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Flow Measurement Design Criteria

Instrumentation and Control Systems

Shaw Energy & Chemicals Doc. No.: EIC-8-1001

REVISION

00

STATUS

Initial Issue

Approved By:

T. Baker

Date of Issue:

08/10/2011

01

02

03

04

Unpublished Work 2011 The Shaw Group Inc. This document contains the proprietary and confidential information of The Shaw Group Inc. and is
to be returned upon request. Its contents may not be copied, disclosed to third parties, or used for other than the express purpose for which it has
been provided without the written consent of The Shaw Group Inc.
This document is UNCONTROLLED when reproduced.

Flow Measurement Design Criteria

No.: EIC-8-1001 Rev.: 00

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1.0

PURPOSE ....................................................................................................................... 3

2.0

SCOPE ............................................................................................................................ 3

3.0

REFERENCES ................................................................................................................ 3

4.0

DEFINITIONS .................................................................................................................. 3

5.0
5.1

RESPONSIBILITIES ....................................................................................................... 3
LEAD DISCIPLINE ENGINEER (LDE) ............................................................................ 3

6.0

PROCEDURE.................................................................................................................. 3

7.0
7.1

ATTACHMENTS ............................................................................................................. 3
REFER TO PIP PCCFL001 FLOW MEASUREMENT DESIGN CRITERIA, AUGUST
2006 ................................................................................................................................ 3

8.0

FORMS ........................................................................................................................... 3

9.0

REVISION HISTORY ...................................................................................................... 3

Page 2 of 3

Flow Measurement Design Criteria

1.0

No.: EIC-8-1001 Rev.: 00

PURPOSE
This Practice provides requirements for the design of flow measurement systems.

2.0

SCOPE
Refer to PIP PCCFL001 Flow Measurement Design Criteria, August 2006.

3.0

REFERENCES
Refer to PIP PCCFL001 Flow Measurement Design Criteria, August 2006.

4.0

DEFINITIONS
TERM

DEFINITION
Refer to PIP PCCFL001 Flow Measurement Design Criteria,
August 2006

5.0

RESPONSIBILITIES

5.1

LEAD DISCIPLINE ENGINEER (LDE)


The LDE is responsible for reviewing and verifying or assigning an individual to
review and verify that this practice meets the project specific requirements, and, if
needed, should supplement this practice in accordance with related project
documents, and approving this document for the specific project.

6.0

PROCEDURE
Refer to PIP PCCFL001 Flow Measurement Design Criteria, August 2006.

7.0

ATTACHMENTS

7.1

REFER TO PIP PCCFL001 FLOW MEASUREMENT DESIGN CRITERIA, AUGUST


2006

8.0

FORMS
NONE

9.0

REVISION HISTORY
Revision Level

Revision Description

Department Head /
Procedure Owner

00

Initial Issue New Numbering System

T. Baker

Page 3 of 3

Flow Measurement Design Criteria

No.: EIC-8-1001 Rev.: 00

ATTACHMENT 7.1
PIP PCCFL001 FLOW MEASUREMENT DESIGN CRITERIA, AUGUST 2006
(Next Page)

COMPLETE REVISION
August 2006

Process Industry Practices


Process Control

PIP PCCFL001
Flow Measurement Design Criteria

PURPOSE AND USE OF PROCESS INDUSTRY PRACTICES


In an effort to minimize the cost of process industry facilities, this Practice has
been prepared from the technical requirements in the existing standards of major
industrial users, contractors, or standards organizations. By harmonizing these technical
requirements into a single set of Practices, administrative, application, and engineering
costs to both the purchaser and the manufacturer should be reduced. While this Practice
is expected to incorporate the majority of requirements of most users, individual
applications may involve requirements that will be appended to and take precedence
over this Practice. Determinations concerning fitness for purpose and particular matters
or application of the Practice to particular project or engineering situations should not
be made solely on information contained in these materials. The use of trade names
from time to time should not be viewed as an expression of preference but rather
recognized as normal usage in the trade. Other brands having the same specifications
are equally correct and may be substituted for those named. All Practices or guidelines
are intended to be consistent with applicable laws and regulations including OSHA
requirements. To the extent these Practices or guidelines should conflict with OSHA or
other applicable laws or regulations, such laws or regulations must be followed.
Consult an appropriate professional before applying or acting on any material
contained in or suggested by the Practice.

This Practice is subject to revision at any time.

Process Industry Practices (PIP), Construction Industry Institute, The


University of Texas at Austin, 3925 West Braker Lane (R4500), Austin,
Texas 78759. PIP member companies and subscribers may copy this Practice
for their internal use. Changes, overlays, addenda, or modifications of any
kind are not permitted within any PIP Practice without the express written
authorization of PIP.

PRINTING HISTORY
June 1998
Issued
August 2006
Complete Revision
Not printed with State funds

COMPLETE REVISION
August 2006

Process Industry Practices


Process Control

PIP PCCFL001
Flow Measurement Design Criteria
Table of Contents
1. Introduction................................. 2
1.1
1.2

Purpose .......................................... 2
Scope ............................................. 2

2. References .................................. 2
2.1
2.2
2.3

Process Industry Practices............. 2


Industry Codes and Standards....... 2
Other References ........................... 3

3. Requirements.............................. 3
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9

General........................................... 3
Orifice Meter................................... 5
Flow Nozzle.................................... 6
Venturi (Classical and Proprietary
Designs) ......................................... 7
Averaging Pitot Element................. 7
Integral Orifice ................................ 8
Turbine Meter ................................. 8
Positive Displacement Meter.......... 8
Magnetic Flow Meter ...................... 9

Process Industry Practices

3.10 Mass Meter (Coriolis) ..................... 9


3.11 Mass Meter (Thermal) .................... 9
3.12 Ultrasonic Meter (Transit Time &
Doppler).......................................... 9
3.13 Vortex Meter................................... 9
3.14 Variable Area Meter ..................... 10

Tables
Table 1 Minimum Straight Run Lengths for
Orifice Runs and Other Flow
Elements in Accordance with
ISO 5167-2 Column B
Table 2 Minimum Straight Run Lengths for
Orifice Runs in Accordance with
ANSI/API (ISO 5167-2, Column A)
Table 3 Minimum Straight Run Lengths for
Venturi Tubes and Flow Nozzles
In Accordance with ANSI/API
(ISO 5167-3)

Page 1 of 15

PIP PCCFL001
Flow Measurement Design Criteria

1.

COMPLETE REVISION
August 2006

Introduction
1.1

Purpose
This Practice provides requirements for the design of flow measurement systems.

1.2

Scope
This Practice describes the design requirements for flow measurement systems that
include head (differential pressure), velocity, oscillatory, electromagnetic and mass
flow meters.
This Practice does not cover:
a. Restriction flow elements and flow switches
b. Process isolation (root) valves, secondary transmitters, or process piping
c. Custody transfer measurement requirements

2.

References
Applicable parts of the following Practices, industry codes and standards, and references shall
be considered an integral part of this Practice. The edition in effect on the date of contract
award shall be used, except as otherwise noted. Short titles are used herein where appropriate.
2.1

2.2

Process Industry Practices (PIP)

PIP PCCGN001 - General Instrument Design Checklist

PIP PCCGN002 - General Instrument Installation Criteria

PIP PCIDP000 - Differential Pressure Installation Details

PIP PNF00200 - Vent/Drain/Instrument Connection Details

Industry Codes and Standards

American Gas Association (AGA)

American National Standards Institute (ANSI)

American Petroleum Institute (API)

Page 2 of 15

ANSI-2530/API-14.3/AGA-3/GPA-8185 - Natural Gas Fluids Measurement


- Concentric, Square-Edged Orifice Meters
Part 1 General Equations and Uncertainty Guidelines
Part 2 Specification and Installation Requirements
Part 3 Natural Gas Applications
Part 4 Background, Development, Implementation Procedures and
Subroutine Documentation

API Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards (MPMS):


Chapter 5 - Metering
5.2 Measurement of Liquid Hydrocarbons by Displacement Meters
5.3 Measurement of Liquid Hydrocarbons by Turbine Meters

Process Industry Practices

COMPLETE REVISION

PIP PCCFL001
Flow Measurement Design Criteria

August 2006

American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)

ASME B16.36 - Orifice Flanges

ASME MFC-3M - Measurement of Fluid Flow in Pipes Using Orifice,


Nozzle, and Venturi

ISA, The International Society for Measurement and Control (ISA)

International Organization for Standardization (ISO)

2.3

ISO 5167-1 - Measurement of Fluid Flow by Means of Pressure Differential


Devices

Other References

3.

ISA S20 - Specification Forms for Process Measurement and Control


Instruments, Primary Elements and Control Valves

Miller, R.W., Flow Measurement Engineering Handbook

Requirements
3.1

General
3.1.1

Data
3.1.1.1 A data set shall be provided for each flow meter.
3.1.1.2 The data set may be provided in electronic or hardcopy format.
3.1.1.3 The minimum data set shall be in accordance with ISA S20,
Specification Forms for Primary Elements, Sections 20.21, 20.22,
20.23, 20.24, and 20.25.
3.1.1.4 For flange tap orifice meters, gasket thickness shall be specified.

3.1.2

Instruments Sizing
3.1.2.1 Calculation methods and tools used shall be subject to owners
approval.
a. All calculation results shall be provided to the owner.
b. Unless otherwise specified by owner, calculations for sizing
of concentric, square-edged orifice meters shall be in
accordance with ANSI-2530/API-14.3/AGA-3/GPA-8185.
c. Nozzle, venturi, and other differential pressure device
calculations shall be in accordance with Flow Measurement
Engineering Handbook.
d. For any other proprietary meter, the manufacturers sizing
and calculation methods shall be used.
3.1.2.2 Head meter bore shall be sized to provide non-fractional maximum
differential pressure calibration spans and give even scale flow
display units.

Process Industry Practices

Page 3 of 15

COMPLETE REVISION

PIP PCCFL001
Flow Measurement Design Criteria

August 2006

3.1.2.3 In general, head type flow instruments shall be sized such that
normal flow is between 65% to 80% of expected maximum.
3.1.2.4 The units of measurement for flow instruments shall be in
accordance with the owners specifications in PIP PCCGN001.
3.1.2.5 Owner shall identify default metering uncertainty (1, 2 or
undesignated) in the checklist PIP PCCGN001.
3.1.3

Installation
3.1.3.1 Unless otherwise specified by owner, the piping specifications
PIP PNF00200 shall be followed.
3.1.3.2 Manufacturers installation requirements shall be followed as a
minimum.
3.1.3.3 Meters in liquid service shall be installed so that meters are always
full of liquid and trapping of gases is avoided.
3.1.3.4 In gas service, liquid trapping shall be avoided.
3.1.3.5 The use of strainers and eliminators shall be considered and
evaluated to protect metering devices whose performance or integrity
is compromised without such protection.
3.1.3.6 Thermowells shall be located a minimum of five nominal pipe
diameters downstream of a meter.
3.1.3.7 Use of flow profile conditioning devices of any type shall be
approved by owner.
Comment: The use of flow profile conditioning may not be
permitted if the meter is followed by rotating process
equipment (compressors, pumps, turbines, etc.) that
can be damaged if a part of the conditioning device
breaks off and enters the equipment.
3.1.3.8 Meters shall be installed in a manner that minimizes mechanical
vibration or stress on the meter.

3.1.4

Weather Protection
3.1.4.1 Winterproofing and weather protection shall be in accordance with
PIP PCCGN002.
3.1.4.2 The impulse legs of differential pressure transmitters to head type
flow meters shall require appropriate freeze protection.

3.1.5

Materials of Construction
3.1.5.1 All wetted component materials shall be compatible with the process
fluid.
3.1.5.2 Meters shall be suitable for the environmental exposure including
ambient temperature extremes and external corrosion conditions.
3.1.5.3 Piping and connections shall be in accordance with applicable piping
specifications.

Page 4 of 15

Process Industry Practices

COMPLETE REVISION

PIP PCCFL001
Flow Measurement Design Criteria

August 2006

3.1.6

Electrical Classification
Meter installations shall be in accordance with the specified electrical area
classification.

3.1.7

Head (Differential Pressure) Type Meters


3.1.7.1 Square root operation in calculating flows from head type meters
shall be performed in only one device (i.e., transmitter, flow
computer, control system, etc.).
3.1.7.2 For liquid, steam and heat transfer media services, pressure taps shall
be located on the horizontal side of the piping or 45 degrees down
from horizontal. The pressure tap sensing lines (impulse lines) shall
be sloped down to the transmitter (minimum of 1 per foot).
3.1.7.3 For gas and vapor services, pressure taps shall be located on the
vertical from the top of the piping, horizontal, or 45 degrees from
vertical. The pressure tap sensing lines (impulse lines) shall be
sloped up to the transmitter (minimum of 1 per foot).

3.2

Orifice Meter
3.2.1

Paddle type orifice plates shall be used.

3.2.2

The following minimum information shall be stamped or etched on the


upstream side of the handle:
a. Orifice plate tag number
b. Material type
c. Vent or drain hole size
d. Inlet flow side
e. Bore
f.

3.2.3

Flange size in inches and ASME pressure rating

If an orifice meter is the selected flow element, and the orifice plate sizing
dictates a meter run size less than a nominal 2 inch (50 mm), use either:
a. A honed fabricated meter tube with corner taps
b. An Integral Orifice (See Section 3.6 for requirements.)

3.2.4

Unless otherwise required by process service, orifice plate material shall be


stainless steel minimum. Material type shall be specified in accordance with
PIP PCCGN001.

3.2.5

Orifice plates shall be fabricated in accordance with ANSI 2530/API 14.3


Part 2.

3.2.6

Vent or drain holes in orifice plates shall be used only if approved by owner.

3.2.7

Flange type and material shall be in accordance with piping specifications.


Orifice flanges shall be rated at a minimum of ASME Class 300 and shall be
in accordance with ASME B16.36 and ANSI 2530/API 14.3/AGA-3/GPA8185.

Process Industry Practices

Page 5 of 15

COMPLETE REVISION

PIP PCCFL001
Flow Measurement Design Criteria

August 2006

3.2.8

Unless otherwise approved by owner, orifice flange taps shall be used for
line sizes 2 inches (50 mm) and larger.

3.2.9

Corner taps shall be used for line sizes less than 2 inches (50 mm).

3.2.10 Unless otherwise required by piping specifications, orifice flange tap


connections shall be 1/2 inch (12 mm) if used in ASME Class 600 service
and below.
3.2.11 Unless otherwise required by piping specifications, orifice flange tap
connections shall be 3/4 inch if used in ASME Class 900 service.
3.2.12 Connection type (threaded or socketweld) shall be in accordance with the
piping specifications.
3.2.13 If used, other tap shall be in accordance with piping specifications.
3.2.14 Piping design for orifice runs shall be in accordance with the following:
a. Orifice meters shall be installed in horizontal runs to minimize
measurement inaccuracies. Vertical orifice runs shall be used only
with owners approval.
b. Orifice meter tap locations shall be as follows:
1) For flange tap designated orifice meters, the taps shall be
located at 1 inch (25 mm) upstream and 1 inch (25 mm)
downstream from the orifice plate face including gasket
thickness.
2) For pipe tap designated orifice meters, the taps shall be located
2-1/2 internal pipe diameters upstream and 8 internal pipe
diameters downstream of the orifice plate face.
3.2.15 Process Piping Connections
3.2.15.1 Primary orifice taps shall have a separate isolation (root) valve in
addition to any manifolds.
3.2.15.2 Piping from taps to and through first isolation (root) valve shall be
in accordance with applicable piping specifications.
3.2.15.3 Unused orifice taps shall be plugged in accordance with piping
specifications.
3.2.16 Meter tube pipe and orifice flanges internal dimensional tolerances
shall be in accordance with ANSI 2530/API 14.3/AGA-3/GPA-8185.
3.2.17 Straight run piping before and after an orifice plate flow element
shall be no less than those specified in Table 1 for applications that
require 1/2% uncertainty (flow control and monitoring) or Table 2
for applications that require no uncertainty and increased accuracy
(custody transfer).
3.3

Flow Nozzle
3.3.1

Page 6 of 15

Unless otherwise required by service application and piping specifications,


flow nozzles shall be designed to bolt between flanges.

Process Industry Practices

COMPLETE REVISION

PIP PCCFL001
Flow Measurement Design Criteria

August 2006

3.3.2

In high pressure (1000 psig or higher) applications, the flow nozzle shall be
welded directly into the pipe.

3.3.3

Tap connections shall be installed 1 inside pipe diameter upstream and 1/2
inside pipe diameter downstream in accordance with ASME-MFC-3M.

3.3.4

Minimum straight run pipe length requirements shall be in accordance with


Table 3.
Comment: Where owner approves additional metering uncertainty,
minimum piping run lengths may be in accordance with
ASME-MFC-3M.

3.3.5
3.4

Unless otherwise required by process service or piping specifications, flow


nozzles shall be type 316 SS.

Venturi (Classical and Proprietary Designs)


3.4.1

Classical venturis shall be fabricated in accordance with ASME MFC-3M.

3.4.2

Venturi meter materials and construction shall be compatible with the


process fluid and applicable piping codes.

3.4.3

Flow calculations for proprietary venturi meters shall be provided by


manufacturer.

3.4.4

Minimum straight run pipe length requirements shall be in accordance with


Table 3.
Comment: Where owner approves additional metering uncertainty,
minimum piping run lengths may be in accordance with
ASME-MFC-3M.

3.5

Averaging Pitot Element


3.5.1

Unless they are bi-directional, averaging pitot tube elements shall be


permanently marked to indicate proper installation position and flow
direction.

3.5.2

Unless otherwise required by process services, averaging pitot tubes shall be


type 316 SS.

3.5.3

Minimum straight run pipe length requirements shall be in accordance with


pitot element manufacturers recommended lengths.

3.5.4

For a removable element, the process valve shall have the proper inside
diameter to allow passage of the element. The valve shall meet applicable
piping specifications.

3.5.5

Removable elements shall have blow out prevention.

3.5.6

Extra heavy flow elements and/or double ended support shall be used in large
diameter pipes or ducts or if high flow velocity can cause the element to
deflect or vibrate. Manufacturers installation recommendations shall be
followed.

3.5.7

Elements shall be purged when installed in dirty services.

Process Industry Practices

Page 7 of 15

PIP PCCFL001
Flow Measurement Design Criteria

3.6

3.7

COMPLETE REVISION
August 2006

Integral Orifice
3.6.1

Process line block and bypass valves or transmitter isolation valves (root
valves or manifold) shall be installed for applications that require servicing
while on-line.

3.6.2

Integral orifices shall be sized and installed in accordance with


manufacturers recommendations. Manufacturer shall provide meter sizing
and flow calculations.

3.6.3

Minimum straight run pipe length requirements shall be in accordance with


manufacturers recommended lengths.

3.6.4

Unless otherwise required by process services, wetted metal parts shall be


type 316 SS. Other wetted components shall be compatible with the process.

3.6.5

A strainer shall be specified if needed to avoid plugging of the orifice.

Turbine Meter
3.7.1

Turbine meters shall be installed so that the meters are always:


a. In single phase flow
b. Liquid full in liquid applications

3.7.2

The installation setup shall be designed to avoid creating a pressure drop


condition for the fluid to flash in the meter.
Comment: Flashing will damage the meter and severely impact
measurement.

3.8

Page 8 of 15

3.7.3

Turbine meters shall be marked to indicate proper flow direction.

3.7.4

In-line type turbine meters 1 inch (25 mm) and above shall be flanged.

3.7.5

A strainer shall be installed upstream of the turbine meter system. Dual


strainers shall be provided if the process flow cannot be interrupted for
maintenance.

3.7.6

Strainers shall be installed far enough upstream to prevent the distortion of


flow profile at the turbine meter.

3.7.7

For high-accuracy applications, liquid turbine meters shall be installed in


accordance with API MPMS, Chapters 5 and 6.

Positive Displacement Meter


3.8.1

Manufacturers recommended installation requirements shall be applied as a


minimum.

3.8.2

For high-accuracy applications, liquid positive displacement meters shall be


installed in accordance with requirements of API MPMS, Chapters 5 and 6.

3.8.3

The meter shall be installed so that the fluid passing through the meter is in a
single phase and the meter is liquid full.

3.8.4

Inlet and/or outlet ports shall be plainly marked to indicate proper flow
direction.

3.8.5

A strainer shall be considered upstream of the meter.


Process Industry Practices

COMPLETE REVISION

PIP PCCFL001
Flow Measurement Design Criteria

August 2006

3.8.6
3.9

Meters in line sizes 1-1/2 inches (37 mm) and above shall be flanged body
style.

Magnetic Flow Meter


3.9.1

Magnetic flow meters shall be installed with piping designed in accordance


with manufacturers recommendations.

3.9.2

Magnetic flow meters shall be installed so that the meter is always liquid full.
Comment: The preferred installation is vertical with flow up.

3.10

3.9.3

Materials of construction shall be compatible with the process fluid.

3.9.4

Magnetic flow meters shall be grounded in accordance with manufacturers


recommendations.

3.9.5

The meter factor data shall be provided by the manufacturer.

Mass Meter (Coriolis)


3.10.1 Mass flow meters shall be installed with piping designed in accordance with
manufacturers recommendations.
3.10.2 Mass flow meters shall be installed so that the meter is always liquid full in
liquid applications.
3.10.3 Mass flow meters shall be installed so that the meter is self-draining in gas
applications.
3.10.4 Materials of construction shall be compatible with the process fluid.
3.10.5 The meter factor data shall be provided by the manufacturer.
3.10.6 The meter shall be sized so the maximum full scale flow rate is in the upper
one-third of the meter range, unless pressure drop considerations require a
larger meter.

3.11

Mass Meter (Thermal)


Use of mass (thermal) meters shall be approved by owner and installed in accordance
with manufacturers recommendations.

3.12

Ultrasonic Meter (Transit Time & Doppler)


Use of ultrasonic meters shall be approved by owner and installed in accordance with
manufacturers recommendations.

3.13

Vortex Meter
3.13.1 Meters shall be installed with piping designed in accordance with
manufacturers recommendations.
3.13.2 Meters shall be installed so that the meter is always liquid full in liquid
applications.
3.13.3 Meters shall be installed so that the meter is self-draining in gas applications.
3.13.4 Materials of construction shall be compatible with the process fluid.

Process Industry Practices

Page 9 of 15

PIP PCCFL001
Flow Measurement Design Criteria

COMPLETE REVISION
August 2006

3.13.5 The meter factor data shall be provided by the manufacturer and be based on
the actual piping schedule.
3.13.6 Welds on mounting flanges shall be ground smooth.
3.13.7 Proper gasket sizing shall be followed to avoid protrusion into the process
piping.
3.14

Variable Area Meter


3.14.1 Meters shall be installed in a vertical position and piped in accordance with
manufacturers recommendations.
3.14.2 Meters shall be accessible for easy reading, maintenance, or repair.
3.14.3 The capacity of the selected meter shall be such that normal flow rate falls in
middle one-third of chart or scale range.
3.14.4 For process flows, scales shall be graduated in percent units. Meter factor for
maximum flow at 100% shall be engraved on scale.
3.14.5 Scales for purge meters shall read directly in Standard Cubic Feet per Hour
(SCFH) of air for gas service or Gallons per Hour (GPH) of water for liquid
service.
3.14.6 Glass tube meters shall only be used on air, inert gas and water at
temperatures of 140 F (60 C) or less and pressures of 100 psig 7 bar(g) or
less. Owners approval shall be required for use of glass tube meters in other
services.
3.14.7 For purge meter applications, a check valve shall be installed on the outlet of
the meter to prevent back flow.

Page 10 of 15

Process Industry Practices

COMPLETE REVISION

PIP PCCFL001
Flow Measurement Design Criteria

August 2006

Table 1
Minimum Straight Run Lengths for Orifice Runs and Other Flow Elements
in Accordance with ISO 5167-2 Column B
Beta Ratio
Upstream disturbance

Dimension

0.2

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.67

0.75

13

20

20

Note 4

Note 4

10

18

18

18

Note 4

Note 4

10

18

20

22

18

18

18

18

20

20

Note 4

Note 4

Note 4

11

14

18

12

3.5

3.5

Single elbow
A
S

Two elbows in same plane 30D>S>10D


A
S

Two elbows in same plane 10D>S


A

Two elbows in different planes 30D>S>5D


A

Reducer
A

Expander
A

Full Bore Ball or Gate valve, fully open


Downstream Length for all
pictured disturbances

Process Industry Practices

Page 11 of 15

PIP PCCFL001
Flow Measurement Design Criteria

COMPLETE REVISION
August 2006

NOTES for Table 1 - PCCFL001:


(1) Meter run lengths shown are for % additional uncertainty as shown in ISO-5167-2, Column B. For additional information
refer to ISO-5167-2 for Orifice Plates and ISO-5167-3 for Venturis.
(2) Any flow conditioner shall be installed in the straight length between the primary element and the upstream disturbance,
or the fitting closest to the element. The installation location shall be per applicable standard.
(3) Interpolate pipe diameters for intermediate beta ratios.
(4) Data are not available for straight run lengths for % uncertainty (see ISO 5167-2).

Page 12 of 15

Process Industry Practices

COMPLETE REVISION

PIP PCCFL001
Flow Measurement Design Criteria

August 2006

Table 2
Minimum Straight Run Lengths for Orifice Runs in Accordance with
ANSI/API (ISO 5167-2, Column A)
Beta Ratio
Upstream disturbance

Dimension

0.2

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.67

0.75

16

22

42

44

44

10

10

18

30

44

44

10

10

22

42

44

44

19

44

44

44

44

44

12

13.5

12

20

26

28

36.5

12

12

12

14

18

24

Single elbow
A
S

Two elbows in same plane 30D>S>10D


A
S

Two elbows in same plane 10D>S


A

Two elbows in different planes 30D>S>5D


A

Reducer
A

Expander
A

Full bore Ball or Gate Valve Fully Open


Downstream Length for all
pictured disturbances

Process Industry Practices

Page 13 of 15

PIP PCCFL001
Flow Measurement Design Criteria

COMPLETE REVISION
August 2006

NOTES for Table 2 - PCCFL001:


(1) Meter run lengths shown are for 0% additional uncertainty as shown in ISO-5167-2, Column A. For additional information
refer to ISO-5167-2 for Orifice Plates and ISO-5167-3 for Venturis.
(2) Any flow conditioner shall be installed in the straight length between the primary element and the upstream disturbance,
or the fitting closest to the element. The installation location shall be per applicable standard.
(3) Interpolate pipe diameters for intermediate beta ratios.

Page 14 of 15

Process Industry Practices

COMPLETE REVISION

PIP PCCFL001
Flow Measurement Design Criteria

August 2006

Table 3
Minimum Straight Run Lengths for Venturi Tubes and Flow Nozzles in
Accordance with ANSI/API (ISO 5167-3)
Upstream Straight Run Required
Piping Configuration

Additional
Uncertainty

Single 900 bend upstream

Two 900 Bends in the Same Plane

Two 900 Bends in Different Planes

Reducer 2D to D over a Length of 1.5D to 3D

Expander 0.5D to D over a Length of 1.5D to 3D

Globe Valve Fully Open

Full Bore Ball or Gate Valve Fully Open

Downstream Run Required

Beta Ratio
0.2

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.5%

14

0%

10

14

14

18

28

0.5%

10

13

18

0%

14

18

20

26

36

0.5%

17

18

20

24

31

0%

34

36

40

48

62

0.5%

Note 1

Note 1

0%

14

0.5%

11

15

0%

16

16

18

22

30

0.5%

10

11

13

16

0%

18

20

22

26

32

0.5%

10

0%

12

12

12

14

20

0.5%

3.5

3.5

0%

NOTES for Table 3 - PCCFL001:


(1) For additional information on Orifice Plates refer to ISO-5167-2.

Process Industry Practices

Page 15 of 15