluster-heads, we propose a
new methodology DUAC which combines EGRC with ANOVA based clustering. In DUAC the node generating identical data
sets are identified and aggregated the sets before sending them to the sink. Analysis and implementation results of DUAC enhance
EGRC in terms of energy efficiency, reliability, end-to-end delay and power consumption.
Keyword- Energy efficient Grid Routing protocol based on 3D Cubes (EGRC), Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA), Data
transmission Using ANOVA Clustering (DUAC)
__________________________________________________________________________________________________

I. INTRODUCTION
Underwater acoustic sensor networks play an important role in marine resources exploration and development [1]. Researches on
underwater acoustic sensor network provide the technique guarantee for information transmission in underwater. The sensor nodes
collaborate with each other to execute monitoring tasks with reliability and energy efficiency.
In aspects of communication mode, terrestrial underwater sensor network (TWSN) differs from UASN by using radio
signal to transmit data instead of underwater acoustic channels[1]. The radio signal achieves high speed transmission in short
distance which cannot reach the requirements of long distance underwater communication. Therefore radio signal is not suitable
for underwater acoustic sensor network.
The acoustic channels are highly variable. It changes according to temperature, pressure, salinity of water. In aspects of
energy consumption, the nodes in TWSN can be changed but modems of UASN can hardly be changed. There are increasing
demands for innovative methods to improve energy efficiency and to prolong the network lifetime. The node clustering and data
aggregation at level of cluster heads are two common methods to organize data traffic and reduce in network redundancies while
improving scalability and on energy consumption [2].
Many clustering protocols have been proposed in UASN however few protocols consider sensor reading, similarity and
the correlation between received data. Thus the lack of suitable energy efficient protocol for handling such correlation leads us to
study a data aggregation and clustering protocol [2]. The role of cluster head is to collect data from its node members aggregating
these data before sending them to the sink. Therefore sensor node sends their reading to the cluster head that performs data
aggregation in periodic manner.
EGRC helps in clustering the node in the form of 3D cubes. The data transmission between source and destination is
carried out through the cluster heads in each cluster. But still some redundancy is seen in cluster heads of EGRC which we took as
an objective function. This made as to combine EGRC with ANNOVA to solve the above said objective function.
This paper is organized as follows. In section II, we give the related literatures from five aspects. The detailed operation
of EGRC and ANOVA is presented in section III. The methodology used in this paper is discussed in section IV. Implementation
is explained in section V. section VI shows the performance evaluation. Results and discussions are explained in section VII.
Finally we draw the main conclusion in section VIII.

II. RELATED WORK
In UASN, a lot of researches have been proposed for data aggregation and data transmission based on clustering scheme to
minimize energy consumption and extends the network lifetime. Ovaliadisk k et. Al. [5] proposed a new approach for better
recovery of cluster head nodes in UWSN in which data dissemination protocol is responsible to distribute management command
to all sensor nodes in the network and to update their configuration parameters.

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Enhancing EGRC using ANOVA based Clustering in Underwater Sensor Networks
(GRDJE / CONFERENCE / ICIET - 2016 / 027)

The author goyal n et. al. [7] proposes to design a fuzzy based clustering and aggregation technique for UWSN. In this
technique the parameter residual energy, distance to sink, load and link quality are considered as input to fuzzy logic. Based on the
output of fuzzy logic module, appropriate cluster heads are selected and act as aggregator nodes.
Han g j et. al. [3] propose an attack resistant trust model which consists of three types of trust metrics which are link trust,
data trust and node trust. During the process of trust calculation, unreliability of communication channel and mobility of underwater
environment are carefully analyzed. It is used to address issue like Data forwarding, deployment and localization in UWSN under
different condition.
Han et. Al. [6] presented a novel KNN (k-nearest neighbor algorithm) query algorithm based on grid division routing
where the connectivity of adjacent grid centers forms the itinerary.
Lin h et. al. [4] proposed a exact and heuristic algorithm for data gathering. In which a mixed integer linear programming
model to optimally determine the sink and CH location as well as the data flow in the network.
Wang K et. Al [11] proposed a improved routing algorithm based on social link awareness in delay tolerant networks
which utilizes social features and the congestion level of the node to construct a social congestion metric.
Zhang s et. al. [12] proposes a link state based adaptive feedback routing which employs link detection mechanism to get
link state information and an adaptive routing feedback method is adopted to make full use of underwater asymmetric link and
save energy.
Han g et. al. [13] proposed a model which aims at analyzing impacts of node deployment strategies on localization
performances in a 3D environment that reduces localization errors and increases localization ratio.
Chi et. al. [15] proposed an energy-aware grid based routing scheme for WSNs to save energy with mobile observations.
Ren et. al [16] proposed a novel cube scan based three dimensional multi-hop localization algorithm which is suitable for large
scale UASNs having limited computing power and energy, in which the node coordinates are obtained through a cube scan
procedure to constraint the relationship between nodes.
Ayaz et. al. [14] proposed a mobility aware routing protocol, called Temporary Cluster Based Routing ( TCBR), which
does not require any location information of nodes, and only a small number of nodes are involved during end-to-end routing
process.
Lloret j et. al. [17] developed an architecture which can be used to build different networks with different routing protocols
having an advantage that if all CHs switch off at the same time; the system is able to work continuously.
We are proposing a new methodology called DUAC combining both EGRC and ANOVA. In EGRC, the whole network
which is considered as 3D cube is divided into small cubes. Cluster head node is selected in each small cube for data aggregation
and transmission. Using ANOVA, the redundant data sets are removed in the cluster head nodes before sending them to the sink.
So the data transmission is achieved in efficient manner thereby increasing the network lifetime.

Fig. 1: Grid Clustering

Fig 1 is the network model divided into small cubes each cubes has member nodes and cluster head. Data packet is
transmitted from member nodes to cluster head, if forwards the packet to sink.

III. PROPOSED WORK
We proposed a new methodology called DUAC which is a combination of EGRC and ANOVA. Data transmission in EGRC works
with energy efficient grid routing based on 3D cubes. A node in small cube with high residual energy and close to BS is elected as
cluster head. CH is responsible for data aggregation and transmission. Once CH is elected, data transmission starts with either
single-hop or multi-hop routing. Multi-hop routing used in EGRC considers residual energy, relative distance and end to end delay.

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Enhancing EGRC using ANOVA based Clustering in Underwater Sensor Networks
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DUAC combines ANOVA with EGRC in order to reduce the redundancy at CH. ANOVA identifies nodes generating identical
data sets and performs statistical test for data sets which are equal to each other.
Cluster in DUAC is formed by member nodes and CH. The data received from all member nodes is collected by CH and
CH aggregates the data and sends to mobile sink. This two-tier data aggregation is used to preserve energy in UWSN.
A. Network formation
UWSN is cabable of monitoring nearby surroundings in an underwater environment. We have simulated this environment in ns2.
The radio signal model follows a lucent’s waveLAN with data rate of 2mbps and the transmission range is 250 metres. When
randomly choosing source destination pairs, file transfer protocol (FTP) is used for transmission of packets from member node to
CH. Packet size is considered as 512 bytes per second. The mobility model is based on the random way point model in field of
1000m X 1000m sample of 50 nodes are deployed for simulation.
B. CH Selection
CH is elected based on node which is having highest residual energy in the network. CH performs the routing task and other
member nodes just forwards packets to CH.
C. ANOVA Implementation
The ANOVA model provides statistical tests of whether or not the means of several sets are equal. ANOVA model defines three
different statistical tests in order to identify neighboring nodes generating identical data. For analyzing efficient data transmission,
the following tests are considered by ANOVA.
1) Fisher Test
At the end of each period, the CH receives n sets from its sensor nodes and it will test the hypothesis that all the means of sets are
the same or not.
2) Tukey Test
In Tukey test, for each period of data transmission it identifies false rejection information. That is it detect whether the sent
information is true or not.
3) Bartlett Test
It identifies the cost for each period. It defines the shortest path routing for each data transmission.

IV. METHODOLOGY
DUAC is a methodology which composed of two phases, i.e., selecting cluster head node from each small cubes and eliminating
redundant data sets at the cluster head node before sending them to the sink. While cluster head node aggregates and transmit data,
all other nodes go into sleep mode. This helps in improving the energy consumption of the nodes and increases the network lifetime.
We use three tests in the ANOVA model (fisher, Tukey, Bartlett), to compute mean and variance for a group of sets, then
to decide whether the sets in the group are redundant or not. In fisher test, hypothesis is tested whether mean of all sets are same
or not. Tukey test identifies whether the information send by the nodes are true or false. Bartlett test defines the shortest path
routing for each data transmission.

V. IMPLEMENTATION
DUAC algorithm
Input: node (nn), time, x, y co-ordinates
Output: Energy efficient and ANOVA base network, graph result
Begin
Set Val (nn) as Number of source node
Set node j as destination node.
Calculate the energy of all nodes
For I = 0 to n
Begin
Energy = ∑i n=0 ( expr ( rand() * Initial_Energy(i) )
End
Find the max_energy
Set max_energy node as CH
Set position of src as x1, y1
Set position of dest as x2, y2
Calculate the distance of src and dest

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Enhancing EGRC using ANOVA based Clustering in Underwater Sensor Networks
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For I = 0 to n
Begin
Distance = √ ((x2 - x1)2 – (y2 – y1)2))
Print shortest distance between the nodes.
End
Fisher test implementation
For I = 0 to n
Begin
Get the data packet information R
Set time T for each transmission
If ( R > T)
Print (false data transmission)
Else
Transmission accepted
End
Turkey test implementation
For I = 0 to n
Begin
Get the status of each node R
Set time T for each transmission
If ( R > T)
Print (false rejection probability)
Else
Transmission accepted
End
Bartlett test implementation
For I = 0 to n
Begin
Get the routing table information for each node
Identify the shortest path.
Transmission via shortest path
End.

VI. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION
The performances are measured in three metrics.
A. Throughput
Throughput is the rate of production or the rate at which something can be processed. It is the rate of successful message delivery
over a communication channel. The number of packets sent per second is increased in our proposed system when compared to the
existing system.
Throughput = ∑in recv_size / (stop_time – start_time) (1)
Where,
Recv_size
receiving size of each packets.
Start_time
the time when the nodes start to transmit
Stop_time
the time when the nodes stop to transmit
B. Packet Delivery Ratio
Many protocols in wireless sensor networks use packet delivery ratio (PDR) as a metric to select the best route, transmission rate
or power. In the existing system, there is no constant packet delivery when the total load is increased. Whereas in proposed method,
there remains constant packet delivery even as the total load increases.
C. Delay
We compare our system delay with existing system. Our system has less delay than the existing EGRC and ANOVA.
Delay[i] = ∑in ( rt[i] – st[i] )
(2)
Where
delay[i] - denotes that the delay for each and every node which transmits the data packet information from source to surface.
rt[i]
- Stop time
st[i]
- Start time

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Enhancing EGRC using ANOVA based Clustering in Underwater Sensor Networks
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D. Energy Consumption
The member nodes go into sleep mode after sending data packets to the cluster head. This saves the energy of the nodes. The
energy consumption level of a node at any time of the simulation can be determined by finding the difference between the current
energy value and initial Energy value.
CE =∑in (Initial_energy – Final_energy[i] )n
(3)
Where,
CE
Consumed Energy
i
Initially i is 0
n
Number of nodes
Total energy:
TE + = CE[i]
(4)
Total energy is calculated by overall Consumed Energy (CE)
Average energy:
AE = TE / n
(5)
Total energy is calculated by using Total energy divided by Number of nodes.

VII.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Our proposed methodology DUAC enhances existing scheme EGRC in terms of reliability, end to end delay, energy efficiency,
power consumption.

Fig. 2: Average queuing delay with total load

Fig. 2 shows that DUAC reduces end to end delay. For example when the load is 0.4m/s2, delay is measured as 3.9ms and
4.1ms in DUAC and EGRC respectively.

Fig. 3: Packet delivery ratio with total load

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Enhancing EGRC using ANOVA based Clustering in Underwater Sensor Networks
(GRDJE / CONFERENCE / ICIET - 2016 / 027)

In fig. 3 infers that the existing system shows that the packet delivery is not constant when the total load increases whereas
in our proposed system even when the total loads increases there will be constant delivery of data packets.

Fig. 4: Energy consumption with s-d distance

Fig.4 implies that DUAC maintains energy throughout the process. In existing system, the energy consumption of the
nodes increases with increase in distance between source and destination.

Fig. 5: Average throughput with mean node speed

In fig. 5, the throughput of proposed system is increased when compared to the existing system. At the constant mean
node speed 2, the throughput of proposed system is 14.38 Mbps where the throughput of the existing system is 14 Mbps

VIII. CONCLUSION
Our proposed work DUAC provides high energy efficient data transmission. There is a cluster-head node in each cluster in charge
of the data aggregation and transmission of cluster members. The proposed cluster head selection algorithm selects the node with
the highest residual energy and the shortest distance to base station as a cluster-head node. ANOVA model provides three statistical
test which is used to identify whether the data have redundancy and make cluster head to send identical data sets to the base station.
Simulation results show that DUAC saves more energy and has longer network lifetime when compared with existing scheme.

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Enhancing EGRC using ANOVA based Clustering in Underwater Sensor Networks
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