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CHAPTER 1

The Problem and Its Setting


Introduction (Emmanuel Hong, Nancy Villava-Cua, Jasmine Ng Cheong)
1.) Historical Background
Have you ever wanted to be one of the top students in class? Or you just like to make
your college life easy and disburden? These things may become possible if you know how to
manage your time properly and if you have a good study habits. Merriam Webster dictionary
defines study habits as the behaviors or hobbies that we usually do when preparing for a tests and
learning academic material. Azikiwe (1998) describes the study habits as "the adopted way and
manner a student plans his private readings, after classroom learning as to attain mastery of the
subject". According to her, "good study habits are good assets to learners because these assist
students in areas of specialization and consequent excellent performance, while opposite
constitute constraint to learning and achievement leading to failure."
Developing a good study habit is not as easy as it seems. The factors that affect our study
habits are one of the most important things to consider in developing a good study habit. The
most common factors that affect study habits are environment, time management, self concept,
motivation and emotion. These factors that affect study habits are a big part in making good
study habits. Thus, developing good study habits takes time and patience. "We are what we
repeatedly do. Excellence, then, is not an act, but a habit." (Aristotle).
In the research Study Habits Of Undergraduate Students (Kumar, 2015), his voluntary
survey result of study habit Undergraduate students at Rajdhani College was to determine how
the study pattern differs with percentage marks scored by students, where they live and effect of
change in environment The result was an average time spent by the majority of students in selfstudy per week is less. Majority of students dont revise their lecture same day. Students
sometimes collaborate in the assignments even if they are marked as Individual. Change of
environment affects the grades of the students that is why majority of the first year students first
semester percentage is low. So, there is a need for the instructor to motivate the students to adapt
effective study habits. Also, the low percentage scoring students need to be motivated more as
compared to higher percentage scoring students.
According to nal (2014), the outcomes of study habits survey are Poor, Average, and
Good. This purports that SHS (Study Habits Survey) of good and average students are better than
poor students. The good students study habit of concentration, and their reading as well as note
taking habits, and general habits and behavior are considerably higher than those of others while
the poor and average students were ranked with a higher average score and the home
environment and planning of work habits of the average students feature with a higher score. The
results of the sub-groups academic achievements confirm the idea of Gs and Gne (2011)

that academic performances augment when students use productive study habits in online
learning settings.
The researchers chose this topic, factors that affect study habits. Many college students
fail not because of lack of ability and knowledge but because of improper study habits.
Therefore, the researchers want to improve the study habits of students as well as to prevent the
occurrence of failing grades.
The findings of this study may be helpful in the analysis of the factors that affect the
study habits of students. It will benefit a number of sectors, such as the school, the students, the
parents, and other researchers.
Statement of the Problem
1. What are the study habits of CKS college students?
a. Effective Study Habits
b. Ineffective Study Habits
2. What are the factors that affect study habits?
a. Environment
b. Time Management
c. Self-Concept
d. Motivation
e. Emotion
3. What are the possible solutions that may improve study habits?
Objectives of the Study (Denise Chua)
The general objective is to provide background about study habits of CKS College students.
After reading our research, you will be able to:
1.
2.
3.
4.

To explore the study habits of CKS College students


To differentiate between good and bad study habits
To elaborate factors that affect study habits
To give options that will improve study habits

Significance of the Study (Jasmine Ng Cheong)


The researchers undertook this study in different perspective and determine the various
factors that affect the study habits of CKSC students. These arise from several reasons. It is

important to attain more comprehensive and profound knowledge and more vivid perception
about this topic.
This research may benefit the school, the teachers, the students, the parents and the other
researchers. Through the findings of the study, the school will know the reason why their
students have poor academic performances and be able to formulate a more effective and better
educational guidance that will help in the development of the students' learning process.
To the teachers, they can think of effective ways on how to motivate and lead their
students in acquiring good study habits and enhancing their academic performance.
To the students, they can understand better the factors that affect their study habits and
determine ways on how to improve these.
To the parents of the students, they will know their role in helping their children
regarding school matters and enhancing their study habits by providing them an ideal home
environment and giving them parental affection.
To the other researchers, this study may serve as additional information in doing further
research about this topic.
Theoretical Framework (Yulin Chen)
The study is based upon the theory of Pinder (1984) and others (cited in Nonis &
Hudson, 2006), states that a persons performance is derived from ability and motivation.
Performance = Ability x Motivation
The above formula point out that the changeability of motivation affects the performance.
Research result shows even if having a low ability, but with a high motivation, it is expected to
have an ideal performance, whereas, high ability but low motivation is unlikely to perform well.
This is supported by the generally held concept that it is the time used on academic activities
outside the class by a student that results in academic achievement and that unwillingness to
study and procrastination conclusively result in academic failure (Mendezabal, 2013).
In the same vein, one can argue that it is simply the study habits and attitudes that
ultimately bring about the desired performance and not students inner desires or motivations.
Accordingly, related to how motivation collaborate with ability to affect academic performance,
one can derive that study habits and attitudes collaborate with ability to affect student
performance (Nonis and Hudson, 2006).
Performance = Ability x (Study Habits and Attitudes)
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There are a lot of researches who have studied about the factors behind the achievement
of students. In a meta-analysis, Mendezabal (cited in Crede & Kuncel, 2008) discovered that
non-cognitive factors like study habit, study skills, and study motivation, among other attitudinal
construct, alleged for additional variance in academic success further standardized exam and
preceding grades.
According to Menzel, (cited by Rana & Kausar, 2011), a lot of students flunk not because
of insufficient ability but because of improper study habit. Students who have a hard time in
college generally do not have competent study habits that affect their academic performance. The
main problem noted was that several students had not learned the importance of taking down
effective notes and manage time for studying (cited by Mutsotso & Abenga, 2010)
Nonis and Hudson (2010) handle a study on achievement of college students, effect of
study time and study habits in which they discovered that some study habits had a positive direct
connection on student achievement but others had a negative direct connection.
The study of Fazal (2012) analyzed various study skills accepted by learners and confirm
which study skills is more connected to academic achievement. The conclusion of the study point
out the important relationship of time-management skills, reading and note-taking skills with
academic success. Students with higher academic performance used a broad range of study skills
as compare to students with lower academic performance.
Another study was conducted by Yang (2011) using a Q factor analysis to know the study
habits and behaviors of undergraduate students. The Q factor analysis was used to differentiate
students as either initiative learners with adequate study behavior or disorganized initiative
learners depend on their self-reported study behavior. The result of the study showed a
compelling difference in the academic achievement of the two groups of students. Student type
was found to be a significant predictor of academic achievement beyond and above students
attribute variables.
Like the theory and researches, this study aims to inform the significance of developing
proper study habits which affects the academic performance of a student. It shows that academic
success not only depends on ability but also on having a proper study habit.
Definition of Terms (Yulin Chen)
Study habits. The term refers to the pattern of action or attitude maintained by the students that
are characterized by proper studying routines that take place in an environment that is helpful in
studying.
Environment. In this study, the term refers to the combination of things, condition, or influences
around you.
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Time management. It is the increasing of effectiveness, efficiency or productivity by having a


system of planning and applying control over the time spent on certain activities. It can be
assisted by a range of skills, tools, and techniques.
Self-concept. This refers to a polyhedral construct that indicates an individuals feeling to oneself
in relation to any number of characteristics such as academic and non-academics.
Motivation. The term refers to an endeavor in order to accomplish a goal or effect by internal and
external factors that arouse ambition in people to be continuously engrossed and pledged to a
job, role.
Emotion. The term refers to a complicated experience of sensibility, bodily sensation, and
attitude that indicate the personal significance of a thing, an event, or a state of affairs.

Chapter 2
Review of Related Literature
This chapter presents a review of related literature and studies derived from magazines,
books and e-references that are relevant to the present study. To be able to have a broader
knowledge and a deeper insight on the topic of the research paper, the researchers reviewed
several related studies.
Habit (Emmanuel Hong)
According to Macmillan dictionary, habit is defined as something that you do often or
regularly, often without thinking about it. This means that if you keep on repeating or doing
something regularly like studying everyday without prior notice, then it is no longer considered a
task but a habit.
Study Habit (Jasmine Ng Cheong)
Retes (2013) defines study habit as the students way of carrying out the task of studying
by using varied techniques in studying in order to keep him afloat and it includes wise use
of his/her time in studying. In short, it is the habitual practices systematically formed by a
student to help him study or learn.
We all want to be successful, but you do not come across success by just hoping for it. If
you want to achieve true success in life, you must work hard for it. There are no shortcuts to
success. You have to pay the price for it. The key to achieving academic success is to study hard
and smart and to develop good study habits.
It is important for students, especially college students, to develop good study habits
because study habits play an important role in their process of learning and academic
performance. Failures in college may be the result of having ineffective study habits. There is a
direct relationship that exists between study habits and academic success. Good study habits lead
to academic success, while bad study habits lead to academic failure (Sellers, n.d.).
Study habits play an important role in a students academic performance. A person with
good study habits will be able to study effectively and efficiently, while a person with bad study
habits will not be able to study properly. Success and failure of a student is dependent upon his
study habits (Kaur, 2015).
Retes believes that academic success is not determined by intelligence, but by knowing
on how to study effectively and efficiently. Not everyone can be intelligent, but everyone can
improve their study skills. Studying smarter is more important than studying harder.
Study habit is essential in the life of a student. The school, the parents and the teachers
must do everything they can to assist the students in developing their study habits and to
motivate them in pursuing academic excellence.

Good Study Habits (Nancy Villava-Cua)


Good study habits are to develop serious doing in homework and completing the tasks on
time habits. A student should always come to school prepared and review his lessons before and
after school. In the learning process, through the formation of repeated practice and develop
good study habits, it will stimulate a students enthusiasm and initiative to improve his learning
skills and he will slowly make his way into the formation of an automated learning behaviour.
Developing good study habits helps cultivate a students self-learning ability and innovative
spirit and creativity.
There are five examples of good study habits. First, a student is no longer dependent
upon his parents or teacher in learning, but he develops his own study habits to improve his
learning and academic performance. A study requires immediate access to its own state and an
efficient use of every minute of learning time. A student must consciously focus his attention on
learning. Second, habits do the required learning tasks on time. Each specified study time is
divided into several periods, sets forth specific learning tasks for each period, and positions
students to be in a period of time to complete a specific learning task. This can reduce or even
avoid the situation when a student is distracted or inattentive in learning, and effectively improve
the learning efficiency. After the completion of each specific learning task, it produces a joy of
success and makes a student more motivated and interested in studying. Third, habit previews the
lessons and reviews the lesson already taught. Reviewing the lessons taught by the teacher and
advance reading can improve the efficiency of learning lessons and help to develop self-learning
ability. When the preview to learn to deal with the content, carefully read, understand and apply
prep tips, consult reference books or information to learn, on the issues to be serious thought to
not understand the problem and marked, so that to focus on the lesson to listen , to learn, to
practice. Fourth, extracurricular reading habits can help students to open up horizons, enrich
knowledge, improve reading ability and expression has an important role. Lastly, the to think, to
ask and daring to question habit can help a student to find out solutions on how he can improve
his thinking skill and can motivate him to study harder and smarter.
Poor Study Habits (Yu Lin Chen)
The main problem of modern academic problem is improper study habits. Many students
do not have an adequate knowledge on how to study productively. They might spend too much
time in assignment, ignore significant facts or abandon them before finishing their homework.
Moreover, because they do not realize how to study, they may become turned off by the
educational process and restrict their life-long capacity to learn (Garman & Brown, 2005).
These are some things that cause students to unconsciously develop improper study habit:
studying at home, listening to music, procrastinating, pulling all-nighters, not making an outline,
and highlighting the textbook. Studying at home is comfortable and easy, yet there are so much
distractions hidden everywhere in dwelling. The TV, telephone, internet or maybe family
members can be a disturbance that can blow absorption and make studying less efficient.
Consider listening to music as one of the distractions. The advantage of listening to music during
studying has been clarified over and over again. It was once believed that listening to classical
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music adds spatial abilities and enhances learning, but consecutive studies were not able to
sustain this theory. In fact, latest researches find out that music decrease cognitive abilities and
impede memorization because of the alter words and notes in songs (Kass, 2013).
Procrastination can bring to doing things halfway and not retaining as much information
as needed. It can bring many problems such as staying all night and finishing the assignment just
to pass it before deadline or reviewing lessons for an exam the following day. Cramming for an
exam has been shown to do very little good for test performance, but many college students are
especially guilty of it, not only sleep destitute but also toll on health (Kass, 2013).
The exam results probably will not be the expected grade if a student does not prefer to
make an outline while studying. Not making outline or taking down notes while reading
decreases the effectiveness and efficiency of studying. Outlining helps to control a large amount
of information, construct ideas, and present them in a rational way. Another thing that a student
must develop is highlighting the textbook. Some study proposals books advocate reading a
textbook and highlighting the pages with a neon highlighter as the perfect way to study.
Nonetheless, in reality, this is one of the least useful ways for students to recall the content.
Instead of wasting more time reread a textbook or writing a conclusion in notebook or
highlighting the textbook whenever reviewing, making an outline prevents wasting of time
(Kass, 2013).
Learning Environment Affects Study Habit (Jasmine Ng Cheong)
According to edglossary.org, learning environment is defined as the combination of
various physical locations, contexts and cultures in which students grow and thrive. An
invigorating, enhancing and cultivating environment is necessary for students to learn and
improve. In order for a student to have good study habits, he must have the right place to study.
The learning environment affects a students way of learning and remembering information and
putting it into practice (11 Ways Your Study Environment Affects Productivity and How You Can
Improve It, 2012). Good study environment leads to good study habits.
Robben (2015) states that there are 4 environmental factors that affect study habits:
people, location and resources, atmosphere and distractions.
1) People
To study with an individual or a group of individuals can either be advantageous or
disadvantageous, depending on the kind of people you study with. Study groups can either build
a student up or pull a student down.
It is best to study with people who have a common goal of getting high grades. Through
study groups, a student can acquire additional information, enhance his learning and do better in
his course. Study groups can also create increased motivation because it is more motivating to
study with people who devote their time and strength in studying than to study alone (Thompson
& Robinson, 2001).
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Having a study group can also be unhelpful. If a student choses to study with his friends,
he and his friends will tend to crack jokes and have unnecessary conversations. He may spend a
large portion of the time gossiping or playing instead of studying. A student must draw the line
between friends and study group (Disadvantages of Study Groups, 2013).
2) Location and Resources
Robben states that when a student tries to pick the right place to study, he must take these
2 factors into consideration: distance to essentials and physical feeling
a) Distance to essentials A student must choose a study location where he can find Wi-Fi,
plentiful power outlets, a comfortable seat, a table to spread out books and papers, a
bathroom and an option for a food or drink (Henry, 2013)
b) Physical feeling A student must choose a comfortable place to study. Comfortability
maximizes comfort, but too much comfortability does not. According to wikihow.com, if
a student already feels sleepy and tired but he still needs to study for a couple more hours,
it is best for him to stay away from bed because studying in bed may cause him to feel
more sleepy and tired and he will eventually fall asleep. He must also choose a
comfortable but not so comfortable chair that fits the height of his table so that he may
not lose his focus and fall asleep.
3) Atmosphere
Robben mentions that there are 3 atmospheric factors to consider when choosing a good
place to study: music or background noise, temperature and lighting
a) Music or background noise A lot of students listen to music while studying. But does
music help a student study? The answer depends on the students. Listening to music can
improve level of attention and memory performance, aid concentration, enhance ability to
solve math problems and relieve stress. But listening to music can also harm a students
studying. It is not a good idea to listen to music with lyrics while memorizing words or
phrases or things in order. Listening to music may impair cognitive abilities and hinder
concentration (Pros and Cons of Listening to Music While Doing Homework, 2016)
b) Temperature A student must avoid a cold place that will make him feel uncomfortable
and distracted. When he feels cold, most of his energy goes to keeping himself warm and
less of his energy goes to concentration, focus and studying (Widrich, 2013). Warm
environments can make a student more productive and feel happier. Keeping himself
warm can fight unavoidable mental blocks and heavy eyelids.
c) Lighting Lighting plays an important role in focus and concentration because one of the
factors that influence a persons mood is lighting (Fuchigami, 2010). A student must
avoid studying in dim light because reading in dim light increases eyestrain. In order to
avoid straining of eyes, he must study in good light. A student must also avoid getting a
headache under too bright lights.

4) Distractions A student must stick to a routine schedule, log out of Facebook, turn off the
television, clear off his table and turn off and stay away from gadgets. He must commit
himself to stay on task and finish it (Concentrating While Studying, n.d.).

Time Management Affects Study Habits (Emmanuel Hong)


According to Mindtools.com, Time management is the process of organizing and
planning how much time you spend on specific activities. Invest some time in our
comprehensive collection of time management articles to learn about managing your own time
more efficiently, and save yourself time in the future.
Time management is the maximization or efficient usage of time that needs act or skill in
properly controlling time. Some students find their difficulty when it comes to adjustment in
college life and some easily adapt the process or the life in college. The common reason why
some students feel uncomfortable in adjusting to college is because of improper time
management.
According to Kokemuller (2015), there are 4 signs of poor time management, namely:
wasted time, poor performance, stress, and relationship damage.
1.) Wasted time
This is one of the obvious signs that most of the college students struggle. The best
example of this is when students use their time browsing in social media than researching for
their homework or projects and reading books.
The televisions and other electronic devices or gadgets that we use are also the main
distraction why students nowadays waste most of their time. Although electronic gadgets like
cell phones and computers are the usual distraction, if a student uses them properly, it can
serve as an advantage in learning rather than as a distraction (Heibutzki, 2010).
2.) Poor performance
This is the usual result if a student doesn't manage his time properly. In school, if a
student doesn't set time for homework and projects, he may not complete them on time and
as a result, he might get low grades or worst, failing remarks.
Cramming for test is one of the traits or attitudes of disorganized college students. This is
the time when they tend to absorb everything in a few late hours or at the very last minute
(Faculty.bucks.edu, n.d.).

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3.) Stress
This easily takes hold when students are mound of school works and don't even know
what to do first. This is not good because it affects somehow their mental health and may cause
other health problems.
Some level of stress is normal when the situation is tolerable to manage. However,
improper manage of time that leads us to cramming for exams can give us an unhealthy amount
of stress (Strang, 2015).
4.) Relationship damage
As a result of poor time management, when people are stressed and have a lot of stuff left
to do, the personal relationship also tends to suffer. With limited time, the quality time spent for
family and friends may be put off.
Social life is not only important mentally but also physically because what we are inside
reflects the outside. So if we have healthy mind and body, we will also be positive and healthy
(Kokemuller, 2015).
Motivation Affects Study Habits (Yulin Chen)
Its not how smart we are; its how motivated we are and how effectively we study that
determines over time. says Kou Murayama, a post-doctoral psychology researcher at University
of California Los Angeles. In a long term study analyzing why students succeed in math,
Murayama and his colleague found out that IQ does not anticipate new learning in other words,
intelligence as measured by the IQ tests does not reveal how likely students are to learn new
thought or acquire new skills. She says While intelligence as assessed by IQ test is important in
the early stages of developing mathematical competence, motivation and study skills play a more
important role in students subsequent growth. Research results came out that students who
agreed with statements such as, I am curious in math and I am willing to invest a lot of effort in
this subject or When answering math problems, the more difficult I try, the better I perform
are those who have greater improvement in math. In contrast, students who said they are
motivated totally by the aim to get high scores have no greater improvement. The result gives
inspire evidence that academic performance is not directed by cognitive abilities alone. As for
study strategies, students who said they tried to forge relationship between mathematical ideas
generally enhance faster than students who employed more cursory rote-learning techniques.
Compare to students who are motivated totally by the aim to get high scores, students who are
more motivated and put more effort to study would have a better results and perform better. The
study proves that academic success not only relies on ability but also needs to have a proper
study habit and a proactive personality. Through increasing motivation, one can develop a proper
study habit (Blue, 2012).
There are two kinds of motivation: intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation. An
intrinsic motivator has a characteristic of fascination with the subject, a sense of its relevance of
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life and the world, a sense of accomplishment in mastering it, and a sense of calling to it (Amir
and Kamal, 2011). A student who is intrinsically motivated agrees with the statements of I am
interested to literature or Learning math enables me think clearly or I feel good when I
achieve in class. This motivation requires knowing ones interest in order to connect his interest
with the subject matter. It is long-lasting and self-sustaining because this kind of motivators is
interested to a thing from the heart and is not affected by outward temptation. Efforts to develop
this kind of motivation are also usually efforts at encouraging student learning. However, efforts
at cultivating this motivation can be gradual to affect behavior and needs a special and tedious
preparation (DeLong & Winter, 2002).
While an extrinsic motivator has a characteristics of parental expectations, expectations
of other trusted role models, earning potential of a course of study and grades which keep
scholarship coming (Amir & Kamal, 2011). Student who is extrinsically motivated might say
things like the following, I need a 95 in statistics to get into business school or If I failed in
physics, I will lose my scholarship or My mom will bring me gift if I do well on todays
exam. Unlike intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivator does not require long preparation, it is
more readily in behavioral change and does not require extensive knowledge of an individual
student. This kind of motivator usually motivates a student to study because of rewards or
punishments (DeLong & Winter, 2002). For some students, earning something that they want
will increase their motivation to study, others, the threat of punishment such as losing time doing
something they enjoy is just as effective (Herzog, n.d.). However, it can distract students from
learning the subject on hand because once the rewards or punishments are gone, students lose
their motivation.
Another way to increase motivation is having a flexible schedule. Procrastination or any
kinds of distractions can have a negative effect on ability to get motivated to study in general and
flexible schedule can avoid this two problems (Mueller, 2015). By setting a time of the week or
the day to study, student will assure having enough time to finish the assignments and reviewing
the previous lessons, and another great thing is this will unconsciously become part of your daily
routine (Whitmore, n.d.). Moreover, find an environment or create a space that is quiet and no
distractions by any means, such as TV, radio, internet, that interrupt while studying, it would help
to get started and get concentrated and more effective and efficient in studying (Mueller, 2015).
Health Affects Study Habits (Nancy Villava-Cua)
One of the factors that affects a students study habit is the health. Health is the physical
health which means a body that is healthy because of regular physical activity like exercise, good
nutrition, and adequate rest. It also refers to a person in terms of physical, mental and social are
in good condition. In Education and Health: Evaluating Theories and Evidence (Cutler & LlerasMuney, n.d.), the authors state that there is a relationship between education and health, in
particular about the possible causal relationships between education and health and the
mechanisms behind them. At the outset, they noted that this is a controversial topic, with
previous studies offering contradictory conclusions.

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Your health, at times, senses like the only way to compact in all the time you need in a
day is to chug coffee and sugar-stuffed energy drinks and candy. But while thats good for shortterm energy, over the long term, the sugar crash cycle affects your overall health, absorption, and
energy reserves and having an unhealthy body results to poor academic performance. So take
care of yourself, get sleep, eat right, take vitamins, and stay well. Your mind is only as strong as
your body. In the Basic Study Skills book of Dawson (2011), he stated that your health should be
keep up at level suitable to aid your studies; poor health can affect your capacity to complete
coursework; for example by preclude the student attending lectures and lowering incentive to
work independently. Everyday task become harder and more stressful and social relationship
start to suffer. According to the book of Dawson (2011), the student can take some action to
improve health by first, maintaining a good diet is essential to your health and well-being, you
can cook some health food eat more fruits and vegetable avoid too much junk food do not forget
to eat breakfast before go to school and do not study or review the lesson when you are hungry.
Second get plenty of sleep. Avoid stimulate such alcohol coffee and nicotine before you go to
sleep. Student should at least sleep eight hours a day, as much as possible do not sleep too late.
And last get plenty of exercise; it is good for your health and you to study well.
How does lack of exercise and lack of sleep affect students study habits?
Lack of sleep, the average sleeping is eight hours a day. The poor quality of sleep it can
affects by lots of waking up during the night it has also been reported to be a brawny predictor
of lower academic performance, reduced ability for attention, poor executive function and
challenging behaviour. Combined with late-night activities, this can have a significant negative
effect on the quality of sleep and therefore their behaviour during the day. Inadequate and poor
quality of sleep appears to be pervasive during youngish. These can have motley consequences,
like excessive daytime sleepiness, poor diet and, in turn, impairments in cognitive control, risktaking behaviour, denigrate control of attention and behaviour, as well as poor emotional
control.so to have academic and good study habit proper of sleeping time is very important.
Lack of exercise, According to the reported there are more than 2,000 physical state 6 to
18 years old Spanish children and adolescents, body composition and details of academic
performance, to study the effect of cardiopulmonary function, muscle strength and athletic ability
for Academic Achievement. Cardio with aerobic exercise-related, it reflects the ability of the
human body in motion transporting fuel and oxygen to the body's heart and lungs. The motion
refers to the ability of muscle control, muscle control such as speed, agility and coordination
related skills. It also was found that both heart and lung function and exercise capacity
interdependent and interrelated and academic achievement are good or bad, but the relation of
muscle strength and quality of academic performance. And contact between academic
achievement and physical health with the improvement of exercise capacity and continue to
strengthen. Exercise not only helps a student to improve his study habit and academic
performance but also keeps off excess weight, makes his bones strong and keeps his heart
healthy. Lack of exercise can make his bones weak, cause his organs to malfunction and cause
him to gain weight, which might lead to one or more obesity-related medical conditions, such as
diabetes or hypertension.

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Emotion Affects Study Habits (Denise Chua)


Definitely, there seems to be a direct correlation between different positive and negative
emotion to study habits. Indeed, some studies consider emotion to be a major concern to good
study habits. Study habits can be categorized into planning work and concentration. Emotion
plays a significant impact on concentration. Considering all study habit together (akrolu,
2014).
An example of negative emotion is fear. Fear is an unpleasant emotion caused by the
belief that something is dangerous inclined to threat. In fact, fear conquers all positive emotions
like self-esteem, determination, and enthusiasm. Not to mention negative emotions like anxiety
and stress ultimately lead to depression. Fear affects ones study habits specifically on the aspect
of concentration.
Positive emotions like enthusiasm increases both concentration and motivation.
Observing the situation from different standpoint and bring ideas together. We can
conclude students active involvement to have positive feeling will definitely improve their
learning performance. Reinforcement of positive feeling is a must for other study habits to be
effective.
According to (Kizlik, 2006), effective study habits are done regularly to progress. It is
performed when you have planned for it as well as your mind is active. Doing this in eleventh
hour before the class is very unproductive. Never feel hesitated to change the schedule if it does
not work for you. Schedules are plan to the student on how to manage their time. Time is the
most valuable resources if used properly. On the other hand, it is wasteful if not manage properly.
SQ3R is proven to be one of the most effective ways to sharpen study skills. These
include surveying, questioning, reading, reciting, and reviewing. Surveying means getting the
overall picture of a topic. Next, questioning should ask what, why, how, when, who, and what the
study content is all about. Moreover, the topics that need to be learned are easily answered and
easily remembered. Reading the graphs, illustrations, and charts gives more idea than reading a
text. Reciting through your own words on what you have read. Lastly, reviewing the topic after
class discussion. This study strategy is helpful in improving grades without cramming.
Distributed practice means integrating your learning over the semester. This is one of the
most effective study strategies. In addition, practice testing retains more information on the
learning process of students (Stenger, 2014). It includes answering the chapter quiz at the end of
the chapter and using flashcards to recall snippets of information. As the aphorisms goes:"
Practice does not make perfect. Only perfect practice makes perfect. (Lombardi, n.d.)
In Five Tips to Improve Your Study, feeding your brain and taking breaks are helpful
during studying (Harmer, n.d.). Definitely, you can not concentrate and think well when you are
hungry as well as without taking a break. Taking breaks after fifteen to thirty minutes of studying
will help you absorb more information. Consider eating food that is nutritious will help you in
studying. Avoid eating junk foods because this will not help the brain to function properly.

14

CHAPTER 3
Methods and Procedure
Research Design (Jasmine Ng Cheong)
The researchers utilized the descriptive research design. A research design is the overall
plan or structure of the research paper which identifies how data is to be gathered, what
instruments will be used, how instruments will be used and the means for analysing data
gathered (libguides.usc.edu). Descriptive design is a research design used to describe the
characteristics of the people being studied (study.com). It is best to use this design because it
provides pertinent information about the behaviour, attitudes or other characteristics of a
particular group.
Subject of the Study (Emmanuel Hong)
30 CKSC students are selected as the respondents of the study. They are from different
year levels and courses. The students gathered as respondents are taking up: Information
Technology, Marketing, Accounting, and Management. All 30 students are given the same
questionnaire regardless of their year level, courses, gender, and age.
Procedure (Nancy Villava-Cua)
The research procedure is consisting of the following. A topic was chosen by the
researchers and a title was formulated. Upon the approval of the title, the data, such as books,
articles, and e-references, were gathered by the researchers at the library. Survey questionnaire
was prepared by the researchers which consists of nine different problems about proper and
improper study habits and the factors that affect study habits of CKSC students. The survey was
distributed to the respondents and data was analysed.
Instrument Used (Denise Chua)
A self-made questionnaire was the principal instrument used in gathering the needed data
in this study. The questionnaire was developed by the researchers. In the construction of the
questionnaire, the researchers also sought the help of their professor.
Structure of the Questionnaire
Section I Proper and Improper Study Habits
II Factors that Affects Study Habits
III Practical Answers to Enhance Study Habits
The items included in the survey are in closed questionnaire form to recognize the factors
that adamantly influenced their study habits.
Statistical Treatment (Yulin Chen)
The researchers made use of one statistical method in this research study for the
collection, presentation, interpretation and analysis of the data gathered.

15

The statistical formula used was


Percentage (%) = x 100
where: % = percentage
n = number of respondents
N = sample size

CHAPTER 4
Presentation, Interpretation and Analysis of Data

16

Table 1
Proper Study Habits Done By Respondents
F

Taking down notes

12

40%

Reviewing lessons before and


after school

23.33%

None of the above

16.67%

Reading in advance

10%

Studying on my own

6.67%

Gaining more knowledge by


reading books

3.33%

30

100%

Total

Table 1 shows the proper study habits done by respondents. Out of the 30 respondents, 12
or 40% takes down notes, 7 or 23.33% reviews lessons before and after school, 5 or 16.67% do
not follow these proper study habits, 3 or 10% reads in advance, 2 or 6.67% studies independent
of parents/teachers, and 1 or 3.33% gains more knowledge by reading books.
Based on the results shown on the table, 12 or 40% of the 30 respondents chose taking
down notes as their proper study habit, while 1 or 3.33% chose gaining more knowledge by
reading book.
According to Kiewra (n.d.), the act of note-taking assists the learner in generating and
semantically processing information (essentially helps the learner to think about course content
in such a way to better understand it upon later review), in addition to facilitating and
strengthening the internal connections between ideas. It allows a student to easily review his
lessons and improve his study habits. Learning can occur during both the production and review
of notes by allowing the learner to make connections between idea units and engage in deep
processing of course content (Bohay, Blakely, Tamplin, & Radvansky, 2011; Piolat, Olive, &
Kellogg, 2005). Gaining more knowledge by reading book is the least chosen maybe because
they dont have too much time for reading book due to lack of time, multitasking, and too much
assignments.
Table 2
Improper Study Habits Done By Respondents
F

17

Listening to music while


studying

30%

Studying at home with full of


distractions

26.67%

Procrastinating

20%

Highlighting the textbook

13.33%

None of the above

6.67%

Not making an outline

3.33%

30

100%

Total

Table 2 shows the improper study habits done by respondents. Out of the 30 respondents,
9 or 30% listens to music while studying, 8 or 26.67% studies at home with full of distractions, 6
or 20% procrastinates, 4 or 13.33% highlights the textbook, 2 or 6.67% do not follow these
improper study habits, and 1 or 3.33% does not make an outline.
Based on the results shown on the table, 9 or 30% of the 30 respondents listen to music
while studying. According to Kass (2013), listening to music while studying has been proven to
add spatial abilities and enhance learning, but consecutive studies were not able to support this
theory. Actually, latest researches found out that because of the alter words and notes in songs, it
decreases cognitive abilities and hinder memorization. The results of the survey show that
respondents have improper study habits that hinder concentration in studying.
Only 1 out of 30 respondents does not have a study habit of making an outline while or
after studying. Jackie Kass (2013) states that not making outline or taking down notes while
reading decreases the effectiveness and efficiency of studying. Outlining helps to control a large
amount of information, construct ideas, and present them in a rational way. Some study
proposals books advocate reading a textbook and highlighting the pages with a neon highlighter
as the perfect way to study. In fact, this is one of the least useful ways for students to recall the
content. Instead of wasting more time by rereading a textbook or highlighting the textbook
whenever reviewing, make an outline to prevent wasting of time.

Table 3
Place Where Respondents Prefer to Study
f

18

At home

22

73.33%

In the coffee shop

13.33%

In the library

10%

In distracting environment
Total

1
30

3.33%
100%

Table 3 shows the place where respondents prefer to study. Out of the 30 respondents, 22
or 73.33% study at home, 4 or 13.33% study in the coffee shop, 3 or 10% study in the library,
and 1 or 3.33% study in distracting environment.
Based on the results shown on the table, 22 or 73.33% of the 30 respondents prefer to
study at home because you can study more productively and efficiently at home. Sophie (2012)
states that the advantages of studying at home is that you have more time to study, an easier
access to food and water, and can be as comfortable as you want because you can wear your
comfortable clothes, have a table to spread out you books, notebooks and papers, and listen to
your favourite music at whatever volume you want. 4 or 13.33% of the 30 respondents prefer to
study in the coffee shop because it has a good study atmosphere. According to McPherson
(2015), in coffee shops, you have easy access to snacks and drinks to help you with the study
process, have the choice to sit outside if the inside is too distracting or crowded, and can chat
with your friends more freely than in libraries. 3 or 10% of the 30 respondents prefer to study in
the library because it is a quiet place to study. Sophie states that libraries have less distractions
and an easier access to books, articles, magazines and journals. 1 or 3.33% of the 30 respondents
prefer to study in distracting environment because music or ambient noise environment improves
the learning productivity of some students. They prefer noisier environments over dead silence
places. Dolegui (2013) believes that listening to music lessens the feelings of stress and anxiety
while studying for an exam, finishing homework, reading or writing.

Table 4
Time When Respondents Prefer to Study
f

19

At night

12

40%

After taking an afternoon nap

11

36.67%

13.33%

10%

30

100%

In the morning
During midnight
Total

Table 4 shows the time when respondents prefer to study. Out of the 30 respondents, 12
or 40% study at night, 11 or 36.67% study after taking an afternoon nap, 4 or 13.33% study in
the morning, and 3 or 10% study during midnight.
Based on the results shown on the table, 12 or 40% of the 30 respondents prefer to study
at night. According to Zhang (2012), studying at night may be beneficial than studying in the
morning. 11 or 36.67% of the 30 respondents prefer to study after taking an afternoon nap. This
technique can be very effective because taking a nap before studying boosts concentration and
improves creative problem solving, verbal memory, perpetual learning, object learning and
statistical learning (McCraley, 2015). 4 or 13.335 of the 30 respondents prefer to study in the
morning and 3 or 10% of the 30 respondents prefer to study during midnight. Most of the people
think that they know the best time for them to study, but the truth is each of us are different and
there is no clear result in knowing the best time to study (The best time to study, 2013).

Table 5
Ways on How Respondents are Motivated to Study
f

20

Self- interest

12

40%

Reward or punishment

11

36.67%

23.33%

30

100%

Have a flexible schedule that


avoids procrastinations and
distractions
Total

Table 5 shows the ways on how respondents are motivated to study. Out of the 30
respondents, 12 or 40% are motivated to study by self-interest, 11 or 36.67% are motivated to
study by rewards or punishments, and 7 or 23.33% are motivated to study by having a flexible
schedule that avoids procrastinations or distractions.
Based on the results shown on the table, 12 or 40% of the 30 respondents chose selfinterest as a way to motivate themselves in studying. According to Delong and Winter (2002),
motivated by self-interest is long-lasting and self-sustaining because this kind of motivators is
interested to a thing from the heart and is not affected by outward temptation. Efforts at
cultivating this motivation can be gradual to affect behavior and needs a special and tedious
preparation.
Out of 7 respondents, 7 or 23 % chose having flexible schedule that avoids
procrastinating and distractions as a way to motivate them to study. Mueller (2015) states that
procrastination or any kinds of distractions can have a negative effect on the ability of a student
to be motivated to study. In general, flexible schedule can avoid these two problems. Find an
environment or create a space that is quiet and has no distractions by any means, such as TV,
radio, internet, that interrupt while studying. It would help you to get started and concentrated
and be more effective and efficient in studying.
According to Nieves-Whitmore (n.d.), setting a time of the week or the day to study is a
great way to keep procrastination out of daily life. By setting a time of the week or the day to
study, a student will assure having enough time to finish his assignments and review his previous
lessons, and another great thing is that this will unconsciously become part of your daily routine

Table 6
Health Factors That Affect the Respondents Study Habits
f

21

Lack of sleep

29

96.67%

Lack of exercise

3.33%

30

100%

Total

Table 6 shows the health factors that affect respondents study habits. Out of the 30
respondents, 29 or 96.67% are affected by lack of sleep, while 1 or 3.33% are affected by lack of
exercise.
Based on the results shown on the table, 29 or 96.67% of the 30 respondents chose lack
of sleep as a health factor that affects study habits.
According to Dimitriou (2016), the poor quality of sleep affects the students academic
performance, reduces their ability for attention, and inhibits their executive function and
challenging behaviour. Combined with late-night activities, this can have a significant negative
effect on the quality of sleep and therefore their behaviour during the day. Inadequate and poor
quality of sleep appear to be pervasive during youngish. It can have motley consequences, like
excessive daytime sleepiness, poor diet and, in turn, impairments in cognitive control, risk-taking
behaviour, denigrate control of attention and behaviour, as well as poor emotional control. So to
have a good academic performance and an effective study habit, proper sleeping time is very
important.
According to Drowsy (n.d.), most people dont get enough sleep because of staying up all
night to study, work, or have fun. However, going without adequate sleep carries with it both
short- and long-term consequences. In the short term, a lack of adequate sleep can affect
judgment, mood, ability to learn and retain information, and may increase the risk of serious
accidents and injury. In the long term, chronic sleep deprivation may lead to a host of health
problems including obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and even early mortality. As a
student lack of sleep affect their academic performance and health.

Table 7
Emotions That Affect the Concentration of the Respondents
f
%
22

Fear

26.67%

Inspiration

26.67%

Enthusiasm/ interest

20%

Self- esteem

13.33%

Anxiety

13.33%

30

100%

Total

Table 7 shows the emotions that affect the concentration of the respondents. Out of the 30
respondents, 8 or 26.67% are affected by fear, 8 or 26.67% are affected by inspiration, 6 or 20%
are affected by enthusiasm/interest, 4 or 13.33% are affected by self-esteem, and 4 or 13.33% are
affected by anxiety.
Table seven reflects a stunning result that fear (negative emotion) and inspiration
(positive emotion) have the same proportion of 26.67%. This is also valid in the positive emotion
of self-esteem and negative emotion of anxiety. Therefore, learning environment, health, time
management, and motivation contribute in enhancing ones concentration.

Table 8
Causes of Fear by the Respondents
f

50%

Stress due to many


assignments

37.5%

The professors unreasonable


strict personality

12.5%

100%

Frustration because of difficult


questionnaires during exam

Total

Table 8 shows the causes of fear by the respondents. Out of the 8 respondents, 4 or 40%
are affected by frustration because of difficult questionnaires during exam, 3 or 37.5% are
23

affected by stress due to many assignments, and 1 or 12.5% are affected by the professors
unreasonable strict personality.
Based on the results shown on the table, 4 or 50% of the 8 respondents consider
Difficult questionnaires during exam to be a major cause of fear. As stated earlier, fear destroys
all other positive emotions. Difficult questionnaires during an examination could have a direct
effect on students enthusiasm, self-esteem, and inspiration. These positive correlations should be
considered seriously by professors if they want to motivate their students in acquiring
knowledge. One or two difficult questionnaires should be enough to challenge a student. Balance
between motivating students and challenging students is a must. Giving too much unnecessary
assignments to students can cause stress. This can also cause fear among students especially
those who do not practice time management. Thus, professors should give enough time to
students in giving assignments. Surprisingly, only 1 or 12.5% among students consider The
professors unreasonable strict personality as a cause of fear. This could be interpreted as
maturity among college students because they are already in their tertiary level.

Table 9
Possible Solutions to Improve the Study Habits As Perceived By the Respondents
f
%
Focusing on what you have
learned, not on grades

16

53.33%

Setting a study schedule in a


day

20%

Asking help from one of your


classmates

13.33%

Reinforce positive emotions to


boost concentration
Total

13.33%

30

100%

Table 9 shows the possible solutions to improve the study habits as perceived by the
respondents, 16 or 53.33% focus on what they have learned and not on grades, 6 or 20% set a
study schedule in a day, 4 or 13.3% ask help from one of their classmates, and 4 or 13.33%
reinforce positive emotions to boost concentration.
Based on the results shown on the table, 16 or 53.33% of the 30 respondents focus on
what they have learned and not on their grades. Students consider grades as just numbers derived
from activities such as recitations, quizzes and projects (Kuntz, 2012). On the other hand, 6 or
20% chose to set a study schedule. Making a study schedule is an effective way of time
management study. This ultimately reduces stress on a student by effectively allocating time
24

(Marie, 2016). Besides, schedules are necessary for students to handle their time properly. The
CKS college community gives equal points to Asking help from one of your classmates and
Reinforcing positive emotions to boost concentration. Group study is encouraged to enhance
study habits among students. It can be a remedy if done correctly. One can elucidate an unknown
topic and share it to understand more effectively (Educationcorner.com, 2016). Besides, sharing
knowledge with other classmates makes learning fun. Lastly, positive emotion reinforcement is
undeniably important to boost ones concentration. As discussed earlier, fears destroy all positive
emotions that ultimately affect ones concentration significantly.

CHAPTER 5

25

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation


Summary
1. The proper and improper study habits of CKSC students
Majority of the proper study habits of the CKSC student take down notes, while very few
read books.
Most of the improper study habits of the CKSC student listen to music, while very few do
not make an outline.
2. Factors that affect the study habit of CKSC students
a) Environment.
Most of the students prefer to study at home, while very few prefer to study in
distracting environment.
b) Time management.
Majority of the students study at night, while some prefer to study after taking a nap
and only few students study during midnight.
c) Motivation.
Most of the students are motivated by their self- interest , while only few are
motivated based on the flexible schedule that avoids procrastinations and distractions.
d) Health.
Most of the students study habit is affected by lack of sleep rather than lack of
exercise.
e) Emotion.
Majority of the students study habit is affected by fear and inspiration, while only
few are affected by self-esteem and anxiety.
3. Possible solutions that may improve the study habit as perceived by CKSC student.
Majority of CKSC students solution to improve study habits is by focusing on what they
have learned and not on their grades, while only few ask help from their classmates and
reinforce positive emotions to boost concentration.
Conclusion
Taking down notes is the most popular and efficient method of studying among CKS
College students. Listening to music while studying is the most inefficient habit when it comes to
studying. In addition, studying at home (full of distractions) and procrastinating are also
perceived as improper study habits. Most students prefer to study at home rather than in
distracting environment and coffee shop. Library is a conducive place to study yet it is the
26

second least selected. Motivation plays a significant role in the study habits of a student. If
students are interested to study, then definitely study habit will follow. Most of the students
study habit is affected by sleep deprivation. Emotion, fear and inspiration are other health factors
that affect study habits. Most of the students fear comes from difficult questionnaires during
exam. Lastly, focusing on learning and setting a study schedule in a day are proved to be possible
solutions that will improve our study habits.
Recommendations
Based on the data gathered and presented, the researcher would like to recommend the
following:
To the school administrators, to know the possible reasons why their students have
ineffective study habits and poor academic performances and provide a conducive environment.
For students to grow and develop, having the right gadgets, resources and facilities improves the
learning processes of students.
To the teachers, to recognize the problems of students that affect their academic
performances and to know students interest in order to connect their interests with the subject
matter to increase motivation in studying and lead their students toward developing effective and
efficient study habits that enhance academic performance.
To the students, to have a knowledge on factors that affect study habits and academic
performance and determine ways to improve or change their improper study habits which can
develop academic performance.
To the parents of the students, to know their role in helping their children to improve their
academic performance and enhance their learning skills by motivating them to work hard,
encouraging them to study well in school and providing them the right materials for learning.
To future researchers, to increase the number of samples to get a more accurate and
specific result, because the researchers only focused on one institution and in one country. They
can conduct a research on the different factors that affect the study habits of students according
to demographics such as gender, age, status, nationality and course.

27

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